WorldWideScience

Sample records for cool season food

  1. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  2. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  3. Updates to the Cool Season Food Legume Genome Database: Resources for pea, lentil, faba bean and chickpea genetics, genomics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cool Season Food Legume Genome database (CSFL, www.coolseasonfoodlegume.org) is an online resource for genomics, genetics, and breeding research for chickpea, lentil,pea, and faba bean. The user-friendly and curated website allows for all publicly available map,marker,trait, gene,transcript, ger...

  4. Comparative growth analysis of cool- and warm-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belesky, D.P.; Fedders, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Using both cool-season (C3) and warm-season (C4) species is a viable means of optimizing herbage productivity over varying climatic conditions in temperate environments. Despite well-documented differences in water, N, and radiation use, no consistent evidence demonstrates productivity differences among C3 and C4 perennial grass species under identical management. A field study was conducted to determine relative growth rates (RGR), nitrogen productivity (NP), and mean radiation productivity (RP) (dry matter production as a function of incident radiation) of cool- and warm-season grasses managed identically. Results were used to identify management practices thd could lead to optimal productivity in combinations or mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses. Dry matter yields of warm-season grasses equaled or surpassed those of cool-season grasses, despite a 40% shorter growth interval. Certain cool- and warm-season grasses appear to be suitable for use in mixtures, based on distribution of herbage production; however, actual compatibility may be altered by defoliation management. Relative growth rates varied among years and were about 40% lower for canopies clipped to a 10-cm residue height each time 20-cm of growth accumulated compared with other treatments. The RGR of warm-season grasses was twice that of cool-season grasses Nitrogen productivity (g DM g-1 N d -1) and mean radiation productivity (g DM MJ-1) for warm-season grasses was also more than twice that of cool-season grasses. Radiation productivity of cool-season grasses was dependent on N, while this was not always the case for warm-season grasses. The superior production capability of certain warm-season compared with cool-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment can be sustained under a range of defoliation treatments and demonstrates suitability for use in frequently defoliated situations

  5. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  6. Cooling method with automated seasonal freeze protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, Levi; Chu, Richard; David, Milnes; Ellsworth, Jr, Michael; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Simons, Robert; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-31

    An automated multi-fluid cooling method is provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The method includes obtaining a coolant loop, and providing a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  7. Seasonal cooling and blooming in tropical oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan

    1993-11-01

    The relative importance of tropical pelagic algal blooms in not yet fully appreciated and the way they are induced not well understood. The tropical Atlantic supports pelagic blooms together equivalent to the North Atlantic spring bloom. These blooms are driven by thermocline tilting, curl of wind stress and eddy upwelling as the ocean responds to intensified basin-scale winds in boreal summer. The dimensions of the Pacific Ocean are such that seasonal thermocline tilting does not occur, and nutrient conditions are such that tilting might not induce bloom, in any case. Divergence at the equator is a separate process that strengthens the Atlantic bloom, is more prominent in the eastern Pacific, and in the Indian Ocean induces a bloom only in the western part of the ocean. Where western jet currents are retroflected from the coast off Somalia and Brazil, eddy upwelling induces prominent blooms. In the eastward flow of the northern equatorial countercurrents, positive wind curl stress induces Ekman pumping and the induction of algal blooms aligned with the currents. Some apparent algal bloom, such as that seen frequently in CZCS images westwards from Senegal, must be due to interference from airborne dust.

  8. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  9. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  10. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Serensits; Matthew Cutulle; Jeffrey F. Derr

    2011-01-01

    Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual) ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass di...

  11. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  12. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  13. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  14. Food abundance explains the breeding season of a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of breeding in birds is a life-history trait that generally depends on food availability, but other factors may play a role, particularly in tropical areas where food availability is less seasonal than in temperate or polar areas. We studied the factors affecting the breeding season of the Crab Plover Dromas ardeola, ...

  15. Food price seasonality in Africa: Measurement and extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Christopher L; Christiaensen, Luc; Kaminski, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Everyone knows about seasonality. But what exactly do we know? This study systematically measures seasonal price gaps at 193 markets for 13 food commodities in seven African countries. It shows that the commonly used dummy variable or moving average deviation methods to estimate the seasonal gap can yield substantial upward bias. This can be partially circumvented using trigonometric and sawtooth models, which are more parsimonious. Among staple crops, seasonality is highest for maize (33 percent on average) and lowest for rice (16½ percent). This is two and a half to three times larger than in the international reference markets. Seasonality varies substantially across market places but maize is the only crop in which there are important systematic country effects. Malawi, where maize is the main staple, emerges as exhibiting the most acute seasonal differences. Reaching the Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger requires renewed policy attention to seasonality in food prices and consumption.

  16. The Impact of Cooling Rate on the Safety of Food Products as Affected by Food Containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coorey, Ranil; Ng, Denise Sze Hu; Jayamanne, Vijith S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for ready‐to‐eat (RTE) food items prepared by the food catering sector has increased together with the value of cook‐serve, cook‐chill, and cook‐freeze food products. The technologies by which foods are cooked, chilled, refrigerated for storage, and reheated before...... serving are of prime importance to maintain safety. Packaging materials and food containers play an important role in influencing the cooling rate of RTE foods. Food items that are prepared using improper technologies and inappropriate packaging materials may be contaminated with foodborne pathogens....... Numerous research studies have shown the impact of deficient cooling technologies on the survival and growth of foodborne pathogens, which may subsequently pose a threat to public health. The operating temperatures and cooling rates of the cooling techniques applied must be appropriate to inhibit...

  17. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment.

  18. Peripartal rumination dynamics and health status in cows calving in hot and cool seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, S; Maunsell, F; Richeson, J; Risco, C; Donovan, A; Pinedo, P

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of season of calving, associated with variable levels of heat stress, on the dynamics of rumination during the prepartum period and early lactation of cows that were healthy or affected by peripartal health disorders. Three weeks before the estimated due date, 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers, providing rumination time (RT) in 2-h periods. One blood sample was collected in a subpopulation of cows (n=76) at 12 to 48h postcalving to assess metabolic status by determining serum calcium, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. The occurrence of peripartal health disorders (dystocia, clinical ketosis, clinical hypocalcemia, metritis, and mastitis) was assessed by University of Florida veterinarians and trained farm personnel. We analyzed the dynamics of daily RT over ± 14d relative to parturition in cows that were healthy or affected by specific health disorders by season of calving [hot season, June to September (n=77); cool season, November to April (n=118)] using repeated measures analysis and comparison of least squares means at different time points relative to calving. Rumination was consistently reduced on the day of calving in both healthy and sick cows in both the hot and cool seasons. Only hot-season calvings had shorter average daily RT prepartum and postpartum in cows affected by severe negative energy balance and subclinical ketosis. Dystocia during the hot season was associated with shorter daily RT prepartum; for cool-season calvings, cows with dystocia had reduced RT postpartum. We also observed reduced RT in cows with ketosis prepartum and postpartum in both the hot and cool seasons. Daily RT was reduced postpartum in cows with hypocalcemia and mastitis that calved during the cool season, and it was shorter in cows with metritis in both the hot and cool seasons. Our results indicated that

  19. Seasonal prevalence and determinants of food insecurity in Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity is an ongoing problem in the Canadian Arctic. Although most studies have focused on smaller communities, little is known about food insecurity in larger centres. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity during 2 different seasons in Iqaluit, the territorial capital of Nunavut, as well as identify associated risk factors. Designs: A modified United States Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey was applied to 532 randomly selected households in September 2012 and 523 in May 2013. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine potential associations between food security and 9 risk factors identified in the literature. Results: In September 2012, 28.7% of surveyed households in Iqaluit were food insecure, a rate 3 times higher than the national average, but lower than smaller Inuit communities in Nunavut. Prevalence of food insecurity in September 2012 was not significantly different in May 2013 (27.2%. When aggregating results from Inuit households from both seasons (May and September, food insecurity was associated with poor quality housing and reliance on income support (p<0.01. Unemployment and younger age of the person in charge of food preparation were also significantly associated with food insecurity. In contrast to previous research among Arctic communities, gender and consumption of country food were not positively associated with food security. These results are consistent with research describing high food insecurity across the Canadian Arctic. Conclusion: The factors associated with food insecurity in Iqaluit differed from those identified in smaller communities, suggesting that experiences with, and processes of, food insecurity may differ between small communities and larger commercial centres. These results suggest that country food consumption, traditional knowledge and sharing networks may play a less important role in larger Inuit

  20. Successional dynamics in the seasonally forced diamond food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

    2012-07-01

    Plankton seasonal succession is a classic example of nonequilibrium community dynamics. Despite the fact that it has been well studied empirically, it lacks a general quantitative theory. Here we investigate a food web model that includes a resource, two phytoplankton, and a shared grazer-the diamond food web-in a seasonal environment. The model produces a number of successional trajectories that have been widely discussed in the context of the verbal Plankton Ecology Group model of succession, such as a spring bloom of a good competitor followed by a grazer-induced clear-water phase, setting the stage for the late-season dominance of a grazer-resistant species. It also predicts a novel, counterintuitive trajectory where the grazer-resistant species has both early- and late-season blooms. The model often generates regular annual cycles but sometimes produces multiyear cycles or chaos, even with identical forcing each year. Parameterizing the model, we show how the successional trajectory depends on nutrient supply and the length of the growing season, two key parameters that vary among water bodies. This model extends nonequilibrium theory to food webs and is a first step toward a quantitative theory of plankton seasonal succession.

  1. Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Jung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Hsu, Tsui-Lieh; Yu, Wen-Chung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19.2°C and 27.6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32.7% versus 12.5%, p = 0.017) and from NHIRD (10.4% versus 4.6%, p = 0.019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44.2% versus 22.9%, p = 0.025) and D-dimer level (5.5 ± 3.8 versus 2.4 ± 1.8 μg/ml, p = 0.017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

  2. Cluster fescue (Festuca paradoxa Desv.): A multipurpose native cool-season grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek; R.A. Pierce

    2005-01-01

    Native cool-season grasses (NCSG) are adapted to a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions, and cluster fescue (Festuca paradoxa Desv.) is no exception. Cluster fescue can be found in unplowed upland prairies, prairie draws, savannas, forest openings, and glades (Aiken et al. 1996). Although its range includes 23 states in the continental...

  3. Seasonal Variation in Food Preference and Feeding Ecology of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Seasonal Variation in Food Preference and Feeding Ecology of Two Juvenile. Marine Fishes, Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Sciaenidae) and Brachydeuterus auritus (Haemulidae) off Cape Coast, Ghana. J. Blay, Jr.1*, W. K. Awittor1 and D. Agbeko2. 1 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Cape Coast ...

  4. Quantitative data analysis to determine best food cooling practices in U.S. restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2015-04-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41 °F [5 °C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  5. Quantitative Data Analysis To Determine Best Food Cooling Practices in U.S. Restaurants†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W.; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2017-01-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41°F [5°C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  6. Cool-Season Turfgrass Species and Cultivars: Response to Simulated Traffic in Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo F. Cereti; Roberto Ruggeri; Francesco Rossini

    2010-01-01

    Turfgrass species differ greatly in their ability to withstand the abrasion and compaction of traffic. Wear tolerance of turfgrass species and cultivars has been evaluated abroad by many researchers, while only few and partial studies have been conducted in Italy. Field experiment was carried out in Viterbo in 2001, 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the effect of the simulated traffic on 110 varieties belonging to four turfgrass cool-season species: tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), fine fes...

  7. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. To Everything There Is a Season: Summer-to-Winter Food Webs and the Functional Traits of Keystone Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; Studd, Emily K; Menzies, Allyson K; Boutin, Stan

    2017-11-01

    From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e.g., senescence, diapause, and hibernation), whereas some plants and resident animals-here referred to as seasonal generalists-remain present and trophically coupled in winter. The co-occurrence of species with divergent responses to winter introduces seasonal variation in interaction strengths, resulting in summer-to-winter differences in trophic organization. Autumn cooling and shortening day length arrests primary productivity and cues seasonal herbivores to decouple, leaving generalist carnivores to concentrate their predation on the few generalist herbivores that remain resident, active, and vulnerable to predation in winter, which themselves feed on the few generalist plant structures available in winter. Thus, what was a bottom-up pulse, spread among many species in summer, including highly productive seasonal specialists, reverses into strong top-down regulation in winter that is top-heavy, and concentrated among a small number of generalist herbivores and their winter foods. Intermediate-sized, generalist herbivores that remain active and vulnerable to predation in winter are likely to be keystone species in seasonal food webs because they provide the essential ecosystem service of turning summer primary productivity into winter food for carnivores. Empirical examination of terrestrial mammals and their seasonal trophic status in the boreal forest and across an arctic-to-tropics seasonality

  9. A solar cooling system for greenhouse food production in hot climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.A. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    This study is motivated by the difficulty of cultivating crops in very hot countries and by the tendency for some such countries to become dependent on imported food. Liquid desiccation with solar regeneration is considered as maintained at or above room temperature, and this was confirgreenhouses. Previous studies demonstrated the technical feasibility of the desiccation-evaporation process, but mainly in the context of human dwellings. In the proposed cycle, the air is dried prior to entering the evaporative cooler. This lowers the wet-bulb temperature of the air. The cooling is assisted by using the regenerator to partially shade the greenhouse. The heat of desiccation is transferred and rejected at the outlet of the greenhouse. The cycle is analysed and results given for the climate of the The Gulf, based on weather data from Abu Dhabi. Taking examples of a temperate crop (lettuce), a tropical crop (tomato) and a tropical crop resistant to high temperatures (cucumber) we estimate the extension in growing seasons relative to (i) a greenhouse with simple fan ventilation (ii) a greenhouse with conventional evaporative cooling. Compared to option (ii), the proposed system lowers summers maximum temperatures by 5{sup o}C. This will extend the optimum season for lettuce cultivation from 3 to 6 months of the year and, for tomato and cucumber, from 7 months to the whole year. (author)

  10. Consequences of cool-season drought induced plant mortality to Chihuahuan Desert grassland ecosystem and soil respiration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of cool-season drought across the arid Southwest US. We quantified net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) in response to interannual seasonal precip...

  11. Multi-century cool- and warm-season rainfall reconstructions for Australia's major climatic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Mandy; Henley, Benjamin J.; Karoly, David J.; Allen, Kathryn J.; Baker, Patrick J.

    2017-11-01

    Australian seasonal rainfall is strongly affected by large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate influences. In this study, we exploit the links between these precipitation influences, regional rainfall variations, and palaeoclimate proxies in the region to reconstruct Australian regional rainfall between four and eight centuries into the past. We use an extensive network of palaeoclimate records from the Southern Hemisphere to reconstruct cool (April-September) and warm (October-March) season rainfall in eight natural resource management (NRM) regions spanning the Australian continent. Our bi-seasonal rainfall reconstruction aligns well with independent early documentary sources and existing reconstructions. Critically, this reconstruction allows us, for the first time, to place recent observations at a bi-seasonal temporal resolution into a pre-instrumental context, across the entire continent of Australia. We find that recent 30- and 50-year trends towards wetter conditions in tropical northern Australia are highly unusual in the multi-century context of our reconstruction. Recent cool-season drying trends in parts of southern Australia are very unusual, although not unprecedented, across the multi-century context. We also use our reconstruction to investigate the spatial and temporal extent of historical drought events. Our reconstruction reveals that the spatial extent and duration of the Millennium Drought (1997-2009) appears either very much below average or unprecedented in southern Australia over at least the last 400 years. Our reconstruction identifies a number of severe droughts over the past several centuries that vary widely in their spatial footprint, highlighting the high degree of diversity in historical droughts across the Australian continent. We document distinct characteristics of major droughts in terms of their spatial extent, duration, intensity, and seasonality. Compared to the three largest droughts in the instrumental period (Federation Drought

  12. Multi-century cool- and warm-season rainfall reconstructions for Australia's major climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Freund

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian seasonal rainfall is strongly affected by large-scale ocean–atmosphere climate influences. In this study, we exploit the links between these precipitation influences, regional rainfall variations, and palaeoclimate proxies in the region to reconstruct Australian regional rainfall between four and eight centuries into the past. We use an extensive network of palaeoclimate records from the Southern Hemisphere to reconstruct cool (April–September and warm (October–March season rainfall in eight natural resource management (NRM regions spanning the Australian continent. Our bi-seasonal rainfall reconstruction aligns well with independent early documentary sources and existing reconstructions. Critically, this reconstruction allows us, for the first time, to place recent observations at a bi-seasonal temporal resolution into a pre-instrumental context, across the entire continent of Australia. We find that recent 30- and 50-year trends towards wetter conditions in tropical northern Australia are highly unusual in the multi-century context of our reconstruction. Recent cool-season drying trends in parts of southern Australia are very unusual, although not unprecedented, across the multi-century context. We also use our reconstruction to investigate the spatial and temporal extent of historical drought events. Our reconstruction reveals that the spatial extent and duration of the Millennium Drought (1997–2009 appears either very much below average or unprecedented in southern Australia over at least the last 400 years. Our reconstruction identifies a number of severe droughts over the past several centuries that vary widely in their spatial footprint, highlighting the high degree of diversity in historical droughts across the Australian continent. We document distinct characteristics of major droughts in terms of their spatial extent, duration, intensity, and seasonality. Compared to the three largest droughts in the instrumental

  13. Cool-Season Turfgrass Species and Cultivars: Response to Simulated Traffic in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo F. Cereti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass species differ greatly in their ability to withstand the abrasion and compaction of traffic. Wear tolerance of turfgrass species and cultivars has been evaluated abroad by many researchers, while only few and partial studies have been conducted in Italy. Field experiment was carried out in Viterbo in 2001, 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the effect of the simulated traffic on 110 varieties belonging to four turfgrass cool-season species: tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., fine fescues (Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra Gaud., ssp. commutata Gaud., ssp. tricophylla Gaud., perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.. Shoot density, visual turfgrass quality and thatch thickness were the major characters recorded to estimate wear tolerance. Traffic was simulated using a device containing three rollers pulled by a small tractor. The traffic simulator weighed 564 kg and applied a pressure of about 3 MPa. Results indicated that perennial ryegrass and tall fescue had high wear tolerance and low statistical variation among cultivars. Kentucky bluegrass showed an average wear tolerance owing to its shoot density and good recovery potential. In spite of their high shoot density, fine fescues exhibited poor wear tolerance because of their scarce resistance to high temperatures which are typical of the Mediterranean climate in late spring and summer. This study enabled a preliminary selection of the most suitable cool-season grasses and cultivars for trafficked and non-trafficked areas in Central Italy and highlighted that different turfgrass species have different wear tolerance mechanisms.

  14. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  15. Seasonal variations in the diet and food selection of the Algerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variations in the diet and food selection of the Algerian hedgehog ... in prey selection, and a notable shift in food preference was observed during autumn. ... of this species before hibernation, in terms of quantity and/or quality.

  16. Extreme Temperature Regimes during the Cool Season and their Associated Large-Scale Circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In the cool season (November-March), extreme temperature events (ETEs) always hit the continental United States (US) and provide significant societal impacts. According to the anomalous amplitudes of the surface air temperature (SAT), there are two typical types of ETEs, e.g. cold waves (CWs) and warm waves (WWs). This study used cluster analysis to categorize both CWs and WWs into four distinct regimes respectively and investigated their associated large-scale circulations on intra-seasonal time scale. Most of the CW regimes have large areal impact over the continental US. However, the distribution of cold SAT anomalies varies apparently in four regimes. In the sea level, the four CW regimes are characterized by anomalous high pressure over North America (near and to west of cold anomaly) with different extension and orientation. As a result, anomalous northerlies along east flank of anomalous high pressure convey cold air into the continental US. To the middle troposphere, the leading two groups feature large-scale and zonally-elongated circulation anomaly pattern, while the other two regimes exhibit synoptic wavetrain pattern with meridionally elongated features. As for the WW regimes, there are some patterns symmetry and anti-symmetry with respect to CW regimes. The WW regimes are characterized by anomalous low pressure and southerlies wind over North America. The first and fourth groups are affected by remote forcing emanating from North Pacific, while the others appear mainly locally forced.

  17. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, Jamie E. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, Robin K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fairey, III, Phillip W. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Jr., Charles [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Beal, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  18. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  19. Process cooling for Africa's food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempert, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Temperatures exceeding 40 C are the order of the day, the sun burns brightly in the sky. In Tunisia and Morocco, an international team of scientists now uses solar energy to keep perishable foodstuffs such as milk, wine, fruit and vegetables fresh by means of solar cooling. (orig.)

  20. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  1. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  2. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M. E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F. J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H. M.; Foster, R. G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D. T.; Hazlerigg, D. G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J. G. C.; Jonsson, N. N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G. A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S. A. M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R. J.; Reed, T.; Robinson, J. E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W. J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S. J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for

  3. Examining the value of global seasonal reference evapotranspiration forecasts tosupport FEWS NET's food insecurity outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; McEvoy, D.; Hobbins, M.; Husak, G. J.; Huntington, J. L.; Funk, C.; Verdin, J.; Macharia, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) team provides food insecurity outlooks for several developing countries in Africa, Central Asia, and Central America. Thus far in terms of agroclimatic conditions that influence food insecurity, FEWS NET's primary focus has been on the seasonal precipitation forecasts while not adequately accounting for the atmospheric evaporative demand, which is also directly related to agricultural production and hence food insecurity, and is most often estimated by reference evapotranspiration (ETo). This presentation reports on the development of a new global ETo seasonal reforecast and skill evaluation with a particular emphasis on the potential use of this dataset by the FEWS NET to support food insecurity early warning. The ETo reforecasts span the 1982-2009 period and are calculated following ASCE's formulation of Penman-Monteith method driven by seasonal climate forecasts of monthly mean temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation from NCEP's CFSv2 and NASA's GEOS-5 models. The skill evaluation using deterministic and probabilistic scores focuses on the December-February (DJF), March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) and September-November (SON) seasons. The results indicate that ETo forecasts are a promising tool for early warning of drought and food insecurity. The FEWS NET regions with promising level of skill (correlation >0.35 at lead times of 3 months) include Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (DJF, dry season), Central America (DJF, dry season), parts of East Africa (JJA, wet Season), Southern Africa (JJA, dry season), and Central Asia (MAM, wet season). A case study over parts of East Africa for the JJA season shows that, in combination with the precipitation forecasts, ETo forecasts could have provided early warning of recent severe drought events (e.g., 2002, 2004, 2009) that contributed to substantial food insecurity in the region.

  4. Cooling in the food industry. Special issue; Koelen in de voedingsindustrie. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-03-01

    In five brief articles attention is paid to the cooling and freezing processes and equipment in the food industry. The following subjects are discussed: the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points system (HACCP) to reduce the hygienic risks in the food processing industry to a minimum, indoor climate control for the chicory-roots storage facilities, temperature control of the freezing process for baguettes, a total supermarket management system that meets the HACCP standard, and the use of a cooling simulation program to save energy in a slaughterhouse

  5. Variability in cold front activities modulating cool-season evaporation from a southern inland water in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heping; Blanken, Peter D; Weidinger, Tamas; Nordbo, Annika; Vesala, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding seasonal variations in the evaporation of inland waters (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) is important for water resource management as well as the prediction of the hydrological cycles in response to climate change. We analyzed eddy covariance-based evaporation measurements from the Ross Barnett Reservoir (32 deg. 26'N, 90 0 02'W; which is always ice-free) in central Mississippi during the cool months (i.e., September-March) of 2007 and 2008, and found that the variability in cold front activities (i.e., passages of cold fronts and cold/dry air masses behind cold fronts) played an important role in modulating the exchange of sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes. Our analysis showed that 2007's warmer cool season had smaller mean H and λE than 2008's cooler cool season. This implies that the warmer cool season did not accelerate evaporation and heat exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. Instead, more frequent cold fronts and longer periods of cold/dry air masses behind the cold fronts in 2008 resulted in overall larger H and λE as compared with 2007, this primarily taking the form of sporadic short-term rapid 'pulses' of H and λE losses from the water's surface. These results suggest that future climate-induced changes in frequency of cold fronts and the meteorological properties of the air masses behind cold fronts (e.g., wind speeds, temperature, and humidity), rather than other factors of climate change, would produce significant variations in the water surface's energy fluxes and subsequent evaporation rates.

  6. Ground water heat pumps and cooling with ground water basins as seasonal storage; Grundvandsvarmepumper og -koeling med grundvandsmagasiner som saesonlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    Ground water temperature is constant all the year round, in Denmark approximately 9 deg. C, which is ideal for a number of cooling purposes including cooling of buildings. The structures in which the ground water flows (sand, gravel and chalk) are efficient for storing coldness and heat over longer periods. By using seasonal storage of low-temperature heat and coldness in ground water layers close to the terrain it is feasible to reach profitable energy savings of up to 90% for cooling and heating of e.g. hotels, airports, shopping malls, office buildings and other larger buildings. At the same time the large energy savings means major reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (BA)

  7. Structuring Tensions and Key Relations of Montreal Seasonal Food Markets in the Sustainability Transition of the Agri-Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Audet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In cities across the world, local food networks aim to make food systems more sustainable and secure for all. As part of that effort, some of these networks also seek to introduce social innovation in the mode of selling food, namely as a way to initiate a broader transition of the sector. Based on two years of action research conducted together with promoters of Montreal’s seasonal markets, this article offers an account of the co-constructed narrative of a transition of the agri-food sector. On the one hand, transition theory anticipates that the transition to sustainability of the agri-food sector would depend on the protection and empowerment of innovative ‘niches’ that are facing the locked-in structure of the agri-food ‘sociotechnical regime’. Yet, on the other hand, the seasonal markets do not fit well in this portrait: they are shown to evolve at the intersection of the sociotechnical regime and innovative niches. For this reason, they are subject to regime rules and become difficult to protect as an entity. As such, seasonal markets face ‘structuring tensions’ that generate both practical dilemmas and innovative solutions in their modes of organization. These solutions, however, rely on webs of resources and supports that constitute ‘key relations’ for unlocking the agri-food regime rules. It is through managing these tensions and relations that the seasonal markets end up reconfiguring social and material relations and providing solutions for food security and a more sustainable food system. Therefore, we argue that the structuring tension and key relation concepts are useful for understanding the dynamics of social innovation in the transition to sustainability in food systems.

  8. Seasonal variation and food deprivation in common vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.

  9. Role of women in food security and seasonal variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic characteristics, role of women and expenditure pattern as it relates to seasonal variation in lagoon and marine fishing communities in Lagos State. A two stage stratified sampling method was used to select the sample size of 210 fishing (35 female and 175 male–headed) ...

  10. Determination of Cardinal Temperatures for Cool Season Turfgrass and Two Common Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Diayanat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The presence of broadleaf weeds not only reduces the aesthetic quality of the turfgrass, but more importantly they compete with desired turfgrass for water, nutrients, and light. Weed management after seeding is an important component to successfully establishing a healthy stand of cool season turfgrass. Weed seed germination is a key process because determines both the number of weeds that could potentially emerge and the timing of their appearance in the turfgrass. Temperature is of the most important factor regulating germination of non-dormant seeds in irrigated, annual agroecosystems at the beginning of the growth season where light, nutrients, and moisture are typically not growth limiting. Also prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculare L. and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L. are two annual common broad leaf weeds in cool season turfgrass. Prostrate knotweed is very competitive in infertile and compacted soils and often invades turfgrasses along driveways, sidewalks, and beaten paths across lawns. Annual sowthistle is found in open habitats that include waste areas, turf, and roadsides. The aim of this study was to evaluate different nonlinear regression models to describe response of germination rate to different temperatures in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., fescue (Festuca rubra L., prostrate knotweed and annual sowthistle. Materials and Methods This experiment was based on completely randomized design with 4 replications at Islamic Azad University in the laboratory of Science Research Branch in 2015. The seeds were treated with different temperatures (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45oC Twenty five seeds were placed in each petri dish for each species in per replication. Ten milliliters of distilled water were added to each petri dish and the filter papers were regularly moistened to ensure saturation throughout the germination tests. Petri dishes were placed in germinator with 16 hour day, 8 hour night

  11. Heat and Mass Transfer of Vacuum Cooling for Porous Foods-Parameter Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of heat and mass transfer, a coupled model for the porous food vacuum cooling process is constructed. Sensitivity analyses of the process to food density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, latent heat of evaporation, diameter of pores, mass transfer coefficient, viscosity of gas, and porosity were examined. The simulation results show that the food density would affect the vacuum cooling process but not the vacuum cooling end temperature. The surface temperature of food was slightly affected and the core temperature is not affected by the changed thermal conductivity. The core temperature and surface temperature are affected by the changed specific heat. The core temperature and surface temperature are affected by the changed latent heat of evaporation. The core temperature is affected by the diameter of pores. But the surface temperature is not affected obviously. The core temperature and surface temperature are not affected by the changed gas viscosity. The parameter sensitivity of mass transfer coefficient is obvious. The core temperature and surface temperature are affected by the changed mass transfer coefficient. In all the simulations, the end temperature of core and surface is not affected. The vacuum cooling process of porous medium is a process controlled by outside process.

  12. Computer aided simulation for developing a simple model to predict cooling of packaged foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Gram; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    A new equation to predict equilibrium temperatures for cooling operations of packaged foods has been deducted from the traditional 1st order solution to Fourier’s heat transfer equations. The equation is analytical in form and only requires measurable parameters, in form of area vs. volume ratio (A...

  13. Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Catherine; Ford, James D; Edge, Victoria L; Shirley, Jamal; King, Nia; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-06-15

    High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Randomly selected households were surveyed in Iqaluit in September 2012 and May 2013. Household food security status was determined using an adapted United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module. Univariable logistic regressions were used to examine unconditional associations between food security status and demographics, socioeconomics, frequency of food consumption, and method of food preparation in households with children by season. Households with children (n = 431) and without children (n = 468) participated in the survey. Food insecurity was identified in 32.9% (95% CI: 28.5-37.4%) of households with children; this was significantly higher than in households without children (23.2%, 95% CI: 19.4-27.1%). The prevalence of household food insecurity did not significantly differ by season. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the person responsible for food preparation, including low formal education attainment (OR Sept  = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8.0; OR May  = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.8), unemployment (OR Sept  = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; OR May  = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), and Inuit identity (OR Sept  = 8.9, 95% CI: 3.4-23.5; OR May  = 21.8, 95% CI: 6.6-72.4), were associated with increased odds of food insecurity in households with children. Fruit and vegetable consumption (OR Sept  = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; OR May  = 0.5, 95

  14. Numerical analysis of slowest heating or cooling point in a canned food in oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, T.; Wang, Q.; Suzuki, M.; Sakai, N. [Tokyo Univ. of Fisheries (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    In the sterilizing process of canned food in oil for a fish meat such as tunny, the slowest heating or cooling point is very important for the thermal process determination of the can. To obtain the slowest point, the temperature profiles in solid food are estimated by numerical calculation from the fundamental equations at unsteady state in consideration of a free convection in the space occupied by the oil. The positions of the slowest heating or cooling point in the canned food in oil are obtained accurately, and a correlative equation for the position is obtained numerically under various operating conditions. The calculated temperature profiles and the position of both slowest points are in sufficiently good approximation to the experimental ones. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Seasonality directs contrasting food collection behavior and nutrient regulation strategies in ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Cook

    Full Text Available Long-lived animals, including social insects, often display seasonal shifts in foraging behavior. Foraging is ultimately a nutrient consumption exercise, but the effect of seasonality per se on changes in foraging behavior, particularly as it relates to nutrient regulation, is poorly understood. Here, we show that field-collected fire ant colonies, returned to the laboratory and maintained under identical photoperiod, temperature, and humidity regimes, and presented with experimental foods that had different protein (p to carbohydrate (c ratios, practice summer- and fall-specific foraging behaviors with respect to protein-carbohydrate regulation. Summer colonies increased the amount of food collected as the p:c ratio of their food became increasingly imbalanced, but fall colonies collected similar amounts of food regardless of the p:c ratio of their food. Choice experiments revealed that feeding was non-random, and that both fall and summer ants preferred carbohydrate-biased food. However, ants rarely ate all the food they collected, and their cached or discarded food always contained little carbohydrate relative to protein. From a nutrient regulation strategy, ants consumed most of the carbohydrate they collected, but regulated protein consumption to a similar level, regardless of season. We suggest that varied seasonal food collection behaviors and nutrient regulation strategies may be an adaptation that allows long-lived animals to meet current and future nutrient demands when nutrient-rich foods are abundant (e.g. spring and summer, and to conserve energy and be metabolically more efficient when nutritionally balanced foods are less abundant.

  16. Seasonality directs contrasting food collection behavior and nutrient regulation strategies in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2011-01-01

    Long-lived animals, including social insects, often display seasonal shifts in foraging behavior. Foraging is ultimately a nutrient consumption exercise, but the effect of seasonality per se on changes in foraging behavior, particularly as it relates to nutrient regulation, is poorly understood. Here, we show that field-collected fire ant colonies, returned to the laboratory and maintained under identical photoperiod, temperature, and humidity regimes, and presented with experimental foods that had different protein (p) to carbohydrate (c) ratios, practice summer- and fall-specific foraging behaviors with respect to protein-carbohydrate regulation. Summer colonies increased the amount of food collected as the p:c ratio of their food became increasingly imbalanced, but fall colonies collected similar amounts of food regardless of the p:c ratio of their food. Choice experiments revealed that feeding was non-random, and that both fall and summer ants preferred carbohydrate-biased food. However, ants rarely ate all the food they collected, and their cached or discarded food always contained little carbohydrate relative to protein. From a nutrient regulation strategy, ants consumed most of the carbohydrate they collected, but regulated protein consumption to a similar level, regardless of season. We suggest that varied seasonal food collection behaviors and nutrient regulation strategies may be an adaptation that allows long-lived animals to meet current and future nutrient demands when nutrient-rich foods are abundant (e.g. spring and summer), and to conserve energy and be metabolically more efficient when nutritionally balanced foods are less abundant.

  17. The Seasonal Food Habits of Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stomach contents of 424 adult and juvenile Oreochromis niloticus netted from the Ikpoba Reservoir were analysed. Phytoplankton formed the dominant food items of the fish during the dry and wet months of the sampling period. Zooplankton population in the fish diet was more pronounced during the wet months.

  18. Seasonal variation in mercury and food web biomagnification in Lake Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liang; Campbell, Linda M.; Johnson, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ontogenetic shifts in diet and Hg, although such patterns were not evident for other species. Food web structure, as indicated by stable isotope values (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) was not static. Log-transformed Hg data were strongly and consistently correlated with δ 15 N values for the whole food web in each of the three seasons (slopes, 0.17–0.24) and across the entire year (slope, 0.2). While significantly different between seasons, the regression slope values are still consistent with published global Hg biomagnification rates. Our results indicate that the assessment of Hg trends in Great Lakes must take into account seasonal patterns and time of sampling. - Graphical abstract: Total mercury concentrations and trophic level (δ 15 N) regressions for organisms from the littoral Lake Ontario food web of Waupoos in 2009. Filled circles represent invertebrates while open circles represent fish. Dashed lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “whole” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the upper left hand corner in each plot), and solid lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “fish-only” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the lower right hand corner of each plot). Note that the y-axis is untransformed Hg concentrations plotted along a logarithmic scale, while the equations are based on log-transformed Hg values. Highlights: ► Most fish in littoral Lake Ontario had higher Hg concentrations in spring and lower Hg in summer. ► Log Hg consistently biomagnified throughout the food web in each season and for the year. ► Biomagnification rates (e.g., log Hg-δ 15 N slopes) vary

  19. Hydrological and Biogeochemical Controls on Seasonal and Spatial Differences in Food Webs in the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, C.; Wankel, S. D.; Bemis, B. E.; Rawlik, P. S.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Lange, T.

    2002-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be used to determine the relative trophic positions of biota within a food web, and to improve our understanding of the biomagnification of contaminants. Plants at the base of the food web uptake dissolved organic carbon (DIC) and nitrogen (DIN) for growth, and their tissue reflects the isotopic composition of these sources. Animals then mirror the isotopic composition of the primary producers, as modified by consumer-diet fractionations at successive trophic steps. During 1995-99, we collected algae, macrophyte, invertebrate, and fish samples from 15 USGS sites in the Everglades and analyzed them for d13C and d15N with the goal of characterizing seasonal and spatial differences in food web relations. Carbon isotopes effectively distinguish between two main types of food webs: ones where algae is the dominant base of the food web, which are characteristic of relatively pristine marsh sites with long hydroperiods, and ones where macrophyte debris appears to be a significant source of nutrients, which are apparently characteristic of shorter hydroperiod sites, and nutrient-impacted marshes and canals. There usually is an inverse relation between d13C and d15N of organisms over time, especially in more pristine environments, reflecting seasonal changes in the d13C of DIC and the d15N of DIN. The d13C and d15N of algae also show strong positive correlations with seasonal changes in water levels. This variability is substantially damped up the food chain, probably because of the longer integration times of animals vs. plants. We speculate that these seasonal shifts in water level result in changes in biogeochemical reactions and nutrient levels, with corresponding variations in the d15N and d13C of biota. For example, small changes in water level may change the balance of photosynthesis, bacterial respiration, and atmospheric exchange reactions that control the d13C of DIC. Such changes will probably also affect the d15N of dissolved inorganic N (DIN

  20. Optimal Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heat and Power in Different Demand Type Buildings Considering Seasonal Demand Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal energy management strategy for a cooperative multi-microgrid system with combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP is proposed and has been verified for a test case of building microgrids (BMGs. Three different demand types of buildings are considered and the BMGs are assumed to be equipped with their own combined heat and power (CHP generators. In addition, the BMGs are also connected to an external energy network (EEN, which contains a large CHP, an adsorption chiller (ADC, a thermal storage tank, and an electric heat pump (EHP. By trading the excess electricity and heat energy with the utility grid and EEN, each BMG can fulfill its energy demands. Seasonal energy demand variations have been evaluated by selecting a representative day for the two extreme seasons (summer and winter of the year, among the real profiles of year-round data on electricity, heating, and cooling usage of all the three selected buildings. Especially, the thermal energy management aspect is emphasized where, bi-lateral heat trading between the energy supplier and the consumers, so-called energy prosumer concept, has been realized. An optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming has been developed for minimizing the daily operation cost of the EEN while fulfilling the energy demands of the BMGs. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  1. Spatial and seasonal diversity of wild food plants in home gardens of Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Wild food plants (WFPs) are major components of tropical home gardens, constituting an important resource for poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal diversity of WFPs was analyzed across multi-species spatial configurations occurring within home gardens in a rice farming village in northeast

  2. Seasonal food selection and digestibility by tame white-tailed deer in central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlette S. Crawford

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal food selection and digestibility by tame white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied in the white pine (Pinus strobus)–Canada hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and lowland conifer types, areas representative of important deer habitat in the northeastern United States. Deer selected highly...

  3. Seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya; Pt. 4/5 : Food consumption and anthropometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Klaver, W.; Niemeijer, R.

    1991-01-01

    This is Part 4/5 of a series concerned with seasonality in the coastal lowlands of Kenya. Household surveys were carried out in six locations in Kwale and Kilifi Districts in 1985-1987. The present report deals with food consumption and the nutritional condition of the study population. Results show

  4. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  5. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We found that moderate-to-marked yield loss over a substantial percentage (26-33%) of the harvested area of these crops is reliably predictable if climatic forecasts are near perfect. However, only rice and wheat production are reliably predictable at three months before the harvest using within-season hindcasts. The reliabilities of estimates varied substantially by crop--rice and wheat yields were the most predictable, followed by soybean and maize. The reasons for variation in the reliability of the estimates included the differences in crop sensitivity to the climate and the technology used by the crop-producing regions. Our findings reveal that the use of seasonal climatic forecasts to predict crop failures will be useful for monitoring global food production and will encourage the adaptation of food systems toclimatic extremes.

  6. Seasonal grazing and food preference of herbivores in a Posidonia oceanica meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peirano

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal grazing of the fish Sarpa salpa (L., the urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck and the isopods Idotea spp. was compared with the C/N ratio of adult and intermediate leaves and epiphytes of Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile, collected at three different depths. Despite seasonal differences in grazing, herbivores showed preferences throughout the year for adult leaves with more epiphyte and higher N contents. The maximum grazing on adult and intermediate leaves was observed in September and in June for fish and in March for urchins, whereas it was irregular for isopods. Grazing by the three herbivores was not related to their preference for leaves or epiphytes, notwithstanding the seasonal differences in their C and N contents. We concluded that herbivores show no preference for food type throughout the year and that seasonal consumption of P. oceanica is related mainly to herbivore behaviour.

  7. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfe, Danielle M; Jardine, Timothy D; Pettit, Neil E; Hamilton, Stephen K; Pusey, Bradley J; Bunn, Stuart E; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations), disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation) and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  8. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Warfe

    Full Text Available The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations, disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  9. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  10. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrecengost, J. D. [Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Rome, GA (United States); Kilgo, J. C. [USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Mallard, D. [Fort Benning, GA (United States); Ray, H. Scott [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Miller, K. V. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Abstract - Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005-July 2006. Seasonally available soft mast was the most common food item in 12 of the 15 months we sampled. Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) was the most common food item during December (40%) and March (37%). During May-June, fruits of Prunus spp. and Rubus spp. were the most commonly occurring food items. Fawns were the most common mammalian food item during May and June of both years despite low deer density.

  11. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrecengost, J., D.; Kilgo, J., C.; Mallard, D.; Ray, H., S.; Miller, K., V.

    2008-07-01

    Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005-July 2006. Seasonally available soft mast was the most common food item in 12 of the 15 months we sampled. Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) was the most common food item during December (40%) and March (37%). During May-June, fruits of Prunus spp. and Rubus spp. were the most commonly occurring food items. Fawns were the most common mammalian food item during May and June of both years despite low deer density.

  12. Seasonal Food Scarcity Prompts Long-Distance Foraging by a Wild Social Bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Nathaniel S; Jha, Shalene

    2018-01-01

    Foraging is an essential process for mobile animals, and its optimization serves as a foundational theory in ecology and evolution; however, drivers of foraging are rarely investigated across landscapes and seasons. Using a common bumblebee species from the western United States (Bombus vosnesenskii), we ask whether seasonal decreases in food resources prompt changes in foraging behavior and space use. We employ a unique integration of population genetic tools and spatially explicit foraging models to estimate foraging distances and rates of patch visitation for wild bumblebee colonies across three study regions and two seasons. By mapping the locations of 669 wild-caught individual foragers, we find substantial variation in colony-level foraging distances, often exhibiting a 60-fold difference within a study region. Our analysis of visitation rates indicates that foragers display a preference for destination patches with high floral cover and forage significantly farther for these patches, but only in the summer, when landscape-level resources are low. Overall, these results indicate that an increasing proportion of long-distance foraging bouts take place in the summer. Because wild bees are pollinators, their foraging dynamics are of urgent concern, given the potential impacts of global change on their movement and services. The behavioral shift toward long-distance foraging with seasonal declines in food resources suggests a novel, phenologically directed approach to landscape-level pollinator conservation and greater consideration of late-season floral resources in pollinator habitat management.

  13. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    indoor environment. For the energy consumption of the HVAC system, air-to-brine heat pump, mixing station and controller of the radiant floor, and the air handling unit were considered. The measurements were analyzed based on the achieved indoor environment category (according to EN 15251...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar...

  14. Cool-season precipitation in the southwestern USA since AD 1000: comparison of linear and nonlinear techniques for reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Fenbiao; Cavazos, Tereza; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Comrie, Andrew C.; Funkhouser, Gary

    2002-11-01

    A 1000 year reconstruction of cool-season (November-April) precipitation was developed for each climate division in Arizona and New Mexico from a network of 19 tree-ring chronologies in the southwestern USA. Linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (NN) models were used to identify the cool-season precipitation signal in tree rings. Using 1931-88 records, the stepwise LR model was cross-validated with a leave-one-out procedure and the NN was validated with a bootstrap technique. The final models were also independently validated using the 1896-1930 precipitation data. In most of the climate divisions, both techniques can successfully reconstruct dry and normal years, and the NN seems to capture large precipitation events and more variability better than the LR. In the 1000 year reconstructions the NN also produces more distinctive wet events and more variability, whereas the LR produces more distinctive dry events. The 1000 year reconstructed precipitation from the two models shows several sustained dry and wet periods comparable to the 1950s drought (e.g. 16th century mega drought) and to the post-1976 wet period (e.g. 1330s, 1610s). The impact of extreme periods on the environment may be stronger during sudden reversals from dry to wet, which were not uncommon throughout the millennium, such as the 1610s wet interval that followed the 16th century mega drought. The instrumental records suggest that strong dry to wet precipitation reversals in the past 1000 years might be linked to strong shifts from cold to warm El Niño-southern oscillation events and from a negative to positive Pacific decadal oscillation.

  15. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: anita.evenset@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  16. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ"1"5N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ"1"5N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ"1"5N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  17. Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya : a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food

  18. Seasonal reversal of temperature-moisture response of net carbon exchange of biocrusted soils in a cool desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Reed, S.; Howell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon cycling associated with biological soil crusts, which occur in interspaces between vascular plants in drylands globally, may be an important part of the coupled climate-carbon cycle of the Earth system. A major challenge to understanding CO2 fluxes in these systems is that much of the biotic and biogeochemical activity occurs in the upper few mm of the soil surface layer (i.e., the `mantle of fertility'), which exhibits highly dynamic and difficult to measure temperature and moisture fluctuations. Here, we report data collected in a cool desert ecosystem over one year using a multi-sensor approach to simultaneously measuring temperature and moisture of the biocrust surface layer (0-2 mm), and the deeper soil profile (5-20 cm), concurrent with automated measurement of surface soil CO2 effluxes. Our results illuminate robust relationships between microclimate and field CO2 pulses that have previously been difficult to detect and explain. The temperature of the biocrust surface layer was highly variable, ranging from minimum of -9 °C in winter to maximum of 77 °C in summer with a maximum diurnal range of 61 °C. Temperature cycles were muted deeper in the soil profile. During summer, biocrust and soils were usually hot and dry and CO2 fluxes were tightly coupled to pulse wetting events experienced at the biocrust surface, which consistently resulted in net CO2 efflux (i.e., respiration). In contrast, during the winter, biocrust and soils were usually cold and moist, and there was sustained net CO2 uptake via photosynthesis by biocrust organisms, although during cold dry periods CO2 fluxes were minimal. During the milder spring and fall seasons, short wetting events drove CO2 loss, while sustained wetting events resulted in net CO2 uptake. Thus, the upper and lower bounds of net CO2 exchange at a point in time were functions of the seasonal temperature regime, while the actual flux within those bounds was determined by the magnitude and duration of biocrust

  19. Diel and seasonal variation in food habits of Atlantic salmon parr in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grader, M.; Letcher, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    The diel and seasonal food habits of young-of-year (YOY) and post-young-of-year (PYOY) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were assayed over the course of 11 months in the West Brook, Massachusetts USA. Gut fullness of YOY salmon did not vary significantly among months. PYOY salmon exhibited significant seasonal differences in gut fullness, with peak fullness occurring in the spring and late fall. Significant diel differences in PYOY gut fullness occurred in June and April, with peak fullness always occurring at dawn. Prey composition varied substantially among months. Dominant prey items of PYOY salmon were baetid mayflies in June, July, and August, limnephilid caddisflies in October and November, and ephemerellid mayflies in February and April. Few differences in prey composition between PYOY and YOY salmon were observed. Fish growth was unrelated to prey availability, but gut fullness explained up to 97% of growth variation across seasons. Results suggest that spring and fall are critical periods of feeding for PYOY salmon and that diel feeding intensity shifts seasonally.

  20. Seasonal pathways of organic matter within the Avilés submarine canyon: Food web implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl; Höfer, Juan; Duineveld, Gerard; Rumín-Caparrós, Aitor; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    The transport and fate of organic matter (OM) sources within the Avilés submarine canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay) were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. The isotopic composition of settling particles and deep bottom sediments closely resembled that of surface particulate OM, and there were no marked differences in the isotopic composition of settling particles inside and outside of the AC. This indicates that the Avilés Canyon (AC) receives inputs of sinking OM mostly from the upper water column and less through advective near-bottom down-canyon transport. Sinking OM fluxes are of marine and terrestrial origin in proportions which vary seasonally. Analysis of δ13C in the canyon fauna indicates a dependence on OM mainly produced by marine phytoplankton. A tight coupling of isotopic signatures between pelagic organisms and benthic suspension feeders reflects an active biological vertical transport of OM from the surface to the deep-sea. The food web presented seasonal variations in the trophic niche width and the amplitude of the primary carbon sources, reflecting seasonality in the availability of fresh particulate OM. Those seasonal changes are larger for benthic organisms of lower trophic levels.

  1. Effects of ejector geometries on performance of ejector-expansion R410A air conditioner considering cooling seasonal performance factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yongseok; Jung, Jongho; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, Sunjae; Kim, Yongchan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The performance of an ejector-expansion R410A air conditioner is measured. •The effect of ejector geometries on the COP and CSPF is analyzed. •The mixing-section diameter of the ejector is optimized based on the CSPF. •The mixing-section diameter is optimized based on the climatic conditions. -- Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ejector geometries on the performance of an ejector-expansion air conditioner (EEAC) considering the cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF). The performance of the EEAC using R410A was measured and analyzed by varying the compressor speed, outdoor-bin temperature, operating pressures, nozzle-throat diameter, and mixing-section diameter. The EEAC in the medium-capacity mode exhibited maximum coefficient of performance (COP) improvement, i.e., 7.5%, over the baseline (conventional) cycle. The optimum mixing-section diameter was determined to be 9 mm based on the CSPF. In addition, the optimum mixing-section diameter increased with an increase in the annual average outdoor temperature. The CSPF of the EEAC with the optimized mixing-section diameter improved in the range of 16.0–20.3% over the baseline cycle depending on the climatic conditions.

  2. Diurnal and Seasonal Variation of Surface Urban Cool and Heat Islands in the Semi-Arid City of Erbil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rasul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of land surface temperature (LST makes the near-surface layer of the troposphere a key driver of urban climate. This paper assesses the temporal formation of the daytime Surface Urban Cool Island (SUCI and night-time Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI effect in Erbil, Iraq, situated in a semi-arid climate region. LST retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua and Terra and MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from January 2003 to December 2014 are analysed. The relationships of LST with NDVI and the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI are investigated in order to assess the influence of vegetation and moisture on the observed patterns of LST and the SUCI/SUHI. The results indicate that during the daytime, in summer, autumn and winter, densely built-up areas had lower LST acting as a SUCI compared to the non-urbanised area around the city. In contrast, at night-time, Erbil experienced higher LST and demonstrated a significant SUHI effect. The relationship between LST and NDVI is affected by seasonality and is strongly inverted during spring (r2 = 0.73; p < 0.01. Contrary to previous studies of semi-arid cities, a SUCI was detected, not only in the morning, but also during the afternoon.

  3. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is important element in 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS). Forecasts issued for planning operations at KSC/CCAFS. 45 WS wind advisories issued for wind gusts greater than or equal to 25 kt. 35 kt and 50 kt from surface to 300 ft. AMU developed cool-season (Oct - Apr) tool to help 45 WS forecast: daily peak wind speed, 5-minute average speed at time of peak wind, and probability peak speed greater than or equal to 25 kt, 35 kt, 50 kt. AMU tool also forecasts daily average wind speed from 30 ft to 60 ft. Phase I and II tools delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). Phase II tool also delivered as Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) GUI. Phase I and II forecast methods were compared to climatology, 45 WS wind advisories and North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts in a verification data set.

  4. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, Kirk A; Russell, James R; Kovar, John L; Morrical, Daniel G; Ensley, Steven M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Cornick, Nancy A; Cho, Yong Il

    2011-01-01

    Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater ( CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, and O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces of one cow in August of 2008. Erosion of cut-banks was the greatest contributor of sediment and P loading to the stream; contributions from surface runoff and grazing animals were considerably less and were minimized by grazing management practices that reduced congregation of cattle by pasture streams. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  6. Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus: A New Polerovirus Infecting Cool-Season Food Legumes in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Lesemann, D-E; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H J

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Serological analysis of diseased chickpea and faba bean plantings with yellowing and stunting symptoms suggested the occurrence of an unknown or uncommon member of the family Luteoviridae in Ethiopia. Degenerate primers were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral coat protein (CP) coding region from both chickpea and faba bean samples. Cloning and sequencing of the amplicons yielded nearly identical (96%) nucleotide sequences of a previously unrecognized species of the family Luteoviridae, with a CP amino acid sequence most closely related (identity of approximately 78%) to that of Groundnut rosette assistor virus. The complete genome (5,900 nts) of a faba bean isolate comprised six major open reading frames characteristic of polero-viruses. Of the four aphid species tested, only Aphis craccivora transmitted the virus in a persistent manner. The host range of the virus was confined to a few species of the family Fabaceae. A rabbit antiserum raised against virion preparations cross-reacted unexpectedly with Beet western yellows virus-like viruses. This necessitated the production of murine monoclonal antibodies which, in combination with the polyclonal antiserum, permitted both sensitive and specific detection of the virus in field samples by triple-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of the characteristic field and greenhouse symptoms in chickpea, the name Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus is proposed for this new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae).

  7. Effects of food provisioning and habitat management on spatial behaviour of Little Owls during the breeding season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Chrenkova, Monika; Sunde, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The population of Little Owls in Denmark is close to extinction. The main cause is food limitation during the breeding season. Efforts to improve breeding success include providing breeding pairs with supplementary food and attempts to improve foraging habitats by creating short grass areas near ...... reproductive output in an endangered raptor, but also to decreased working effort, which in turn may improve adult survival....

  8. Coping with household food insecurity : a longitudinal and seasonal study among the Otammari in North - Western Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal and seasonal study was designed to examine the relationships between, at one hand, coping with food insecurity and socio-economic characteristics at household level and, at the other hand, food consumption, time allocation and nutritional status at individual level in a

  9. Detection and confirmation of Clostridium botulinum in water used for cooling at a plant producing low-acid canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Amita; Defibaugh-Chávez, Stephanie L H; Day, James B; Zink, Donald; Sharma, Shashi K

    2010-11-01

    Our laboratory tested water samples used for cooling low-acid canned foods at a canning facility under investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with digoxigenin-labeled antibodies (DIG-ELISA) and real-time PCR as screening methods and confirmed the presence of neurotoxin-producing Clostridium botulinum in the samples by mouse bioassay.

  10. Seasonal food habits of swift fox (Vulpes velox) in cropland and rangeland landscapes in western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Telesco, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Food habits of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) occupying two distinct landscapes (dominated by cropland versus rangeland) in western Kansas were determined by analysis of scats collected in 1993 and 1996. Frequencies of occurrence of prey items in scats were compared between cropland and rangeland areas by season. Overall, the most frequently occurring foods of swift foxes were mammals (92% of all scats) and arthropods (87%), followed by birds (24%), carrion (23%), plants (15%) and reptiles (4%). No differences were detected between landscapes for occurrence of mammals, arthropods or carrion in any season (P ≥ 0.100). Plants, specifically commercial sunflower seeds, were consumed more frequently in cropland than in rangeland in spring (P = 0.004) and fall (P = 0.001). Birds were more common in the swift fox diet in cropland than in rangeland during the fall (P = 0.008), whereas reptiles occurred more frequently in the diet in rangeland than in cropland during spring (P = 0.042). Variation in the diet of the swift fox between areas was most likely due to its opportunistic foraging behavior, resulting in a diet that closely links prey use with availability.

  11. Seasonal food habits of introduced blue catfish in Lake Oconee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Mitchell, Geoffrey E.; Nelson, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are native to the Coosa River drainage in northwest Georgia but have been widely introduced outside of this range including Lake Oconee, a 7677-ha impoundment on the Oconee River in central Georgia. Blue catfish abundance and growth rates have increased dramatically since their introduction in Lake Oconee, but their food habits are unknown. Therefore, food habits of blue catfish in this impoundment were determined by examining the stomachs of 808 specimens in the reservoir’s upper and lower regions across all seasons from summer 2012 to summer 2013. Diet was summarized using the Relative Importance of specific prey by weight. In the upper region of the reservoir, Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were the dominant prey item during the summer (75.7%), fall (66.4%), and winter (37.6%); whereas crappie (Pomoxis spp.) was the dominant prey item in the spring (38.7%). Asian clams also were the dominant prey items in the lower region during the fall (68.4%), winter (33.9%), and spring (36.4%). Blue catfish seemed to feed opportunistically on seasonally abundant prey items in both the upper riverine and lower lacustrine portions of the reservoir. Of the many sportfishes in the reservoir, only crappie was an important prey item, and then only in the upper region during the spring. Our results do not support concerns that blue catfish are an apex predator that would decimate the sportfish assemblage in this recently colonized reservoir.

  12. Plastid phylogenomics of the cool-season grass subfamily: clarification of relationships among early-diverging tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M; Wysocki, William P; Barrett, Craig F; Soreng, Robert J; Davis, Jerrold I; Clark, Lynn G; Kelchner, Scot A; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Mayfield, Dustin R; Duvall, Melvin R

    2015-05-04

    Whole plastid genomes are being sequenced rapidly from across the green plant tree of life, and phylogenetic analyses of these are increasing resolution and support for relationships that have varied among or been unresolved in earlier single- and multi-gene studies. Pooideae, the cool-season grass lineage, is the largest of the 12 grass subfamilies and includes important temperate cereals, turf grasses and forage species. Although numerous studies of the phylogeny of the subfamily have been undertaken, relationships among some 'early-diverging' tribes conflict among studies, and some relationships among subtribes of Poeae have not yet been resolved. To address these issues, we newly sequenced 25 whole plastomes, which showed rearrangements typical of Poaceae. These plastomes represent 9 tribes and 11 subtribes of Pooideae, and were analysed with 20 existing plastomes for the subfamily. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) robustly resolve most deep relationships in the subfamily. Complete plastome data provide increased nodal support compared with protein-coding data alone at nodes that are not maximally supported. Following the divergence of Brachyelytrum, Phaenospermateae, Brylkinieae-Meliceae and Ampelodesmeae-Stipeae are the successive sister groups of the rest of the subfamily. Ampelodesmeae are nested within Stipeae in the plastome trees, consistent with its hybrid origin between a phaenospermatoid and a stipoid grass (the maternal parent). The core Pooideae are strongly supported and include Brachypodieae, a Bromeae-Triticeae clade and Poeae. Within Poeae, a novel sister group relationship between Phalaridinae and Torreyochloinae is found, and the relative branching order of this clade and Aveninae, with respect to an Agrostidinae-Brizinae clade, are discordant between MP and ML/BI trees. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses strongly support Airinae and Holcinae as the successive sister groups of a Dactylidinae

  13. Evaluation of cool season precipitation event characteristics over the Northeast US in a suite of downscaled climate model hindcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikith, Paul C.; Waliser, Duane E.; Kim, Jinwon; Ferraro, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Cool season precipitation event characteristics are evaluated across a suite of downscaled climate models over the northeastern US. Downscaled hindcast simulations are produced by dynamically downscaling the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA2) using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model (RCM) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global climate model. NU-WRF RCM simulations are produced at 24, 12, and 4-km horizontal resolutions using a range of spectral nudging schemes while the MERRA2 global downscaled run is provided at 12.5-km. All model runs are evaluated using four metrics designed to capture key features of precipitation events: event frequency, event intensity, even total, and event duration. Overall, the downscaling approaches result in a reasonable representation of many of the key features of precipitation events over the region, however considerable biases exist in the magnitude of each metric. Based on this evaluation there is no clear indication that higher resolution simulations result in more realistic results in general, however many small-scale features such as orographic enhancement of precipitation are only captured at higher resolutions suggesting some added value over coarser resolution. While the differences between simulations produced using nudging and no nudging are small, there is some improvement in model fidelity when nudging is introduced, especially at a cutoff wavelength of 600 km compared to 2000 km. Based on the results of this evaluation, dynamical regional downscaling using NU-WRF results in a more realistic representation of precipitation event climatology than the global downscaling of MERRA2 using GEOS-5.

  14. Monitoring results and analysis of thermal comfort conditions in experimental buildings for different heating systems and ventilation regimes during heating and cooling seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelis, S.; Jakovičs, A.; Ratnieks, J.; Bandeniece, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the long-term monitoring of thermal comfort and discomfort parameters in five small test buildings equipped with different heating and cooling systems. Calculations of predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD) index and discomfort factors are provided for the room in winter season running three different heating systems - electric heater, air-air heat pump and air-water heat pump, as well as for the summer cooling with split type air conditioning systems. It is shown that the type of heating/cooling system and its working regime has an important impact on thermal comfort conditions in observed room. Recommendations for the optimal operating regimes and choice of the heating system from the thermal comfort point of view are summarized.

  15. The household food insecurity and health outcomes of U.S.-Mexico border migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Hall, Yolanda Posada; Ramirez, Yolanda; Orozco, Rubi

    2007-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests chronic household food insecurity has an adverse effect on health. This study examined the prevalence, predictors and health outcomes associated with food insecurity in 100 migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSFW) households living on the U.S.-Mexico border. Data were collected using the U.S. Food Security Scale, California Agricultural Worker's Health Survey, and objective anthropometric, clinical and biochemical indicators. Food insecurity affected 82% of households; 49% also had hunger. Household food insecurity was predicted by the presence of minor children in the home and low maternal education. Food insecure households were more likely to have at least one member affected by symptoms of depression (deprimido), nervios (an ethnospecific condition), learning disorders, and symptoms suggestive of gastrointestinal infection. Although not directly associated with food insecurity, adult obesity, central body adiposity, elevated blood pressure, and blood lipid and glucose disturbances were common. These findings highlight the significant food security and health challenges faced by border area MSFW families.

  16. Diet seasonality and food overlap in fishes of the upper Orituco stream, northern Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ortaz

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The diets of four diurnal fish species (Creagrutus bolivari, Knodus deuterodonoides, Knodus sp. and Poecilia reticulata were examined during a year in the Orituco stream at northern Venezuela. The fishes were sampled monthly from February 1991 to March 1992 (except October 1991 and February 1992 in the stream main channel with a beach seine and a cast net. Diet is reported as frequency of ocurrence and numeric proportion because variation in prey sizes was small. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied. A total of 18 distinct prey items were found in stomachs. The diet of these fishes consisted of aquatic insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, allochthonous plant matter (fragments of leaves and seeds, microalgae (Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyceae and terrestrial arthropods (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Arachnida. The low percentage of empty guts and the high fullness percentage of guts suggest that food was always abundant. Aquatic insects were more important in the dry season (November - April while plant matter and terrestrial arthropods increased in the wet season (May - October. The Proportional Similarity Measure (PS was high between characid species and low between characids and P. reticulata in the dry season. PS decreased during the wet season because of a reduction in aquatic insect consumption. The seasonal diet shift indicated the greater importance of allochthonous food only in the wet season.Se analizó la dieta de cuatro especies de peces (Creagrutus bolivari, Knodus deuterodonoides, Knodus sp. y Poecilia reticulata que habitan el río Orituco al norte de Venezuela. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente entre febrero de 1991 y marzo de 1992 (excepto octubre/91 y febrero/92. Los peces se recolectaron con chinchorro y atarraya en el canal principal del río. La dieta se expresó como frecuencia numérica y de ocurrencia y se analizó con pruebas estadísticas no param

  17. EFFECT OF PRE-COOLING ON REPEAT-SPRINT PERFORMANCE IN SEASONALLY ACCLIMATISED MALES DURING AN OUTDOOR SIMULATED TEAM-SPORT PROTOCOL IN WARM CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly J. Brade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10. They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket and another without (CONT. Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23 in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit

  18. Identifying seasonal mobility profiles from anonymized and aggregated mobile phone data. Application in food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiria, Pedro J; Pastor-Escuredo, David; Úbeda-Medina, Luis; Hernandez-Medina, Miguel A; Barriales-Valbuena, Iker; Morales, Alfredo J; Jacques, Damien C; Nkwambi, Wilfred; Diop, M Bamba; Quinn, John; Hidalgo-Sanchís, Paula; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    We propose a framework for the systematic analysis of mobile phone data to identify relevant mobility profiles in a population. The proposed framework allows finding distinct human mobility profiles based on the digital trace of mobile phone users characterized by a Matrix of Individual Trajectories (IT-Matrix). This matrix gathers a consistent and regularized description of individual trajectories that enables multi-scale representations along time and space, which can be used to extract aggregated indicators such as a dynamic multi-scale population count. Unsupervised clustering of individual trajectories generates mobility profiles (clusters of similar individual trajectories) which characterize relevant group behaviors preserving optimal aggregation levels for detailed and privacy-secured mobility characterization. The application of the proposed framework is illustrated by analyzing fully anonymized data on human mobility from mobile phones in Senegal at the arrondissement level over a calendar year. The analysis of monthly mobility patterns at the livelihood zone resolution resulted in the discovery and characterization of seasonal mobility profiles related with economic activities, agricultural calendars and rainfalls. The use of these mobility profiles could support the timely identification of mobility changes in vulnerable populations in response to external shocks (such as natural disasters, civil conflicts or sudden increases of food prices) to monitor food security.

  19. Identifying seasonal mobility profiles from anonymized and aggregated mobile phone data. Application in food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Zufiria

    Full Text Available We propose a framework for the systematic analysis of mobile phone data to identify relevant mobility profiles in a population. The proposed framework allows finding distinct human mobility profiles based on the digital trace of mobile phone users characterized by a Matrix of Individual Trajectories (IT-Matrix. This matrix gathers a consistent and regularized description of individual trajectories that enables multi-scale representations along time and space, which can be used to extract aggregated indicators such as a dynamic multi-scale population count. Unsupervised clustering of individual trajectories generates mobility profiles (clusters of similar individual trajectories which characterize relevant group behaviors preserving optimal aggregation levels for detailed and privacy-secured mobility characterization. The application of the proposed framework is illustrated by analyzing fully anonymized data on human mobility from mobile phones in Senegal at the arrondissement level over a calendar year. The analysis of monthly mobility patterns at the livelihood zone resolution resulted in the discovery and characterization of seasonal mobility profiles related with economic activities, agricultural calendars and rainfalls. The use of these mobility profiles could support the timely identification of mobility changes in vulnerable populations in response to external shocks (such as natural disasters, civil conflicts or sudden increases of food prices to monitor food security.

  20. The connection between seasonal allergies, food allergies, and rhinosinusitis: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rahul; Dubal, Pariket M; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Rhinosinusitis affects an estimated one in seven adults in the United States. Otolaryngologists are intimately involved in the care of patients with rhinosinusitis and other upper airway inflammatory conditions through procedures such as endoscopic sinus surgery and, therefore, would benefit from a deeper understanding of the associated comorbidities and their management. Recent evidence has suggested several connections between the underlying disease of rhinosinusitis, seasonal allergies, and food allergies. The authors of the present review seek to provide a focused analysis of the recent literature with respect to epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options concerning these conditions. Evidence has connected the function of filaggrin, a skin barrier protein, with the pathogenesis of allergic rhinosinusitis and food allergy. Additionally, decreased levels of regulatory B cells and T cells are associated with and play a role in atopic disease. Overlapping treatment modalities between these conditions suggest similar conclusions. Future research into the role of the skin barrier, regulatory immune cell functioning, transforming growth factor-β, and other cytokine signaling, and treatment options such as omalizumab and azelastine is likely to have profound impact on clinicians' management of patients with these disorders and their comorbidities.

  1. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56' to 33°01'S, 71°36' to 71°46'W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird's MSFF dynamics.

  2. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Anguita

    Full Text Available The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56' to 33°01'S, 71°36' to 71°46'W within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs, our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05. Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird's MSFF dynamics.

  3. Optimal cooling for the globalization of food and ornamental cultivation chains; Mondialisering van voedsel en sierteeltketens vereist optimale koeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerrigter, H.A.M. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    Over the last years, the design of fresh food supply chains has been changing, with improved logistics and globalization of the trade as the major driving forces. In this article the consequences of these developments for the utilization of cooling will be addressed. [Dutch] Het inrichten van distributieketens is de laatste jaren sterk veranderd door verbeterde Iogistiek en door verdere mondialisering van bederfelijke goederenstromen. De consequenties hiervan voor bet gebruik van koeling worden in dit artikel behandeld.

  4. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    loop) is used to remove heat from the hot vapor, causing it to condense back into a liquid. The liquid is then routed back to the evaporator to complete...reversed, and heat is extracted from the heat source (the ground loop) to evaporate the liquid refrigerant. The refrigerant vapor condenses in a...towers are typically operated during hot summer months and rely mainly on water evaporation for cooling. Dry fluid coolers cool using heat transfer

  5. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  6. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  7. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  8. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-Temperature Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C and exogenous spermidine (Spd root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  9. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (G s) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved P N of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of G s to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  10. Space shuttle/food system. Volume 2, Appendix C: Food cooling techniques analysis. Appendix D: Package and stowage: Alternate concepts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.

  11. Food habits of the southwestern willow flycatcher during the nesting season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2003-01-01

    The food habits and prey base of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) are not well known. We analyzed prey remains in 59 fecal samples from an intensively-studied population of this flycatcher at the Kern River Preserve in southern California. These samples were collected during the nesting season in 1996 and 1997 from adults caught in mist nets, and from nestlings temporarily removed from the nest for banding. A total of 379 prey individuals were identified in the samples. Dominant prey taxa, both in total numbers and in percent occurrence, were true bugs (Hemiptera), flies (Diptera), and beetles (Coleoptera). Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), spiders (Araneae), bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), and dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) were also common items. Diet composition was significantly different between years, due to a large difference in the numbers of spiders between 1996 and 1997. There was also a significant difference between the diet of young and adults, with the diet of young birds having significantly higher numbers of odonates and beetles. There was a trend toward diet differences between males and females, but this was not significant at the P = 0.05 level.

  12. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  13. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  14. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  15. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years(2......Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports(1) and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased...

  16. Seasonal variations in food plant preferences of reintroduced Rhinos Rhinoceros unicornis (Mammalia: Perrissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae in Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba Kumar Dutta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The food preferences of translocated Rhinos in Manas National Park were studied to find out variations in seasonal and annual preferences.  A total of 139 plants species belonging to 39 families were observed to be consumed as food.  On an average, grasses (n=33 contributed 24% of Rhino food, aquatic plants (n=23 16.5%, shrubs (n=11 7.5%, herbs (n = 31 22.3% trees (n=26 18.7%, creepers (n=3 2.1% and agricultural crops (n=12 8.6%.  Among the grasses, throughout the year Arundo donax, Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum elephantinus and Saccharum spontaneum were the maximum preferred species.  Rhinos were observed to browse shrubs and tree twigs during the winter season and browsing was found to be very limited during the monsoon due to the abundance of young grass.  Various anthropogenic pressures such as unregulated grassland burning, cattle grazing, invasions of Bombax ceiba and shrubs like Chromolaena odorata, Leea asiatica and herbs like Ageratum conyzoides have degraded some of the important grasslands.  So, a proper grassland management protocol including the burning of grasslands during the dry season, keeping grazing animals away and control of weeds is suggested in the areas extensively used by the Rhinos. 

  17. Grazing management and supplementation effects on forage and dairy cow performance on cool-season pastures in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoon, B; Sollenberger, L E; Staples, C R; Portier, K M; Fike, J H; Moore, J E

    2011-08-01

    Cool-season annual forages provide high-quality herbage for up to 5 mo in the US Gulf Coast states, but their management in pasture-based dairy systems has received little attention. Objectives of this study were to evaluate pasture and animal responses when lactating Holstein cows (n=32, mean DIM=184±21) grazed either N-fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.)-annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) mixed pastures or rye-annual ryegrass-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) pastures at 2 stocking rates (5 vs. 2.5 cows/ha) and 2 rates of concentrate supplementation [0.29 or 0.40 kg of supplement (as is)/kg of daily milk production]. Two cows paired by parity (one multiparous and one primiparous) were assigned randomly to each pasture. The 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was replicated twice in a completely randomized design. Forage mixture and supplementation rate did not affect milk production during three 28-d periods. Greater milk production occurred at the low (19.7 kg/d) than the high (14.7 kg/d) stocking rate during periods 2 and 3, but production was similar during period 1. Despite lower production per cow, milk production per hectare was generally greater at the high stocking rate (81.6 vs. 49.5 kg/ha). Generally, greater pregraze herbage mass on pastures at the lower stocking rate (1,400 vs. 1,150 kg/ha) accounted for greater herbage allowance. Both forage (8.0 vs. 5.9 kg/d) and total (14.1 vs. 11.6) organic matter intake were greater at the low stocking rate. Cows fed less supplement had greater forage organic matter intake (8.0 vs. 6.1 kg/d). Greater herbage mass was associated with the greater intake and subsequent greater milk production. Differences in forage nutritive value, blood metabolites and milk composition, although showing some response to treatments, may not be of sufficient magnitude to affect choice of pasture species or other management practices. Animal performance was not improved by

  18. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, K S; Gehring, J L; Evans Hutzenbiler, B D; Chen, A V; Nelson, O L; Vella, C A; Robbins, C T; Jansen, H T

    2017-05-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year. We also used bear gluteal adipocyte cultures to test insulin and beta-adrenergic sensitivity in vitro. Bears were insulin resistant during hibernation but were sensitive during the spring and fall active periods. Hibernating bears remained euglycemic, possibly due to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia. Adipokine concentrations were relatively low throughout the active season but peaked in mid-October prior to hibernation when fat content was greatest. Serum glycerol was highest during hibernation, indicating ongoing lipolysis. Centrally administered leptin reduced food intake in October, but not in August, revealing seasonal variation in the brain's sensitivity to its anorectic effects. This was supported by strong phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 labeling within the hypothalamus of hibernating bears; labeling virtually disappeared in active bears. Adipocytes collected during hibernation were insulin resistant when cultured with hibernation serum but became sensitive when cultured with active season serum. Heat treatment of active serum blocked much of this action. Clarifying the cellular mechanisms responsible for the physiology of hibernating bears may inform new treatments for metabolic disorders.

  19. Upland Forest Linkages to Seasonal Wetlands: Litter Flux, Processing, and Food Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Darold P. Batzer; Christel Kern

    2005-01-01

    The flux of materials across ecosystem boundaries has significant effects on recipient systems. Because of edge effects, seasonal wetlands in upland forest are good systems to explore these linkages. The purpose of this study was to examine flux of coarse particulate organic matter as litter fall into seasonal wetlands in Minnesota, and the relationship of this flux to...

  20. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security, and ecosystems: a call for integrated research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, T.J.; Visser, M.E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D.L.; Dominoni, Davide; Ebling, F.J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H.M.; Foster, R.G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D.T.; Hazlerigg, D.G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J.G.C.; Jonsson, N.N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G.A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S.A.M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R.J.; Reed, T.; Robinso, J.E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W.J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S.J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for

  1. Research on seasonal indoor thermal environment and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Chihye; Chun, Chungyoon [Department of Housing and Interior Design, College of Human Ecology, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    Indoor thermal environments and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems were investigated in Seoul, Korea and compared with the results of previous studies. Twenty-four houses in summer, six houses in autumn and 36 houses in winter were used in this study. The measurement of temperature, humidity and air conditioner usage behavior was carried out. The clo-value, thermal comfort, sensation and basic data of the houses were also investigated. The indoor thermal environment in the summer had a high temperature and a high humidity ratio compare to standard comfort zone. Most of the indoor thermal environments at the time of starting the air conditioner in the summer were out of the comfort zone. Some of the data recorded while the air conditioner was stopped were in the comfort zone, but in many cases the temperature was relatively higher than comfort zone. Most indoor climate distributions in the winter were in the comfort zone and the indoor climate in autumn coincided well with the criteria of the comfort zone. Compared with results of previous studies in these 25 years, indoor ambient average temperature in winter has increased and the comfort temperature has increased in the heating period and decreased in the cooling period. This result indicates that the development of an HVAC system has created an expectation of comfort for residents and has shifted their thermal comfort zone warmer in winter and cooler in summer. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform: Part 1 Cooling Season Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    This report provides second-year cooling season test results for the multi-year project titled “Evaluation of Variable Refrigeration Flow (VRF) System on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)’s Flexible Research Platform (FRP).” The purpose of the second-year project was to (1) evaluate the full- and partload performance of VRF systems compared with an existing baseline heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) system, which is a conventional rooftop unit (RTU) variable-air-volume (VAV) system with electric resistance heating and (2) use hourly building energy simulation to evaluate the energy savings potential of using VRF systems in major US cities. The second-year project performance period was from July 2015 through June 2016.

  3. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (Misconceptions of junior sports players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Lesley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103 to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68% could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47% of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  4. Seasonal energy, water, and food consumption of Negev Chukars and sand partridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, M.; Degen, A.A.; Nagy, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Chukars (Alectoris chukar) and Sand Partridges (Ammoperdix heyl), two ground-dwelling phasianids, are permanent residents of the Negev desert and are sympatric over much of their ranges. Sand Partridges (body mass = 150-250 g), however, inhabit only arid and very arid areas, whereas Chukars (m/sub b/ = 350-600 g) are widely distributed and inhabit deserts only at the margins of their ranges. They compared some of the desert adaptations of these phasianids by measuring the seasonal field metabolic rates (FMR) and water influxes (using doubly labelled water), diet selection, and food requirements of free-living Chukars and Sand Partridges at a site where both species occurred. Both species showed adaptation in the form of low energy metabolism, which ranged from 43 to 81% of that expected for birds of similar body mass. During summer, Sand Partridges had lower energy expenditures (5.47 kJ x g/sup -0.61/ x d -1 ) and water influxes (72.3 mL kg/sup -0.75/ d -1 ) than did Chukars (6.42 kJ g/sup -0.61/ d -1 and 93.5 mL x kg/sup -0.75/ x d -1 , respectively), indicating more pronounced adjustments to arid conditions in the desert specialist. However, both species obtained more than half of their water influx in summer by drinking. Their summer diet was relatively dry, consisting mainly of seeds (80%) along with some green vegetation (18%) and, in Chukars, occasional arthropods. This situation changed abruptly after winter rains, which induced germination and reduced the availability of seeds. Chukars were unable to maintain energy balance in the face of low ambient temperatures and a diet (90% green vegetation) that contained much water but comparatively little energy, and they mobilized fat reserves to meet energy requirements. Most Sand Partridges left the study area after winter rains, apparently migrating to the lower elevation, warmer, and drier Arava (part of the Rift Valley)

  5. Determinants of seasonal changes in availability of food patches for elephants (Loxodonta africana in a semi-arid African savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Clegg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of biodiversity caused by impact of elephants (Loxodonta africana on African woodlands may require a management response, but any action should be based on an understanding of why elephants choose to utilise trees destructively. Comprehension of elephant feeding behaviour requires consideration of the relative value of the plant groups they may potentially consume. Profitability of available food is partly determined by the time to locate a food patch and, therefore, as a foundation for understanding the influence of food availability on diet selection, key controls on the density of grass, forb, and browse patches were investigated across space and time in a semi-arid African savanna. Density of food patches changed seasonally because plant life-forms required different volumes of soil water to produce green forage; and woody plants and forbs responded to long-term changes in soil moisture, while grasses responded to short-term moisture pulses. Soil texture, structure of woody vegetation and fire added further complexity by altering the soil water thresholds required for production of green forage. Interpolating between regularly-timed, ground-based measurements of food density by using modelled soil water as the predictor in regression equations may be a feasible method of quantifying food available to elephants in complex savanna environments.

  6. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C.; Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  7. Seasonal changes in the δ13C and δ15N signatures of the Lago Maggiore pelagic food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in the relative contributions of littoral and pelagic food sources to the diets of open-water zooplankton and subsequent changes in their trophic positions were investigated with carbon and nitrogen Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA. We selected three open water stations as truly pelagic, but also influenced by littoral and riverine carbon sources. During each of the four seasons, integrated pelagic zooplankton samples were collected over 0-50 m depth intervals at each site along with seston in the size range 1.2-76 μm. In addition, vertical temperature profiles were measured. Littoral benthos from three sites along the main longitudinal axis of the lake was sampled to serve as a reference for tracing Lago Maggiore's littoral carbon isotopic signature. Among stations differences in δ13C and δ15N signatures of the different components of the pelagic food web, from seston to predatory zooplankton, were statistically non significant, thus confirming that allochthonous input may become important only after exceptional rainfall events. Changes in the δ13C pelagic baseline mirrored mean water temperature (0-50 m seasonal changes. Similarly to Lake Geneva, they were likely driven by changes in carbon sources for phytoplankton growth during stratification and vertical water mixing. Differently from what observed for the other taxa, the role of littoral food sources was far from negligible (>50% for diaptomids during winter and spring. We do not know however, whether such a result could be at least partially attributed to the heavy infestation by algal epibionts, or was consequent to the fact that these zooplankters may carry littoral carbon to the pelagial via horizontal migration. In winter, Bythotrephes longimanus was able to prey on Cyclops, thus occupying a trophic position comparable to that of planktivorous fish. Such a result confirms an ability of this visual, invertebrate predator to compete with young zooplanktivorous fish

  8. Seasonal PCB bioaccumulation in an arctic marine ecosystem: a model analysis incorporating lipid dynamics, food-web productivity and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laender, Frederik De; Oevelen, Dick Van; Frantzen, Sylvia; Middelburg, Jack J; Soetaert, Karline

    2010-01-01

    Primary production and species' lipid contents in Arctic ecosystems are notoriously seasonal. Additionally, seasonal migration patterns of fish may alter prey availability and thus diet. Taking the southern Barents Sea as a study region and PCBs as model contaminants, we examined to what extent each of these factors cause bioaccumulation in fish to change throughout the year. Data on physiology and standing stocks of multiple trophic levels were used to estimated season-specific carbon budgets and by inference also corresponding values for food ingestion and production of cod, capelin, and herring. When combining these values with Arctic lipid dynamics for bioaccumulation model parameter setting, we predicted bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) that were in good agreement with BAFs for cod and capelin observed between 1998 and 2008. BAFs in all fish were 10 times lower in summer than in spring and fall/winter and were mainly driven by lipid dynamics. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs: increase in BAF per unit increase in trophic level as derived from our carbon budgets) were highest for PCB 153 during spring (2.3-2.4) and lowest for PCB 52 in summer and fall/winter (1.5-1.6) and were driven by seasonal shifts in trophic level and lipid dynamics.

  9. "Food company sponsors are kind, generous and cool": (mis)conceptions of junior sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2011-09-05

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P return the favour to sponsors by buying their products (P marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.

  10. From tastes great to cool: children's food marketing and the rise of the symbolic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Juliet B; Ford, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Children's exposure to food marketing has exploded in recent years, along with rates of obesity and overweight. Children of color and low-income children are disproportionately at risk for both marketing exposure and becoming overweight. Comprehensive reviews of the literature show that advertising is effective in changing children's food preferences and diets. This paper surveys the scope and scale of current marketing practices, and focuses on the growing use of symbolic appeals that are central in food brands to themes such as finding an identity and feeling powerful and in control. These themes are so potent because they are central to children in their development and constitution of self. The paper concludes that reduction of exposure to marketing will be a central part of any successful anti-obesity strategy.

  11. A Buffer Stock Model to Ensure Price Stabilization and Availability of Seasonal Staple Food under Free Trade Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The price volatility and scarcity have been became a great problem in the distribution system of seasonal staple food produced by agro industry. It has salient supply disparity during the harvest and planting season. This condition could cause disadvantages to the stakeholders such as producer, wholesaler, consumer, and government. This paper proposes a buffer stock model under free trade considerations to substitute quantitative restrictions and tariffs by indirect market intervention instrument. The instrument was developed through buffer stock scheme in accordance with warehouse receipt system (WRS and collateral management system. The public service institution for staple food buffer stock (BLUPP is proposed as wholesaler’s competitor with main responsibility to ensure price stabilization and availability of staple food. Multi criteria decision making is formulated as single objective a mixed integer non linear programming (MINLP. The result shows that the proposed model can be applied to solve the distribution problem and can give more promising outcome than its counterpart, the direct market intervention instrument.

  12. Evaluation of a Novel Single-administration Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Seasonally Varied Dietary Patterns among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca K; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Christian, Parul; Leclerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S F; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Novel dietary assessment methods are needed to study chronic disease risk in agrarian cultures where food availability is highly seasonal. In 16,320 rural Nepalese women, we tested a novel food frequency questionnaire, administered once, to assess past 7-day intake and usual frequency of intake throughout the year for year-round foods and when in season for seasonal foods. Spearman rank correlations between usual and past 7-day intakes were 0.12-0.85 and weighted kappa statistics, representing chance-corrected agreement, were 0.10-0.80, with better agreement for frequently consumed foods. The questionnaire performed well, but may require refinement for settings of extremely low dietary diversity.

  13. Productivity, Disturbance and Ecosystem Size Have No Influence on Food Chain Length in Seasonally Connected Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Warfe, Danielle M.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Pettit, Neil E.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Pusey, Bradley J.; Bunn, Stuart E.; Davies, Peter M.; Douglas, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of produ...

  14. Modelling of resuspension, seasonality and losses during food processing. First report of the VAMP terrestrial working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This is the first report of the Terrestrial Working Group of the Coordinated Research Programme. ''The validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments and the acquisition of data for that purpose''. The programme seeks to use information on the environmental behaviour of radionuclides available after the Chernobyl accident to test the reliability of assessment models. The models themselves are useful for assessing the radiological impact of all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. This report contains reviews of three topics: resuspension of radioactive particles; removal of radionuclides during food processing; and seasonality of radioactive contamination of food. The three reviews have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Seasonality intensification and long-term winter cooling as a part of the Late Pliocene climate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stefan; Fauquette, Séverine; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Uhl, Dieter; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Mosbrugger, Volker

    2006-01-01

    A mutual climatic range method is applied to the Mediterranean marine pollen record of Semaforo (Vrica section, Calabria, Italy) covering the period from ∼2.46 Ma to ∼2.11 Ma. The method yields detailed information on summer, annual and winter temperatures and on precipitation during the nine obliquity and precession-controlled 'glacial' periods (marine isotope stages 96 to 80) and eight 'interglacial' periods (marine isotope stages 95 to 81) characterising this time interval. The reconstruction reveals higher temperatures of at least 2.8 °C in mean annual and 2.2 °C in winter temperatures, and 500 mm in precipitation during the 'interglacials' as compared to the present-day climate in the study area. During the 'glacials', temperatures are generally lower as compared to the present-day climate in the region, but precipitation is equivalent. Along the consecutive 'interglacials', a trend toward a reduction in annual and winter temperatures by more than 2.3 °C, and toward a higher seasonality is observed. Along the consecutive 'glacials', a trend toward a strong reduction in all temperature parameters of at least 1.6 °C is reconstructed. Climatic amplitudes of 'interglacial-glacial' transitions increase from the older to the younger cycles for summer and annual temperatures. The cross-spectral analyses suggest obliquity related warm/humid-cold/dry 'interglacial-glacial' cycles which are superimposed by precession related warm/dry- cold/humid cycles. A time displacement in the development of temperatures and precipitation is indicated for the obliquity band by temperatures generally leading precipitation change at ∼4 kyr, and on the precession band of ∼9.6 kyr in maximum.

  16. Seasonal changes in food uptake by the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond: Evidence from C and N stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenlong; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Shin, Paul K. S.; Wang, Fang

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond, including particulate organic matter (POM), macroalgae, benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod. The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A. japonicus. The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro- or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions. The sea cucumber A. japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions. Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A. japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation, with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%. The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode, POM, benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%, 6.3% -22.2%, 2.8%-6.5%, and 2.8%-4.2%, respectively. Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A. japonicus. Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A. japonicus, particularly for optimizing the food environment of A. japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  17. Study of the seasonal variation in the exchanges of food labelled with 198Au from a worker bee to a queen (Apis mellifica ligustica S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges from a worker giver to a queen receiver were quantified throughout the year. 4 days old workers distribute great amounts of food to queens, about 74% in average, but variations are low. On the other hand workers of unknown age distribute amounts that are less high and varying in terms of the season. A parallelism exists between percentage variations of food shared by workers of unknown age and the seasonal cycle of the 9-oxodec-2-enoic acid content of queens [fr

  18. Relationship between protein molecular structural makeup and metabolizable protein supply to dairy cattle from new cool-season forage corn cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Khan, Nazir A.; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-02-01

    Protein solubility, ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility are strongly related to their inherent molecular makeup. This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate protein digestion in the rumen and intestine of dairy cattle, and estimate the content of truly metabolizable protein (MP) in newly developed cool-season forage corn cultivars. The second objective was to quantify protein inherent molecular structural characteristics using advance molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR) and correlate it to protein metabolic characteristics. Six new cool-season corn cultivars, including 3 Pioneer (PNR) and 3 Hyland (HL), coded as PNR-7443R, PNR-P7213R, PNR-7535R, HL-SR06, HL-SR22, HL-BAXXOS-RR, were evaluated in the present study. The metabolic characteristics, MP supply to dairy cattle, and energy synchronization properties were modeled by two protein evaluation models, namely, the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Both models estimated significant (P contents of microbial protein (MCP) synthesis and truly absorbable rumen undegraded protein (ARUP) among the cultivars. The NRC-2001 model estimated significant (P content and degraded protein balance (DPB) among the cultivars. The contents MCP, ARUP and MP were higher (P < 0.05) for cultivar HL-SR06, resulting in the lowest (P < 0.05) DPB. However, none of the cultivars reached the optimal target hourly effective degradability ratio [25 g N g/kg organic matter (OM)], demonstrating N deficiency in the rumen. There were non-significant differences among the cultivars in molecular-spectral intensities of protein. The amide I/II ratio had a significant correlation with ARUP (r = - 0.469; P < 0.001) and absorbable endogenous protein (AECPNRC) (P < 0.001; r = 0.612). Similarly, amide-II area had a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.299; P < 0.001) with RUP and ARUP, and with AECPNRC (P < 0.001; r = 0.411). Except total digestible nutrients and AECPNRC, the amide-I area did not show significant

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of a Clostridium botulinum Isolate from Water Used for Cooling at a Plant Producing Low-Acid Canned Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavanna, Uma; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Timme, Ruth; Datta, Shomik; Schoen, Brianna; Brown, Eric W; Zink, Donald; Sharma, Shashi K

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a pathogen of concern for low-acid canned foods. Here we report draft genomes of a neurotoxin-producing C. botulinum strain isolated from water samples used for cooling low-acid canned foods at a canning facility. The genome sequence confirmed that this strain belonged to C. botulinum serotype B1, albeit with major differences, including thousands of unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) compared to other genomes of the same serotype.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Clostridium botulinum Isolate from Water Used for Cooling at a Plant Producing Low-Acid Canned Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanna, Uma; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Timme, Ruth; Datta, Shomik; Schoen, Brianna; Brown, Eric W.; Zink, Donald; Sharma, Shashi K.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a pathogen of concern for low-acid canned foods. Here we report draft genomes of a neurotoxin-producing C.?botulinum strain isolated from water samples used for cooling low-acid canned foods at a canning facility. The genome sequence confirmed that this strain belonged to C.?botulinum serotype B1, albeit with major differences, including thousands of unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) compared to other genomes of the same serotype.

  1. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G

    2011-10-01

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P CSR treatment reduced the probability (P CSR and RP treatments in the stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P CSR treatments. Results show that time spent by cattle near pasture streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby decreasing risks of sediment and nutrient loading of pasture streams even during periods of increased BGTHI.

  2. Evaluation of surface water dynamics for water-food security in seasonal wetlands, north-central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hiyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use of wetlands is important for food security in various regions. However, land-use changes in wetland areas could alter the water cycle and the ecosystem. To conserve the water environments of wetlands, care is needed when introducing new cropping systems. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the water dynamics in the case of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems to the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs in north-central Namibia. We first investigated seasonal changes in surface water coverage by using satellite remote sensing data. We also assessed the effect of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems on evapotranspiration in the CSSWs region. For the former investigation, we used MODIS and AMSR-E satellite remote sensing data. These data showed that at the beginning of the wet season, surface water appears from the southern (lower part and then expands to the northern (higher part of the CSSWs. For the latter investigation, we used data obtained by the classical Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB method at an experimental field site established in September 2012 on the Ogongo campus, University of Namibia. This analysis showed the importance of water and vegetation conditions when introducing mixed-cropping to the region.

  3. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  4. Optimal foraging in seasonal environments: implications for residency of Australian flying foxes in food-subsidized urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, David J; Restif, Olivier; Eby, Peggy; Plowright, Raina K

    2018-05-05

    Bats provide important ecosystem services such as pollination of native forests; they are also a source of zoonotic pathogens for humans and domestic animals. Human-induced changes to native habitats may have created more opportunities for bats to reside in urban settings, thus decreasing pollination services to native forests and increasing opportunities for zoonotic transmission. In Australia, fruit bats ( Pteropus spp. flying foxes) are increasingly inhabiting urban areas where they feed on anthropogenic food sources with nutritional characteristics and phenology that differ from native habitats. We use optimal foraging theory to investigate the relationship between bat residence time in a patch, the time it takes to search for a new patch (simulating loss of native habitat) and seasonal resource production. We show that it can be beneficial to reside in a patch, even when food productivity is low, as long as foraging intensity is low and the expected searching time is high. A small increase in the expected patch searching time greatly increases the residence time, suggesting nonlinear associations between patch residence and loss of seasonal native resources. We also found that sudden increases in resource consumption due to an influx of new bats has complex effects on patch departure times that again depend on expected searching times and seasonality. Our results suggest that the increased use of urban landscapes by bats may be a response to new spatial and temporal configurations of foraging opportunities. Given that bats are reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases, our results provide a framework to study the effects of foraging ecology on disease dynamics.One contribution of 14 to a theme isssue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Effects of Seasonal and Spatial Differences in Food Webs on Mercury Concentrations in Fish in the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, C.; Bemis, B. E.; Wankel, S. D.; Rawlik, P. S.; Lange, T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

    2002-05-01

    A clear understanding of the aquatic food web is essential for determining the entry points and subsequent biomagnification pathways of contaminants such as methyl-mercury (MeHg) in the Everglades. Anthropogenic changes in nutrients can significantly affect the entry points of MeHg by changing food web structure from one dominated by algal productivity to one dominated by macrophytes and associated microbial activity. These changes in the base of the food web can also influence the distribution of animals within the ecosystem, and subsequently the bioaccumulation of MeHg up the food chain. As part of several collaborations with local and other federal agencies, more than 7000 Everglades samples were collected in 1995-99, and analysed for d13C and d15N. Many organisms were also analysed for d34S, gut contents, total Hg, and MeHg. Carbon isotopes effectively distinguish between two main types of food webs: ones where algae is the dominant base of the food web, which are characteristic of relatively pristine marsh sites with long hydroperiods, and ones where macrophyte debris appears to be a significant source of nutrients, which are apparently characteristic of shorter hydroperiod sites, and nutrient-impacted marshes and canals. Many organisms show significant (5-12%) spatial and temporal differences in d13C and d15N values across the Everglades. These differences may reflect site and season-specific differences in the relative importance of algae vs. macrophyte debris to the food web. However, there is a lack of evidence that these sites otherwise differ in food chain length (as determined by d15N values). This conclusion is generally supported by gut contents and mercury data. Furthermore, there are no statistically significant differences between the Delta d15N (predator-algae) values at pristine marsh, nutrient-impacted marsh, or canal sites. The main conclusions from this preliminary comparison of gut contents, stable isotope, and Hg data are: (1) there is

  6. Milk from cows grazing on cool-season pastures provides an enhanced profile of bioactive fatty acids compared to those grazed on a monoculture of pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Egolf, Emily; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2017-02-15

    The demand for dairy products from grass-fed cows is driven, in part, by their more desirable fatty acid (FA) profile, containing more n-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) than conventionally produced dairy products. This study investigated the effects of pearl millet (PM) vs. cool-season pasture (CSP) on animal performance and milk FA in a grazing system. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a repeated measures design with four-week periods. Forage type had no effect on animal performance (estimated dry matter intake, milk production, fat, or protein). The contents of CLA and n-3 FA in a serving of whole milk (3.25% fat) increased when cows grazed CSP compared to PM. A serving of whole milk from cows grazing PM had a higher content of saturated FA and branched-chain FA. In conclusion, the contents of various bioactive FA were higher in milk fat of cows grazing a CSP compared to PM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua D. Schrecengost; John C. Kilgo; David Mallard; H. Scott Ray; Karl V. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005?...

  8. Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruno Nishimuro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a promising food component, which can prevent lifestyle related diseases. To understand the dietary intake of quercetin in the subjects of a population-based cohort study and in the Japanese population, we first determined the quercetin content in foods available in the market during June and July in or near a town in Hokkaido, Japan. Red leaf lettuce, asparagus, and onions contained high amounts of quercetin derivatives. We then estimated the daily quercetin intake by 570 residents aged 20–92 years old in the town using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The average and median quercetin intakes were 16.2 and 15.5 mg day−1, respectively. The quercetin intakes by men were lower than those by women; the quercetin intakes showed a low correlation with age in both men and women. The estimated quercetin intake was similar during summer and winter. Quercetin was mainly ingested from onions and green tea, both in summer and in winter. Vegetables, such as asparagus, green pepper, tomatoes, and red leaf lettuce, were good sources of quercetin in summer. Our results will help to elucidate the association between quercetin intake and risks of lifestyle-related diseases by further prospective cohort study and establish healthy dietary requirements with the consumption of more physiologically useful components from foods.

  9. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  10. Podolian ‘caciocavallo’ cheese: seasonal variations of food quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cosentino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Podolian breed cows, that give a milk with superb organoleptic qualities, were introduced from Ukraine in Italy during Barbarian invasions. The goodness of “Podolian Caciocavallo”, whose name results from the type of ageing of the cheese tied up together “to ride” on a horizontal baton, is due to the climatic conditions and to the rearing system of Podolian cows. It comes in rounded forms with a soft, creamy white consistency and with sweet taste and delicate flavour. After three seasoning months “caciocavallo” is already excellent to eat; as time goes by the texture becomes firmer, the colour tends to yellow ochre, and the cheese reaches perfection after about two-three years...

  11. Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, cool-season precipitation reconstructed from earlywood width of Abies concolor tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Díaz, J. Villanueva; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Castro, C. L.; Carillo, C.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Tree ring data are analyzed for a multicentury record of drought history in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (SSPM) of Baja California, Mexico. Climatic variation in the study area is of particular interest because the SSPM is a rich biotic environment at the southern limit of the California floristic province and the southern limit of the planetary jet stream. Future shifts in the jet stream would be expected to have amplified effect on this marginal environment. The study applies linear regression to tree ring indices of earlywood-width of Abies concolor to estimate a 353 year (1658-2010 C.E.) record of cool-season (October-April) precipitation, P, in SSPM. Time-nested regression models account for more than half the variance of grid point P in calibration periods of length 50-65 years. Cross-spectral analysis indicates strong tracking of observed P by the reconstruction over a broad range of frequencies. Robustness of the reconstruction is supported by synchrony of reconstructed P with tree ring variations in other tree species from SSPM. The reconstruction emphasizes the severity of the 1950s drought in a long-term context and the single-year intensity of droughts in the last decade: 2007 stands out as the driest reconstructed year, with a high percentage of missing rings in A. concolor. The reconstruction identifies the early twentieth century pluvial as the wettest epoch in the last 353 years in the SSPM. High-elevation tree species in SSPM may be especially well-suited to sensing snowpack-related moisture variations associated with a southerly branched jet stream and the types of weather systems active in the pluvial.

  12. Determination of a seasonal variation in the food exchanges between worker honeybees (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) by means of a radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douault, Philippe; Roger, Bernard; Pain, Janine

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges have been studied during the whole year between workers of unknown age and 4-days old workers. Variations exist between both groups. The mean percentage of shared food is 27% in the group of honeybees of unknown age and 40% in the group of 4-days old workers with respect to the initial intake of the giver. The effect of the season appears among workers of unknown are particularly [fr

  13. Seasonal Changes in Food Uptake by the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a Farm Pond: Evidence from C and N Stable Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhenlong; GAO Qinfeng; DONG Shuanglin; Paul K.S. Shin; WANG Fang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond,including particulate organic matter (POM),macroalgae,benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod.The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A.japonicus.The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro-or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions.The sea cucumber A.japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions.Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A.japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation,with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%.The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode,POM,benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%,6.3%-22.2%,2.8%-6.5%,and 2.8%-4.2%,respectively.Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A.japonicus.Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A.japonicus,particularly for optimizing the food environment of A.japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  14. Nesting season food habits of 4 species of Herons and Egrets at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the composition of nestling regurgitations collected during 3 breeding seasons, fish were the most important prey group for Great Egrets (Ardea alba: N = 200 nest-day samples; aggregate percent biomass [APB] = 73.4%), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula: N = 115; APB = 91.4%), and Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor. N = 68; APB = 97.3%). For Little Blue Herons (E. caerulerr. N = 57), grass shrimp (Palaemoneles paludosus; APB = 39.7%) ranked higher in overall importance than all fishes combined (APB = 36.5%). Dietary overlap, as measured by Schoener's Similarity Index, was greatest between Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons (77%) and lowest between Tricolored Herons and Little Blue Herons (30%). Diet diversity, as measured by Shannon's Index, was highest for Great Egrets (2.04), intermediate for Snowy Egrets (1.71) and Tricolored Herons (1.68), and lowest for Little Blue Herons (1.60). Great Egrets ate a wider variety of fish species and sizes, especially larger fishes, and more crayfish than the other species. Little Blue Herons ate fewer fish and more grass shrimp and insects, and ate smaller forage fishes than Tricolored Herons but similar-sized fish as Snowy Egrets. The coarse-scale trophic composition of Snowy Egret and Tricolored Heron diets did not differ significantly, but Tricolored Herons ate larger forage fishes than Snowy Egrets. Pronounced interannual and intercolony variation in diet composition suggested that Great Egrets and Little Blue Herons switched prey types as hydrologic conditions and habitat availability changed. Conversely, lack of such variation suggested that Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons adjusted their foraging tactics to ensure contin-ued encounters with preferred prey despite changing habitat conditions. These results are generally consistent with other published data, help confirm some generalizations about foraging strategies and patterns of niche differentiation among these ecologically similar species, and have implications for

  15. The grey mouse lemur uses season-dependent fat or protein sparing strategies to face chronic food restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During moderate calorie restriction (CR the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression or summering torpor avoidance. We investigated body composition, whole body protein turnover, and daily energy expenditure (DEE, during a graded (40 and 80% 35-day CR in short-days (winter; SD40 and SD80, respectively and long-days (summer; LD40 and LD80, respectively acclimated animals. LD40 animals showed no change in fat mass (FM but a 12% fat free mass (FFM reduction. Protein balance being positive after CR, the FFM loss was early and rapid. The 25% DEE reduction, in LD40 group was mainly explained by FFM changes. LD80 animals showed a steady body mass loss and were excluded from the CR trial at day 22, reaching a survival-threatened body mass. No data were available for this group. SD40 animals significantly decreased their FM level by 21%, but maintained FFM. Protein sparing was achieved through a 35 and 39% decrease in protein synthesis and catabolism (protein turnover, respectively, overall maintaining nitrogen balance. The 21% reduction in energy requirement was explained by the 30% nitrogen flux drop but also by torpor as DEE FFM-adjusted remained 13% lower compared to ad-libitum. SD80 animals were unable to maintain energy and nitrogen balances, losing both FM and FFM. Thus summering mouse lemurs equilibrate energy balance by a rapid loss of active metabolic mass without using torpor, whereas wintering animals spare protein and energy through increased torpor expression. Both strategies have direct fitness implication: 1 to maintain activities at a lower body size during the mating season and 2 to preserve an optimal wintering muscle mass and function.

  16. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  17. Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padanillay C. Prabu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.

  18. Seasonal changes in food quantity and quality of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus: a bioassay approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Dutz, Jörg; Klein Breteler, W.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the food quantity and quality over a seasonal cycle for the development and egg production of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus, using a bioassay approach. Seston was sampled from December to October from a well-mixed water column of the Mar......We evaluated the food quantity and quality over a seasonal cycle for the development and egg production of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus, using a bioassay approach. Seston was sampled from December to October from a well-mixed water column...... with the seston from the spring bloom in March-April. The juveniles of both species were able to complete their development only in spring experiments. A multiple regression analyses and comparison to a good-quality standard food of the same concentration suggested that, in an annual scale, the egg production...

  19. The foraging behavior of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata in a forested enclosure: Effects of nutrient composition, energy and its seasonal variation on the consumption of natural plant foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Firoj JAMAN, Michael A. HUFFMAN, Hiroyuki TAKEMOTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wild, primate foraging behaviors are related to the diversity and nutritional properties of food, which are affected by seasonal variation. The goal of environmental enrichment is to stimulate captive animals to exhibit similar foraging behavior of their wild counterparts, e.g. to extend foraging time. We conducted a 12-month study on the foraging behavior of Japanese macaques in a semi-naturally forested enclosure to understand how they use both provisioned foods and naturally available plant foods and what are the nutritional criteria of their consumption of natural plants. We recorded time spent feeding on provisioned and natural plant foods and collected the plant parts ingested of their major plant food species monthly, when available. We conducted nutritional analysis (crude protein, crude lipid, neutral detergent fiber-‘NDF’, ash and calculated total non-structural carbohydrate – ‘TNC’ and total energy of those food items. Monkeys spent 47% of their feeding time foraging on natural plant species. The consumption of plant parts varied significantly across seasons. We found that leaf items were consumed in months when crude protein, crude protein-to-NDF ratio, TNC and total energy were significantly higher and NDF was significantly lower, fruit/nut items in months when crude protein and TNC were significantly higher and crude lipid content was significantly lower, and bark items in months when TNC and total energy were higher and crude lipid content was lower. This preliminary investigation showed that the forested enclosure allowed troop members to more fully express their species typical flexible behavior by challenging them to adjust their foraging behavior to seasonal changes of plant item diversity and nutritional content, also providing the possibility for individuals to nutritionally enhance their diet [Current Zoology 56 (2: 198–208, 2010].

  20. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  1. STRATEGIC ALLIANCE AND STRATEGIC PLANNING EFFECT TO COMPANY PERFORMANCE IN CREATING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE (STUDY CASE AT INDOFOOD CBP SUKSES MAKMUR COMPANY - FOOD SEASONING DIVISION )

    OpenAIRE

    Ardiyanto, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This research head for analyze the effect of inter variable to answered set problems how is strategic alliance and strategic planning to improve company performance for create competitive advantage. This research gives theoritic and managerial implication concern pace which have to take by PT. Indofood CBP Sukses Makmur Food Seasoning Division to improve their company performance for create competitive advantage which got from product strategic alliance and strategic planning. Population in t...

  2. Potential for growth of Clostridium perfringens from spores in scrapple during cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrapple is an ethnic food produced/consumed almost exclusively in the Middle Atlantic states of the U.S. It is typically made from ground pork trimmings, seasonings, cornmeal, and flour. This mixture is cooked and then shaped into loaves that are cooled and subsequently stored refrigerated until sl...

  3. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  4. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, Jamie [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of central, ducted variable-capacity heat pump systems has come on the market, promising very high cooling and heating efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard fixed-capacity systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they vary their cooling and heating output over a wide range (approximately 40% - 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying 'on' for 60% - 100% more hours per day compared to fixed -capacity systems. Experiments in this research examined the performance of 2-ton and 3-ton fixed- and variable-capacity systems and the impacts of system oversizing.

  5. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Simpson, Emma; White, Martin

    2011-05-23

    Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9%) of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements), the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements). Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence of food and drink advertisements. Fewer differences were seen in

  6. Wild foods (plants and animals in the green famine belt of Ethiopia: Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daie Ferede Guyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA, a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5 % and 9 % of, gross and, net food available from all sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2 = 0.467 was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r = 0.174. Wild vegetables were the most collected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4 % of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6 % reported "reduced source of wild foods" as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2 % than the non-indigenous (34.1 % ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion: From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and

  7. Cooling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction to the general concepts of cooling of charged particle beams, some specific cooling methods are discussed, namely stochastic, electron and laser cooling. The treatment concentrates on the physical ideas of the cooling methods and only very crude derivations of cooling times are given. At the end three other proposed cooling schemes are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  8. Wild foods (plants and animals) in the green famine belt of Ethiopia:Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daie Ferede Guyu; Wolde-Tsadik Muluneh

    2016-01-01

    Background:The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA), a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5%and 9%of, gross and, net food available from al sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2=0.467) was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r=0.174). Wild vegetables were the most col ected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4%of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6%) reported"reduced source of wild foods"as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2%) than the non-indigenous (34.1%) ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion:From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and are likely to continue to

  9. Detection of irradiation history of seasoning mixes composed of dried fish and its extract. TL analysis and application considerations for mineral separation from foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Seiko; Yunoki, Syunji

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the thermoluminescence (TL) method (EN1788) was used to detect the irradiation treatment of Japanese traditional seasoning mixes mainly composed of dried fish (bonito etc.) and its extract. The Glow 1 curves of minerals separated from the seasoning mixes using a heavy liquid showed significant single peaks at temperatures between 146.5degC and 175.4degC. The peaks are typical for irradiated food, despite the samples being not irradiated. The Glow 2 curves showed single peaks at temperatures higher than that of the Glow 1 curves (175.4degC to 217.9degC). The peak temperature of Glow 2 is usually lower than that of Glow 1 because the peaks from irradiated silicate minerals shift to higher temperatures with time. The TL glow ratios (Glow1/Glow2) calculated in the temperature ranges (167-232degC) defined by means of irradiated TLD-100 were above 0.1, suggesting that the mineral samples were contaminated with organic materials such as protein or bio-inorganic materials such as bone. In order to remove the possible contaminants, acid hydrolysis and subsequent heavy liquid separation were employed. The minerals thus obtained showed no Glow 1 peaks. A significant peak was observed at 213degC instead of peaks at lower temperature for the case of irradiated seasoning mixes (2.45 kGy). These results suggest that the TL method may provide false positives for the Japanese traditional seasoning mixes because of luminescence from some components other than silicate minerals. It appears that EN1788 needs some modification to precisely detect food irradiation for the seasoning mixes. (author)

  10. Fate of Fertilizer-Derived N Applied to Enhance Rice Straw Decomposition in a Paddy Field during the Fallow Season under Cool Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Takakai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the fate of nitrogen (N derived from fertilizer (fertilizer-derived N applied to a paddy field after rice harvesting to promote rice straw decomposition during the fallow season, and to determine its effect on soil N fertility in northern Japan. A frame containing soil mixed with rice straw and 15N-labeled fertilizer (4.3 g N m−2 ammonium sulfate [AS] or lime-nitrogen [LN] was placed into a paddy field on a gray lowland soil during the fallow season (October–April, and the following rice-growing season (May–September. Before cultivation (April, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in soil + straw were higher for LN (55–72% than for AS (41–63%. At the harvesting stage (September, the percentages of fertilizer-derived N in plants were significantly higher for LN (4.9–6.2% than for AS (3.4–5.3%, and the percentages in soil were also significantly higher for LN (42–61% than for AS (31–38%. This could be attributed to the nitrification inhibitory effect of LN and result in the suppression of N losses via leaching. Consequently, fertilizer-derived N could contribute to the maintenance of soil N fertility, and this effect could be higher for LN than AS.

  11. Coping strategies for food insecurity among adolescent girls during the lean season in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Roshita, Airin; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty

    2016-07-01

    One in eight people suffer from chronic hunger, leading to an insecure food situation. Chronic hunger mostly occurs in developing countries and includes adolescent girls. Our qualitative study, with data collected in December 2012, provided the results of an exploration of the experiences and strategies implemented by fifteen adolescent girls who tried to cope with their condition of living in food-insecure families. The age of the girls ranged from 10 to 19 years. Their coping strategies were grouped into self-initiated and parent-initiated strategies. Self-initiated coping strategies that were the girls' own initiatives included eating only rice without any vegetables or side dish, eating less-desirable food, reducing portion size, skipping meals, saving pocket money and earning money to buy food. The parent-initiated coping strategies that were initiated by the parents and followed by the girls included selling their own field produce and livestock, asking for food, borrowing food and storing maize for 6 months up to 1 year. These results show that adolescent girls living in food-insecure areas implement several coping strategies in severe conditions, which parents may not be aware of, and such conditions may compromise their growth and health. The acknowledgement of such coping strategies and the girls' food insecurity condition can lead to a useful and suitable food insecurity alleviation programme for the girls and their families.

  12. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  13. Final Report: Cooling Seasonal Energy and Peak Demand Impacts of Improved Duct Insulation on Fixed-Capacity (SEER 13) and Variable-Capacity (SEER 22) Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, C. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Nigusse, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of full variable-capacity, central, ducted air-conditioning (AC) and heat pump units has come on the market, and they promise to deliver increased cooling (and heating) efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40% to 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying “on” for up to twice as many hours per day compared to fixed-capacity systems of the same nominal capacity. The heating and cooling capacity is varied by adjusting the indoor fan air flow rate, compressor, and refrigerant flow rate as well as the outdoor unit fan air flow rate. Note that two-stage AC or heat pump systems were not evaluated in this research effort. The term dwell is used to refer to the amount of time distributed air spends inside ductwork during space-conditioning cycles. Longer run times mean greater dwell time and therefore greater exposure to conductive gains and losses.

  14. Final Report: Cooling Seasonal Energy and Peak Demand Impacts of Improved Duct Insulation on Fixed-Capacity (SEER 13) and Variable-Capacity (SEER 22) Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, C. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Nigusse, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-08

    A new generation of full variable-capacity, central, ducted air-conditioning (AC) and heat pump units has come on the market, and they promise to deliver increased cooling (and heating) efficiency. They are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and then cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, they can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40% to 118% of nominal full capacity), thus staying “on” for up to twice as many hours per day compared to fixed-capacity systems of the same nominal capacity. The heating and cooling capacity is varied by adjusting the indoor fan air flow rate, compressor, and refrigerant flow rate as well as the outdoor unit fan air flow rate. Note that two-stage AC or heat pump systems were not evaluated in this research effort. The term dwell is used to refer to the amount of time distributed air spends inside ductwork during space-conditioning cycles. Longer run times mean greater dwell time and therefore greater exposure to conductive gains and losses.

  15. Quality of the forage apparently consumed by beef calves in natural grassland under fertilization and oversown with cool season forage species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Adelaide Gomes Elejalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the forage apparently consumed by steers in a natural grassland on region of Campanha, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, subjected or not to different inputs: NP - natural pasture without inputs; FNP - fertilized natural pasture and INP - improved natural grassland with fertilization and over-seeded with cultivated winter species. Three Angus steers testers and a variable number of regulator animals per experimental unit were utilized in order to maintain 13 kg of DM/100 kg of live weight (LW as forage allowance. One time at each season, hand plucking samples were performed along the daily grazing time simulating forage harvested by the animals. The collected samples after drying and grind were submitted to chemical analysis to determine the forage quality. Except in winter and spring, the values of neutral detergent fiber were higher than the critical value of 550 g/kg of DM, which could limit forage intake, demonstrating that the values of forage on offer provided (15.6; 13.7; 13.5; 15.8 kg of DM/100 kg of LW/day in summer, autumn, winter and spring, respectively were not restrictive to intake. The oversowing of winter cultivated species or fertilization positively alter the degradable fiber content. The seasons had marked influence on the chemical composition of forage apparently consumed; positively increasing some fractions of forage chemical composition in the seasons in which native or cultivated winter species increased their participation. The forage chemical composition is the determining factor in animal performance in natural pasture.

  16. Seasons, food supply and nutrition in Africa : contributions to a workshop held in Wageningen on December 14, 1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hartog, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Seasonality research can offer an explanation for the persistent poverty in the rural areas of Third World countries. Besides, it offers a framework in which research questions originating from a variety of disciplines can be included. This book contains five lectures presented in December 1988 at a

  17. Cooling and Heating Season Impacts of Right-Sizing of Fixed- and Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps With Attic and Indoor Ductwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, Jamie [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-24

    A new generation of full variable-capacity air-conditioning (A/C) and heat pump units has come on the market that promises to deliver very high cooling and heating efficiency. The units are controlled differently than standard single-capacity (fixed-capacity) systems. Instead of cycling on at full capacity and cycling off when the thermostat is satisfied, the new units can vary their capacity over a wide range (approximately 40%–118% of nominal full capacity) and stay on for 60%–100% more hours per day than the fixed-capacity systems depending on load-to-capacity ratios. Two-stage systems were not evaluated in this research effort.

  18. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  19. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9% of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements, the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements. Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence

  20. CCAA seasonal forecasting

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrating meteorological and indigenous knowledge-based seasonal climate forecasts in ..... Explanation is based on spiritual and social values. Taught by .... that provided medicine and food became the subject of strict rules and practices ...

  1. Plankton food web and its seasonal dynamics in a large monsoonal estuary (Cochin backwaters, India)-significance of mesohaline region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sooria, P.M.; Jyothibabu, R; Anjusha, A.; Vineetha, G.; Vinita, J.; Lallu, K.R; Paul, M.; Jagadeesan, L.

    The paper presents the ecology and dynamics of plankton food web in the Cochin backwaters (CBW), the largest monsoonal estuary along the west coast of India. The data source is a time series measurement carried out in the CBW during the Spring...

  2. Liquid desiccant dehumidification and regeneration process to meet cooling and freshwater needs of desert greenhouses

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2016-04-19

    Agriculture accounts for ~70% of freshwater usage worldwide. Seawater desalination alone cannot meet the growing needs for irrigation and food production, particularly in hot, desert environments. Greenhouse cultivation of high-value crops uses just a fraction of freshwater per unit of food produced when compared with open field cultivation. However, desert greenhouse producers face three main challenges: freshwater supply, plant nutrient supply, and cooling of the greenhouse. The common practice of evaporative cooling for greenhouses consumes large amounts of fresh water. In Saudi Arabia, the most common greenhouse cooling schemes are fresh water-based evaporative cooling, often using fossil groundwater or energy-intensive desalinated water, and traditional refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling, largely powered by the burning of fossil fuels. The coastal deserts have ambient conditions that are seasonally too humid to support adequate evaporative cooling, necessitating additional energy consumption in the dehumidification process of refrigeration-based cooling. This project evaluates the use of a combined-system liquid desiccant dehumidifier and membrane distillation unit that can meet the dual needs of cooling and freshwater supply for a greenhouse in a hot and humid environment. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  4. Essential versus potentially toxic dietary substances: A seasonal comparison of essential fatty acids and methyl mercury concentrations in the planktonic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, Martin [Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research Division, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 505, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: martin.kainz@donau-uni.ac.at; Arts, Michael T. [Water and Aquatic Sciences Research Program, University of Victoria, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3020, Stn. CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3N5 (Canada); Mazumder, Asit [Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research Division, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 505, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    We investigated seasonal variability of essential fatty acids (EFA) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in four size categories of planktonic organisms in two coastal lakes. MeHg concentrations increased significantly with increasing plankton size and were independent of plankton taxonomy. However, total EFA increased from seston to mesozooplankton, but decreased in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton size-class. Analysis of EFA patterns revealed that linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids increased with increasing zooplankton size, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton was generally lower than in seston. This consistent pattern demonstrates that cladocerans, although bioaccumulating MeHg, convey less DHA than similar-sized copepods to their consumers. It is thus evident that fish consuming cladocerans have restricted access to DHA, yet unrestricted dietary access to MeHg. Thus, the structure of planktonic food webs clearly affects the composition of EFA and regulates dietary supply of these essential nutrients, while MeHg bioaccumulates with increasing zooplankton size. - The structure of planktonic food webs largely regulates the composition and dietary supply of essential fatty acids, while MeHg bioaccumulates with zooplankton size.

  5. Essential versus potentially toxic dietary substances: A seasonal comparison of essential fatty acids and methyl mercury concentrations in the planktonic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Martin; Arts, Michael T.; Mazumder, Asit

    2008-01-01

    We investigated seasonal variability of essential fatty acids (EFA) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in four size categories of planktonic organisms in two coastal lakes. MeHg concentrations increased significantly with increasing plankton size and were independent of plankton taxonomy. However, total EFA increased from seston to mesozooplankton, but decreased in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton size-class. Analysis of EFA patterns revealed that linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids increased with increasing zooplankton size, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the cladoceran-dominated macrozooplankton was generally lower than in seston. This consistent pattern demonstrates that cladocerans, although bioaccumulating MeHg, convey less DHA than similar-sized copepods to their consumers. It is thus evident that fish consuming cladocerans have restricted access to DHA, yet unrestricted dietary access to MeHg. Thus, the structure of planktonic food webs clearly affects the composition of EFA and regulates dietary supply of these essential nutrients, while MeHg bioaccumulates with increasing zooplankton size. - The structure of planktonic food webs largely regulates the composition and dietary supply of essential fatty acids, while MeHg bioaccumulates with zooplankton size

  6. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  7. Copepods in ice-covered seas—Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. J.; Huntley, M.

    1991-07-01

    While a seasonal ice cover limits light penetration into both polar seas for up to ten months a year, its presence is not entirely negative. The mixed layer under sea ice will generally be shallower than in open water at the same latitude and season. Ice forms a substrate on which primary production can be concentrated, a condition which contrasts with the generally dilute nutritional conditions which prevail in the remaining ocean. The combination of a shallow, generally stable mixed layer with a close proximity to abundant food make the under-ice zone a suitable nursery for both pelagic and benthic species, an upside-down benthos for opportunistic substrate browsers, and a rich feeding environment for species often considered to be neritic in temperate environments. Where the ice cover is not continuous there may be a retreating ice edge that facilitates the seasonal production of phytoplankton primarily through increased stability from the melt water. Ice edge blooms similarly encourage secondary production by pelagic animals. Pseudocalanus acuspes, which may be the most abundant and productive copepod in north polar latitudes, initiates growth at the start of the "spring bloom" of epontic algae, reaching sexual maturity at breakup or slightly before. In the Southern Hemisphere, the small neritic copepod Paralabidocera antarctica and adult krill have been observed to utilize ice algae. Calanus hyperboreus breeds in the dark season at depth and its buoyant eggs, slowly developing on the ascent, reach the under-ice layer in April as nauplii ready to benefit from the primary production there. On the other hand, C. glacialis may initiate ontogenetic migrations and reproduction in response to increased erosion of ice algae due to solar warming and melting at the ice-water interface. While the same species in a phytoplankton bloom near the ice edge reproduces actively, those under still-consolidated ice nearby can have immature gonads. Diel migration and diel feeding

  8. Seasonal plankton variability in Chilean Patagonia fjords: Carbon flow through the pelagic food web of Aysen Fjord and plankton dynamics in the Moraleda Channel basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, H. E.; Castro, L.; Daneri, G.; Iriarte, J. L.; Silva, N.; Vargas, C. A.; Giesecke, R.; Sánchez, N.

    2011-03-01

    recognizable particles contributing to the particulate organic carbon flux. The topographic constriction sills partially modulated the exchange of oceanic waters (Subantarctic Surface Water) with freshwater river discharges along the Moraleda Channel. This exchange affects salinity and nutrient availability and, thus, the plankton structure. The north microbasin was dominated by a seasonal alternation of the classical (spring) and microbial (winter) food webs. However, in the south microbasin, productivity was low and the system was dominated year-round by large inputs of glacier-derived, silt-rich freshwater carrying predominantly small-sized diatoms ( Skeletonema spp) and bacteria. When superimposed upon this scenario, highly variable (seasonal) solar radiation and photoperiods could exacerbate north-south differences along Moraleda Channel.

  9. The State-of-the-Art for Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    Ventilative cooling for buildings may lead to cooling energy savings and improvements in thermal comfort, especially in seasonally temperate and warm climates. But, codes and regulations need to better quantify its benefits.......Ventilative cooling for buildings may lead to cooling energy savings and improvements in thermal comfort, especially in seasonally temperate and warm climates. But, codes and regulations need to better quantify its benefits....

  10. Cool colored coating and phase change materials as complementary cooling strategies for building cooling load reduction in tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Jiawei; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan; Zingre, Kishor T.; Yang, Jinglei; Wan, Man Pun; Yang, En-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cool colored coating and PCM are two complementary passive cooling strategies. • A PCM cool colored coating system is developed. • The coating reduces cooling energy by 8.5% and is effective yearly in tropical Singapore. - Abstract: Cool colored coating and phase change materials (PCM) are two passive cooling strategies often used separately in many studies and applications. This paper investigated the integration of cool colored coating and PCM for building cooling through experimental and numerical studies. Results showed that cool colored coating and PCM are two complementary passive cooling strategies that could be used concurrently in tropical climate where cool colored coating in the form of paint serves as the “first protection” to reflect solar radiation and a thin layer of PCM forms the “second protection” to absorb the conductive heat that cannot be handled by cool paint. Unlike other climate zones where PCM is only seasonally effective and cool paint is only beneficial during summer, the application of the proposed PCM cool colored coating in building envelope could be effective throughout the entire year with a monthly cooling energy saving ranging from 5 to 12% due to the uniform climatic condition all year round in tropical Singapore.

  11. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  12. Seasonally Feed-Related Aflatoxins B1 and M1 Spread in Semiarid Industrial Dairy Herd and Its Deteriorating Impacts on Food and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Mozafari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To comparatively determine the levels of aflatoxin (AF B1 in feedstuffs and of AFM1 in milk from semiarid industrial cattle farms in northeastern Iran during four seasons and to elucidate the effects of mixed AFB1 and AFM1 on bovine granulocytes, 72 feedstuffs (concentrate, silage, and totally mixed ration (TMR and 200 bulk milk samples were simultaneously collected for ELISA-based AFs detection. Isolated blood and milk neutrophils (n=8/treatment were also preincubated with mix of 10 ng/ml AFB1 and 10 ng/ml AFM1 for 12 h; the impact was assessed on neutrophils functions. AFB1 levels in feedstuffs averaged 28 μg/kg (4–127 μg/kg, with TMR maximal (38±6.3 μg/kg, concentrate (32±6.5 μg/kg, and silage (16±1.5 μg/kg. The levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in feedstuffs and milk averaged 42±9.3, 27±2.8, 26±4.1, and 18.5±2.8 μg/kg and 85±7.3, 62±6.1, 46±6.2, and 41±6.5 ppb μg/kg in winter (maximal, autumn, spring, and summer, respectively. Mix of AFB1 and AFM1 weakened various functions of granulocytes. It adds new reason why during winter semiarid raised food-producing animals show more immune-incompetence.

  13. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  14. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  15. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  16. A numerical investigation of the sCO2 recompression cycle off-design behaviour, coupled to a sodium cooled fast reactor, for seasonal variation in the heat sink temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, J.; Alpy, N.; Moisseytsev, A.; Haubensack, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Sienicki, J.; Avakian, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Year-round behaviour of the supercritical CO 2 recompression cycle is simulated. • Behaviour of the system was uncertain due to large changes in the fluid properties. • Cycle thermodynamic optimisation and component preliminary designs were performed. • No off design cycle stability issues, compressors operate away from surge region. • Independent speed control of compressors maintains power and cycle efficiency. -- Abstract: Supercritical CO 2 cycles are particularly attractive for Generation IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as they can be simple and compact, but still offer steam-cycle equivalent efficiency while also removing potential for Na/H 2 O reactions. However, CO 2 thermophysical properties are very sensitive close to the critical point which raises, in particular, questions about the compressor and so cycle off-design behaviour when subject to inevitable temperature increases that result from seasonal variations in the heat sink temperature. This publication reports the numerical investigation of such an issue that has been performed using the Plant Dynamics Code (ANL, USA), the cycle being optimised for the next French SFR, ASTRID (1500 MW th ), as a test-case. On design, the net plant efficiency is 42.2% for a high pressure (25 MPa) turbine with an inlet temperature of 515 °C and considering a cycle low temperature of 35 °C. The off-design cycle behaviour is studied based on preliminary designs for the main components and assuming the use of a fixed heat sink flow rate. First results obtained using a common fixed shaft speed for all turbomachines, without any other active control, show no stability issues and roughly constant density (and volumetric flow rate) at the main compressor inlet for the range of heat sink temperature considered (21–40 °C). This occurs because the new stationary states are found without requiring a significant shift of mass to the higher pressure level, meaning the compressor inlet pressure

  17. Stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron

  18. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile); Dosimetria de alimentos irradiados y extraccion de poliminerales de hierbas y condimentos (Chile guajillo, oregano, jamaica, arnica y manzanilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C. [Estudiante de la Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico); Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E. [Depto. de Quimica Agricola-Geologia-Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  19. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  20. Cooling pancakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    In theories of galaxy formation with a damping cut-off in the density fluctuation spectrum, the first non-linear structures to form are Zeldovich pancakes in which dissipation separates gas from any collisionless dark matter then present. One-dimensional numerical simulations of the collapse, shock heating, and subsequent thermal evolution of pancakes are described. Neutrinos (or any other cool collisionless particles) are followed by direct N-body methods and the gas by Eulerian hydrodynamics with conduction as well as cooling included. It is found that the pressure is relatively uniform within the shocked region and approximately equals the instantaneous ram pressure acting at the shock front. An analytic theory based upon this result accurately describes the numerical calculations. (author)

  1. Cool Sportswear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  2. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  3. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth

  4. Efficacy of a novel food supplement in the relief of the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and in the reduction of the consumption of anti-allergic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, Renato

    2015-04-27

    Seasonal Allergic rhinitis (SAR) is characterized by runny nose, congestion, sneezing and sinus pressure. A clinical study was performed to demonstrate the efficacy of Lertal®, an innovative food supplement containing Quercetin, Perilla frutescens and Vitamin D3 formu-lated in a double layer "fast-slow" release tablet form, in the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and in the reduction of consumption of anti-allergic drugs. 23 subjects enrolled in the open clinical study had at least one year history of allergic rhinitis and positive skin prick test or RAST to Parietaria officinalis pollen. At baseline, the subjects had symptoms of nasal and/or ocular seasonal allergic rhinitis. The activity of the food supplement was evaluated using the Total Symptoms Score at first (baseline) and second (final) visit, after one month of supplementation. The consumption of anti-allergic drugs was also evaluated. All subjects enrolled completed the study. The comparison of the scores obtained in the two visits (baseline and final) showed a highly significant reduction of the overall symptoms: approximately 70% for symptom scores and 73% in use of anti-allergic drugs. Sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching, lacrimation and congestion of the conjunctiva, all showed a highly significant reduction. No noteworthy side effect was recorded and all patients finished the study with good compliance. The results showed a clear efficacy of the food supplement Lertal® in reducing nasal and/or eye symptoms. This activity was objectively confirmed by the reduction in the consumption of anti-allergic drugs used to relieve symptoms. (www.actabiomedica.it).

  5. Seasonal variability of primary production in a fjord ecosystem of the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for the transfer of carbon within pelagic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Paulina; Daneri, Giovanni; González, Humberto E.; Iriarte, Jose Luis; Tapia, Fabián J.; Lizárraga, Lorena; Sanchez, Nicolas; Pizarro, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    We characterized the seasonal cycle of productivity in Reloncaví Fjord (41°30'S), Chilean Patagonia. Seasonal surveys that included measurements of gross primary production, community respiration, bacterioplankton secondary production, and sedimentation rates along the fjord were combined with continuous records of water-column temperature variability and wind forcing, as well as satellite-derived data on regional patterns of wind stress, sea surface temperatures, and surface chlorophyll concentrations. The hydrography and perhaps fjord productivity respond to the timing and intensity of wind forcing over a larger region. Seasonal changes in the direction and intensity of winds, along with a late-winter improvement in light conditions, may determine the timing of phytoplankton blooms and potentially modulate productivity cycles in the region. Depth-integrated gross primary production estimates were higher (0.4-3.8 g C m -2 d -1) in the productive season (October, February, and May), and lower (0.1-0.2 g C m -2 d -1) in the non-productive season (August). These seasonal changes were also reflected in community respiration and bacterioplankton production rates, which ranged, respectively, from 0.3 to 4.8 g C m -2 d -1 and 0.05 to 0.4 g C m -2 d -1 during the productive and non-productive seasons and from 0.05 to 0.6 g C m -2 d -1 and 0.05 to 0.2 g C m -2 d -1 during the same two periods. We found a strong, significant correlation between gross primary production and community respiration (Spearman, r=0.95; p100%, suggesting the use of allochthonous carbon sources by bacterioplankton when the levels of gross primary production are low. Low primary production rates were associated with a greater contribution of small cells to autotrophic biomass, highlighting the importance of small-sized plankton and bacteria for carbon cycling and fluxes during the less productive winter months. Fecal pellet sedimentation was minimal during this period, also suggesting that most of

  6. ANNUAL AND SEASONAL-VARIATION IN THE FOOD-SUPPLY HARVESTABLE BY KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS STAGING IN THE WADDEN SEA IN LATE SUMMER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWARTS, L; BLOMERT, AM; WANINK, JH

    The biomass of the macrobenthic animals living in intertidal flats of the Wadden Sea varies annually and seasonally. However, the variation in prey biomass harvestable by wading birds such as knot Calidris canutus, which feed mainly on the middle range of their prey size classes, is even larger. The

  7. Melatonin and food safety: Investigating a possible role in the seasonality of the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonality of E. coli O157:H7 prevalence in feedlot cattle in the United States has been well documented but poorly understood. Our hypothesis, that this phenomenon is related to hormonal changes within the animal in response to changing day-length, is supported by the data from numerous studi...

  8. Seasonal forecasts: communicating current climate variability in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available seasonal time scale. Seasonal climate forecasts are defined as probabilistic predictions of how much rain is expected during the season and how warm or cool it will be, based primarily on the principle that the ocean (sea-surface temperatures) influences...

  9. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  10. Antarctica: Cooling or Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Ludescher, Josef; Franzke, Christian

    2013-04-01

    We consider the 14 longest instrumental monthly mean temperature records from the Antarctica and analyse their correlation properties by wavelet and detrended fluctuation analysis. We show that the stations in the western and the eastern part of the Antarctica show significant long-term memory governed by Hurst exponents close to 0.8 and 0.65, respectively. In contrast, the temperature records at the inner part of the continent (South Pole and Vostok), resemble white noise. We use linear regression to estimate the respective temperature differences in the records per decade (i) for the annual data, (ii) for the summer and (iii) for the winter season. Using a recent approach by Lennartz and Bunde [1] we estimate the respective probabilities that these temperature differences can be exceeded naturally without inferring an external (anthropogenic) trend. We find that the warming in the western part of the continent and the cooling at the South Pole is due to a gradually changes in the cold extremes. For the winter months, both cooling and warming are well outside the 95 percent confidence interval, pointing to an anthropogenic origin. In the eastern Antarctica, the temperature increases and decreases are modest and well within the 95 percent confidence interval. [1] S. Lennartz and A. Bunde, Phys. Rev. E 84, 021129 (2011)

  11. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  12. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    's Charlestown Square Shopping Centre and Echuca Hospital. These systems join a number of others already in operation at the large commercial and industrial scale, as well as a smaller number of systems providing cooling to cafes and offices. The development in this area is being supported by CSIRO's Solar Cooling research team which provides development, modelling and design expertise across the spectrum of solar cooling variants, sizes and applications - from remote community food preservation in India, to large commercial and residential systems in Australia. The group also has industry test facilities to support the development and testing of solar air conditioning systems as well as conventional air conditioning technologies. The Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH's) Solar Cooling Special Technical Group is also involved in developing the solar cooling industry in Australia with the aim of combating climate change by reducing greenhouse emissions from the residential and commercial building sectors. The group coordinates industry and research efforts and organises information exchange, educational and training events for interested technical and business representatives. Fact file- Solar cooling systems are essentially comprised of two parts - solar thermal collectors and a sorption chiller which convert the heat into useful cooling. Though a number of collector and chiller combinations exist, no one single approach has yet dominated. Corresponding with the type of chiller used, solar cooling systems are often grouped into three categories: absorption, adsorption and desiccant. During design, an appropriate collector technology will be chosen, typically either a parabolic, flat plate or evacuated tube collector. The optimal configuration is also determined in design, to align equipment characteristics with the conditions, environment and requirements presented by each application. Thus solar cooling has a number of variants

  13. Divertor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadakazu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Handa, Hiroyuki

    1993-01-01

    Cooling water for a divertor cooling system cools the divertor, thereafter, passes through pipelines connecting the exit pipelines of the divertor cooling system and the inlet pipelines of a blanket cooling system and is introduced to the blanket cooling system in a vacuum vessel. It undergoes emission of neutrons, and cooling water in the divertor cooling system containing a great amount of N-16 which is generated by radioactivation of O-16 is introduced to the blanket cooling system in the vacuum vessel by way of pipelines, and after cooling, passes through exit pipelines of the blanket cooling system and is introduced to the outside of the vacuum vessel. Radiation of N-16 in the cooling water is decayed sufficiently with passage of time during cooling of the blanket, thereby enabling to decrease the amount of shielding materials such as facilities and pipelines, and ensure spaces. (N.H.)

  14. WORKSHOP: Beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling - the control of unruly particles to provide well-behaved beams - has become a major new tool in accelerator physics. The main approaches of electron cooling pioneered by Gersh Budker at Novosibirsk and stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer at CERN, are now complemented by additional ideas, such as laser cooling of ions and ionization cooling of muons

  15. Precipitation and temperature drive seasonal variation in bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the planktonic food webs of a subtropical shallow eutrophic lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yuqiang; Yu, Jing; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shuchun; Wang, Sumin

    2017-04-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) are toxic and ubiquitous in aquatic environments and pose great risks to aquatic organisms. Bioaccumulation by plankton is the first step for HOCs to enter aquatic food webs. Trophic status is considered to dominate variations in bioaccumulation of HOCs in plankton in temperate and frigid deep oligotrophic waters. However, long-term driving factors for bioaccumulation of HOCs in planktonic food webs of subtropical shallow eutrophic waters have not been well investigated. China has the largest subtropical lake density in the Northern Hemisphere. Due to limited field data, long-term variations in the bioaccumulation of HOCs in these lakes are almost unknown. Here we take Lake Xuanwu as an example to investigate long-term variations in the bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in planktonic food webs of subtropical shallow eutrophic lakes in China, and elucidate the driving factors. Our results indicate that temperature rather than nutrients dominates long-term dynamics of planktonic biomass in this lake. Precipitation significantly enhances the concentrations of the PAHs, and total suspended particles, and consequently affects the distribution of the PAHs in the water column. Biomass dilution induced by temperature dominates bioaccumulation of the PAHs by both phytoplankton and zooplankton (copepods and cladocerans). Biomagnification of the PAHs from phytoplankton to zooplankton is positively correlated with temperature. Our study suggests that temperature and precipitation drive long-term variations in the bioaccumulation of the PAHs in the planktonic food webs of this subtropical shallow eutrophic lake. Lake Xuanwu has a similar mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, sunshine duration, and nutrient levels as other subtropical shallow eutrophic lakes in China. This study may also help to understand the bioaccumulation of HOCs in planktonic food webs of other subtropical shallow

  16. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  17. Energy saving potential of an indirect evaporative cooler as a pre-cooling unit for mechanical cooling systems in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfani, Shahram; Esmaeelian, Jafar; Karami, Maryam [Department of Installation, Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC), PO Box 13145-1696, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pasdarshahri, Hadi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The performance of indirect evaporative cooling system (IEC) to pre-cool air for a conventional mechanical cooling system has been investigated for four cities of Iran. For this purpose, a combined experimental setup consisting of an IEC unit followed by a packaged unit air conditioner (PUA) was designed, constructed and tested. Two air simulators were designed and used to simulate indoor heating load and outdoor design conditions. Using of experimental data and an appropriate analytical method, the performance and energy reduction capability of combined system has been evaluated through the cooling season. The results indicate IEC can reduce cooling load up to 75% during cooling seasons. Also, 55% reduction in electrical energy consumption of PUA can be obtained. (author)

  18. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  19. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  20. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  1. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  2. seasonal variation in chromium hexavalent and copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of groundwater in the Jimeta- Yola area ... animal feedlots, industrial waste and food processing ...... and conservation of groundwater quality; a) ... significant role of hydrous Mn and Fe oxides.

  3. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  4. Study on energy-saving performance of a transcritical CO2 heat pump for food thermal process applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yefeng; Meng, Deren; Chen, Shen

    2018-02-01

    In food processing, there are significant simultaneous demands of cooling, warm water and hot water. Most of the heated water is used only once rather than recycled. Current heating and cooling systems consume much energy and emit lots of greenhouse gases. In order to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission, a transcritical CO2 heat pump system is proposed that can supply not only cooling, but also warm water and hot water simultaneously to meet the thermal demands of food processing. Because the inlet water temperature from environment varies through a year, the energy-saving performance for different seasons is simulated. The results showed that the potential primary energy saving rate of the proposed CO2 heat pump is 50% to 60% during a year.

  5. Seasonal and individual variation in the use of rail-associated food attractants by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in a national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maureen H; Fassina, Sarah; Hopkins, John B; Whittington, Jesse; St Clair, Colleen C

    2017-01-01

    Similar to vehicles on roadways, trains frequently kill wildlife via collisions along railways. Despite the prevalence of this mortality worldwide, little is known about the relative importance of wildlife attractants associated with railways, including spilled agricultural products, enhanced vegetation, invertebrates, and carcasses of rail-killed ungulates. We assessed the relative importance of several railway attractants to a provincially-threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Banff and Yoho National Parks, Canada, for which rail-caused mortality has increased in recent decades without known cause. We examined the relationship between the use of the railway and diet by fitting 21 grizzly bears with GPS collars in 2011-2013 and measuring the stable isotope values (δ15N, δ34S) derived from their hair. We also examined the importance of rail-associated foods to grizzly bears by analyzing 230 grizzly bear scats collected from May through October in 2012-2014, some of which could be attributed to GPS-collared bears. Among the 21 collared bears, 17 used the rail rarely (bears (which included the three smallest bears and the largest bear in our sample) used the rail frequently (>20% of their monitored days). We found no significant relationships between δ15N and δ34S values measured from the hair of grizzlies and their frequency of rail use. Instead, δ15N increased with body mass, especially for male bears, suggesting large males consumed more animal protein during hair growth. All four bears that used the railway frequently produced scats containing grain. Almost half the scats (43%) collected within 150 m of the railway contained grain compared to only 7% of scats found >150 m from the railway. Scats deposited near the rail were also more likely to contain grain in the fall (85% of scats) compared to summer (14%) and spring (17%), and those containing grain were more diverse in their contents (6.8 ± 2.2 species vs. 4.9 ± 1.6, P bears in the

  6. Seasonal and individual variation in the use of rail-associated food attractants by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in a national park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen H Murray

    Full Text Available Similar to vehicles on roadways, trains frequently kill wildlife via collisions along railways. Despite the prevalence of this mortality worldwide, little is known about the relative importance of wildlife attractants associated with railways, including spilled agricultural products, enhanced vegetation, invertebrates, and carcasses of rail-killed ungulates. We assessed the relative importance of several railway attractants to a provincially-threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Banff and Yoho National Parks, Canada, for which rail-caused mortality has increased in recent decades without known cause. We examined the relationship between the use of the railway and diet by fitting 21 grizzly bears with GPS collars in 2011-2013 and measuring the stable isotope values (δ15N, δ34S derived from their hair. We also examined the importance of rail-associated foods to grizzly bears by analyzing 230 grizzly bear scats collected from May through October in 2012-2014, some of which could be attributed to GPS-collared bears. Among the 21 collared bears, 17 used the rail rarely (20% of their monitored days. We found no significant relationships between δ15N and δ34S values measured from the hair of grizzlies and their frequency of rail use. Instead, δ15N increased with body mass, especially for male bears, suggesting large males consumed more animal protein during hair growth. All four bears that used the railway frequently produced scats containing grain. Almost half the scats (43% collected within 150 m of the railway contained grain compared to only 7% of scats found >150 m from the railway. Scats deposited near the rail were also more likely to contain grain in the fall (85% of scats compared to summer (14% and spring (17%, and those containing grain were more diverse in their contents (6.8 ± 2.2 species vs. 4.9 ± 1.6, P < 0.001. Lastly, scats collected near the rail were more likely to contain ungulate hair and ant remains

  7. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. 182.10 Section 182.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Provisions § 182.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Spices and other natural seasonings...

  8. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyolar, Bennett K.

    A solar thermal cooling system using novel non-tracking External Compound Parabolic Concentrators (XCPC) has been built at the University of California, Merced and operated for two cooling seasons. Its performance in providing power for space cooling has been analyzed. This solar cooling system is comprised of 53.3 m2 of XCPC trough collectors which are used to power a 23 kW double effect (LiBr) absorption chiller. This is the first system that combines both XCPC and absorption chilling technologies. Performance of the system was measured in both sunny and cloudy conditions, with both clean and dirty collectors. It was found that these collectors are well suited at providing thermal power to drive absorption cooling systems and that both the coinciding of available thermal power with cooling demand and the simplicity of the XCPC collectors compared to other solar thermal collectors makes them a highly attractive candidate for cooling projects.

  9. Ganho de peso vivo e fermentação ruminal em novilhos mantidos em pastagem cultivada de clima temperado e recebendo diferentes suplementos Live weight gain and ruminal fermentation by steers grazing cool-season grass pasture and given different supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Floriano da Silveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para avaliar o ganho de peso vivo (Experimento 1 e parâmetros da fermentação ruminal (Experimento 2 em quarenta novilhos cruzados Charolês e Nelore, mantidos em pastagem cultivada de inverno, por quatro horas diárias e não suplementados, ou por somente duas horas, mas suplementados (1% do peso vivo com silagem de planta inteira, silagem de grão úmido ou com grão seco de sorgo. Os animais alimentados somente com pastagem obtiveram os maiores ganhos de peso vivo (P0,05 pela suplementação, as de amônia e açúcares foram maiores nos animais mantidos somente com pastagem e nos suplementados com silagem de grão úmido, e menores nos animais suplementados com silagem de planta inteira ou com grão seco de sorgo (PTwo experiments to evaluate daily weight gain (Experiment 1 and ruminal fermentation parameters (Experiment 2 were carried out. Nelore and Charolais crossbreed steers grazing on cool-season pasture during four hours daily or during only two hours daily but supplemented (1% of live weight with sorghum whole plant silage, wet grain silage or dry grain were used. Animals fed only with pasture obtained the highest and, those supplemented with whole plant silage, the lowest daily weight gain (P0.05 by supplementation. Ammonia and sugar concentrations were higher by animals fed only with pasture or supplemented with sorghum wet grain silage and lower by those supplemented with whole plant silage or dry grain (P<0.05. Ruminal pH values were lower by animals supplemented with sorghum wet grain silage (P<0.05. Supplements did not improve weight gain of steers grazing cool-season pasture but ruminal fermentation varied through a day and was different among supplements. Results also indicate that, besides supplement type, synchrony between grazing and supplementation schedule may represent a conditioning factor to improve feed efficiency use by animals.

  10. Development of a seasonal thermochemical storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.; Maraz, N.; Eversdijk, J.; Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.P.; Oversloot, H.P.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Geus, A.C. de

    2012-01-01

    In our laboratories, a seasonal thermochemical storage system for dwellings and offices is being designed and developed. Based on a thermochemical sorption reaction, space heating, cooling and generation of domestic hot water will be achieved with up to 100% renewable energy, by using solar energy

  11. Seasonal variation in diet and nutrition of the northern-most population of Rhinopithecus roxellana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rong; He, Shujun; Wu, Fan; Chapman, Colin A; Pan, Ruliang; Garber, Paul A; Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo

    2018-04-01

    There is a great deal of spatial and temporal variation in the availability and nutritional quality of foods eaten by animals, particularly in temperate regions where winter brings lengthy periods of leaf and fruit scarcity. We analyzed the availability, dietary composition, and macronutrients of the foods eaten by the northern-most golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) population in the Qinling Mountains, China to understand food choice in a highly seasonal environment dominated by deciduous trees. During the warm months between April and November, leaves are consumed in proportion to their availability, while during the leaf-scarce months between December and March, bark and leaf/flower buds comprise most of their diet. When leaves dominated their diet, golden snub-nosed monkeys preferentially selected leaves with higher ratios of crude protein to acid detergent fiber. While when leaves were less available, bark and leaf/flower buds that were high in nonstructural carbohydrates and energy, and low in acid detergent fiber were selected. Southern populations of golden snub-nosed monkey can turn to eating lichen, however, the population studied here in this lichen-absent area have adapted to their cool deciduous habitat by instead consuming buds and bark. Carbohydrate and energy rich foods appear to be the critical resources required for the persistence of this species in temperate habitat. The dietary flexibility of these monkeys, both among seasons and populations, likely contributes to their wide distribution over a range of habitats and environments. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influence of Shading on Cooling Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabczak, Sławomir; Bukowska, Maria; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Nowak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The article presents an analysis of the building cooling load taking into account the variability of the factors affecting the size of the heat gains. In order to minimize the demand for cooling, the effect of shading elements installed on the outside on the windows and its effect on size of the cooling capacity of air conditioning system for the building has been estimated. Multivariate building cooling load calculations to determine the size of the reduction in cooling demand has derived. Determination of heat gain from the sun is laborious, but gives a result which reflects the influence of the surface transparent partitions, devices used as sunscreen and its location on the building envelope in relation to the world, as well as to the internal heat gains has great attention in obtained calculation. In this study, included in the balance sheet of solar heat gains are defined in three different shading of windows. Calculating the total demand cooling is made for variants assuming 0% shading baffles transparent, 50% shading baffles transparent external shutters at an angle of 45 °, 100% shading baffles transparent hours 12 from the N and E and from 12 from the S and W of the outer slat blinds. The calculation of the average hourly cooling load was taken into account the option assuming the hypothetical possibility of default by up to 10% of the time assumed the cooling season temperatures in the rooms. To reduce the consumption of electricity energy in the cooling system of the smallest variant identified the need for the power supply for the operation of the cooling system. Also assessed the financial benefits of the temporary default of comfort.

  13. Saving energy in ventilation cooling towers. Optimization by control; Energieeinsparung bei Ventilatorkuehltuermen. Optimierung durch Regelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, Wolf-Dieter [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energietechnik, Langenargen/Bodensee (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Industrial-scale users of cooling water use bigger and higher natural-draught cooling towers to improve recirculation cooling. Smaller and medium-sized consumers as a rule use ventilation cooling towers.The market offers a wide choice of efficient products. At the same time, competition enforces savings so that often these ventilation cooling towers have no control option. However, optimum operation in the winter season necessitates variable air supply which is also a cost factor that can help to compensate the higher cost incurred in other seasons. (orig.)

  14. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  15. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  16. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate...

  17. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  18. Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Influenza Seasonal Summarv 2014-2015 Season EpiData Center Department Communicable Disease Division NMCPHC-EDC-TR-394-2015 REPORT DOCUMENTATION... Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season Sb. GRANT NUMBER $c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORjS) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ashleigh K McCabe, Kristen R...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 1<l. ABSTRACT This report summartzes influenza activity among Department of Navy (DON) and Depar1ment of Defense (DOD

  19. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  20. Seasonality, mobility, and livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...

  1. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  2. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  3. Energy Demand Comparison between Hollow Fiber Membrane Based Dehumidification and Evaporative Cooling Dehumidification Using TRNSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeachul Jang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This communication presents the performance evaluation and comparative study between two different techniques: a membrane-based dehumidification system (MDS and evaporative cooling dehumidification (ECD for a typical climate of South Korea. Although there are different ways to dehumidify the air in living and work spaces, the membrane-based dehumidification system (MDS is the most effective way as it neither causes a change in the temperature nor harms the environment. Moreover, it consumes significantly less energy when compared to other methods. There are also limitations concerning products that are sensitive to temperature such as food and pharmaceutical products; the method of evaporative cooling dehumidification is not suitable for such applications. The present work demonstrated the excellent energy-saving performance of the membrane-based dehumidification system against evaporative cooling dehumidification by comparing the performance of these two systems during the rainy season using a transient system simulation. The results showed that the MDS helped to reduce the dehumidification load by more than 47.6% when compared to the ECD system, which is a significant achievement in this regard.

  4. Rendimento de forragem e valor nutritivo de gramíneas anuais de estação fria submetidas a sombreamento por Pinus elliottii e ao sol pleno Forage yield and nutritive value of cool-season annual forage grasses shaded by Pinus elliottii trees and at full-sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Santiago Barro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do sombreamento provocado por duas densidades arbóreas em uma floresta de Pinus elliottii Engelm. com 10 anos de idade sobre o rendimento e o valor nutritivo da forragem de três gramíneas de ciclo hibernal. Como tratamentos, avaliou-se a combinação de dois fatores (3 x 3 em um delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, no qual as parcelas foram as condições luminosas (proporcionadas por duas densidades arbóreas: 555 e 333 árvores/ha e luz solar plena e as subparcelas as espécies forrageiras azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.; e aveia-branca (A. sativa L. cv. Fapa 2. A semeadura foi realizada entre 25/7/2005 e 5/8/2005 e entre 26 e 27/4/2006. O rendimento de matéria seca foi estimado em avaliações durante o estádio vegetativo (aos 104 dias após a semeadura em 2006 e em pleno florescimento (aos 132 e 170 dias, em 2005 e 2006, respectivamente. O valor nutritivo da forragem foi avaliado considerando os teores médios de proteína bruta (PB e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O sombreamento moderado reduziu em 57% o rendimento médio de forragem dos três genótipos avaliados, mas aumentou em 2,3% o teor de proteína bruta (PB e em 5,5% a digestibilidade in vitro (DIVMO quando as plantas estavam em florescimento pleno. Entre as espécies forrageiras avaliadas, a aveia-branca e a aveia-preta apresentam maior potencial para utilização em sistemas silvipastoris na Região Sul.It was evaluated the shading effect induced by two tree densities of a ten-year-old slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. forest, and at full sun, on forage dry matter yield and nutritive value of three cool-season annual grasses. Treatments were a combination of two main factors: a three light conditions induced by two tree densities (333 e 555 stems/ha and at full sun; b three cool-season annual forage grasses: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam

  5. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  6. Seasonal snow storage for space and process cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsberg, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    Kylanvändningen i världen har ökat markant de senaste decennierna. Detta beror bl.a. på ökande befolkningsmängd, industrialisering och komfortkrav samt fler elektriska apparater. De senaste decenniernas byggnadsutformning har dessutom i många fall lett till ökade kylbehov. Konventionella kylmaskiner drivs vanligen av el. En alternativ kylteknik är att använda lagrad vinterkyla, t.ex. genom att utnyttja kyla som lagrats i snö- och is. Detta är möjligt i stora delar av världen. Snö/is kan lagra...

  7. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  8. The Gambia and Bangladesh: the seasons and diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, M G

    1986-09-01

    Climactic factors in the Gambia and Bangladesh have an important impact on the incidence of diarrheal disease. Both countries share some common characteristics in climate, including a cool dry winter of 3 months followed by a hot dry spring and hot wet summers of 5-7 months in length. The main difference is in the amount of rainfall. The Gambia may have 20-30 inches of rain each year; Bangladesh usually has up to 4-5 times this amount. In the Gambia, drought is a recurring problem; floods is the problem in Bangladesh. A study in the Gambia found a close link between the time of the annual peak in diarrhea in young children and the summer rains. A 2nd peak of diarrhea in the winter also was significant and was shown to coincide with a short period of intense transmission of rotavirus. Of the enteric infections of childhood, the enterotoxigenic "Escherichia coli" (ETEC), that is those producing heat-stable toxin (ST) were found to be the most important etiological agents of diarrhea in both countries, with a peak during the rains. In rural Gambia, water is obtained almost exclusively from surface wells, 15-20 meters deep. It was found that, although this water was fecally contaminated throughout the year, levels of contamination increased by up to 100 times with 1-2 days of the start of the rains because excreta is washed into the wells. It also was clear that contaminated water and domestic environment contribute to contamination of children's food. The high level of contamination of food during the summer coincided with the time of high diarrhea prevalence. In Bangladesh it was shown that the incidence of ETEC diarrhea in infants was positively correlated with the frequency of consumption of weaning foods contaminated with fecal coliforms. The seasonal peak of ETEC diarrhea coincided with the time when food was most contaminated due to higher bacterial growth caused by high temperatures. Cholera is endemic in many areas of Bangladesh but not in the Gambia. Though

  9. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  10. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  11. Semioptimal practicable algorithmic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. Algorithmic cooling of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semioptimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein a few cycles (typically two to six) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. These algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  12. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  13. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  14. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  15. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  16. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  17. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system

  19. Optimal design and application of a compound cold storage system combining seasonal ice storage and chilled water storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, C.; Shi, W.; Li, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cold storage using natural cold sources for cooling is a sustainable cooling technique. However, this technique suffers from limitations such as large storage space and poor reliability. Combining seasonal storage with short-term storage might be a promising solution while it is not

  20. 9 CFR 354.244 - Temperatures and cooling and freezing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temperatures and cooling and freezing procedures. 354.244 Section 354.244 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... and cooling and freezing procedures. Temperatures and procedures which are necessary for cooling and...

  1. Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

  2. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  3. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  4. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. 582.10 Section 582.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... General Provisions § 582.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Spices and other natural...

  5. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  6. History of nuclear cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The historical development of producing extreme low temperatures by magnetic techniques is overviewed. With electron spin methods, temperatures down to 1 mK can be achieved. With nuclear spins theoretically 10 -9 K can be produced. The idea of cooling with nuclear demagnetization is not new, it is a logical extension of the concept of electron cooling. Using nuclear demagnetization experiment with 3 T water cooled solenoids 3 mK could be produced. The cold record is held by Olli Lounasmaa in Helsinki with temperatures below 10 -9 K. (R.P.)

  7. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  8. QUALITY OF NATIVE EJACULATE IN DOG OUT AND DURING SEXUAL SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Podžo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal influence, i.e. the influence of climatic changes on the dog semen was investigated. Dog age varied between 2-4. German-shepard-type dog body weight was about 25 kg, and the other mixed breed dogs about 9 kg. All were kept in good zoo-hygienic conditions (sunny, ventilated and dry rooms. Dogs were served ready-made pellet food with the daily meals adjusted to their body mass. Experimental researches were mainly performed before and during the sexual season. Sperm from the dogs was taken manually every 5-6 days. After obtaining the ejaculate, the sperm-sampler was inserted in pre-heated cotton, and brought to the andrologic laboratory. Tools and instruments used for ejaculate sampling were heated to +35°C before use. Quality control was performed with the devices and instruments heated to  +38°C in order to avoid detrimental effect of rapid cooling to sperm movement, metabolism, etc. Sampled native ejaculates were anylized for the volume, motility, concentration, etc.Key words: dog, sperm, sexual season

  9. Gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masayuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable direct cooling of reactor cores thereby improving the cooling efficiency upon accidents. Constitution: A plurality sets of heat exchange pipe groups are disposed around the reactor core, which are connected by way of communication pipes with a feedwater recycling device comprising gas/liquid separation device, recycling pump, feedwater pump and emergency water tank. Upon occurrence of loss of primary coolants accidents, the heat exchange pipe groups directly absorb the heat from the reactor core through radiation and convection. Although the water in the heat exchange pipe groups are boiled to evaporate if the forcive circulation is interrupted by the loss of electric power source, water in the emergency tank is supplied due to the head to the heat exchange pipe groups to continue the cooling. Furthermore, since the heat exchange pipe groups surround the entire circumference of the reactor core, cooling is carried out uniformly without resulting deformation or stresses due to the thermal imbalance. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  11. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  12. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  13. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  14. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  15. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  16. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics.

  17. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  18. Droplet bubbling evaporatively cools a blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Guilherme; Köberle, Roland; Von Zuben, Claudio J; Andrade, Denis V

    2018-04-19

    Terrestrial animals often use evaporative cooling to lower body temperature. Evaporation can occur from humid body surfaces or from fluids interfaced to the environment through a number of different mechanisms, such as sweating or panting. In Diptera, some flies move tidally a droplet of fluid out and then back in the buccopharyngeal cavity for a repeated number of cycles before eventually ingesting it. This is referred to as the bubbling behaviour. The droplet fluid consists of a mix of liquids from the ingested food, enzymes from the salivary glands, and antimicrobials, associated to the crop organ system, with evidence pointing to a role in liquid meal dehydration. Herein, we demonstrate that the bubbling behaviour also serves as an effective thermoregulatory mechanism to lower body temperature by means of evaporative cooling. In the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala, infrared imaging revealed that as the droplet is extruded, evaporation lowers the fluid´s temperature, which, upon its re-ingestion, lowers the blowfly's body temperature. This effect is most prominent at the cephalic region, less in the thorax, and then in the abdomen. Bubbling frequency increases with ambient temperature, while its cooling efficiency decreases at high air humidities. Heat transfer calculations show that droplet cooling depends on a special heat-exchange dynamic, which result in the exponential activation of the cooling effect.

  19. INTERACTION EFFECT OF SEASON Senna occid. CORRECTED. L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2015), 23(1): 39-44 ... ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to assess the effect of season, habitat and leaf age on proximate ... most developing nations, for example in Nigeria, food.

  20. Laser cooling of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A qualitative description of laser cooling of neutral atoms is given. Two of the most important mechanisms utilized in laser cooling, the so-called Doppler Cooling and Sisyphus Cooling, are reviewed. The minimum temperature reached by the atoms is derived using simple arguments. (Author) 7 refs

  1. Technology of power plant cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulbetsch, J.S.; Zeren, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the thermodynamics of power generation and the need for cooling water; the technical, economic, and legislative constraints within which the cooling problem must be solved; alternate cooling methods currently available or under development; the water treatment requirements of cooling systems; and some alternatives for modifying the physical impact on aquatic systems

  2. Meltdown reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The meltdown reactor core cooling facility comprises a meltdown reactor core cooling tank, a cooling water storage tank situates at a position higher than the meltdown reactor core cooling tank, an upper pipeline connecting the upper portions of the both of the tanks and a lower pipeline connecting the lower portions of them. Upon occurrence of reactor core meltdown, a high temperature meltdown reactor core is dropped on the cooling tank to partially melt the tank and form a hole, from which cooling water is flown out. Since the water source of the cooling water is the cooling water storage tank, a great amount of cooling water is further dropped and supplied and the reactor core is submerged and cooled by natural convection for a long period of time. Further, when the lump of the meltdown reactor core is small and the perforated hole of the meltdown reactor cooling tank is small, cooling water is boiled by the high temperature lump intruding into the meltdown reactor core cooling tank and blown out from the upper pipeline to the cooling water storage tank to supply cooling water from the lower pipeline to the meltdown reactor core cooling tank. Since it is constituted only with simple static facilities, the facility can be simplified to attain improvement of reliability. (N.H.)

  3. Evaluating prevalence and risk factors of building-related symptoms among office workers: Seasonal characteristics of symptoms and psychosocial and physical environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Osawa, Haruki

    2017-04-12

    Psychosocial and environmental factors at the workplace play a significant role in building-related symptoms (BRSs). Environmental factors change during summer cooling and winter heating using air-conditioning systems. Thus, significant risk factors in each season need to be clarified. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted during summer in Japan and seasonal differences between summer and winter were evaluated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 489 offices. Possible risk factors for BRSs associated with the work environment, indoor air quality, and job stressors were examined by multiple regression analyses. Among people having at least one BRS, the prevalence of BRSs in summer (27.8%) was slightly higher than that in winter (24.9%). High prevalence was observed for eye and nasal symptoms related to dryness and general symptoms related to psychological distress in both seasons. Analyses revealed that dryness of air was an important and significant risk factor associated with BRSs, and job stressors were significantly associated with general symptoms in both seasons. Conversely, humidity was a significant risk factor of general symptoms in summer (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.43). Carpeting, recently painted walls, and unpleasant chemical odors in summer and noise, dust and dirt, and unpleasant odors such as body or food odors in both seasons were significant risk factors for BRSs. Improvements in the physical environmental qualities in an office throughout the year are important along with the reduction in psychological distress related to work.

  4. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Key words: Sensory evaluation, dry season vegetable, available, Anyigba, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Dry season vegetables are shrubs or herbaceous annuals or biennial plants. In Nigeria, most of the com- monly eaten vegetables are the succulent leaves of plants; they are eaten as supplementary foods, ...

  5. Influence of density on the seasonal utilization of broad grassland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We monitored seasonal use of grassland types by white rhinos at two sites within the Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park (HiP). Thirty-two rhinos were removed from one site to reduce rhino density. Seasonal use of grassland types was similar at both sites, but differed to what a previous study reported. This was likely due to higher food ...

  6. Keeping Your Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Snow, the First Epidemiologist Microbe Multiplication Magic Scientific Poster Session Poisoned Picnic The Energy Equation Flu Season- ... fluids than it takes in — and that's not good! Don't depend on your thirst to tell ...

  7. Seasonal timing in a warming world : plasticity of seasonal timing of growth and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, L.

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal environments the timing of various biological processes is crucial for growth, survival and reproductive success of an individual. Nowadays, rapid large-scale climate change is altering species’ seasonal timing (phenology) in many eco¬systems. In this thesis Lucia Salis focuses on the study of seasonal timing in the food chain of the oak-winter moth-great tit. As temperature increased over the last decades, both phenologies of the host plant, the oak, and the herbivorous insect, t...

  8. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de [Theory group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  9. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  10. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing

  11. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  12. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  13. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  14. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  15. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  16. Reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cleaning steps in the pipelines upon reactor shut-down by connecting a filtrating and desalting device to the cooling system to thereby always clean up the water in the pipelines. Constitution: A filtrating and desalting device is connected to the pipelines in the cooling system by way of drain valves and a check valve. Desalted water is taken out from the exit of the filtrating and desalting device and injected to one end of the cooling system pipelines by way of the drain valve and the check valve and then returned by way of another drain valve to the desalting device. Water in the pipelines is thus always desalted and the cleaning step in the pipelines is no more required in the shut-down. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.; AHRENS, L.; BRENNAN, M.; HARRISON, M.; KEWISCH, J.; MACKAY, W.; PEGGS, S.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; YAKIMENKO, V.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

  18. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  19. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  1. Cooling nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to water or water/steam cooled reactors of the fuel cluster type. In such reactors it is usual to mount the clusters in parallel spaced relationship so that coolant can pass freely between them, the coolant being passed axially from one end of the cluster in an upward direction through the cluster and being effective for cooling under normal circumstances. It has been suggested, however, that in addition to the main coolant flow an auxiliary coolant flow be provided so as to pass laterally into the cluster or be sprayed over the top of the cluster. This auxiliary supply may be continuously in use, or may be held in reserve for use in emergencies. Arrangements for providing this auxiliary cooling are described in detail. (U.K.)

  2. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Christine Preston

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve.

  3. Stochastic cooling for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehl, D.

    1984-01-01

    These two lectures have been prepared to give a simple introduction to the principles. In Part I we try to explain stochastic cooling using the time-domain picture which starts from the pulse response of the system. In Part II the discussion is repeated, looking more closely at the frequency-domain response. An attempt is made to familiarize the beginners with some of the elementary cooling equations, from the 'single particle case' up to equations which describe the evolution of the particle distribution. (orig.)

  4. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  5. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  6. Relationships between food neophobia and food intake and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, S. R.; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Prescott, J.

    2017-01-01

    and preference data, in each case the food items were condensed into patterns described in terms of the foods/beverages with highest factor loadings. We then determined the impact of season and participant age, gender, education and income on these factors, as well as the interaction of these variables with FN......Food neophobia (FN) has been shown to be a strong influence on food preferences using primarily small data sets. This has limited the explanatory power of FN and the extent to which it can be related to other factors that influence food choice. To address these limitations, we collected Food...... Neophobia Scale data from 1167 adults from New Zealand over a 45-month period. Participants also completed a 112-item food preference questionnaire and a self-report 24 h, a 145 item food intake recall survey, and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). As a way of providing a structure to the food intake...

  7. A Comparison of Visual and Genetic Techniques for Identifying Japanese Marten Scats - Enabling Diet Examination in Relation to Seasonal Food Availability in a Sub-Alpine Area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Masumi; Hoshino, Lisa; Kamada, Shouko; Masuda, Ryuichi; Newman, Chris; Kaneko, Yayoi

    2017-04-01

    We compared the reliability of visual diagnostic criteria to DNA diagnostic techniques, including newly designed primers, to discriminate Japanese marten (Martes melampus) feces from those of other sympatric carnivore species. Visual criteria proved > 95% reliable for fresh, odoriferous scats in good condition. Based upon this verification, we then examined if and how Japanese marten diet differs among seasons at high elevation study site (1500-2026 m). We also considered how intra-specific competition with the Japanese red fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica) may shape marten feeding ecology. From 120 Japanese marten fecal samples, high elevation diet comprised (frequency of occurrence) 30.6-66.0% mammals, 41.0-72.2% insects and 10.6-46.2% fruits, subject to seasonal variation, with a Shannon-Weaver index value of 2.77. These findings contrast substantially to seasonal marten diet reported in adjacent lowland regions (700-900 m), particularly in terms of fruit consumption, showing the trophic adaptability of the Japanese marten. We also noted a substantial dietary overlap with the red fox (n = 26 scats) with a Shannon-Weaver index of 2.61, inferring little trophic niche mutual exclusion (trophic niche overlap: 0.95), although some specific seasonal prey selection differences were likely related to relative differences in body size between foxes and martens. This additional information on the feeding ecology of the Japanese marten enables a better assessment of the specific risks populations face in mountainous regions.

  8. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended...

  9. 21 CFR 582.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 582.40 Section 582.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended...

  10. Timing of Seasonal Sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Pascal; Li, Hao

    1999-01-01

    We present a model of timing of seasonal sales where stores choose several designs at the beginning of the season without knowing wich one, if any, will be fashionable. Fashionable designs have a chance to fetch high prices in fashion markets while non-fashionable ones must be sold in a discount market. In the beginning of the season, stores charge high prices in the hope of capturing their fashion market. As the end of the season approaches with goods still on the shelves, stores adjust down...

  11. Produção animal em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de glyphosate = Animal production in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins

    2008-04-01

    years. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks with two replications. The results presented are from the third year of evaluation. For average daily weight gain, there were differences (p £ 0.1 among treatments and periods, varying from 0.214 kg animal-1 day-1 in NG to 1.406 for the treatments with introduction of species. Live weight gain per area varied from 84 to 410 kg of LW ha-1. The stocking rates varied from 283 to 679 kg of LW ha-1. The herbicide did not present effects on production; andintroduction of cool season species by overseeding improved animal production in NG, resulting in higher animal performance per animal and per area.

  12. Efeito do fósforo e do potássio sobre o desenvolvimento e a nodulação de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria Effect of phosphorus and potassium on development and nodulation of three cool season annual legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de fósforo e potássio na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, comprimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular, escore e eficiência da nodulação de três leguminosas forrageiras anuais de estação fria. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg/dm³ de P2O5 e K (0,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg/dm³ de K2O, correspondendo a 0,0 (controle 1, 2, 3 e 4 vezes a recomendação da análise de solo, em vasos, com 8 kg de solo tipo Planossolo, unidade de mapeamento Pelotas. As leguminosas utilizadas foram: Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro (trevo-persa, Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Woogenellup e Lotus subbiflorus Lag. cv. El Rincón. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5 x 5, com três repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de maio a outubro de 2000, sendo os dados colhidos ao final do período experimental, aproximadamente 170 dias após a semeadura. A maioria das características estudadas não foi influenciada pela aplicação de potássio, e sim pela aplicação de fósforo. Para as variáveis relacionadas com produção (MS parte aérea e raízes, o trevo-persa foi a espécie mais produtiva. Para a nodulação, o trevo-subterrâneo e o Lotus El Rincón apresentaram maior eficiência e quantidade de nódulos.This experiment was established in greenhouse at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, with the objective to evaluate the effects of different doses of phosphorus and potassium on dry matter production of aerial biomass and roots, length of above ground parts and roots and efficiency and score of nodulation of three cool season annual forage legumes. The treatments were five doses of P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg de P2O5/dm³ and K (00,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg de

  13. Dinâmica vegetacional em pastagem natural e pastagem sobre-semeada com espécies de estação fria com e sem o uso de herbicida - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9148 Vegetation dynamics in natural pasture and pasture overseeded with cool season species with and without the use of herbicide - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.9148

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os possíveis efeitos do uso do herbicida e da introdução de espécies de estação fria na dinâmica vegetacional da pastagem natural. Os tratamentos foram: pastagem natural com roçadas anuais (CN; pastagem natural melhorada com introdução de espécies de estação fria e com adubação anual (CNI; idem ao anterior, mas com uma aplicação de glifosato (G1; idem ao anterior, porém com três aplicações de glifosato (G3; idem ao G3, mas com o dobro da adubação anual (GA3. A semeadura de trevo branco, cornichão e azevém anual foi feita a lanço, sendo esta precedida da aplicação do herbicida glifosato. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo com lotação variável. A composição botânica observada foi diferente (p This study evaluated the possible effects of the use of herbicide and introduction of cool season species on the dynamics of natural grassland vegetation. The treatments were: natural grassland with annual mowing (CN; natural grassland improved with introduction of cool season species and annual fertilization (CNI; same as the previous but with glyphosate application (G1; same as the previous with three glyphosate applications (G3; same as G3 but with double annual fertilizing (GA3. The sod seeding of white clover, birdsfoot trefoil and annual ryegrass was preceded by application of the herbicide glyphosate. The grazing system was continuous, with variable stocking rates. The observed botanical composition was different (p < 0.06 between treatments that did not receive glyphosate application and those with application. The botanical composition of the treatments did not present variation (p = 0.57 among periods. The use of glyphosate allows an efficient establishment of the introduced species. However, the use of this practice is not recommended due to its effects on modifying the floristic composition of the natural grassland.

  14. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  15. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling

  16. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  17. Cooling tower and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.; Ederhof, A.; Gosdowski, J.; Harms, A.; Ide, G.; Klotz, B.; Kowalczyk, R.; Necker, P.; Tesche, W.

    The influence of a cooling tower on the environment, or rather the influence of the environment on the cooling tower stands presently -along with the cooling water supply - in the middle of much discussion. The literature on these questions can hardly be overlooked by the experts concerned, especially not by the power station designers and operators. The document 'Cooling Tower and Environment' is intented to give a general idea of the important publications in this field, and to inform of the present state of technology. In this, the explanations on every section make it easier to get to know the specific subject area. In addition to older standard literature, this publication contains the best-known literature of recent years up to spring 1975, including some articles written in English. Further English literature has been collected by the ZAED (KFK) and is available at the VGB-Geschaefsstelle. Furthermore, The Bundesumweltamt compiles the literature on the subject of 'Environmental protection'. On top of that, further documentation centres are listed at the end of this text. (orig.) [de

  18. Warm and Cool Cityscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Painting cityscapes is a great way to teach first-grade students about warm and cool colors. Before the painting begins, the author and her class have an in-depth discussion about big cities and what types of buildings or structures that might be seen in them. They talk about large apartment and condo buildings, skyscrapers, art museums,…

  19. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  20. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  1. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  2. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  4. Cooling Tower Losses in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants. The primary task of a cooling tower is to reject heat into the atmosphere. They represent a relatively inexpensive and dependable means of removing low-grade heat from cooling water. The make-up water source is used to replenish water lost to evaporation. Hot water from heat exchangers is sent to the cooling tower. The water exits the cooling tower and is sent back to the exchangers or to other units for further cooling.

  5. Cooling concepts for HTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binneberg, A.; Buschmann, H.; Neubert, J.

    1993-01-01

    HTS components require that low-cost, reliable cooling systems be used. There are no general solutions to such systems. Any cooling concept has to be tailored to the specific requirements of a system. The following has to he taken into consideration when designing cooling concepts: - cooling temperature - constancy and controllability of the cooling temperature - cooling load and refrigerating capacity - continuous or discontinuous mode - degree of automation - full serviceability or availability before evacuation -malfunctions caused by microphonic, thermal or electromagnetic effects -stationary or mobile application - investment and operating costs (orig.)

  6. Cooling out of the blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at solar cooling and air-conditioning, the use of which is becoming more and more popular. The article discusses how further research and development is necessary. The main challenge for professional experts is the optimal adaptation of building, building technology and solar-driven cooling systems to meet these new requirements. Various solar cooling technologies are looked at, including the use of surplus heat for the generation of cold for cooling systems. Small-scale solar cooling systems now being tested in trials are described. Various developments in Europe are discussed, as are the future chances for solar cooling in the market

  7. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  8. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  9. Optimizing cooling systems in Egyptian arid urbans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, Ahmed A.; Khalil, Essam E.

    2006-01-01

    Present study is devoted to climatic and site oriented investigations that were carried out in a new rural development in the Upper-Egypt. Bioclimatic classifications considered Upper Egypt region, near Sudan border, as a Hot and Dry climatic region. [1]. that is affected by solar heat intensities that can reach 900 W/m2 for a period ranged from 5-to-7 hours per day with the presence of study storms. Cooling season extends up to eight months per year having Upper-day-bulb temperature ranged from 400 degree centigrade - to - 470 degree centigrade while Lower-dry-bulb-temperature ranged from 280 degree centigrade - to - 320 degree centigrade with the relative humidity ranged from 10%-to-37% RH. [2]. Site surveys and field experimental and analyses of the commonly used cooling systems were investigated, evaluated and optimized for optimum indoor comfort conditions at efficient energy efficiency. [3]. Extensive analyses were performed based on Psychrometric formulae to evaluate the impact of energy consumptions related to different cooling systems such as direct expansion, chilled water, and evaporative systems. the present study enables the critical investigations of the influence of arid outdoor conditions and the required indoor thermal parameters on the energy efficiencies of HVAC-system. This work; focuses on the suggestion of suitable system that should be implemented by local energy codes in these arid urban.(Author)

  10. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  11. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  12. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  13. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, V; Wang, Z; Ray, A; Ramanujan, R V; Sridhar, I

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (Δ T ) by ∼20 °C and ∼28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink. (letter)

  14. Laser cooling at resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Yaakov; Khaykovich, Lev

    2018-05-01

    We show experimentally that three-dimensional laser cooling of lithium atoms on the D2 line is possible when the laser light is tuned exactly to resonance with the dominant atomic transition. Qualitatively, it can be understood by applying simple Doppler cooling arguments to the specific hyperfine structure of the excited state of lithium atoms, which is both dense and inverted. However, to build a quantitative theory, we must resolve to a full model which takes into account both the entire atomic structure of all 24 Zeeman sublevels and the laser light polarization. Moreover, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that coherent processes play an important role in showing consistency between the theory and the experimental results.

  15. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  16. Cooling your home naturally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

  17. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  18. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A

    1976-01-01

    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  19. The timing of birds' breeding seasons : the Perrins hypothesis revisited especially for migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, Rudolf H.

    2006-01-01

    Perrins (1970) galvanized thinking on the timing of birds' breeding seasons by pointing out that most individuals laid too late for the offspring to profit fully from the seasonal peak of food abundance, and suggested that the proximate cause was a shortage of food for the female when forming the

  20. Cooling device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    Upon assembling a static container cooling system to an emergency reactor core cooling system using dynamic pumps in a power plant, the present invention provides a cooling device of lowered center of gravity and having a good cooling effect by lowering the position of a cooling water pool of the static container cooling system. Namely, the emergency reactor core cooling system injects water to the inside of a pressure vessel using emergency cooling water stored in a suppression pool as at least one water source upon loss of reactor coolant accident. In addition, a cooling water pool incorporating a heat exchanger is disposed at the circumference of the suppression pool at the outside of the container. A dry well and the heat exchanger are connected by way of steam supply pipes, and the heat exchanger is connected with the suppression pool by way of a gas exhaustion pipe and a condensate returning pipeline. With such a constitution, the position of the heat exchanger is made higher than an ordinary water level of the suppression pool. As a result, the emergency cooling water of the suppression pool water is injected to the pressure vessel by the operation of the reactor cooling pumps upon loss of coolant accident to cool the reactor core. (I.S.)

  1. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications

  2. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  3. Lamination cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  4. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  5. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  6. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  7. Proceedings: Cooling tower and advanced cooling systems conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference was held August 30 through September 1, 1994, in St. Petersburg, Florida. The conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and hosted by Florida Power Corporation to bring together utility representatives, manufacturers, researchers, and consultants. Nineteen technical papers were presented in four sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid systems. On the final day, panel discussions addressed current issues in cooling tower operation and maintenance as well as research and technology needs for power plant cooling. More than 100 people attended the conference. This report contains the technical papers presented at the conference. Of the 19 papers, five concern cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, five to cooling tower performance, four discuss cooling tower fouling, and five describe dry and hybrid cooling systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  8. Seasonality in the Austrian Economy: Common Seasonals and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Kunst, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Abstract: Seasonal cointegration generalizes the idea of cointegration to processes with unit roots at frequencies different from 0. Here, also the dual notion of common trends, "common seasonals", is adopted for the seasonal case. Using a five-variable macroeconomic core system of the Austrian economy, it is demonstrated how common seasonals and seasonal cointegrating vectors look in practice. Statistical tests provide clear evidence on seasonal cointegration in the system. However, it is sh...

  9. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, M; Mahalov, A; Moustaoui, M

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of natural to urban land forms imparts influence on local and regional hydroclimate via modification of the surface energy and water balance, and consideration of such effects due to rapidly expanding megapolitan areas is necessary in light of the growing global share of urban inhabitants. Based on a suite of ensemble-based, multi-year simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we quantify seasonally varying hydroclimatic impacts of the most rapidly expanding megapolitan area in the US: Arizona’s Sun Corridor, centered upon the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Using a scenario-based urban expansion approach that accounts for the full range of Sun Corridor growth uncertainty through 2050, we show that built environment induced warming for the maximum development scenario is greatest during the summer season (regionally averaged warming over AZ exceeds 1 °C). Warming remains significant during the spring and fall seasons (regionally averaged warming over AZ approaches 0.9 °C during both seasons), and is least during the winter season (regionally averaged warming over AZ of 0.5 °C). Impacts from a minimum expansion scenario are reduced, with regionally averaged warming ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 °C for all seasons except winter, when no warming impacts are diagnosed. Integration of highly reflective cool roofs within the built environment, increasingly recognized as a cost-effective option intended to offset the warming influence of urban complexes, reduces urban-induced warming considerably. However, impacts on the hydrologic cycle are aggravated via enhanced evapotranspiration reduction, leading to a 4% total accumulated precipitation decrease relative to the non-adaptive maximum expansion scenario. Our results highlight potentially unintended consequences of this adaptation approach within rapidly expanding megapolitan areas, and emphasize the need for undeniably sustainable development paths that account for

  10. Irrigation enhances local warming with greater nocturnal warming effects than daytime cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-02-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, land is being managed to be more productive using agricultural intensification practices, such as the use of irrigation. Understanding the specific environmental impacts of irrigation is a critical part of using it as a sustainable way to provide food security. However, our knowledge of irrigation effects on climate is still limited to daytime effects. This is a critical issue to define the effects of irrigation on warming related to greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study shows that irrigation led to an increasing temperature (0.002 °C year-1) by enhancing nighttime warming (0.009 °C year-1) more than daytime cooling (-0.007 °C year-1) during the dry season from 1961-2004 over the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of largest irrigated areas in the world. By implementing irrigation processes in regional climate model simulations, the consistent warming effect of irrigation on nighttime temperatures over the NCP was shown to match observations. The intensive nocturnal warming is attributed to energy storage in the wetter soil during the daytime, which contributed to the nighttime surface warming. Our results suggest that irrigation could locally amplify the warming related to GHGs, and this effect should be taken into account in future climate change projections.

  11. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  12. Discrimination of chicken seasonings and beef seasonings using electronic nose and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huaixiang; Li, Fenghua; Qin, Lan; Yu, Haiyan; Ma, Xia

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the feasibility of electronic nose as a method to discriminate chicken and beef seasonings and to predict sensory attributes. Sensory evaluation showed that 8 chicken seasonings and 4 beef seasonings could be well discriminated and classified based on 8 sensory attributes. The sensory attributes including chicken/beef, gamey, garlic, spicy, onion, soy sauce, retention, and overall aroma intensity were generated by a trained evaluation panel. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA), and cluster analysis (CA) combined with electronic nose were used to discriminate seasoning samples based on the difference of the sensor response signals of chicken and beef seasonings. The correlation between sensory attributes and electronic nose sensors signal was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The results showed that the seasoning samples were all correctly classified by the electronic nose combined with PCA, DFA, and CA. The electronic nose gave good prediction results for all the sensory attributes with correlation coefficient (r) higher than 0.8. The work indicated that electronic nose is an effective method for discriminating different seasonings and predicting sensory attributes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  14. Improve crossflow cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports how various crossflow cooling tower elements can be upgraded. A typical retrofit example is presented. In the past decade, cooling tower technology has progressed. If a cooling tower is over ten years old, chances are the heat transfer media and mechanical equipment were designed over 30 to 40 years ago. When a chemical plant expansion is projected or a facility desires to upgrade its equipment for greater output and energy efficiency, the cooling tower is usually neglected until someone discovers that the limiting factor of production is the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower

  15. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  16. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than any non-seasonal depressions. Symptoms of Major Depression Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  17. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  19. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  20. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during

  1. “Make starchy foods part of most meals”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-08

    Apr 8, 2013 ... plan meals around “starchy” or high-carbohydrate food, rather than protein food ..... reported higher availability and intake of vegetables and fruit in urban .... foods and products in airtight containers in a cool, dry place or in the ...

  2. Breeding phenology of birds: mechanisms underlying seasonal declines in the risk of nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi L Borgmann

    Full Text Available Seasonal declines in avian clutch size are well documented, but seasonal variation in other reproductive parameters has received less attention. For example, the probability of complete brood mortality typically explains much of the variation in reproductive success and often varies seasonally, but we know little about the underlying cause of that variation. This oversight is surprising given that nest predation influences many other life-history traits and varies throughout the breeding season in many songbirds. To determine the underlying causes of observed seasonal decreases in risk of nest predation, we modeled nest predation of Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri in northern California as a function of foliage phenology, energetic demand, developmental stage, conspecific nest density, food availability for nest predators, and nest predator abundance. Seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was not associated with seasonal changes in energetic demand, conspecific nest density, or predator abundance. Instead, seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was associated with foliage density (early, but not late, in the breeding season and seasonal changes in food available to nest predators. Supplemental food provided to nest predators resulted in a numerical response by nest predators, increasing the risk of nest predation at nests that were near supplemental feeders. Our results suggest that seasonal changes in foliage density and factors associated with changes in food availability for nest predators are important drivers of temporal patterns in risk of avian nest predation.

  3. Breeding phenology of birds: mechanisms underlying seasonal declines in the risk of nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Kathi L; Conway, Courtney J; Morrison, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal declines in avian clutch size are well documented, but seasonal variation in other reproductive parameters has received less attention. For example, the probability of complete brood mortality typically explains much of the variation in reproductive success and often varies seasonally, but we know little about the underlying cause of that variation. This oversight is surprising given that nest predation influences many other life-history traits and varies throughout the breeding season in many songbirds. To determine the underlying causes of observed seasonal decreases in risk of nest predation, we modeled nest predation of Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) in northern California as a function of foliage phenology, energetic demand, developmental stage, conspecific nest density, food availability for nest predators, and nest predator abundance. Seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was not associated with seasonal changes in energetic demand, conspecific nest density, or predator abundance. Instead, seasonal variation in the risk of nest predation was associated with foliage density (early, but not late, in the breeding season) and seasonal changes in food available to nest predators. Supplemental food provided to nest predators resulted in a numerical response by nest predators, increasing the risk of nest predation at nests that were near supplemental feeders. Our results suggest that seasonal changes in foliage density and factors associated with changes in food availability for nest predators are important drivers of temporal patterns in risk of avian nest predation.

  4. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  5. Illumination and radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Shanhui; Raman, Aaswath Pattabhi; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden

    2018-03-20

    Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to providing and/or controlling electromagnetic radiation. As may be implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus includes a first structure that contains an object, and a second structure that is transparent at solar wavelengths and emissive in the atmospheric electromagnetic radiation transparency window. The second structure operates with the first structure to pass light into the first structure for illuminating the object, and to radiatively cool the object while preserving the object's color.

  6. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  7. Gas cooled HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.

    1985-01-01

    In the He-cooled, graphite-moderated HTR with spherical fuel elements, the steam generator is fixed outside the pressure vessel. The heat exchangers are above the reactor level. The hot gases stream from the reactor bottom over the heat exchanger, through an annular space around the heat exchanger and through feed lines in the side reflector of the reactor back to its top part. This way, in case of shutdown there is a supplementary natural draught that helps the inner natural circulation (chimney draught effect). (orig./PW)

  8. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  9. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation &

  11. Cooling power technology at a turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hese, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    From freshwater cooling and efflux condenser cooling to wet recirculation cooling, hybrid and dry cooling towers, cooling tower technology has seen a development characterized by higher cooling tower costs and reduced power plant efficiency. Therefore, all research work done at the moment concentrates on making up for the economic losses connected with improved environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  12. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  13. The importance of warm season warming to western U.S. streamflow changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Cayan, D.R.; Vano, J.A.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Warm season climate warming will be a key driver of annual streamflow changes in four major river basins of the western U.S., as shown by hydrological model simulations using fixed precipitation and idealized seasonal temperature changes based on climate projections with SRES A2 forcing. Warm season (April-September) warming reduces streamflow throughout the year; streamflow declines both immediately and in the subsequent cool season. Cool season (October-March) warming, by contrast, increases streamflow immediately, partially compensating for streamflow reductions during the subsequent warm season. A uniform warm season warming of 3C drives a wide range of annual flow declines across the basins: 13.3%, 7.2%, 1.8%, and 3.6% in the Colorado, Columbia, Northern and Southern Sierra basins, respectively. The same warming applied during the cool season gives annual declines of only 3.5%, 1.7%, 2.1%, and 3.1%, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Modelization of cooling system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copete, Monica; Ortega, Silvia; Vaquero, Jose Carlos; Cervantes, Eva [Westinghouse Electric (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the site evaluation study for licensing a new nuclear power facility, the criteria involved could be grouped in health and safety, environment, socio-economics, engineering and cost-related. These encompass different aspects such as geology, seismology, cooling system requirements, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on. The selection of the cooling system is function of different parameters as the gross electrical output, energy consumption, available area for cooling system components, environmental conditions, water consumption, and others. Moreover, in recent years, extreme environmental conditions have been experienced and stringent water availability limits have affected water use permits. Therefore, modifications or alternatives of current cooling system designs and operation are required as well as analyses of the different possibilities of cooling systems to optimize energy production taking into account water consumption among other important variables. There are two basic cooling system configurations: - Once-through or Open-cycle; - Recirculating or Closed-cycle. In a once-through cooling system (or open-cycle), water from an external water sources passes through the steam cycle condenser and is then returned to the source at a higher temperature with some level of contaminants. To minimize the thermal impact to the water source, a cooling tower may be added in a once-through system to allow air cooling of the water (with associated losses on site due to evaporation) prior to returning the water to its source. This system has a high thermal efficiency, and its operating and capital costs are very low. So, from an economical point of view, the open-cycle is preferred to closed-cycle system, especially if there are no water limitations or environmental restrictions. In a recirculating system (or closed-cycle), cooling water exits the condenser, goes through a fixed heat sink, and is then returned to the condenser. This configuration

  15. Review of cavity optomechanical cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong-Chun; Hu Yu-Wen; Xiao Yun-Feng; Wong Chee Wei

    2013-01-01

    Quantum manipulation of macroscopic mechanical systems is of great interest in both fundamental physics and applications ranging from high-precision metrology to quantum information processing. For these purposes, a crucial step is to cool the mechanical system to its quantum ground state. In this review, we focus on the cavity optomechanical cooling, which exploits the cavity enhanced interaction between optical field and mechanical motion to reduce the thermal noise. Recent remarkable theoretical and experimental efforts in this field have taken a major step forward in preparing the motional quantum ground state of mesoscopic mechanical systems. This review first describes the quantum theory of cavity optomechanical cooling, including quantum noise approach and covariance approach; then, the up-to-date experimental progresses are introduced. Finally, new cooling approaches are discussed along the directions of cooling in the strong coupling regime and cooling beyond the resolved sideband limit. (topical review - quantum information)

  16. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  17. COOLING STAGES OF CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Троценко, А. В.

    2011-01-01

    The formalized definition for cooling stage of low temperature system is done. Based on existing information about the known cryogenic unit cycles the possible types of cooling stages are single out. From analyses of these stages their classification by various characteristics is suggested. The results of thermodynamic optimization of final throttle stage of cooling, which are used as working fluids helium, hydrogen and nitrogen, are shown.

  18. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquinelli, R.J. E-mail: pasquin@fnal.gov

    2004-10-11

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  19. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.

    2004-10-01

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  20. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented

  1. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  2. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  3. System performance and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-11-01

    The long-term system simulation and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system (SACH-2) was carried out in order to find an economical design. The solar heat driven ejector cooling system (ECS) is used to provide part of the cooling load to reduce the energy consumption of the air conditioner installed as the base-load cooler. A standard SACH-2 system for cooling load 3.5. kW (1. RT) and daily cooling time 10 h is used for case study. The cooling performance is assumed only in summer seasons from May to October. In winter season from November to April, only heat is supplied. Two installation locations (Taipei and Tainan) were examined.It was found from the cooling performance simulation that in order to save 50% energy of the air conditioner, the required solar collector area is 40m2 in Taipei and 31m2 in Tainan, for COPj=0.2. If the solar collector area is designed as 20m2, the solar ejector cooling system will supply about 17-26% cooling load in Taipei in summer season and about 21-27% cooling load in Tainan. Simulation for long-term performance including cooling in summer (May-October) and hot water supply in winter (November-April) was carried out to determine the monthly-average energy savings. The corresponding daily hot water supply (with 40°C temperature rise of water) for 20m2 solar collector area is 616-858L/day in Tainan and 304-533L/day in Taipei.The economic analysis shows that the payback time of SACH-2 decreases with increasing cooling capacity. The payback time is 4.8. years in Tainan and 6.2. years in Taipei when the cooling capacity >10. RT. If the ECS is treated as an additional device used as a protective equipment to avoid overheating of solar collectors and to convert the excess solar heat in summer into cooling to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioner, the payback time is less than 3 years for cooling capacity larger than 3. RT. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  5. Theory of tapered laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiromi; Wei, J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of tapered laser cooling for fast circulating ion beams in a storage ring is constructed. The authors describe the fundamentals of this new cooling scheme, emphasizing that it might be the most promising way to beam crystallization. The cooling rates are analytically evaluated to study the ideal operating condition. They discuss the physical implication of the tapering factor of cooling laser, and show how to determine its optimum value. Molecular dynamics method is employed to demonstrate the validity of the present theory

  6. A study of the passive cooling potential in simulated building in Latvian climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozuments, A.; Vanags, I.; Borodinecs, A.; Millers, R.; Tumanova, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper authors point out that overheating in buildings during summer season is a major problem in moderate and cold climates, not only in warm climate zones. Mostly caused by solar heat gains, especially in buildings with large glazed areas overheating is a common problem in recently constructed low-energy buildings. At the same time, comfort demands are increasing. While heating loads can be decreased by improving the insulation of the building envelope, cooling loads are also affecting total energy demand. Passive cooling solutions allow reduction of heat gains, and thus reducing the cooling loads. There is a significant night cooling potential with low temperatures at night during summer in moderate and cold climates. Night cooling is based on cooling of buildings thermal mass during the night and heat accumulation during the day. This approach allows to provide thermal comfort, reducing cooling loads during the day. Authors investigate thermal comfort requirements and causes for discomfort. Passive cooling methods are described. The simulation modeling is carried out to analyze impact of constructions and building orientation on energy consumption for cooling using the IDA-ICE software. Main criteria for simulation analysis are energy consumption for cooling and thermal comfort.

  7. Water cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a cooling water intake collector for a nuclear reactor. It includes multiple sub-collectors extending out in a generally parallel manner to each other, each one having a first end and a second one separated along their length, and multiple water outlets for connecting each one to a corresponding pressure tube of the reactor. A first end tube and a second one connect the sub-collector tubes together to their first and second ends respectively. It also includes multiple collector tubes extending transversely by crossing over the sub-collector tubes and separated from each other in the direction of these tubes. Each collector tubes has a water intake for connecting to a water pump and multiple connecting tubes separated over its length and connecting each one to the corresponding sub-collector [fr

  8. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  10. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  11. Analytical Assessment of Environmental Impact for APR1400DC UHS Cooling Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaiho [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Hot process water is pumped from the plant process to the cooling towers. Heat is rejected through evaporation of the process water, interacting with ambient air blown upward by fans.. Plumes generated from exit ports of the cooling tower may have adverse effects on the environment, such as deposition of cooling tower drift release, fogging, icing, shadowing, and ground-level temperature and humidity increase. These kinds of environmental impact of the cooling tower are linked closely with the dispersion of the cooling tower plumes. In this respect, predicting the behavior of the plumes has become one of the most important issues in the environmental assessments of the cooling towers. The SACTI (seasonal/annual cooling tower impact) model is an analytical tool to predict the environmental effect of cooling tower, which was developed by Argonne National Laboratory and University of Illinois with support from EPRI (electric power research institute). The initial version of SACTI has been widely used to assess the environmental effect of cooling towers in many industrial fields such as steam power plants and NPPs. Guo et. al. investigated impact of heat rejection and cooling tower height on plume dispersion using the SACTI model, for the purpose of the future construction of inland NPPs. They found that increasing cooling tower height decreases the plume length and height frequencies. Their simulation results showed that the increase in heat rejection increases the plum radius frequency. The APR1400DC is an advanced light water reactor developed for the purpose of NRC-DC (design certification). The cooling towers for APR1400DC UHS consist of two linear mechanical draft cooling towers (LMDCTs). The LMDCT for APR1400DC UHS is conceptually designed because the plant site has not been decided yet. In the present study, the dependency of plume dispersion on the number of cooling towers is investigated using SACTI-2-beta, for predicting annual environmental effect of APR

  12. Core catcher cooling for a gas-cooled fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-01-01

    Water, molten salts, and liquid metals are under discussion as coolants for the core catcher of a gas-cooled fast breeder. The authors state that there is still no technically mature method of cooling a core melt. However, the investigations carried out so far suggest that there is a solution to this problem. (RW/AK) [de

  13. Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2003-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

  14. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY AND ITS CONTROL IN SPANISH SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Gómez Brunet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat breeds from subtropical, middle and high latitudes show seasonal changes in reproductive activity. In general, the breeding season starts in autumn and ends in winter, with anoestrus in spring/summer. An endogenous circannual rhythm driven and synchronised by the annual photoperiod cycle regulates the onset and offset of the breeding season. However, the timing and duration of the breeding season can be affected by interactions between the photoperiod and factors such as breed, geographical origin, nutritional and lactational status, social interactions, and the season of parturition. Seasonality in reproduction is naturally accompanied by variation in the availability and price of meat, milk and cheese over the year, affecting the economy of farmers, consumers and the food industry alike. The control of reproduction outside the normal breeding season by inducing and synchronizing oestrus and ovulation plus the use of artificial insemination and/or natural mating would help ensure the year-round availability of products. This review describes the seasonal variation in the sexual activity of ovine and caprine species with special regard to local Spanish sheep and goats breeds, examines how the photoperiod regulates their annual reproductive cycle, and discusses a number of strategies that can be used to induce and synchronise ovulation outside the natural breeding season.

  15. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  16. Semeadura direta de forrageiras de estação fria em campo natural com aplicação de herbicidas: I. Produção de forragem e contribuição relativa das espécies No-till seeding of cool season forages on native pasture with herbicides application: I. Forage yield and relative contribution of plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez Gomar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os campos naturais apresentam estacionalidade na sua produção forrageira, a qual pode ser atenuada com a introdução de espécies de estação fria através de semeadura direta, aumentando a produção forrageira no inverno. Durante quatro anos, conduziu-se um experimento de semeadura direta de forragem de inverno, sobre campo nativo, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, de textura superficial arenosa do norte do Uruguai. Em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas sub-subdivididas, foram testadas doses de herbicidas (glifosate 1L ha-1, glifosate 4L ha-1, paraquat 3L ha-1 e testemunha, como tratamento principal, aplicadas no ano 1994. A repetição ou não das mesmas doses no ano 1995 constituiu-se na subparcela, e a aplicação ou não das mesmas doses no ano 1996 constituiu-se na sub-subparcela. Os resultados mostraram que o maior distúrbio sobre a produção de forrageiras e contribuição das espécies do campo nativo foi provocado com a aplicação continuada de herbicidas sistêmicos na maior dose. Quando não foi aplicado herbicida (testemunha havia onze espécies e com aplicação de glifosate 4L ha-1 havia seis espécies, bem como ocorreu uma substituição de espécies perenes por anuais. O herbicida paraquat e a dose baixa de glifosate mostraram efeitos intermediários entre o observado no campo nativo semeado com triticale e azevém sem tratar com herbicida e os provocados com glifosate na dose alta. Por outro lado, os rendimentos de matéria seca das espécies forrageiras invernais semeadas foram 63% maiores na dose mais alta de glifosate do que na testemunha, devido a um maior controle da competição que exercia o campo nativo.Natural grasslands have great seasonal fluctuation of forage production. The winter forage production may be increased using cool-season forage species established with no-till, reducing seasonal fluctuations. An experiment with winter grasses (black oat and rye grass no-till sown on native grasses, was

  17. Espectro alimentar e variação sazonal da dieta de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil = Food spectrum and seasonal variation of the diet of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae in Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Almeida Gavilan Leandro da Costa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a dieta e as variações sazonais na alimentação de Plagioscion squamosissimus, capturados mensalmente, na lagoa do Piató, Assu, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, entre agosto de 2004 e julho de 2005, com despescas em horários específicos. Em laboratório, após a biometria, os peixes foram abertos e eviscerados. Sob microscópio estereoscópico, analisaram-se os conteúdos estomacais, cujos itens, depois de identificados, tiveram o seu volume medido. Foram calculadas as frequências de ocorrência e volumétrica e o índice alimentar. Agruparam-se os itens em sete categorias principais, e camarão e insetos foram as predominantes. A categorização dos itens permitiu classificar a espécie como carnívora com tendência a carcinofagia-insetivoria. Quanto à sazonalidade, observouse uma alternância dos itens de acordo com as estações do ano: os insetos predominaram na estação seca e o camarão se sobressaiu na estação chuvosa. Considerando os períodos de captura, observou-se hábito crepuscular-noturno, e os horários de atividade também são marcados por diferenças no tipo de alimento consumido, pois o item camarão predominou nas horas de menor luminosidade; o item insetos, nas horas mais claras.The diet and seasonal variations in the feeding of Plagioscion squamosissimus were evaluated. Fishes were captured monthly at the Piató Lagoon, Assu, Rio Grande do Norte State, from August of 2004 to July of 2005, examined at a specific time of day. In laboratory, after obtaining the biometric data, fishes were opened and the guts extracted. The stomach contents were analyzed under stereoscopic microscope, and its items were identified and their volume was measured. Occurrence and volumetric frequencies and the food index were calculated. The items were grouped in seven main categories; shrimp and insects were predominant. The item classification made it possible to classify the species as carnivorous with carcinophagous

  18. Cooling Tower Overhaul of Secondary Cooling System in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Young Sub; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor of 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating normally since its initial criticality in February, 1995. For the last about ten years, A cooling tower of a secondary cooling system has been operated normally in HANARO. Last year, the cooling tower has been overhauled for preservative maintenance including fills, eliminators, wood support, water distribution system, motors, driving shafts, gear reducers, basements, blades and etc. This paper describes the results of the overhaul. As results, it is confirmed that the cooling tower maintains a good operability through a filed test. And a cooling capability will be tested when a wet bulb temperature is maintained about 28 .deg. C in summer and the reactor is operated with the full power.

  19. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der, S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation & storage. The project was aimed to create innovative combinations of these renewable cooling technologies and sophisticated control systems, to design renewable climate systems for various applicati...

  20. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  1. Seasonal atmospheric extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Mean monochromatic extinction coefficients at various wavelengths at the Kottamia Observatory site have shown the existence of a seasonal variation of atmospheric extinction. The extinction of aerosol compontnts with wavelengths at winter represent exceedingly good conditions. Spring gives the highest extinction due to aerosol. (orig.)

  2. Seasonality of Rural Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  3. The Hungry Season

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    start to go some way towards addressing this fundamental question. A delightful animation of The Hungry Season, commissioned by Leonie Joubert and funded by the University of Cape Town's Criminology. Department and the Embassy of Finland, is available online at http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=iX77NZttLKo.

  4. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  5. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  6. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  7. Radiation processing of food - safety and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Food is vital for human existence. Conservation and preservation of food is a prerequisite for food security and it provides economic stability and self-reliance to a nation. The need to preserve food has been felt by mankind since time immemorial. The seasonal nature of production, long distances between production and consumption centres and rising gap between demand and supply have made this need even more relevant today

  8. Integration of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a same vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooked vegetables are commonly used in the preparation of ready-to-eat foods. The integration of cooking and cooling of carrots and vacuum cooling in a single vessel is described in this paper. The combination of different methods of cooking and vacuum cooling was investigated. Integrated processes of cooking and vacuum cooling in a same vessel enabled obtaining cooked and cooled carrots at the final temperature of 10 ºC, which is adequate for preparing ready-to-eat foods safely. When cooking and cooling steps were performed with the samples immersed in boiling water, the effective weight loss was approximately 3.6%. When the cooking step was performed with the samples in boiling water or steamed, and the vacuum cooling was applied after draining the boiling water, water loss ranged between 15 and 20%, which caused changes in the product texture. This problem can be solved with rehydration using a small amount of sterile cold water. The instrumental textural properties of carrots samples rehydrated at both vacuum and atmospheric conditions were very similar. Therefore, the integrated process of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a single vessel is a feasible alternative for processing such kind of foods.

  9. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  10. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  11. Core cooling system for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Ryoichi; Amada, Tatsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the function of residual heat dissipation from the reactor core in case of emergency by providing a secondary cooling system flow channel, through which fluid having been subjected to heat exchange with the fluid flowing in a primary cooling system flow channel flows, with a core residual heat removal system in parallel with a main cooling system provided with a steam generator. Constitution: Heat generated in the core during normal reactor operation is transferred from a primary cooling system flow channel to a secondary cooling system flow channel through a main heat exchanger and then transferred through a steam generator to a water-steam system flow channel. In the event if removal of heat from the core by the main cooling system becomes impossible due to such cause as breakage of the duct line of the primary cooling system flow channel or a trouble in a primary cooling system pump, a flow control valve is opened, and steam generator inlet and outlet valves are closed, thus increasing the flow rate in the core residual heat removal system. Thereafter, a blower is started to cause dissipation of the core residual heat from the flow channel of a system for heat dissipation to atmosphere. (Seki, T.)

  12. Theory of semiconductor laser cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, Greg

    Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order to study semiconductor laser cooling at cryogenic temperatures, it is crucial that the theory include both the effects of excitons and the electron-hole plasma. In this dissertation, I present a theoretical analysis of laser cooling of bulk GaAs based on a microscopic many-particle theory of absorption and luminescence of a partially ionized electron-hole plasma. This theory has been analyzed from a temperature 10K to 500K. It is shown that at high temperatures (above 300K), cooling can be modeled using older models with a few parameter changes. Below 200K, band filling effects dominate over Auger recombination. Below 30K excitonic effects are essential for laser cooling. In all cases, excitonic effects make cooling easier then predicted by a free carrier model. The initial cooling model is based on the assumption of a homogeneous undoped semiconductor. This model has been systematically modified to include effects that are present in real laser cooling experiments. The following modifications have been performed. (1) Propagation and polariton effects have been included. (2) The effect of p-doping has been included. (n-doping can be modeled in a similar fashion.) (3) In experiments, a passivation layer is required to minimize non-radiative recombination. The passivation results in a npn heterostructure. The effect of the npn heterostructure on cooling has been analyzed. (4) The effect of a Gaussian pump beam was analyzed and (5) Some of the parameters in the cooling model have a large uncertainty. The effect of modifying these parameters has been analyzed. Most of the extensions to the original theory have only had a modest effect on the overall results. However we find that the current passivation technique may not be sufficient to allow cooling. The passivation technique currently used appears

  13. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  14. Cooling off with physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Chris [Unilever R and D (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    You might think of ice cream as a delicious treat to be enjoyed on a sunny summer's day. However, to the ice-cream scientists who recently gathered in Thessaloniki in Greece for the 2nd International Ice Cream Symposium, it is a complex composite material. Ice cream consists of three dispersed phases: ice crystals, which have a mean size of 50 microns, air bubbles with a diameter of about 70 microns, and fat droplets with a size of 1 micron. These phases are held together by what is called the matrix - not a sci-fi film, but a viscous solution of sugars, milk proteins and polysaccharides. The microstructure, and hence the texture that you experience when you eat ice cream, is created in a freezing process that has remained fundamentally unchanged since the first ice-cream maker was patented in the 1840s. The ingredients - water, milk protein, fat, sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flavours and a lot of air - are mixed together before being pasteurized and homogenized. They are then pumped into a cylinder that is cooled from the outside with a refrigerant. As the mixture touches the cylinder wall it freezes and forms ice crystals, which are quickly scraped off by a rotating blade. The blade is attached to a beater that disperses the ice crystals into the mixture. At the same time, air is injected and broken down into small bubbles by the shear that the beater generates. As the mixture passes along the cylinder, the number of ice crystals increases and its temperature drops. As a result, the viscosity of the mixture increases, so that more energy input is needed to rotate the beater. This energy is dissipated as heat, and when the ice cream reaches about -6 deg. C the energy input through the beater equals the energy removed as heat by the refrigerant. The process therefore becomes self-limiting and it is not possible to cool the ice cream any further. However, at -6 deg. C the microstructure is unstable. The ice cream therefore has to be removed from the freezer

  15. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens and Molds in Turkish Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Sebnem Ozturkogu-Budak

    2016-01-01

    A survey of the occurrence of food pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia, Clostridium, Bacillus and Staphylococcus analyses were performed on 301 food samples from 8 different food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, fish, frozen foods, deserts, nuts and vegetables and fruits. Yeast and mold analyses were also performed on 364 food products from 9 main food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, seasonings, deserts, nuts, bee product...

  16. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  17. Study on the Application of Cool Paintings for the Passive Cooling of Existing Buildings in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building roofs play a very important role in the energy balance of buildings, especially in summer, when they are hit by a rather high solar irradiance. Depending on the type of finishing layer, roofs can absorb a great amount of heat and reach quite high temperatures on their outermost surface, which determines significant room overheating. However, the use of highly reflectivecool materials can help to maintain low outer surface temperatures; this practice may improve indoor thermal comfort and reduce the cooling energy need during the hot season. This technology is currently well known and widely used in the USA, whilereceiving increasing attention in Europe. In order to investigate the effectiveness of cool roofs as a passive strategy for passive cooling in moderately hot climates, this paper presents the numerical results of a case study based on the dynamic thermal analysis of an existing office building in Catania (southern Italy, Mediterranean area. The results show how the application of a cool paint on the roof can enhance the thermal comfort of the occupants by reducing the operative temperatures of the rooms and to reduce the overall energy needs of the building for space heating and cooling.

  18. The Food and Feeding Habits of Phractolaemus anosrgii (Boulenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and feeding habits of Phractolaemus ansorgii (Boulenger) obtained from the Warri River, Nigeria are discussed. The main food items were detritus, algae, dominated by the Bacillariophyceae and sand grains. The feeding habits varied seasonally and with fish size. The fish fed more actively in the dry season while ...

  19. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  20. Estimates of eddy turbulence consistent with seasonal variations of atomic oxygen and its possible role in the seasonal cycle of mesopause temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available According to current understanding, adiabatic cooling and heating induced by the meridional circulation driven by gravity waves is the major process for the cold summer and warm winter polar upper mesosphere. However, our calculations show that the upward/downward motion needed for adiabatic cooling/heating of the summer/winter polar mesopause simultaneously induces a seasonal variation in both the O maximum density and the altitude of the [O] peak that is opposite to the observed variables generalized by the MSISE-90 model. It is usually accepted that eddy turbulence can produce the [O] seasonal variations. Using this approach, we can infer the eddy diffusion coefficient for the different seasons. Taking these results and experimental data on the eddy diffusion coefficient, we consider in detail and estimate the heating and cooling caused by eddy turbulence in the summer and winter polar upper mesosphere. The seasonal variations of these processes are similar to the seasonal variations of the temperature and mesopause. These results lead to the conclusion that heating/cooling by eddy turbulence is an important component in the energy budget and that adiabatic cooling/heating induced by upward/downward motion cannot dominate in the mesopause region. Our study shows that the impact of the dynamic process, induced by gravity waves, on [O] distributions must be included in models of thermal balance in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT for a consistent description because (a the [O] distribution is very sensitive to dynamic processes, and (b atomic oxygen plays a very important role in chemical heating and infrared cooling in the MLT. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to consider this aspect of the problem.

  1. Radiant floor cooling coupled with dehumidification systems in residential buildings: A simulation-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Peretti, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The floor radiant cooling in a typical apartment is analyzed. • Dehumidification devices, fan-coil and mechanical ventilation are compared. • The results are analyzed in terms of both thermal comfort and energy consumption. • The energy consumption of the dehumidifiers is higher than that of other systems. • The mechanical ventilation decreases the moisture level better than other systems. - Abstract: The development of radiant cooling has stimulated an interest in new systems based on coupling ventilation with radiant cooling. However, radiant cooling systems may cause condensation to form on an active surface under warm and humid conditions during the cooling season. This phenomenon occurs when surface temperature falls below dew point. To prevent condensation, air humidity needs to be reduced with a dehumidification device or a mechanical ventilation system. There are two main options to achieve this. The first is to use dehumidification devices that reduce humidity, but are not coupled with ventilation, i.e. devices that handle room air and leave air change to infiltrations. The second is to combine a mechanical ventilation system with dehumidifying finned coils. This study analyzes the floor radiant cooling of a typical residential apartment within a multi-storey building in three Italian climate zones by means of a detailed simulation tool. Five systems were compared in terms of both indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption: radiant cooling without dehumidification; radiant cooling with a soft dehumidification device; radiant cooling with a dehumidification device which also supplies sensible cooling; radiant cooling coupled with fan coils; and radiant cooling with a mechanical ventilation system which dehumidifies and cools

  2. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  4. Magnet cooling economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Liggett, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The recommendation to use superfluid helium II in superconducting magnet design has become more prevalent in recent years. Advanced fusion reactor studies such as the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study recently completed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLML) have based superconducting magnet design on the use of He II because of reduced magnet volume, improved stability characteristics, or increased superconductor critical current at fields above 9 Tesla. This paper reports the results of a study to determine the capital costs ($/watt) and the operating costs (watts/watt) of refrigeration systems in the 1.8K to 300K temperature range. The cost data is applied to a 1.8K magnet that is subject to neutronic heating wherein the magnet case is insulated from the winding so that the case can be cooled at a higher temperature (less costly) than the winding. The life cycle cost (capital plus operating) is reported as a function of coil temperature and insulation thickness. In some cases there is an optimum, least-cost thickness. In addition, the basic data can be used to evaluate the impact of neutron shielding effectiveness trades on the combined shield, magnet, cryorefrigerator, and operating life cycle cost

  5. Multi-Decadal Global Cooling and Unprecedented Ozone Loss Following a Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Toon, O. B.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea-ice and land models (Mills et al., 2014). A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15-kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon. This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)), we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric black carbon, compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies (figure panel a). Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years (figure panel c). We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30-80% over Mid-Latitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years, due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of the more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today. Mills, M. J., O. B. Toon, J. Lee-Taylor, and A. Robock (2014), Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict, Earth's Future, 2(4), 161-176, doi:10.1002/2013EF000205.

  6. Solar Sustainable Heating, Cooling and Ventilation of a Net Zero Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Skrupskelis, Martynas; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    Present work addresses the heating, cooling and ventilation concerns of the Technical University of Denmark’s house, Fold, for Solar Decathlon Europe 2012. Various innovative approaches are investigated, namely, utilization of ground, photo-voltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels and phase change materials...... (PCM). The ground heat exchanger acts as the heat sink and heat source for cooling and heating seasons, respectively. Free cooling enables the same cooling effect to be delivered with 8% of the energy consumption of a representative chiller. The heating and cooling needs of the house are addressed...... by the embedded pipes which are coupled with the ground. Ventilation is mainly used to control the humidity and to remove sensory and chemical pollution. PV/T panels enable the house to be a “plus” energy house. PV/T also yields to a solar fraction of 63% and 31% for Madrid and Copenhagen, respectively...

  7. Performance analysis of phase-change material storage unit for both heating and cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Adeel; Ali, Majid; Ud Din, Zia

    2017-04-01

    Utilisation of solar energy and the night ambient (cool) temperatures are the passive ways of heating and cooling of buildings. Intermittent and time-dependent nature of these sources makes thermal energy storage vital for efficient and continuous operation of these heating and cooling techniques. Latent heat thermal energy storage by phase-change materials (PCMs) is preferred over other storage techniques due to its high-energy storage density and isothermal storage process. The current study was aimed to evaluate the performance of the air-based PCM storage unit utilising solar energy and cool ambient night temperatures for comfort heating and cooling of a building in dry-cold and dry-hot climates. The performance of the studied PCM storage unit was maximised when the melting point of the PCM was ∼29°C in summer and 21°C during winter season. The appropriate melting point was ∼27.5°C for all-the-year-round performance. At lower melting points than 27.5°C, declination in the cooling capacity of the storage unit was more profound as compared to the improvement in the heating capacity. Also, it was concluded that the melting point of the PCM that provided maximum cooling during summer season could be used for winter heating also but not vice versa.

  8. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  9. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  10. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  12. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  13. Stochastic cooling in muon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10 30 cm -2 s -1 as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to ∼10 3 for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW

  14. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  15. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  16. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...

  17. Cool and dry weather enhances the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-20

    Associations between ambient pollution and cardiovascular morbidity including ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been confirmed. Weather factors such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH) may modify the effects of pollution. We conducted this study to examine the effects of air pollution on emergency IHD hospital admissions varied across seasons and RH levels, and to explore the possible joint modification of weather factors on pollution effects. Daily time series of air pollution concentrations, mean temperature and RH were collected from IHD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 in Hong Kong. We used generalized additive Poisson models with interaction term to estimate the pollution effects varied across seasons and RH levels, after adjusting for time trends, weather conditions, and influenza outbreaks. An increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in cool season and on low humidity days was observed. In the cool and dry season, a 10 μg/m(3) increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase of emergency IHD admissions by 1.82% (95% CI: 1.24-2.40%), 3.89% (95% CI: 3.08-4.70%), and 2.19% (95% CI: 1.33-3.06%) for particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3), respectively. The effects of pollutants decreased greatly and lost statistical significance in the warm and humid season. We found season and RH jointly modified the associations between ambient pollution and IHD admissions, resulting in increased IHD admissions in the cool and dry season and reduced admissions in the warm and humid season. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid cooling tower Neckarwestheim 2 cooling function, emission, plume dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuning, G.; Ernst, G.; Maeule, R.; Necker, P.

    1990-01-01

    The fan-assisted hybrid cooling tower of the 1300 MW power plant Gemeinschafts-Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim 2 was designed and constructed based on results from theoretical and experimental studies and experiences from a smaller prototype. The wet part acts in counterflow. The dry part is arranged above the wet part. Each part contains 44 fans. Special attention was payed to the ducts which mix the dry into the wet plume. The cooling function and state, mass flow and contents of the emission were measured. The dispersion of the plume in the atmosphere was observed. The central results are presented in this paper. The cooling function corresponds to the predictions. The content of drifted cooling water in the plume is extremely low. The high velocity of the plume in the exit causes an undisturbed flow into the atmosphere. The hybrid operation reduces visible plumes strongly, especially in warmer and drier ambient air

  19. Emergency cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.K.; Burylo, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    The site of the gas-cooled reactor with direct-circuit gas turbine is preferably the sea coast. An emergency cooling system with safety valve and emergency feed-water addition is designed which affects at least a part of the reactor core coolant after leaving the core. The emergency cooling system includes a water emergency cooling circuit with heat exchanger for the core coolant. The safety valve releases water or steam from the emergency coolant circuit when a certain temperature is exceeded; this is, however, replaced by the emergency feed-water. If the gas turbine exhibits a high and low pressure turbine stage, which are flowed through by coolant one behind another, a part of the coolant can be removed in front of each part turbine by two valves and be added to the haet exchanger. (RW/LH) [de

  20. The Cool 100 book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J.; Pointing, D.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of The Cool 100 book is to document 100 inspiring, educational and practical examples of sustainable and accessible energy supply solutions created by, or suitable for, isolated communities in the cooler regions of the world. The book features the following projects, explored in detail: 1. Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project, a pioneering project that demonstrates how wind power and hydrogen technologies can be combined to meet the energy needs of a remote industrial estate on the island of Unst in the British Isles. 2. The EDISON project, or Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks that explored increased renewable energy use and electric vehicle operation in Denmark, with a case study on the island of Bornholm. 3. The Sarfannguit Wireless Electricity Reading project, which has significantly improved utility metering and enabled improved energy management, reduced electricity demand, and the introduction of renewable energy technologies in the isolated villages of Greenland. 4. The Renewable Energy Croft and Hydrogen facility, which uses innovative technologies to support a gardening facility in the Outer Hebrides (Scotland), and is also a working laboratory for students of the local university to develop a hydrogen energy economy. 5. The Samsoe Renewable Energy Island in Denmark, an iconic example of how an island community can consume only green electricity by using a range of innovative technologies and behavioural changes to reduce demand and to harness green energy resources. 6. The Hydrogen Office Project which demonstrates how a commercial office in the coastal town of Methil in Scotland can be supported by a novel renewable, hydrogen and fuel cell energy system, and how the local community is engaged with the project. 7. The Northern Sustainable House in Nunavut, Canada, which explores the process and results of a project to design and implement housing for local families that

  1. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  2. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  3. Consumer Acceptance Comparison Between Seasoned and Unseasoned Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiming; Albiol Tapia, Marta; Okada, Kyle; Castaneda Lazo, Nuria Blanca; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Phillips, Carter; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2018-02-01

    Recent findings show that approximately 87% of the U.S. population fail to meet the vegetable intake recommendations, with unpleasant taste of vegetables being listed as the primary reason for this shortfall. In this study, spice and herb seasoning was used to enhance palatability of vegetables, in order to increase consumer acceptance. In total, 749 panelists were screened and recruited as specific vegetable likers of the vegetable being tested or general vegetable likers. Four sessions were designed to evaluate the effect of seasoning within each type of vegetable, including broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, and green bean. Each panelist was only allowed to participate in one test session to evaluate only one vegetable type, so as to mitigate potential learning effect. Overall, the results showed that seasoned vegetables were significantly preferred over unseasoned vegetables (P trend of seasoned vegetable being preferred remained. The findings from this study demonstrate the effect of seasoning in enhancing consumer liking of vegetables, which may lead to increased consumption to be assessed in future studies. To improve the sensory properties of vegetables, masking the bitter taste of vegetables using spice and herb seasoning are gaining increasing attention. Our findings suggest that the overall liking of vegetables could be improved by incorporating spice and herb seasonings that are specifically formulated for each vegetable. Ultimately, developing and commercializing spice and herb seasonings may aid to increase vegetable consumption, as well as expanding the vegetable seasoning market. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  4. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  5. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  6. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  7. NEW SEASON NEW HOPES: OFF-SEASON OPTIMISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Ersan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While literature on the relation between on-field sports performance and stock returns is ample, there is very limited evidence on off-season stage. Constituting around 3 months, off-seasons do not only occupy a significant part of the year but also represent totally different characteristics than on-seasons. They lack the periodic, unambiguous news events in on-seasons (match results, instead they are associated with highly uncertain transfer news and rumors. We show that this distinction has several impacts on the stock market performances of soccer clubs. Most notably, off-seasons generate substantially higher (excess returns. After controlling for other variables, the estimated effect of off-season periods is as high as 38.75%, annually. In line with several seminal studies, we link this fact to increased optimism and betting behavior through uncertain periods; and periods prior to the start of a new calendar (in our case, new season. For all of the examined 7 clubs (3 from Italy and 4 from Turkey, mean excess returns over the market are positive (negative in off-seasons (on-seasons. On-seasons are associated with increased trading activity due to more frequent news. Stocks of Italian clubs are evidently more volatile through off-seasons while volatility results for the stocks of Turkish clubs are not consistent.

  8. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available Dietary diversity score (DDS is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality.Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010 and rainy season (May 2011 among the same school-age children (SAC in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis.The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the rainy season (6.95 ± 0.55 compared to the dry season (6.44 ± 0.55 after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, occupation (household head and mother and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001 and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001 were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001.Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  10. Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.

    2001-01-01

    A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed

  11. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  12. seasonal population dynamics of rodents of mount chilalo, arsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A study on seasonal population dynamics of rodents was carried out on Mount. Chilalo from .... vegetation growth, availability of food and water, and ... vegetation (3,300–4,200 masl) (Alemayehu. Mengistu, 1975; APEDO and ABRDP, 2004). The mountain is one of the Afrotropical biodiversity hotspots areas.

  13. Cooling methods for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspersic, B.; Fabjan, L.; Petelin, S.

    1977-01-01

    There are some results of measurements carried out on the wet cooling tower 275 MWe at TE Sostanj and on the experimental cooling tower at Jozef Stefan Institute, as well. They are including: the measurements of the output air conditions, the measurements of the cross current of water film and vapour-air flowing through two plates, and the distribution of velocity in boundary layer measured by anemometer

  14. Induced draught circular cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Induced draught atmospheric cooling towers are described, to wit those in which the circulation is by power fans. This technique with fans grouped together in the centre enables a single tower to be used and provides an excellent integration of the steam wreath into the atmosphere. This type of cooling tower has been chosen for fitting out two 900 MW units of the Chinon power station in France [fr

  15. DETERMINATION OF RADIATOR COOLING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Yakubovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for calculation of a radiator cooling surface with due account of heat transfer non-uniformity on depth of its core. Calculation of radiator cooling surfaces of «Belarus-1221» and «Belarus-3022» tractors has been carried out in the paper. The paper also advances standard size series of radiators for powerful «Belarus» tractor type.

  16. Retrospective dosimetry in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, T.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this communication is to show the potentiality of certain minerals which accompany the foods (grasses, spices and seasonings) as potential dosemeters and its possible application in the absorbed dose calculations by the same in its hygienic sanitary treatment. (Author)

  17. Tropical cyclone cooling combats region-wide coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Adam D; Puotinen, Marji

    2014-05-01

    Coral bleaching has become more frequent and widespread as a result of rising sea surface temperature (SST). During a regional scale SST anomaly, reef exposure to thermal stress is patchy in part due to physical factors that reduce SST to provide thermal refuge. Tropical cyclones (TCs - hurricanes, typhoons) can induce temperature drops at spatial scales comparable to that of the SST anomaly itself. Such cyclone cooling can mitigate bleaching across broad areas when well-timed and appropriately located, yet the spatial and temporal prevalence of this phenomenon has not been quantified. Here, satellite SST and historical TC data are used to reconstruct cool wakes (n=46) across the Caribbean during two active TC seasons (2005 and 2010) where high thermal stress was widespread. Upon comparison of these datasets with thermal stress data from Coral Reef Watch and published accounts of bleaching, it is evident that TC cooling reduced thermal stress at a region-wide scale. The results show that during a mass bleaching event, TC cooling reduced thermal stress below critical levels to potentially mitigate bleaching at some reefs, and interrupted natural warming cycles to slow the build-up of thermal stress at others. Furthermore, reconstructed TC wave damage zones suggest that it was rare for more reef area to be damaged by waves than was cooled (only 12% of TCs). Extending the time series back to 1985 (n = 314), we estimate that for the recent period of enhanced TC activity (1995-2010), the annual probability that cooling and thermal stress co-occur is as high as 31% at some reefs. Quantifying such probabilities across the other tropical regions where both coral reefs and TCs exist is vital for improving our understanding of how reef exposure to rising SSTs may vary, and contributes to a basis for targeting reef conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  19. Seasonal variations in abundance, biomass and grazing rates of microzooplankton in a tropical monsoonal estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.; Mochemadkar, S.; Patil, S.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Madhupratap, M.

    Seasonal abundance, composition and grazing rates of microzooplankton (20–200 µm) in the Zuari estuary were investigated to evaluate their importance in food web dynamics of a tropical monsoonal estuary. Average abundances of microzooplankton...

  20. Utes for space heating and cooling in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordell, B.; Grein, M. a.

    2006-01-01

    The North Africa climate is dry and warm with annual mean temperature from 15 degree centigrade to 25 degree centigrade, with a temperature difference of 20 degree centigrade between the coldest and warmest month. Heating is needed during the short winter and there is a large cooling demand during the long summer. Since the undisturbed ground temperature is equal to the annual mean air temperature, the ground is warmer than the air during the winter and colder than air during summer. This is what is required for the direct use of the ground for heating and cooling. In such systems, ground coupled heating and cooling systems, and also in storage systems, Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES), some kind of underground duct (PIPE) system is used to inject or extract heat from the ground. Thermal energy is then stored and recovered by heating and cooling of the ground, while the ducts are the heat exchangers with the system. The duct system could be placed horizontally or vertically (e.g. in boreholes) in the ground. In many cases heat pumps or cooling machines are included in the systems but in favourable cases, such as in the North African climate, the ground can be used directly for heating and cooling. then, only a circulation pump is used to pump water through the underground duct system with high efficiencies. Such systems can also be used for thermal energy storage, during shorter periods (diurnal) or even between the seasons. In September 2005 Sebha University and Luleu University of Technology started a Libyan Swedish collaboration to develop and implement these systems for the North African climate. Sweden has considerable experience in ground coupled systems, theoretically and practically, and there are presently more than 300.000 systems in operation in Sweden, mainly for heating. Most of these are small-scale heating systems for singe-family houses but during the last decade several hundred large-scale systems have been built for heating and cooling of

  1. The impact of low-temperature seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) systems on chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater: Modeling of spreading and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Hartog, N.; Valstar, J.; Post, V.E.A.; Breukelen, B.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater systems are increasingly used for seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) for periodic heating and cooling of buildings. Its use is hampered in contaminated aquifers because of the potential environmental risks associated with the spreading of contaminated groundwater, but

  2. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  3. Cool cuisine-feed your body, mind, and planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Laura

    2012-03-01

    This paper combines information from the book, Cool Cuisine-Taking the Bite Out of Global Warming (Gibbs Smith, 2008) with notes from the World of Healthy Flavors Conference (Culinary Institute of America, St. Helena, CA, USA, 2011). Cool Cuisine reports on connections between food choices and global warming, (what we termed the Global Warming Diet), both from a culinary and science point of view. World of Healthy Flavors brought food industry professionals together to discuss ways the industry can collaborate on solutions to some of the most pressing health problems in the USA. Science now supports the fact that dietary choices that adversely effect human health have an equally detrimental effect on the health of the environment and our livestock. Therefore, eating a more diverse, plant-based, whole grain, and sodium-reduced diet not only improves human health, but also the health of the environment. What is good for humans to eat is the same food that is best for the environment to grow and manufacture. Understanding and then teaching the connection between the two is one more tool toward effective behavior change, especially in children. Easy suggestions on ways to cook healthfully and "fight the global warming diet with a cool cuisine" close out this work.

  4. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 μm in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L s = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L s = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of ∼0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of ΔL S ∼ 9 0 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 0 S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  5. Emergency cooling system for a liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Ryoichi; Fujiwara, Toshikatsu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To suitably cool liquid metal as coolant in emergency in a liquid metal cooled reactor by providing a detector for the pressure loss of the liquid metal passing through a cooling device in a loop in which the liquid metal is flowed and communicating the detector with a coolant flow regulator. Constitution: A nuclear reactor is stopped in nuclear reaction by control element or the like in emergency. If decay heat is continuously generated for a while and secondary coolant is insufficiently cooled with water or steam flowed through a steam and water loop, a cooler is started. That is, low temperature air is supplied by a blower through an inlet damper to the cooler to cool the secondary coolant flowed into the cooler through a bypass pipe so as to finally safely stop an entire plant. Since the liquid metal is altered in its physical properties by the temperature at this time, it is detected to regulate the opening of the valve of the damper according to the detected value. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Music season coming soon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin in collaboration with Julio Rosenfeld

    2012-01-01

    On 16 June, CERN’s music season will open with Music on the Lawn. The event is the CERN Music Club’s contribution to the Fete de la Musique and will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 1 from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The Hardronic Festival, CERN’s long-running rock festival, will be held on the evenings of 20 and 21 July in Prévessin, on the terrace behind Restaurant 3. If you would like to help with the organisation, please contact the Music Club by e-mail: music.club@cern.ch.   The Canettes Blues Band during the 2011 Hardronic Festival. (© Christoph Balle, 2010). Summer is coming, and along with it comes the music season. CERN will be hosting its two annual rock music concerts: Music on the Lawn and the Hardronic Festival. The two events are organised by the CERN Music Club, which has been sharing the enjoyment of good music with its numerous fans for many years. “Music on the Lawn was originally created so that the members of the Mus...

  7. Flu season and trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of us who are practicing medicine know that we are in a very active flu season. This was brought home to me when last week trying to admit a patient to the hospital from the office. She was a bone marrow transplant patient who had severe diarrhea and dehydration probably secondary to C. difficile. Hospital admissions said the patient had to be sent to the Emergency Room because the hospital was full due to the flu epidemic. Nationwide there has been a dramatic increase in the number of hospitalizations due to influenza over the past week from 13.7 to 22.7 per 100,000 (1. Influenza A(H3N2 has been the most common form of influenza reported this season. These viruses are often linked to more severe illness, especially in children and people age 65 years and older. Fortunately, the CDC also says that the flu cases may be peaking. However, at ...

  8. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  9. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  11. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  12. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  13. Environmental DNA (eDNA) Detection Probability Is Influenced by Seasonal Activity of Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lesley S; Godwin, James C; Renshaw, Mark A; Larson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) holds great promise for conservation applications like the monitoring of invasive or imperiled species, yet this emerging technique requires ongoing testing in order to determine the contexts over which it is effective. For example, little research to date has evaluated how seasonality of organism behavior or activity may influence detection probability of eDNA. We applied eDNA to survey for two highly imperiled species endemic to the upper Black Warrior River basin in Alabama, US: the Black Warrior Waterdog (Necturus alabamensis) and the Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus). Importantly, these species have contrasting patterns of seasonal activity, with N. alabamensis more active in the cool season (October-April) and S. depressus more active in the warm season (May-September). We surveyed sites historically occupied by these species across cool and warm seasons over two years with replicated eDNA water samples, which were analyzed in the laboratory using species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. We then used occupancy estimation with detection probability modeling to evaluate both the effects of landscape attributes on organism presence and season of sampling on detection probability of eDNA. Importantly, we found that season strongly affected eDNA detection probability for both species, with N. alabamensis having higher eDNA detection probabilities during the cool season and S. depressus have higher eDNA detection probabilities during the warm season. These results illustrate the influence of organismal behavior or activity on eDNA detection in the environment and identify an important role for basic natural history in designing eDNA monitoring programs.

  14. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Sarkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines according to age and health condition of the consumer, and seasonal considerations are presented for each of the traditional health foods of India. In the era of globalization of the population and international food trading, health conscious citizens around the globe will benefit from the wealth of knowledge on traditional Indian and ayurvedic health foods of Indian origin.

  15. RFRP neurons - the doorway to understanding seasonal reproduction in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Beldring Henningsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal control of reproduction is critical for the perpetuation of species living in temperate zones that display major changes in climatic environment and availability of food resources. In mammals, seasonal cues are mainly provided by the annual change in the 24h light/dark ratio (i.e. photoperiod, which is translated into the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin. The annual rhythm in this melatonin signal acts as a synchronizer ensuring that breeding occurs when environmental conditions favor survival of the offspring. Although specific mechanisms might vary among seasonal species, the hypothalamic RF (Arg-Phe amide-related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3 are believed to play a critical role in the central control of seasonal reproduction and in all seasonal species investigated, the RFRP system is persistently inhibited in short photoperiod. Central chronic administration of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted male Syrian hamsters fully reactivates the reproductive axis despite photoinhibitory conditions, which highlights the importance of the seasonal changes in RFRP expression for proper regulation of the reproductive axis. The acute effects of RFRP peptides, however, depend on species, photoperiod and recent studies point towards a different role of RFRP in regulating female reproductive activity. In this review we summarize the recent advances made to understand the role and underlying mechanisms of RFRP in the seasonal control of reproduction, primarily focusing on mammalian species.

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  17. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  18. Atmospheric emissions from power plant cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheletti, W.

    2006-01-01

    Power plant recirculated cooling systems (cooling towers) are not typically thought of as potential sources of air pollution. However, atmospheric emissions can be important considerations that may influence cooling tower design and operation. This paper discusses relevant U.S. environmental regulations for potential atmospheric pollutants from power plant cooling towers, and various methods for estimating and controlling these emissions. (orig.)

  19. Power semiconductor device adaptive cooling assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a power semiconductor device (100) cooling assembly for cooling a power semiconductor device (100), wherein the assembly comprises an actively cooled heat sink (102) and a controller (208; 300), wherein the controller (208; 300) is adapted for adjusting the cooling

  20. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  1. Specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The assumed cooling process and the method used to calculate the specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen are described, and the simple equation fitted to the calculated specific cooling capacity data, together with the graphical form calculated values of the specific cooling capacity of nitrogen for stagnation temperatures from saturation to 350 K and stagnation pressures from 1 to 10 atmospheres, are given.

  2. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans installed...

  3. Seasonal effects of the low-grade heat on a phytoplankton community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, J.W.; Docherty, A.E.

    1980-06-01

    Field studies, carried out over the period 1976 March to December, examined the effects of heat-enriched cooling waters on a natural phytoplankton community. Algal concentrations, composition, species succession and carbon fixation rates were determined twice-weekly in heated and unheated (control) polyethylene enclosures located in a northern oligotrophic lake. Results were compared with data collected from the open lake. Of 31 species quantitatively studied, eleven dominant species were examined in detail. A marked response to heat enrichment by the phytoplankton occurred in the spring and was attributed to a single species of Bacillariophyceae - Synedra ulna. Species composition and seasonal succession patterns were similar in the experimental column, the control column and the lake. The relationship between production biomass quotients (P/B) and water temperature in the lake and experimental enclosure is discussed. It is suggested that thermal enrichment might be used beneficially in cold waters for enhancing biomass production of unicellular aquatic organisms. This increased availability of food, in conjuction with increased water temperatures, might then accelerate productivity of filter-feeding zooplankton and other herbivores. (auth)

  4. Climate change and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their

  5. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  6. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  7. Newton's law of cooling revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, M

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer from any object to its surrounding is not only due to conduction and convection but also due to radiation. The latter does not vary linearly with temperature difference, which leads to deviations from Newton's law. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling of objects with a small Biot number. It is shown that Newton's law of cooling, i.e. simple exponential behaviour, is mostly valid if temperature differences are below a certain threshold which depends on the experimental conditions. For any larger temperature differences appreciable deviations occur which need the complete nonlinear treatment. This is demonstrated by results of some laboratory experiments which use IR imaging to measure surface temperatures of solid cooling objects with temperature differences of up to 300 K.

  8. TPX heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungl, D.J.; Knutson, D.S.; Costello, J.; Stoenescu, S.; Yemin, L.

    1995-01-01

    TPX, while having primarily super-conducting coils that do not require water cooling, still has very significant water cooling requirements for the plasma heating systems, vacuum vessel, plasma facing components, diagnostics, and ancillary equipment. This is accentuated by the 1000-second pulse requirement. Two major design changes, which have significantly affected the TPX Heating and Cooling System, have been made since the conceptual design review in March of 1993. This paper will discuss these changes and review the current status of the conceptual design. The first change involves replacing the vacuum vessel neutron shielding configuration of lead/glass composite tile by a much simpler and more reliable borated water shield. The second change reduces the operating temperature of the vacuum vessel from 150 C to ≥50 C. With this temperature reduction, all in-vessel components and the vessel will be supplied by coolant at a common ≥50 C inlet temperature. In all, six different heating and cooling supply requirements (temperature, pressure, water quality) for the various TPX components must be met. This paper will detail these requirements and provide an overview of the Heating and Cooling System design while focusing on the ramifications of the TPX changes described above

  9. Helium-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longton, P.B.; Cowen, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    In helium cooled HTR's there is a by-pass circuit for cleaning purposes in addition to the main cooling circuit. This is to remove such impurities as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and water from the coolant. In this system, part of the coolant successively flows first through an oxidation bed of copper oxide and an absorption bed of silica gel, then through activated charcoal or a molecular sieve. The hydrogen and carbon monoxide impurities are absorbed and the dry gas is returned to the main cooling circuit. To lower the hydrogen/water ratio without increasing the hydrogen fraction in the main cooling circuit, some of the hydrogen fraction converted into water is added to the cooling circuit. This is done, inter alia, by bypassing the water produced in the oxidation bed before it enters the absorption bed. The rest of the by-pass circuit, however, also includes an absorption bed with a molecular sieve. This absorbs the oxidized carbon monoxide fraction. In this way, such side effects as the formation of additional methane, carburization of the materials of the by-pass circuit or loss of graphite are avoided. (DG/RF) [de

  10. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  11. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  12. To cool, but not too cool: that is the question--immersion cooling for hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Patterson, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    Patient cooling time can impact upon the prognosis of heat illness. Although ice-cold-water immersion will rapidly extract heat, access to ice or cold water may be limited in hot climates. Indeed, some have concerns regarding the sudden cold-water immersion of hyperthermic individuals, whereas others believe that cutaneous vasoconstriction may reduce convective heat transfer from the core. It was hypothesized that warmer immersion temperatures, which induce less powerful vasoconstriction, may still facilitate rapid cooling in hyperthermic individuals. Eight males participated in three trials and were heated to an esophageal temperature of 39.5 degrees C by exercising in the heat (36 degrees C, 50% relative humidity) while wearing a water-perfusion garment (40 degrees C). Subjects were cooled using each of the following methods: air (20-22 degrees C), cold-water immersion (14 degrees C), and temperate-water immersion (26 degrees C). The time to reach an esophageal temperature of 37.5 degrees C averaged 22.81 min (air), 2.16 min (cold), and 2.91 min (temperate). Whereas each of the between-trial comparisons was statistically significant (P < 0.05), cooling in temperate water took only marginally longer than that in cold water, and one cannot imagine that the 45-s cooling time difference would have any meaningful physiological or clinical implications. It is assumed that this rapid heat loss was due to a less powerful peripheral vasoconstrictor response, with central heat being more rapidly transported to the skin surface for dissipation. Although the core-to-water thermal gradient was much smaller with temperate-water cooling, greater skin and deeper tissue blood flows would support a superior convective heat delivery. Thus, a sustained physiological mechanism (blood flow) appears to have countered a less powerful thermal gradient, resulting in clinically insignificant differences in heat extraction between the cold and temperate cooling trials.

  13. The impact of seasonal rice price changes on rice self-consumption in farm household of rural Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, S. W.; Antriyandarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal rice price changes are very volatile and not predictable. This price changes have a heterogeneous impact on public consumption. The problem of seasonal rice price changes is not only experienced by consumers, but also in the farmers side as producers. The objective of this study is to provide a detail overview and description of the changing seasonal rice self-consumption of farm households in rural Java in response to seasonal rice price changes and income shocks to anticipate seasonal scarcity. This paper constructs a theoretical model to address such seasonality of food deprivation by using one year of seasonally farm household panel data, empirically tests the extent to which farmers in rural Java can smooth their rice self-consumption from season to season in response to income shocks. The result shows that rice farmers increase their rice self-consumption when prices are high.

  14. Wireless sensor network adaptive cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T. [SynapSense Corp., Folsom, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Options for reducing data centre cooling energy requirements and their cost savings were discussed with particular reference to a wireless control solution developed by SynapSense Corporation. The wireless sensor network reduces cooling energy use at data centres by providing improved air flow management through the installation of cold aisle containment. The use of this low cost, non-invasive wireless sensor network has reduced the cooling energy use in a data center at BC Hydro by 30 per cent. The system also reduced the server and storage fan energy by 3 per cent by maintaining inlet air temperature below ASHRAE recommended operating range. The distribution of low power, low cost wireless sensors has enabled visualization tools that are changing the way that data centres are managed. The annual savings have been estimated at 4,560,000 kWh and the annual carbon dioxide abatement is approximately 1,400 metric tons. tabs., figs.

  15. Cooled Beam Diagnostics on LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Prieto, V; Sautier, R; Tan, J

    2008-01-01

    Electron cooling is central in the preparation of dense bunches of lead beams for the LHC. Ion beam pulses from the LINAC3 are transformed into short highbrightness bunches using multi-turn injection, cooling and accumulation in the Low Energy Ion Ring, LEIR [1]. The cooling process must therefore be continuously monitored in order to guarantee that the lead ions have the required characteristics in terms of beam size and momentum spread. In LEIR a number of systems have been developed to perform these measurements. These include Schottky diagnostics, ionisation profile monitors and scrapers. Along with their associated acquisition and analysis software packages these instruments have proved to be invaluable for the optimisation of the electron cooler.

  16. Assessment of cooling tower impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This guideline describes the state of the art of the meteorological impact of wet cooling towers that are about 80 m to 170 m high, and have a waste heat power in the range of 1000 MW and 2500 MW. The physical processes occurring in the lowest layer of the atmosphere and their impact in the dispersion of cooling tower emissions are represented. On the basis of these facts, the impact on weather or climate in the vicinity of a high wet cooling tower is estimated. Thereby the results of the latest investigations (observations, measurements, and modeling) on the different locations of plants as well as their different power and construction types are taken into consideration. (orig.) [de

  17. Forced draft wet cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, A.; Caudron, L.; Viollet, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The disposal of the heat released from a 1000MW power plant needs a natural draft tower of about 130m of diameter at the base, and 170m height, or a cooling system with a draft forced by about forty vans, a hundred meters in diameter, and thirty meters height. The plumes from atmospheric cooling systems form, in terms of fluid mechanics, hot jets in a cross current. They consist in complex flows that must be finely investigated with experimental and computer means. The study, currently being performed at the National Hydraulics Laboratory, shows that as far as the length and height of visible plumes are concerned, the comparison is favorable to some types of forced draft cooling system, for low and medium velocities, (below 5 or 6m/s at 10m height. Beyond these velocities, the forced draft sends the plume up to smaller heights, but the plume is generally more dilute [fr

  18. Emergency cooling device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hisamichi; Naito, Masanori; Sato, Chikara; Chino, Koichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To pour high pressure cooling water into a core, when coolant is lost in a boiling water reactor, thereby restraining the rise of fuel cladding. Structure: A control rod guiding pipe, which is moved up and down by a control rod, is mounted on the bottom of a pressure vessel, the control rod guiding pipe being communicated with a high pressure cooling water tank positioned externally of the pressure vessel, and a differential in pressure between the pressure vessel and the aforesaid tank is detected when trouble of coolant loss occurs, and the high pressure cooling water within the tank is poured into the core through the control rod guiding pipe to restrain the rise of fuel cladding. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Emergency cooling apparatus for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described which has the core surrounded by coolant and an inert cover gas all sealed within a container, an emergency cooling apparatus employing a detector that will detect cover gas or coolant, particularly liquid sodium, leaking from the container of the reactor, to release a heat exchange material that is inert to the coolant, which heat exchange material is cooled during operation of the reactor. The heat exchange material may be liquid niitrogen or a combination of spheres and liquid nitrogen, for example, and is introduced so as to contact the coolant that has leaked from the container quickly so as to rapidly cool the coolant to prevent or extinguish combustion. (Official Gazette)

  20. Cooling many particles at once

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, G.; Knight, P.; Beige, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We propose a mechanism for the collective cooling of a large number N of trapped particles to very low temperatures by applying red-detuned laser fields and coupling them to the quantized field inside an optical resonator. The dynamics is described by what appear to be rate equations but where some of the major quantities are coherences and not populations. It is shown that the cooperative behaviour of the system provides cooling rates of the same order of magnitude as the cavity decay rate. This constitutes a significant speed-up compared to other cooling mechanisms since this rate can, in principle, be as large as the square root of N times the single-particle cavity or laser coupling constants. (author)