WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooking utensils

  1. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. Function Pots, pans, and other tools used in ...

  2. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  3. Systemic nickel: the contribution made by stainless-steel cooking utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, G N; Packirisamy, S

    1995-04-01

    An extensive programme of cooking operations, using household recipes, has shown that, apart from aberrant values associated with new pans on first use, the contribution made by 19 Cr/9 Ni stainless-steel cooking utensils to nickel in the diet is negligible. The amount of nickel (0 to 8 micrograms) derived from the utensils in standard portions of various "aggressive" foodstuffs tested was less than that to be found occurring in 1 square of a bitter-sweet chocolate bar. New pans, if first used with acid fruits, can show a greater pick-up of nickel, which, in the worst case observed, amounted to approximately 1/5 of the normal daily intake for the average person (ca. 200 micrograms). This situation does not recur in subsequent usage, even after the pan has been cleaned by abrasion. A higher rate of nickel release was observed in new pans on first use from 4 manufacturers located in different countries and appears to be a general phenomenon. This could provide a possible explanation for the high pick-up of nickel by acid fruits reported in 1 instance in the literature.

  4. 某餐厨具公司职业病危害控制效果评价%Evaluation on Effectiveness of Occupational Hazard Control in a Cooking Utensil Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜利

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main occupational hazard factors in newly- built production line of western-style stainless steel cooking utensil, and to provide the evidence for putting forward occupational diseases prevention measures. Methods The occupational health investigation, occupational hazard factors test in workplace and occupational health examination were used to comprehensively evaluate the project. Results The major occupational risk factors were ethinyl trichloride, ammonia, noise, dust, gasoline, diesel oil and lubricating oil. Dust and poison in the workplace met the standard for the Occupational Exposure Limit of the Hazardous Factors in the Worksites (GBZ2.1 - 2007), but noise in the workplace exceeded the standard. Conclusions The protective measures on occupational diseases in the project are feasible and effective. But more effective measures should be taken to control the risk of noise.%目的 了解新建不锈钢西餐厨具生产线存在的主要职业危害因素,为制定职业病的预防措施提供依据.方法 采用职业卫生学调查、工作场所职业病危害因素现场监测和职业健康检查进行综合评价.结果 该生产线主要存在三氯乙烯、氨、噪声、粉尘、汽油、柴油和润滑油,试运行期间粉尘、毒物测定结果均符合GBZ2.1-2007[1]的要求,噪声强度超过GBZ2.2-2007[2]的要求.结论 该项目职业病危害的防护措施可行、有效,但需加强对噪声等职业病危害因素的控制措施.

  5. Spacecraft utensil/hand cleansing fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1978-01-01

    A fixture which provides a means for a crewman to perform, in zero gravity, laboratory utensil/tool cleansing and personal hygiene functions such as handwashing, shaving, body wash, and teeth brushing is described. A prototype unit developed incorporating design improvements resulting from breadboard tests in a one gravity and zero gravity environment demonstrated the capability of performing the different cleansing functions.

  6. 21 CFR 1250.33 - Utensils and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.33 Utensils and equipment... of food or beverages, and the cleaning of food utensils, shall be so constructed as to be easily...

  7. 21 CFR 1250.44 - Drinking utensils and toilet articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drinking utensils and toilet articles. 1250.44 Section 1250.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... toilet articles. (a) No cup, glass, or other drinking utensil which may be used by more than one...

  8. 9 CFR 354.242 - Cleaning of equipment and utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Maintenance of... all times. Cleaned equipment and utensils shall be drained on racks and shall not be nested. (i)...

  9. 21 CFR 110.40 - Equipment and utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... storage compartment used to store and hold food capable of supporting growth of microorganisms shall be... of undesirable microorganisms in food shall be accurate and adequately maintained, and adequate in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment and utensils. 110.40 Section 110.40...

  10. Tianjin Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Acoastal city 75 kilometers from Beijing? Tianjin harbors several rivers joining in the city before they flow out to sea. Typical family meals in Tianjin feature fresh and saltwater seafood. For Tianjiners, the city,s name alone connotes the smell of stewed fish and baked corn bread. In the past, many Tianjiners worked as boatmen on ferries transporting goods along the Haihe River. Others lived on fishing in the sea. Tianjin’s fishermen nonetheless settled on land and cooked from brick stoves with dried reeds as firewood. To prepare the food, place vegetables on

  11. Morphological significance of cladosporium contaminants on materials and utensils in contact with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Toshiko; Park, Bong Joo; Aihara, Maki; Ri, Noritoshi; Saito, Toshiko; Sawada, Takuo; Takatori, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    Cladosporium contaminants on materials and utensils that come into contact with food were morphologically investigated. The most common contaminants, C. cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, were detected on the samples. The morphological changes of the Cladosporium species were investigated by using stereoscopic, optical light, fluorescent, and scanning electron microscopes. Microscopically the Cladosporium contaminants were observed as aggregated dark brown spots, strongly pigmented, irregularly swollen, and in long chains. Using fluorescent microscopy, the Cladosporium mycelia were clearly stained with fluorescein diacetate as viable cells, but the old cells were mostly non-viable, as shown by staining with propidium iodide. The dynamics of the morphological changes showed that the penetrating mycelia were closely attached to the surface of the materials and utensils under investigation. These results provide information about the significance of Cladosporium contamination on materials and utensils in contact with food and may contribute to the control of fungal contamination.

  12. Fitting a bilateral transhumeral amputee with utensil prostheses and their functional assessment 10 years later: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jen Wen; Wu, Yee Hwa

    2005-11-01

    Traumatic transhumeral amputations resulting from electric burn injury are uncommon and present a significant rehabilitation challenge. Compensating for loss of fine, coordinated function of the upper extremities with prostheses is difficult medically, technologically, psychologically, and socially. We followed up a patient with traumatic bilateral transhumeral amputation who was fitted with specially designed bilateral low-temperature utensil prostheses for 10 years. A bilateral utensil prosthesis consists of 2 thermoplastic sockets, an elastic harness, 2 utensil holders, and several different utensils. The characteristics of utensil prostheses are low cost, quick fabrication, and responsiveness to a patient's needs. Ten years after the patient's first prosthesis fitting, he still used these specially designed prostheses. By using these devices and his feet, the patient has regained independence in most activities of daily living and gained a new working skill.

  13. Clyde Cook

    OpenAIRE

    Couderc, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Né le 16 décembre 1891 à Port McQuarrie (Australie), Clyde Cook émigre avec sa famille aux Etats-Unis dès son plus jeune âge. À 12 ans il travaille déjà dans un cirque comme clown et danseur acrobatique, puis fait le tour du monde en présentant un numéro de danse excentrique. On le verra ainsi en 1913 à Paris aux Folies-Bergère dans la revue « Valse éternelle ». Il semble qu’il débute comme clown vedette aux États-Unis avec la troupe des Ziegfeld Follies au New York Hippodrome ; son show dure...

  14. 居民对健康支持工具使用情况的影响因素分析%Factors affecting the use of health utensils among residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金涛; 曹承建; 张琼; 张文辉; 王咪咪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand factors affecting the use of health utensils and provide promoting strategies for using the utensils. Methods The method of proportional probability sampling was applied to select 4 000 urban households from 10 urban districts of Hangzhou. The questionnaire of self-designed survey included the use of health related book, salt restriction cans, oil control pots, weight scale and kitchen apron. Factors affecting the use of health utensils were analyzed by logistic regression. Results A total of 3 340 (83.5%) households received the health utensils. Among the families with utensils, 74. 5% , 62. 0%, 59. 4%, 45. 2% and 77. 1% of families read health related books and used salt restriction cans, oil control pots, weight scale and kitchen aprons. Factors affecting the use of health utensils were the knowledge of the amount of daily salt intake, the risk awareness of high salt intake, the knowledge of the appropriate amount of cooking oil intake, conscious efforts to restrict salt and cooking oil in daily life and the convenience of the use of health utensils. Conclusion Education and the free%目的 了解居民对健康支持工具的使用情况并分析其使用影响因素,为推广健康支持工具提供政策建议参考.方法 采用概率比例规模抽样方法,在杭州市10个城区共调查4 000户居民,对收到健康支持工具的居民资料进行logistic回归多因素分析.结果 本研究共有3 340(83.5%)户居民收到健康支持工具;其中,健康读本、限盐罐、控油壶、体重尺、围裙使用率分别占74.5%、62.0%、59.4%、45.2%、77.1%,是否使用健康支持工具(包括限盐罐、控油壶、体重尺、围裙、健康读本共五件套)的影响因素有:是否知晓食盐健康摄入量、是否知晓口味偏咸的危害、是否知晓食用油健康摄入量、日常生活中是否有意识限盐、是否有意识控油及健康意识高低和自觉工具使用难易度等.结论

  15. 21 CFR 111.27 - What requirements apply to the equipment and utensils that you use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN... or glass fragments; (v) Filth or any other extraneous material; (vi) Contaminated water; or (vii) Any other contaminants. (3) All equipment and utensils you use must be: (i) Installed and maintained...

  16. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it before eating. Limit processed meats such as sausage, bologna, salami and hot dogs. Many processed meats — ... a main ingredient. Cook fresh vegetables the heart-healthy way Try cooking vegetables in a tiny bit ...

  17. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pan. You need only a small amount of oil or cooking spray for this cooking method. Using herbs and ... sparingly, dried mustard adds a zesty flavor while cooking. Vinegar ... make your own marinade, use 1 part oil to 2 parts vinegar or citrus juice, and ...

  18. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm(2) for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm(2) for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement.

  19. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Galinari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm² for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm² for coliforms in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement.

  20. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow’s milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm2 for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm2 for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  1. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  2. Isolation and Quantification of Polyamide Cyclic Oligomers in Kitchen Utensils and Their Migration into Various Food Simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Mutsuga, Motoh; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Small amounts of cyclic monomers and oligomers are present in polyamide (PA)-based kitchen utensils. In this study, we isolated eight PA-based cyclic monomers and oligomers from kitchen utensils made from PA6 (a polymer of ε-caprolactam) and PA66 (a polymer of 1,6-diaminohexane and adipic acid). Their structures were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their residual levels in PA-based kitchen utensils and degree of migration into food simulants were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using purchased PA6 monomer and isolated PA66 monomers, and isolated PA6 and PA66 oligomers as calibration standards. Their total residual levels among 23 PA-based kitchen utensils made from PA6, PA66, and copolymers of PA6 and PA66 (PA6/66) ranged from 7.8 to 20 mg/g. Using water, 20% ethanol, and olive oil as food simulants, the total migration levels of the PA monomers and oligomers ranged from 0.66 to 100 μg/cm2 under most examined conditions. However, the total migration levels of the PA66 monomer and oligomers from PA66 and PA6/66 kitchen utensils into 20% ethanol at 95°C were very high (1,700 and 2,200 μg/cm2, respectively) due to swelling by high-temperature ethanol.

  3. Fecal contamination of food, water, hands, and kitchen utensils at the household level in rural areas of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Hartinger, Stella M; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Padilla, Beatriz; Ochoa, Theresa J; Lozada, Michelle; Pineda, Ines; Verastegui, Hector

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article evaluated sources of contamination of children's food and drinking water in rural households in the highlands of Peru. Samples from children's meals, drinking water, kitchen utensils, and caregivers' and children's hands were analyzed for total coliforms and E. coli counts using Petrifilm EC. Thermotolerant coliforms in water were measured using DelAgua test kits while diarrheagenic E. coli was identified using polymerase chain reaction methods (PCR). Thermotolerant coliforms were found in 48% of all water samples. E. coli was found on 23% of hands, 16% of utensils, and 4% of meals. Kitchen cloths were the item most frequently contaminated with total coliforms (89%) and E. coli (42%). Diarrheagenic E. coli was found in 33% of drinking water, 27% of meals, and on 23% of kitchen utensils. These findings indicate a need to develop hygiene interventions that focus on specific kitchen utensils and hand washing practices, to reduce the contamination of food, water, and the kitchen environment in these rural settings.

  4. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASH diet; High blood pressure - DASH; Hypertension - DASH; Low-salt diet - DASH ... Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash of lemon and other citrus fruits, or wine, to soups and other dishes. Or use them ...

  5. Isolation and Quantification of Polyamide Cyclic Oligomers in Kitchen Utensils and Their Migration into Various Food Simulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Abe

    Full Text Available Small amounts of cyclic monomers and oligomers are present in polyamide (PA-based kitchen utensils. In this study, we isolated eight PA-based cyclic monomers and oligomers from kitchen utensils made from PA6 (a polymer of ε-caprolactam and PA66 (a polymer of 1,6-diaminohexane and adipic acid. Their structures were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their residual levels in PA-based kitchen utensils and degree of migration into food simulants were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using purchased PA6 monomer and isolated PA66 monomers, and isolated PA6 and PA66 oligomers as calibration standards. Their total residual levels among 23 PA-based kitchen utensils made from PA6, PA66, and copolymers of PA6 and PA66 (PA6/66 ranged from 7.8 to 20 mg/g. Using water, 20% ethanol, and olive oil as food simulants, the total migration levels of the PA monomers and oligomers ranged from 0.66 to 100 μg/cm2 under most examined conditions. However, the total migration levels of the PA66 monomer and oligomers from PA66 and PA6/66 kitchen utensils into 20% ethanol at 95°C were very high (1,700 and 2,200 μg/cm2, respectively due to swelling by high-temperature ethanol.

  6. Field-improvised war surgery in Kosovo: use of kitchen utensils as surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Besim; Singh, Karan P; Muzina, Rubina; Lu, Yan; Flaherty, Devin

    2008-06-01

    After years of conflict between Serbia and neighboring Kosovo, a full-blown war started in March 1999 when the Serbian and Yugoslav armies began a statewide military crackdown against ethnic Albanians and the Kosovo Liberation Army. Most ethnic Albanians were displaced to Macedonia or Albania. Some, however, found refuge in the Molopolce mountain region of Kosovo among military personnel, thus necessitating the creation of a field medical facility. Patient treatment at the field-improvised Nerodime Military Hospital, and the management of work took place under very difficult conditions including a chronic lack of appropriate medical equipment. Improvised lifesaving surgeries were performed with kitchen utensils serving as retractors at the field hospital. This article compares the treatment of patients between the two hospitals, and is the first article to date describing the war experience in general at the field hospitals in Kosovo.

  7. An onsite ergonomics assessment for risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among cooks in a Chinese restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Andy S K

    2014-01-01

    This article is a case presentation of an onsite ergonomic assessment of the risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among three cooks working at a medium-sized Chinese restaurant in Hong Kong. The weight of workload was measured during the onsite assessment and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation used to assess the risk of WMSDs. The results showed that these cooks usually had to hold utensils for extended periods of time, toss woks, and barbecue meat, all of which demanded a lot of repetitive movements of the upper limbs. Future research is needed on the implementation of effective prevention measures, including administrative and ergonomic controls, to reduce the problems within this industry associated with such high-risk tasks.

  8. Final cook temperature monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  9. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  10. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  11. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  12. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  13. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -IH and Vacuum cooking -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Murasaki, Masahiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. This study was aimed at making balance space foods menu for the healthy space-life. The kitchen utensil has a limit in the space environment. And a method to warm is only heater without fire. Therefore purpose of this study, we make the space foods which make by using vacuum cooking device and the IH heater We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores.. We could make the space foods which we devised with vacuum cooking and IH deliciously. As a result of sensuality examination, the eight points in ten points of perfect scores was appeared. This result showed, our space food menu is delicious. We can store these space foods with a refrigerator for 20 days by making vacuum cooking. This thing is at all important result so that a save is enabled when surplus food was done in future by performing vacuum cooking. We want to make delicious space foods menu with vacuum cooking and IH heater more in future.

  14. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 红外探测器工艺用器皿清洗方法研究%Research of utensils cleaning for infrared detector process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩; 宁提; 龚志红; 白雪飞; 王文燕

    2016-01-01

    红外探测器材料一般为窄带系材料,在其制备工艺过程中,杂质离子更容易导致缺陷能级或表面快态复合中心,需选取较优的器皿清洗方法,对工艺用器皿所含金属离子进行评测控制。本文通过电感耦合等离子体质谱仪对比碲镉汞红外探测器工艺线上不同的器皿及清洗方法,对清洗后金属离子残留测试分析,获得较佳的器皿清洗方法,更好地保证红外探测器制备后性能。%Many utensils are often used in infrared detector process,but metallic ions in utensils have great effect on the performance of infrared detector,so the superior utensil cleaning methods are selected to remove metallic ions in utensils.The residual metallic ions in utensils with different cleaning methods were measured and analyzed by ICP -MS,and the optimal cleaning method was obtained.This cleaning method is suitable for the different preparation technologies of infrared detector.

  16. The Correlation between Eating Utensils and Place of Sales in the Contamination of Escherichia coli in Food Sold at Campus Food Stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, in general, the safety of food that is sold at any canteens in the campuses, the eating utensils are handled and the food stalls are managed are still uncertain. This research was aimed to understand the correlation between the eating utensils handling and the contamination of Escherichia coli (E. coli in the food sold by the food vendors in the campus. The cross-sectional design research applied on the food stalls in the university campus in Depok with a total number of 173 consumers as respondents. The variables observed as independent variables were the sanitation of the eating utensils and the sanitation of the dining place. The examination method of the Most Probable Number (MPN for E. coli was conducted to assess the food’s hygiene. The data analyzed using the chi-square test and followed by the logistic regression. The result showed that more than half of the food samples (59.54% were contaminated by E. coli. The storage place of the eating utensils was most significantly correlated with the E. coli contamination of the served food with an OR=0.45 (0.21-0.87. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the awareness of this risk and reinforce supervision by the Health Authorities and by the management of the place of sales to provide guidance to the food vendors and to the consumers as well. Further research is recommended to observe the E. coli contamination through clean water, eating utensils, the hands of the consumers and the napkins used to wipe dry the eating utensils.

  17. Survey of volatile substances in kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-styrene resin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Residual levels of 14 volatile substances, including 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, ethylbenzene, and styrene, in 30 kitchen utensils made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin (ABS) and acrylonitrile-styrene resin (AS) such as slicers, picks, cups, and lunch boxes in Japan were simultaneously determined using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (HS-GC/MS). The maximum residual levels in the ABS and AS samples were found to be 2000 and 2800 μg/g of styrene, respectively. The residual levels of 1,3-butadiene ranged from 0.06 to 1.7 μg/g in ABS, and three of 15 ABS samples exceeded the regulatory limit for this compound as established by the European Union (EU). The residual levels of acrylonitrile ranged from 0.15 to 20 μg/g in ABS and from 19 to 180 μg/g in AS. The levels of this substance in seven ABS and six AS samples exceeded the limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, the levels of acrylonitrile in three AS samples exceeded the voluntary standard established by Japanese industries. These results clearly indicate that the residual levels of some volatile compounds are still high in ABS and AS kitchen utensils and further observations are needed.

  18. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  19. Cooking in prison – from crook to cook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    which may improve their ability to subsequently desist from crime. Findings are derived from 13 months (1090 hours) of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish maximum security prison for men, including in-depth interviews with 68 prisoners. This research finds that prisoners spent a great deal of time...... abilities and personal resources. During incarceration few roles are available for prisoner. The self-catering system offers the role as a cook which offers an opportunity for identity realignment from crook to cook....

  20. The effect of wok size and handle angle on the maximum acceptable weights of wok flipping by male cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Ho, Cheng-Pin; Yen, Chin-Li

    2011-01-01

    A wok with a straight handle is one of the most common cooking utensils in the Asian kitchen. This common cooking instrument has seldom been examined by ergonomists. This research used a two-factor randomized complete block design to investigate the effects of wok size (with three diameters - 36 cm, 39 cm and 42 cm) and handle angle (25°, 10°, -5°, -20°, and -35°) on the task of flipping. The measurement criteria included the maximum acceptable weight of wok flipping (MAWF), the subjective rating and the subjective ranking. Twelve experienced males volunteered to take part in this study. The results showed that both the wok size and handle angle had a significant effect on the MAWF, the subjective rating and the subjective ranking. Additionally, there is a size-weight illusion associated with flipping tasks. In general, a small wok (36 cm diameter) with an ergonomically bent handle (-20° ± 15°) is the optimal design, for male cooks, for the purposes of flipping.

  1. Use of mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy to track degradation of bio-based eating utensils during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulbry, Walter; Reeves, James B; Millner, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) have been used for quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of a wide range of materials. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of MIRS and NIRS for following the degradation of bio-based food utensils during composting. Polylactide (PLA)-based forks lost 34% of their initial mass and were reduced to small friable fragments after 7 weeks of composting. NIRS and MIRS spectra of forks that were incubated for 7 weeks were nearly identical to spectra of untreated forks. NIRS and MIRS were more useful in following the degradation of a starch/polypropylene (PP) polymer. Spectral results demonstrated that the starch component degraded during composting and that the PP component was recalcitrant. These results confirm that MIRS and NIRS are useful in determining the composition of biobased materials. However, the spectra did not provide useful information about the extent of PLA polymer degradation.

  2. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  3. Captain Cook Chased a Chook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Schlunke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we write the contemporary 'histories' of Captain Cook when they include such textual and material diversity? When that diversity ranges from children's rhymes to convenience stores as well as journals now claimed as iconic documents of the enlightenment? How might the insights of Bruno Latour into how the 'experimental' is produced in the laboratory be helpful in showing how Cook is produced in a settler culture? How does revealing the 'experimental' (the material and textual ethnography of history show us new ways of 'doing' history that engages with its textual as well as its material diversity.

  4. What’s Cooking, Man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    in contemporary culture. The article is informed by poststructural gender theory and understands ‘doing food’ and ‘doing masculinity’ as two mutually constituting practices. The analyses identify four new tendencies in the construction of masculinity in cooking shows at the beginning of the twenty-first century......: 1) rechefisation, 2) the TV chef as a moral entrepreneur, 3) the TV chef and the revitalisation of the national myth and 4) cooking as masculine escapism. The article concludes that the innovation of the masculine identity that was launched in The Naked Chef has not continued; rather, the genre has...

  5. Proceedings of 3. autumn school of radiation sterilization of medical utensils and grafts; 3. jesiennea szkola sterylizacji radiacyjnej sprzetu medycznego i przeszczepow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish experience and review of worldwide development of radiation techniques and technologies have been presented and discussed in the field of radiation sterilization of medical supplies and grafts as well as for food processing. These problems have found now in Poland industrial or pilot plant solutions. Also some technologies connected with medical utensils production from with polymeric material resistant for radiation have been developed in Poland.

  6. Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

    1991-06-01

    Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context.

  7. Identification and Quantitation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Kitchen Utensils by Headspace Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    A headspace GC/MS method was developed for identification and quantitation of residual volatile organic compounds in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) kitchen utensils. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide was added in a headspace vial and sealed. After storing for more than 1 day at room temperature, the vial was incubated for 1 h at 90°C, and the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS. In 24 PMMA kitchen utensils, 16 volatile organic compounds including methyl methacrylate, methyl acrylate, toluene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 2-methyl-2-butene, 2-methylpropanal, methyl propionate, methyl isobutyrate, trans-3-heptene, heptane, cis-3-heptene, trans-2-heptene, cis-2-heptene, 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene, and 1-octene were identified and quantitated. These 15 volatile compounds except methyl methacrylate were found for the first time in PMMA kitchen utensils. Recovery rates from spiked samples were 97.4-104.0% with CV values of 2.8-9.6%. Samples contained 190-7900 μg/g of methyl methacrylate, 26-810 μg/g of methyl acrylate, and 2-1300 μg/g of toluene; other compounds were at levels less than 100 μg/g. Methyl methacrylate was the main monomer of PMMA and methyl acrylate was a comonomer; toluene should be used as a solvent.

  8. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  9. A Story About Mr Cook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海燕

    2004-01-01

    Mr Cook lived in the capital. He sang well and often composed (创作) a lot of music himself. People liked to listen to his songs and music. He hated the noise and often went to the quiet places and stayed there for days. There he could compose a few pieces of new music.

  10. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  11. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  12. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating.

  13. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-temperature long-time heat treatment of meat from a gastronomic viewpoint. The effect of cooking time and cooking temperature on the sensory properties of beef eye of round (semitendinosus) was investigated by a sensory descriptive study. The results showed that both cooking time (3, 6, 9, and 12 hours....... The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs...

  14. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  15. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. GHASEMI; M. T. Hamed MOSAVIAN; M. H. Haddad KHODAPARAST

    2009-01-01

    Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr) on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  16. THE RESEARCH ON THE DRINK UTENSIL POTTERY MADE OF GLAZED PURPLE CLAY IN THE QING DYNASTY%清代紫砂加彩饮具研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩荣

    2012-01-01

    Purple-clay potteries added with glaze in Qing Dynasty now boost a booming trend in production.Through a variety of analysis and researches,the overall styles and unique characteristics in this period are described in terms of the functional categories and expressional forms of drink utensils.It has been drawn that the rapid development of the manufacturing craft of glazed purple-clay drink utensil is actually closely related to social demands at that moment.In fact,this development is fueled by the combination of practical and aesthetic demand,and promoted by export sales and foreign cultures.In addition,the research significance and the important role played by glazed purple-clay drink utensil in the historical development of arts and crafts are also elaborated.%清代紫砂器施加釉彩的饮具生产呈现蓬勃态势,通过对其梳理研究,从器具功能类别、表现形式描述了紫砂加彩饮具在这一时期整体的风貌及独具的特色,探究出清代紫砂加彩饮具艺术化进程飞速发展得以确立的原因与时下社会需求密切相关,是在实用性与审美性结合型需求与外销和外来文化的作用力共同影响之下产生与发展的。阐述了清代紫砂加彩饮具在工艺美术历史发展中的重要地位和研究意义。

  17. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  18. Development of Catalytic Cooking Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden); Tena, Emmanuel; Berger, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2004-04-01

    Gas catalytic combustion for gas stoves or cooking plates (closed catalytic burner system with ceramic plates) is a very promising technique in terms of ease of cleaning, power modulation and emissions. Previous investigations show that wire mesh catalysts, prepared and supplied by Catator AB (CAT), seem to be very well suited for such applications. Beside significantly reducing the NOx-emissions, these catalysts offer important advantages such as good design flexibility, low pressure drop and high heat transfer capacity, where the latter leads to a quick thermal response. Prior to this project, Gaz de France (GdF) made a series of measurements with CAT's wire mesh catalysts in their gas cooking plates and compared the measured performance with similar results obtained with theirs cordierite monolith catalysts. Compared to the monolith catalyst, the wire mesh catalyst was found to enable very promising results with respect to both emission levels (<10 mg NO{sub x} /kWh, <5 mg CO/kWh) and life-time (>8000 h vs. 700 h at 200 kW/m{sup 2}). It was however established that the radiation and hence, the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate, was significantly less than is usually measured in combination with the monolith (15 % vs. 32 %). It was believed that the latter could be improved by developing new burner designs based on CAT's wire mesh concept. As a consequence, a collaboration project between GdF, CAT and the Swedish Gas Technology AB was created. This study reports on the design, the construction and the evaluation of new catalytic burners, based on CAT's wire mesh catalysts, used for the combustion of natural gas in gas cooking stoves. The evaluation of the burners was performed with respect to key factors such as thermal efficiency, emission quality and pressure drop, etc, by the use of theoretical simulations and experimental tests. Impacts of parameters such as the the wire mesh number, the wire mesh structure (planar or folded), the

  19. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  20. [The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M; Sigrist, S M; Corti, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R

    2011-06-01

    Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus.

  1. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way...... could be an attempt to predict sensory properties based on temperature profiles obtained during cooking. There are still very few scientific studies in the molecular gastronomy field, but hopefully the future brings more studies in this area leading to even more delicious foods in the future....

  3. CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations: "Cook"ed to perfection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN celebrated its 60th anniversary with a gala celebration. Hundreds of CERN staff members and users, dignitaries from CERN Member States and representatives of international organisations filled the marquee for a ceremony featuring speeches as well as music from the EU Youth Orchestra. CERN Recruitment Unit section leader Anna Cook was called in at the last minute to host the ceremony.   Anna had just got back from a run on her day off when she got the call. On the line CERN60 project leader Sascha Schmeling, Globe manager Bernard Pellequer and video editor Jacques Fichet had a problem. French-Swiss journalist Darius Rochebin, who had been pegged to host CERN's 60th anniversary ceremony, had been forced to cancel at the last minute, just three days before the event. Would Anna host the celebration – a ceremony to be attended by hundreds and broadcast around the world for all to see? After asking whether it was a joke, she said: “OK, I&rsquo...

  4. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...

  5. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1958 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1958, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  6. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1956 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1956, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  7. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1954 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1954, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  8. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1957 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1957, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  9. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1959 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1959, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  10. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  11. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  12. 2015 Cook & Tift County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Tift and Cook Counties GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task NOAA Contract No. EA133C-11-CQ-0010 Woolpert Order No. 75271...

  13. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; García Segovia, Purificación; Martínez Monzó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the app...

  14. Characterization of a novel endolysin LysSA11 and its utility as a potent biocontrol agent against Staphylococcus aureus on food and utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Kim, Minsik; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-12-01

    Here we show that the LysSA11 endolysin, derived from the virulent Staphylococcus aureus phage SA11, has lytic activity against staphylococcal strains. Bioinformatics analysis revealed an enzymatically active CHAP (cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases) domain at the N-terminus of LysSA11 that showed amidase activity. A novel cell wall binding domain (CBD) in the C-terminus could bind to a broad spectrum of staphylococcal cells. The bactericidal activity of LysSA11 was determined in food and utensils artificially contaminated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The amounts of MRSA bacteria in milk and on ham were significantly reduced by 1.44-log CFU/mL and 3.12-log CFU/cm(3), respectively, within 15 min at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) and by 2.02-log CFU/mL and 3.37-log CFU/cm(2), respectively, within 15 min at room temperature (25 °C). Moreover, a polypropylene plastic cutting board and a stainless steel knife artificially contaminated with approximately 4-log CFU/cm(2) of MRSA also showed complete bacterial elimination after a 30-min treatment with 1.35 μM of LysSA11. The data presented here strongly suggest that the novel CBD-containing staphylococcal endolysin LysSA11 can be used both as a food antimicrobial and as a practical sanitizer for utensils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  16. [Customer satisfaction study in two roman hospitals: comparison between "cook & serve" and "cook & chill"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perata, E; Ferrari, P; Tarsitani, G

    2005-01-01

    We studied patient's satisfaction rate for hospital dishes comparing "cook & chill" method with "cook & serve". As principal instrument we used a comparative questionnaire, anonymous and self-compiled, which is able to evaluate the differences of customer satisfaction's rate between the two methods.

  17. Implementation of a Cooking Bus Intervention to Support Cooking in Schools in Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose…

  18. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  19. Condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, NR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available the quantity and profile of condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern ready-to-eat extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges. CT were analyzed using normal-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection and their content was compared to CT and total phenols...

  20. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour.

  1. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra-Bernad, C; García-Segovia, P; Martínez-Monzó, J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the application of the sous-vide (90 °C) required longer cooking times than cook-vide (90 °C) and traditional cooking (100 °C). Losses in anthocyanins (for purple-flesh potatoes) and ascorbic acid (for green beans) were higher applying traditional cooking. β-Carotene extraction increased in carrots with traditional cooking and cook-vide (P vide. Traditional cooking was the most aggressive treatment in green beans because the secondary walls were reduced compared with sous-vide and cook-vide. Sous-vide preserved organelles in the carrot cells, which could explain the lower extraction of β-carotene compared with cook-vide and traditional cooking. Sous-vide cooking of purple-flesh potato is recommended to maintain its high anthocyanin content. Traditional boiling could be recommended for carrots because increase β-carotenes availability. For green beans, cook-vide, and sous-vide provided products with higher ascorbic acid content. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Cooking on Slovene national television during socialism: an overview of cooking programmes from 1960 to 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tominc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief historical overview of cooking programmes broadcast on TV Ljubljana between 1960 and 1990 that were mainly produced in Slovenia. From the famous chef Ivan Ivačič in the early 1960s through “Vegeta’s kitchen” in the 1970s to a children’s cooking show, Lonček, kuhaj [Little pot, cook!] in 1990, I analyse the contents of these shows and demonstrate their thematic variation. I also place them in their historical context, especially in terms of socialist television. Cooking shows, which were not only a source of knowledge about new equipment, ingredients and cooking techniques, also revealed to the audience during socialism a different lifestyle, tastes and manners, making television one of the important contributors to the idea of the community, either as a class or nation. Despite this, compared to contemporary cooking shows, the genre of the time remains directed towards education, a feature generally not dissimilar to cooking shows in non-socialist contexts.

  3. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  4. 闭合式蚊香盘的实验研究%Laboratory Research for Closure Type Mosquito Coil Incense Utensil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤永康; 任樟尧

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To research for closure type mosqu ito coil incense utensil. Methods:To detect the dust, inc ense utensil and volatile noxious. Results:This paper re ported that both the closure type and the opening type mosquito coil incense ut ensil. The volatile noxious to be one's health of the matter, decrease 67.49 %,u=9.42,P<0.05;≥0.5μm dust 67 771.75/L and 71 811.84/L, decrease 5.63%,χ2 =40.77,P<0.05;≥0 .5μm dust as time going on was decrease,r=0.988 8,t =11.47, P<0.05;simulation locale test results of the biom etrics , unconsciousness rate : 1 hour 32% and 28%, 3 hour both th e closure type and the opening type mosquito coil incense utensil 100 %.%目的:降低盘式蚊香使用过 程中产生的挥发性有害物质和尘埃粒子数量,减少室内空气污染,提高生活环境质量,保障 人体健康。方法:通过测定燃烧过程中释放出污染物 质的吸附率、空气中尘埃粒子数和对生物药效的影响等,对闭合式蚊香盘与常规使用的敞开 式蚊香盘进行对照观察。结果:闭合式新蚊香盘与对照组的效果无 明显差异;挥发性物质过滤吸收率达到67.49%(u=9.42,P<0.05 );两组在燃烧过程中产生≥0.5μm尘埃粒子数,平均增量分别为67 771.75和 71 811.84个/L,比对照组减少5.63%(χ2=40.77,P<0.05) ;尘埃粒子数随着点燃时间的延长而减少(r=0.988 8,t=11.47,P <0.05);模拟现场生物药效测试,1h击倒率分别为32%和28%,3h均为100%。结论: 闭合式蚊香盘可降低67.49%的污染物质、5.63%≥0.5μm的尘埃粒子数,具有应用前景。

  5. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Anhong; Pan Chongdao; Xiao Deyan; Hou Hong

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking. It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly, accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment, which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  6. "Savoir Fare": Are Cooking Skills a New Morality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John; Begley, Andrea; Gallegos, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in cooking skills in a diverse range of fields, such as health, education and public policy. There appears to be an assumption that cooking skills are in decline and that this is having an adverse impact on individual health and well-being, and family wholesomeness. The problematisation of cooking skills…

  7. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power for cooking and heating. 129.550 Section 129.550... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for cooking and heating must be suitable for marine use. Equipment designed and installed to comply with...

  8. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  9. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  10. Energy aspects in food extrusion-cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Moscicki, L.; Mitrus, M.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical and practical energy balance considerations in food extrusion-cooking are presented in the paper. Based on the literature review as well as on own measurement results, the baro-thermal treatment of different vegetable raw materials is discussed together with the engineering aspects of th

  11. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  12. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, G; Liuzzi, V.; M. Faccia; G. Alviti; G. Cacace; A. Di Luccia

    2011-01-01

    The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel) accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, ...

  13. Effects of Leached Amylose and Amylopectin in Rice Cooking Liquidon Texture and Structure of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of leached amylose (AM and amylopectin (AP on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice were investigated separately by replacing cooking liquid with AM and AP separated from pouring cooking liquid. The pouring of cooking water reduced the hardness (from 28.45 to 19.42N and stickiness (from 1.74 to 1.19N·s significantly. However, the addition of AM and AP enhanced the hardness (27.63N and stickiness (1.71N·s.Scanning electron microscopy show that the leached short-chain AM entered the surface hollows in the cooked rice after water evaporation. Meanwhile, the Long-chain AM cross-linked to formed a three-dimensional network structures, which covered on the filled hollows. This distribution led to a harder texture of cooked rice. The leached AP absorbed water and swelledto form masses. Atthe gelatinization temperature,theAPmassesagglomeratedtoformafilmlayer,whichcoveredtheunevenstructure, the thicker and smoother film contributed to the sticky texture.

  14. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, then cooked and after cooled and packed. The meat cooking is the last step in the cooked sausage production technology, and let us obtain a stable and eatable product. The effect of the heat and the lenght of processing are the main responsibles for modifications in water- and salt-soluble protein fractions. Indeed myofibrils denature themselves after cooking and consequently their solubility decreases; particularly the denaturation begins over 30°C in the myosin chain, instead the actin solubility begins to decrease over 60°C, being the actin more stable than myosin (Barbieri et al., 1997...

  15. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J. (Richland, WA); Diaz, Aaron A. (W. Richland, WA); Judd, Kayte M. (Richland, WA); Pappas, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Cliff, William C. (Richland, WA); Pfund, David M. (Richland, WA); Morgen, Gerald P. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  16. Physico-chemical, textural and structural characteristics of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by vacuum, cooking temperature, and cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Gázquez, Antonio; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the influence of different factors on sous-vide cooked pork. Pork cheeks were cooked at different combinations of temperature (60°C or 80°C), time (5 or 12h) and vacuum (vacuum or air packaged). Weight losses were lower and moisture content higher in samples cooked for a shorter time (P=0.054) and at a lower temperature (PVacuum packaging showed no influence on any of the studied variables. For the treatments evaluated, cooking temperature×time combination seems to be more important than vacuum packaging in the textural and colour parameters of pork cheeks.

  17. Homestyle quick-cooking rice meal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Basman, Irenei Camila V; Tinsay, Cathrina B; Tasarra, Christy G

    2002-01-01

    The study developed processes for quick-cooking rice meal products (QCRMP) paella and bringhe originally based on homestyle recipes. These QCRMPs consisted of basal quick-cooking waxy Malagkit Sungsong and non-waxy irrigated rice (IR) 42 Philippine rice cultivars, dehydrated vegetables, textured vegetable proteins (TVPs) as meat analogs, and seasonings. The rehydrated QCRMP paella and bringhe were found to be more acceptable than their conventionally prepared counterparts at 5% level of significance based on results of sensory acceptability evaluation by 50 consumer panelists. Improvement of the sensory attributes of the QCRMPs was ascribed to the use of alternate concentrates and powdered ingredients which imparted more intense flavors to the developed products than their fresh counterparts.

  18. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  19. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer. A work...... further user attention. The EffiCooker also may replace many other kitchen appliances, e. g. steamer, rice cooker, double boiler, chocolate melter, deep fat fryer, etc....

  20. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  1. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full...

  2. Shanghai Home-Cooking in Shikumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Apopular dish in Shanghai is soaked rice—cooked rice reheated in boiling water. It is usually eaten together with pickles, and so cannot be considered particularly upscale or nutritious. However, a recent survey of the social and economic situation in urban Shanghai indicated that 66 percent of the people in Shanghai eat soaked rice and pickles for breakfast everyday. Soaked rice is a typical food among Shanghai’s shikumen

  3. Exposure to cooking oil fumes and oxidative damages: a longitudinal study in Chinese military cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes (COF) contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde, which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to COF and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient (β), β=0.06, 95% CI 0.001-0.12) and (β=0.07, 95% CI 0.001-0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  4. Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Sayers, Ken

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records.

  5. Advantages of sous-vide cooked red cabbage: structural, nutritional and sensory aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; Tárrega, Amparo; García Segovia, Purificación; Martínez Monzó, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The comparison between equivalent cooking treatments should be applied in a systematic way. This study proposes a methodical way to provide cooked samples with similar firmness using two cooking treatments. In addition, the structural, nutritional and sensory properties of red cabbage cooked with sous-vide treatment in comparison with traditional cooking (boiling water) was evaluated. Changes in texture, color and anthocyanin content were measured in samples cooked with traditional cooking...

  6. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  7. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of structural characteristics on starch digestibility of cooked rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    To examine the impact of structural characteristics of cooked rice grains on their starch digestibility, a simulated in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion technique was applied to intact and homogenised cooked rice samples. The starch hydrolysis percentage increased during simulated small intestinal digestion, in which approximately 65% and 24% of the starch was hydrolysed within the first 5min, for homogenised and intact cooked rice, respectively. The kinetic constant of homogenised cooked rice, which was regarded as an estimated digestion rate, was ∼8 times higher than the intact cooked rice. The homogenised and intact samples were also examined for any microstructural changes occurring during the in vitro digestion process using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. In the intact samples, the aleurone layers of the endosperm remained as thin-film like layers during in vitro digestion and thus may be regarded as less digestible materials that influence cooked rice digestibility.

  9. Used cooking oil as a green chemical admixture in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmia, B.; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ashraful Alam, Md; Sidek, L. M.; Hidayah, B.

    2013-06-01

    According to National Statistics Approximately 1.35 billion gallons of used oil are generated yearly. With the increasing of the concrete usage, a more cost effective and economic new type of admixtures may give positive impacts on the Malaysian construction building as well as worldwide concrete usage. To objective of this is study is to investigate the effect of used cooking oil in terms of slump test, compressive strength test and rebound hammer. By adding the used cooking oil to the concrete, it increases the slump value from 4% to 72%. And the compressive strength have an increment from 1% to 16.8%. The used cooking oil obtains the optimum contribution to the concrete mix proportion of containing used cooking oil of 1.50% from the cement content. The result of used cooking oil from experimental program of slump value and compressive strength proved that used cooking oil have positive effects on replacement of commercially available superplasticizer.

  10. Professional cooking: new approaches; Restauration professionnelle: nouvelles approches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on professional cooking to present the existing gas solutions to manage together the space heating, the air conditioning, the refrigeration and the cooking: evolution of markets with new consumer habits, natural gas technologies and innovations, architecture of cooking rooms: esthetics and functionality, opening of energy markets and new gas supplying contracts. (J.S.)

  11. Cooking for geeks: real science, great hacks, and good food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potter, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Functional Fixedness 5 A Few Words on Nutrition 10 Tips for Newbies 12 Picking a Recipe 22 Reading Between the Lines 26 Cooking for One...

  12. Influence of a School-Based Cooking Course on Students' Food Preferences, Cooking Skills, and Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Rola; Sibeko, Lindiwe

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Project CHEF, a hands-on cooking and tasting program offered in Vancouver public schools, on students' food preferences, cooking skills, and confidence. Grade 4 and 5 students in an intervention group (n = 68) and a comparison group (n = 32) completed a survey at baseline and 2 to 3 weeks later. Students who participated in Project CHEF reported an increased familiarity and preference for the foods introduced through the program. This was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for broccoli, swiss chard, carrots, and quinoa. A higher percentage of students exposed to Project CHEF reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in: cutting vegetables and fruit (97% vs 81%), measuring ingredients (67% vs 44%), using a knife (94% vs 82%), and making a balanced meal on their own (69% vs 34%). They also reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in confidence making the recipes introduced in the program: fruit salad (85% vs 81%), minestrone soup (25% vs 10%), and vegetable tofu stir fry (39% vs 26%). Involving students in hands-on cooking and tasting programs can increase their preferences for unpopular or unfamiliar foods and provide them with the skills and cooking confidence they need to prepare balanced meals.

  13. How Do Cooks Actually Cook Vegetables? A Field Experiment With Low-Income Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter; Evans, Susan H

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables in the diet contribute to disease prevention. However, low-income households underconsume fresh vegetables, perhaps because of cost and of unavailability at nearby stores. A third reason may lurk behind those barriers: cooks' unfamiliarity with various and appealing ways to prepare vegetables. To illuminate that possibility and to suggest interventions that could be designed more effectively to boost vegetable consumption, this study took the novel step of providing ample, if temporary, supplies of a fresh vegetable to random sets of clients of food pantries. A week later, telephone interviews obtained details about preparations of meals and snacks that household cooks had made with their unexpected bounty. Among the experiment's 10 vegetables, some were used twice as often as others. Even more striking, cooks practiced a narrow repertoire of preparation methods, dominated by boiling and steaming, across most of the vegetables. Fats and salt were often added to boiled and steamed preparations. Implications are drawn to suggest kinds of recipes-pairings of vegetables and of vegetables with underused means of preparation-that could expand cooks' repertoires and add variety in flavors, appearances of dishes, meal textures, and aromas. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Marine Ice Atlas for Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    microwave/imager TDD thawing degree-day USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USCB U.S. Census Bureau USCG U.S. Coast Guard USNO U.S. Naval Observatory WMO...large com- mercial fishing fleet based there. Homer, also a center for tourism , has a population of about 4,800. Marine facilities there include a deep...the importance of commercial navigation, fishing, and tourism access to remote sites around Cook Inlet, the practice continues today with even greater

  15. Conference in honor of Kenneth Cooke

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The meeting explored current directions of research in delay differential equations and related dynamical systems and celebrated the contributions of Kenneth Cooke to this field on the occasion of his 65th birthday. The volume contains three survey papers reviewing three areas of current research and seventeen research contributions. The research articles deal with qualitative properties of solutions of delay differential equations and with bifurcation problems for such equations and other dynamical systems. A companion volume in the biomathematics series (LN in Biomathematics, Vol. 22) contains contributions on recent trends in population and mathematical biology.

  16. Chemical changes during extrusion cooking. Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camire, M E

    1998-01-01

    Cooking extruders process a variety of foods, feeds, and industrial materials. Greater flexibility in product development with extruders depends upon understanding chemical reactions that occur within the extruder barrel and at the die. Starch gelatinization and protein denautration are the most important reactions during extrusion. Proteins, starches, and non-starch polysaccharides can fragment, creating reactive molecules that may form new linkages not found in nature. Vitamin stability varies with vitamin structure, extrusion conditions, and food matrix composition. Little is known about the effects of extrusion parameters on phytochemical bioavailability and stability. Reactive extrusion to create new flavor, antioxidant and color compounds will be an area of interest in the future.

  17. Local Cooking Oil Faces Foreign Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Alarming local oil industry This year, the purchasing price of rapeseed from China's major production bases has gone up due to the decline in planting area of oil-bearing crops. In this June, the purchase price of rapeseeds from Anhui Province, a major rape production base in China, increased by 10%~20% from this May and by 50%~60% over last year. It was even 0.26 yuan /jin (half a kilogram) higher than the highest price level of last year. Domestic oil price rise has also resulted in the increasing import of cooking oil.

  18. 76 FR 2708 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... (Third Review)] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking... revocation of the antidumping duty order on imports of porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan and the... antidumping duty order on imports of porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan and the countervailing...

  19. Domestic cooking and food skills: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Laura; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; Spence, Michelle; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-24

    Domestic cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) encompass multiple components, yet there is a lack of consensus on their constituent parts, inter-relatedness, or measurement, leading to limited empirical support for their role in influencing dietary quality. This review assessed the measurement of CS and FS in adults (>16 years); critically examining study designs, psychometric properties of measures, theoretical basis, and associations of CS/FS with diet. Electronic databases (PsychInfo), published reports, and systematic reviews on cooking and home food preparation interventions provided 834 articles of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Multiple CS/FS measures were identified across three study designs-qualitative, cross-sectional, and dietary interventions-conducted from 1998 to 2013. Most measures were not theory-based, limited psychometric data were available, with little consistency of items or scales used for CS/FS measurements. Some positive associations between CS/FS and fruit and vegetables intake were reported, though lasting dietary changes were uncommon. The role of psycho-social (e.g., gender, attitudes) and external factors (e.g., food availability) on CS/FS is discussed. A conceptual framework of CS/FS components is presented for future measurement facilitation, which highlights the role for CS/FS on food-related behavior and dietary quality. This will aid future dietary intervention design.

  20. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ermy Teti; Sakti Hutabarat; Asriati Nofionna

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  1. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Gang; Lang, Jianlei; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Sen

    2016-11-01

    Cooking fume is regarded as one of the main sources of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its chemical characteristics would be different among various cooking styles. In this study, VOCs emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were collected. VOCs concentrations and emission characteristics were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Barbecue gave the highest VOCs concentrations (3494 ± 1042 μg/m3), followed by Hunan cuisine (494.3 ± 288.8 μg/m3), Home cooking (487.2 ± 139.5 μg/m3), and Shandong cuisine (257.5 ± 98.0 μg/m3). The volume of air drawn through the collection hood over the stove would have a large impact on VOCs concentration in the exhaust. Therefore, VOCs emission rates (ER) and emission factors (EF) were also estimated. Home cooking had the highest ER levels (12.2 kg/a) and Barbecue had the highest EF levels (0.041 g/kg). The abundance of alkanes was higher in Home cooking, Shandong cuisine and Hunan cuisine with the value of 59.4%-63.8%, while Barbecue was mainly composed of alkanes (34.7%) and alkenes (39.9%). The sensitivity species of Home cooking and Hunan cuisine were alkanes, and that of Shandong cuisine and Barbecue were alkenes. The degree of stench pollution from cooking fume was lighter.

  2. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  3. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAnhong; PanChongdao; 等

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking.It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly,accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment,which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  4. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    Household cooking energy accounts for a major part of the total energy consumed in Nigeria. Factors ... energy for cooking can be classified into solid fuels and non-solid fuels. ... previously used fuel [11] whereas, other factors such as culture ...

  5. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; De Vries, H

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size. Real

  6. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scie

  7. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  8. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed

  9. Genotoxicity of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P F; Chiang, T A; Ko, Y C; Lee, H

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Taiwanese nonsmoking women have found that exposure to fumes from cooking oils may be an important risk factor. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils (lard, soybean, and peanut oils) often used in Taiwan for preparing Chinese meals were collected for genotoxicity analysis in SOS chromotest and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. The induction factors of the SOS chromotest in Escherichia coli PQ 37 were dependent on the concentrations of lard and soybean cooking oil extracts without S9 mix. In addition, when CHO-K1 cells were exposed to condensates of cooking oil fumes for 12 h, SCEs showed a dose-related increase in extracts of lard and soybean oil fumes. This result provides experimental evidence and is in accordance with the findings of epidemiologic studies that women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at an increase risk of contracting lung cancer. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; van den Top, Hester; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Lopez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-12-15

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83-100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).

  11. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  12. Volatile Compounds Profile of Sous-Vide Cooked Pork Cheeks as Affected by Cooking Conditions (Vacuum Packaging, Temperature and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sanchez del Pulgar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C, time (5 or 12 h and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged. As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status.

  13. Volatile compounds profile of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by cooking conditions (vacuum packaging, temperature and time).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pulgar, Jose Sanchez; Roldan, Mar; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2013-10-10

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C), time (5 or 12 h) and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged). As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status.

  14. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  15. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g.

  16. Mutagens from heated Chinese and U.S. cooking oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, P G; Xu, G X; Blot, W J; Fraumeni, J F; Trivers, G E; Pellizzari, E D; Qu, Y H; Gao, Y T; Harris, C C

    1995-06-07

    The lung cancer incidence in Chinese women is among the highest in the world, but tobacco smoking accounts for only a minority of the cancers. Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Chinese women have implicated exposure to indoor air pollution from wok cooking, where the volatile emissions from unrefined cooking oils are mutagenic. This study was conducted to identify and quantify the potentially mutagenic substances emitted from a variety of cooking oils heated to the temperatures typically used in wok cooking. Several cooking oils and fatty acids were heated in a wok to boiling, at temperatures (for the cooking oils) that ranged from 240 degrees C to 280 degrees C (typical cooking temperatures in Shanghai, China). The oils tested were unrefined Chinese rapeseed, refined U.S. rapeseed (known as canola), Chinese soybean, and Chinese peanut in addition to linolenic, linoleic, and erucic fatty acids. Condensates of the emissions were collected and tested in the Salmonella mutation assay (using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA104). Volatile decomposition products also were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Aldehydes were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV spectroscopy. 1,3-Butadiene, benzene, acrolein, formaldehyde, and other related compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively detected, with emissions tending to be highest for unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil and lowest for peanut oil. The emission of 1,3-butadiene and benzene was approximately 22-fold and 12-fold higher, respectively, from heated unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil than from heated peanut oil. Lowering the cooking temperatures or adding an antioxidant, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, before cooking decreased the amount of these volatile emissions. Among the individual fatty acids tested, heated linolenic acid produced the greatest quantities of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and acrolein. Separately, the mutagenicity of individual

  17. A Study on the Safety of Vacuum Cooking Method in the New Cooking System

    OpenAIRE

    山下,由美子; 溝下,あさみ; 村田, 美穂子; 谷口,美佐子; 白砂,千登勢; 水井,富美恵; 岡田,正浩

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,we investigated the shelf-life of vacuum cooked products, which are being increasingly utilized on many fronts, including hotel and hospital catering. We focused on important factors for food hygiene through bacterial and organoleptic testing and investigated the leaching of hazardous substances from vacuum packaging materials due to heating with steam convection ovens. Bacterial testing detected only small amounts of general bacteria even after two weeks of storage foll...

  18. How SARS Taught Me to Cook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAVALEE

    2003-01-01

    DURING the week-long May Day holiday I usually hold a party, or enjoy the good weather on outings with friends, but thanks to the SARS epidemic in Beijing this year, I stayed at home the entire May Day holiday. It was no problem finding something to do with my ample spare time, as I can surf the Internet for hours on end. My biggest headache was eating.Having dined in cafeterias and restaurants for the previous ten years or so, I had never learned to cook, but as SARS had begun to spread in Beijing in late April, the cafeteria in my work unit and most restaurants were closed for the holiday.

  19. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  20. Energy-Efficient Cooking of Spaghetti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Akash

    2011-03-01

    Spaghetti is a dual-career family dinner favorite. But how much energy is consumed in the process, and how can it be optimized? I performed an experiment to test two methods for preparing a spaghetti meal. In both cases, the water was rapidly heated to the boiling point. The flame was kept at maximum for the first experiment until the spaghetti was cooked. In the second experiment, the flame was reduced and the top covered, such that the water was kept at 100C. The two methods are compared in terms of the total time required to prepare the meal and amount of energy required. A discussion of potential savings for the latter method--and possible uses for that savings--is discussed.

  1. “What’s Cooking?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejenova, Silviya

    2016-01-01

    “What’s cooking?” is old-fashioned slang for asking about what is happening or what someone is planning. In this chapter, it denotes an approach to prospective data collection in qualitative research and captures the gist of a case study from the field of haute cuisine that inspired the saying....... The approach involves seeking proactively, noticing, and acting creatively upon serendipitous opportunities that are associated with the case’s future. These opportunities may bring researchers into contact with social worlds other than those in which the studied case is grounded and may require...... that they negotiate and play diverse roles for data collection, yielding novel insights and offering possibilities for building interesting stories and theories. Next I describe the background of and inspiration for the approach, introduce its elements and workings, and highlight potential benefits and caveats....

  2. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  3. The Organoleptic and Smoked Catfish Histology from Pre-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venny Yuliastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is one of the main commodities in fresh water aquaculture. Indonesia catfish production increased 37,49% in 2010 until 2014. Protein content of catfish is 17.7-26.7% and fat about 0.95 until 11.5%. The objective of this study was to determine the best organoleptic and to study the changes of tissue structure of catfish caused by process precooking and smoking process. Precooked Catfish with variation 5, 10 and 15 minute; temperature of 100oC, and smoked for 7 hours with a temperature of 90°C, analyzed in laboratory. The results organoleptic consumers is the favored smoke catfish without any pre – cooking and catfish-results of pre-cooking for 5 minutes i.e. ten successive sense 8.66; 7.66 smell 8.46; 7.8appearance 8.13;5.93 texture 6.86; 6.93. Organoleptic low on pre-cooked for 15 minutes the sense of 5.66 smell 7 appearance of 2.93 texture 5.53. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes has the highest water content of 26.33%. Pre–cooked for 5 minutes with the lowest value of 16.23%. smoked catfish without any pre–cooking has the highest value of aw 0.82. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes had the lowest value of 0.78. Observation on histology showed fresh catfish the structure of the connective tissue still compact. Precooked catfish, myomer begins damage, catfish smoke without pre-cooking is characterized by the formation of fibrils wafy fibers are separated from one another and pre-cooking smoked catfish, myoseptum damaged and lead to the distance inter myomer but myomer still intact.

  4. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  5. Impact of the degree of cooking on starch digestibility of rice - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    The impact of cooking degree on the starch digestibility of a non-waxy, cooked rice was examined through a simulated gastro-small intestinal in vitro digestion model. The starch hydrolysis of both non-homogenised and homogenised cooked rice samples during simulated digestion was also compared in order to examine the impact of grain structure on starch digestibility. Polished rice grains were cooked in boiling water for 10min (partially cooked) and 20min (fully cooked) to obtain samples of different cooking degree. No significant differences in the equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) were observed among the partially and fully cooked grains, although significant differences were observed among the uncooked and cooked samples. The equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) of homogenised rice was higher than its non-homogenised counterpart. These results showed that rice starch digestibility should not be affected by the cooking degrees related to starch gelatinisation, but was influenced by the modification/destruction of the grain structure during mechanical processing.

  6. Polynesian Music, Captain Cook, and the Romantic Movement in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, Adrienne L.

    1978-01-01

    The descriptions of Polynesian music and dance resulting from Cook's voyages influenced the romantic composers of the early nineteenth century, especially in the incorporation of exotic and mystical themes. (Author)

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  8. Polynesian Music, Captain Cook, and the Romantic Movement in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, Adrienne L.

    1978-01-01

    The descriptions of Polynesian music and dance resulting from Cook's voyages influenced the romantic composers of the early nineteenth century, especially in the incorporation of exotic and mystical themes. (Author)

  9. Heart-Healthy Home Cooking: African American Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tablespoons parsley, finely chopped 1. Wash chicken and pat dry. Cut the chicken breast and kielbasa into 1-inch chunks. 2. Spray a medium-sized pan with nonstick cooking spray. Brown the sausage and chicken over medium heat and ...

  10. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    . An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling......Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal...

  11. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gastrointestinal system handle the increase in dietary fiber. References Duyff RL. Cook for flavor and health. In: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 5th ed. New ...

  12. Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161980.html Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows ... shows. They also noted whether the shows mentioned food safety. The findings were published in the November-December ...

  13. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal...... of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling....... An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...

  14. Pasta cooking water as medium of amylase production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    respectively. The optimum substrate concentration, sea-water concentration, inoculum size and NaCl ... The factors that affect amylase production such as: pasta cooking .... pollution of the aquatic ecosystem. ... microbial life. .... Ocean Univ.

  15. Virginia Tech's Cook Counseling Center receives international counseling accreditation

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center has been accredited by the International Association of Counseling Services, Inc., an organization of United States, Canadian, and Australian counseling agencies based in Alexandria, Va.

  16. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  17. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  19. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  1. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  2. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  3. Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frederic; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of th...

  4. STARCH RETROGRADATION AND PRODUCTION OF RESISTANT STARCH IN COOKED RICE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    After rice cooking, retrogradation of starch in a cooked rice progresses quickly at under gelatinization temperature. Cold rice (aging rice) is tasteless, firm and digested slowly. My aim in this report is explained the relationship between cold rice tasteless and indexes of starch retrogradation. Starch gelatinization degree, starch whiteness index and resistant starch content that were indexes of starch retrogradation did not change remarkably of cold and aging rice that were very firm and ...

  5. Analysis of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and related compounds in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene (4-VC) in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide and an internal standard were added in a sealed headspace vial. The vial was incubated for 1 h at 90 degrees C and the headspace gas was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The recovery rates of the analytes were 93.3-101.8% and the coefficients of variation were 0.3-6.5%. In ABS copolymers, the levels were 0.3-50.4 microg/g for AN, ND-4.5 microg/g for PN, 0.06-1.58 microg/g for 1,3-BD, and 1.1-295 microg/g for 4-VC. The highest level was found for 4-VC, which is a dimer of 1,3-BD, and the next highest was for AN, which is one of the monomers of the ABS copolymer. Furthermore, the method was also applied to acrylonitrile-styrene (AS) copolymers and polystyrenes (PS) for kitchen utensils, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves. In AS copolymers, AN and PN were detected at 16.8-54.5 and 0.8-6.9 microg/g, respectively. On the other hand, the levels in PS and NBR samples were all low.

  6. THE FORM OF THE COOKING VESSEL AND THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KRÄMER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the contribution of the form of the cooking vessel to the heat transfer efficiency of the stove/pot system. A rounded (convex pot bottom increases the surface available for heat transfer and, hence, heat transfer efficiency. We suggest that combustion-efficient stoves combined with rounded-bottom vessels compare favourably to the same stoves in combination with flat-bottom stoves. Clay pots with a rounded bottom correspond to African traditions. Nowadays metal pots with rounded bottoms are locally produced in some areas. Implications of pot forms for the outcome of Water Boiling Tests are also discussed.

  7. Processamento do presunto "cook-in" de cordeiros Processing of cook-in ham of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mattos Monteiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver tecnologia para produto curado (presunto "cook-in", com pernis de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale em associação com tratamentos tecnológicos (massagem em "tumbler" e processo "cook-in". O estudo foi desenvolvido pela EMBRAPA/CPPSUL e Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Após as análises da composição química, a carne foi injetada manualmente com 20 % de salmoura composta por água + gelo 79%, cloreto de sódio 7,52%, condimento para presunto 4,70%, fosfatos 1,97%, sais de cura 1,88%, sacarose 3,38% e glutamato monossódico 0,19 %. Os presuntos foram avaliados quanto à composição química (umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, pigmentos totais e pH, parâmetros sensoriais (cor, aroma, sabor, textura e aceitabilidade e rendimento. Uma das principais características dos presuntos obtidos com pernil de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale foi o baixo conteúdo de gordura associado ao bom rendimento e à excelente aceitabilidade.The aim of this study was to develop technology for the curing lambs (cook-in hams which were manufactured from the legs of crossbred Texel x Corriedale lambs in association with technologic treatment (massaging in tumbler and cook-in process. The experiment was conducted at the EMBRAPA-CPPSUL/ UFSM, RS, Brazil. After the evaluation of the chemical composition, the meat was injected with it manually - 20 % of brine containing water 79%, salt 7.52%, curing salts 1.88%, sucrose 3.38%, ham condiments 4.70%, phosphate 1.97% and sodium glutamate 0.19%. The ham quality was evaluated by analysis of its chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, fat, pH, sensory properties (color, aroma, texture, acceptability and yield. The main characteristics of lamb hams were low fat contents associated with excellent acceptability and good yield.

  8. An evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Margaret; Chandra, Joya; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Schick, Vanessa; Strong, Larkin L; Durand, Casey; Sharma, Shreela

    2016-12-01

    Eating out of the home has been positively associated with body weight, obesity, and poor diet quality. While cooking at home has declined steadily over the last several decades, the benefits of home cooking have gained attention in recent years and many healthy cooking projects have emerged around the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking behavior in relation to chronic disease prevention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using broad search terms. Studies analyzing the impact of cooking behaviors across a range of disciplines were included. Experts in the field reviewed the resulting constructs in a small focus group. The model was developed from the extant literature on the subject with 59 studies informing 5 individual constructs (frequency, techniques and methods, minimal usage, flavoring, and ingredient additions/replacements), further defined by a series of individual behaviors. Face validity of these constructs was supported by the focus group. A validated conceptual model is a significant step toward better understanding the relationship between cooking, disease and disease prevention and may serve as a base for future assessment tools and curricula.

  9. Indoor air pollution from gas cooking and infant neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Aguilera, Inma; Bustamante, Mariona; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Mònica; Lertxundi, Nerea; Martinez, M Dolores; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Gas cooking is a main source of indoor air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particles. Because concerns are emerging for neurodevelopmental effects of air pollutants, we examined the relationship between indoor gas cooking during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnant mothers were recruited between 2004 and 2008 to a prospective birth cohort study (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) in Spain during the first trimester of pregnancy. Third-trimester questionnaires collected information about the use of gas appliances at home. At age 11 to 22 months, children were assessed for mental development using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression models examined the association of gas cooking and standardized mental development scores (n = 1887 mother-child pairs). Gas cookers were present in 44% of homes. Gas cooking was related to a small decrease in the mental development score compared with use of other cookers (-2.5 points [95% confidence interval = -4.0 to -0.9]) independent of social class, maternal education, and other measured potential confounders. This decrease was strongest in children tested after the age of 14 months (-3.1 points [-5.1 to -1.1]) and when gas cooking was combined with less frequent use of an extractor fan. The negative association with gas cooking was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates. This study suggests a small adverse effect of indoor air pollution from gas cookers on the mental development of young children.

  10. Influence of Heating Temperature on Cooking Curve of Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Akutsu, Atsuko; Otake, Ayumi; Moritaka, Hatsue

    The swelling behavior of a rice grain in water and an aqueous NaCl and acetic acid solution was investigated as a function of temperature. We observed that the rice grain in water shows an abrupt change in shape and size at 61 °C. The transition temperature Tv became higher in an order: sodium chloride aqueous solution > water > acetic acid aqueous solution. In order to clarify Tv, we also investigated kinetics on cooking of rice grains by the rheological measurement. The time development of compliance of rice grains in compression (cooking curve) from 5 to 1440 min was measured in the range of cooking temperatures from 61 to 80°C. We found that Tv is the onset temperature to complete the cooking of rice. The cooking curve at the cooking temperature neighborhood Tv was approximated by the first order reaction with the two different rate constants. The faster and slower reactions were explained as indicating the plasticizing effect of water on rice grains, and mainly the gelatinization of the starch in rice grains, respectively.

  11. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  12. Planning waste cooking oil collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tânia Rodrigues Pereira; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana Paula

    2013-08-01

    This research has been motivated by a real-life problem of a waste cooking oil collection system characterized by the existence of multiple depots with an outsourced vehicle fleet, where the collection routes have to be plan. The routing problem addressed allows open routes between depots, i.e., all routes start at one depot but can end at the same or at a different one, depending on what minimizes the objective function considered. Such problem is referred as a Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Closed and Open Inter-Depot Routes and is, in this paper, modeled through a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation where capacity and duration constraints are taken into account. The model developed is applied to the real case study providing, as final results, the vehicle routes planning where a decrease of 13% on mileage and 11% on fleet hiring cost are achieved, when comparing with the current company solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maagiliste momentide mütoloogia : intervjuu Peter Cook'iga / Peter Cook ; interv. Vilen Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cook, Peter

    2002-01-01

    5. Põhja- ja Baltimaade Arhitektuuritriennaalil esinenud inglise arhitekt P. Cook endast, oma loomingust, rühmitusest Archigram, mis pälvis 2002. a. RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) kuldmedali, Tallinnast jm. Kommenteerinud Triin Ojari

  14. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Implementation Science to Accelerate Clean Cooking for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bruce, Nigel; Chambers, David; Graham, Jay; Jack, Darby; Kline, Lydia; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Mercado, Ilse Ruiz; Neta, Gila; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Puzzolo, Elisa; Petach, Helen; Punturieri, Antonello; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sage, Michael; Sturke, Rachel; Shankar, Anita; Sherr, Kenny; Smith, Kirk; Yadama, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, has launched the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network that aims to address this issue. In this article, our focus is on building a knowledge base to accelerate scale-up and sustained use of the cleanest technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation science provides a variety of analytical and planning tools to enhance effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions. These tools are being integrated with a growing body of knowledge and new research projects to yield new methods, consensus tools, and an evidence base to accelerate improvements in health promised by the renewed agenda of clean cooking. PMID:28055947

  16. The Cook Mountain problem: Stratigraphic reality and semantic confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, T.E. [Frontera Exploration Consultants, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[Venus Oil Co., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Historical inconsistency as to what constitutes the Cook Mountain Formation illustrates the semantic confusion resulting from extending surface-derived stratigraphic names into the subsurface without a full understanding of basin architecture. At the surface, the Cook Mountain Formation consists of fossilerous marine shale, glaucony and marl, and marginal-marine sandstone and shale between the nonmarine Sparta Formation sandstones below and the nonmarine Yegua Formation sandstones and lignitic shales above. Fossils are abundant, including the benthic foraminifer Ceratobulimina eximia. As subsurface exploration began, the first occurrence of Ceratobulimina eximia {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} was used as the top of the marine {open_quotes}Cook Mountain Shale{close_quotes} below the Yegua section. Downdip, the overlying Yegua was found to become a sequence of marine shales and marginal-marine sandstones, the lower part of which yielded {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes}. Because of this, the lower sandstones were called {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes} in many fields. At the Yegua shelf margin, {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} is absent. Different exploration teams have used their own definitions for {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes}, leading to substantial confusion.

  17. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  18. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bofeng Mao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can have significant impact on pulp strength properties. We have studied cooking homogeneity of two kraft digesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is a one-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phase continuous digester (digester B). They are located in the same mill and use the same softwood chip quality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steaming and cooking facilities and conditions, significant differences in pulp strength properties, reject contents and kappa variations have been found between the pulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has a modem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and air removal, whereas digester B has poor chip pre-steaming conditions. Our strength delivery studies show that although the two digesters produce pulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, the pulp produced in digester A has about 20% higher strength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lower reject content and lower kappa variations based on FTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulp produced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that more homogeneous cooking, i.e., lower lignin/kappa variation in the fibers, leads to improved pulp strength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming is important/essential for achieving homogeneous cooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improving chip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to be carried out.

  19. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. RESIZING AND AUTOMATION OF COOKING OF COLD CUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício da Cunha Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooking using steam, at an industrial level, should be a reliable and safe process regarding operational repeatability of pre-set parameters. This work aims to implement an automatic system for direct steam injection , for cooking salamis at an industry of Rio Grande do Sul. Costs of losses of cold cuts have been measured before and after the implementation of the project and also calculations of transfer of heat and mass have been performed - application of letters of Heisler - to obtain the correct time and temperatures for this kind of food, resulting in a project of a vapor distributor with temperature and time controls, guaranteeing a product with uniform cooking and, therefore, quality. The realignment of the project proposed in this study resulted in the reduction of direct losses of discarded products at 98 % , with consequent reduction in operational and energy costs.

  1. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality evaluation of cook-chilled chicory stems (Cichorium intybus L., Catalogna group) by conventional and sous vide cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Massimiliano; Gonnella, Maria; Giannino, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    Chicory stems, appreciated both raw and cooked, represent a nutritious and refined food. In this study the effects on the quality of stems cooked by conventional (boiling, steaming and microwaving) and innovative (sous vide) methods were analysed. Several physical, chemical and sensory traits were compared using two local varieties (Galatina and Molfettese) of southern Italy (Puglia region). Independently of the variety, the sous vide method did not significantly affect (redness, yellowness and hue angle) or had the least impact on (lightness and total colour difference) quality parameters among the four methods as compared with the raw product. Following sensory analysis, the sous vide product always showed the highest score among the cooking methods. Moreover, this innovative method did not affect total phenol (TP) content and antioxidant activity (AA) compared with uncooked stems of both varieties. Microwaving increased TP content and AA (though associated with higher weight loss), while different responses depending on the chicory variety were observed after boiling and steaming. The results indicate the sous vide technique as optimal to preserve several traits, including organoleptic ones, for the quality of cook-chilled chicory stems. They also provide product-specific information usually required for cooking process strategies in the industrial sector of ready-to-eat vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  5. Assessment of carotenoids in pumpkins after different home cooking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids have antioxidant activity, but few are converted by the body into retinol, the active form of vitamin A. Among the 600 carotenoids with pro-vitamin A activity, the most common are α- and β-carotene. These carotenoids are susceptible to degradation (e.g., isomerization and oxidation during cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the total carotenoid, α- and β-carotene, and 9 and 13-Z- β-carotene isomer contents in C. moschata after different cooking processes. The raw pumpkin samples contained 236.10, 172.20, 39.95, 3.64 and 0.8610 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked in boiling water contained 258.50, 184.80, 43.97, 6.80, and 0.77 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The steamed samples contained 280.77, 202.00, 47.09, 8.23, and 1.247 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene,13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked with added sugar contained 259.90, 168.80, 45.68, 8.31, and 2.03 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoid, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z- β-carotene, and 9-Z- β-carotene, respectively. These results are promising considering that E- β-carotene has 100% pro-vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid and carotenoid isomers increased after the cooking methods, most likely as a result of a higher availability induced by the cooking processes.

  6. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  7. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  8. The fusion of lipid droplets is involved in fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, L; Astruc, T; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Molette, C; Vénien, A; Peyrin, F; Vitezica, Z G; Fernandez, X

    2011-12-01

    Fat loss during cooking of duck "foie gras" is the main quality issue in processing plants. To better understand this phenomenon, a histological and ultrastructural study was conducted. The aim was to characterize changes in lipid droplets of duck "foie gras" related to fat loss during cooking. Ten fatty livers were sampled before and after cooking and prepared for optical and transmission electron microscopy. In raw livers, the lipid droplets were nearly spherical while after cooking, they were larger and lost their spherical shape. We also observed a decrease in the number of droplets after cooking, probably due to droplet fusion caused by the heat treatment. Before cooking, there were fewer lipid droplets and a higher osmium tetroxyde staining intensity in the fatty liver, which later gave a lower technological yield. Fat loss during cooking was higher when there was more fusion of lipid droplets before cooking.

  9. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-01-01

    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, ?selected? cooked ham and ?high quality? cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an ?electronic eye? and texture analyzer. T...

  10. 78 FR 6232 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Cooking Products With Induction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... induction cooking tops, and Cooking Top F is a portable, single-element induction cooking top. Table III.5.... Additionally, DOE observed that the portable induction unit is packaged with a steel plate adaptor of roughly... addressed standby mode and off mode energy consumption, as well as active mode fan-only operation,...

  11. 40 CFR 81.54 - Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.54 Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Cook Inlet Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alaska) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cook Inlet Intrastate Air...

  12. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  13. 76 FR 12369 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China would be likely to lead to continuation... 2011), entitled Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from China: Investigation No. 731-TA- 298 (Third...

  14. 9 CFR 318.22 - Determination of added water in cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sausages. 318.22 Section 318.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.22 Determination of added water in cooked sausages. (a) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply. (1) Cooked sausage. Cooked sausage is any...

  15. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  16. A Study on Genotoxicity of Cooking Fume from Rapessed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUA; YANGMINGDING; 等

    1992-01-01

    The present article reports the genotoxic potential of rapeseed oil cooking fume investigated by a battery of short-term tests(Ames test,SCE/V79 in vitor and mice micronucleus in vivo test).The results showed that the cooking fume contained mutagenic activity.In the presence of S9 mix,an increase in the number of the Salmonella TA98 was observed at doses ranging from 1.0 to 5.0mg/plate,and the SCE frequencies of V79 cell were markedly raised at doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg·m-1.The positive result was also obtained in mice micronucleus assay,the mice had inhaled the cooking fume a week earlier.The requency of mice bone marrow MN-PCR ws increased and it showed a remarkable time-dose-response relationship during the 4 weeks exposure.The results suggested that this cooking fume exposure may be a risk factor of lung cancer in Chinese women.

  17. Extrusion cooking with glucose supplementation reduced fumonisin concentrations and toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion cooking involves forcing material through a heated barrel under high pressure using one (single-screw configuration) or two (twin-screw configuration) augers. We previously demonstrated (Bullerman et al., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56:2400-2405, 2008; Voss et al., Journal o...

  18. Teaching Cooking as an Alternative to Force-Feeding Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Kent

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses the rationale for adopting a seemingly unrelated vehicle, such as cooking, for teaching gifted and other children such diverse subjects as geography, history, and language, and relates this to the concept of synectics (which holds that all subjects are interrelated). (Author/DLS)

  19. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate for the intended use of the facility; and (5) adequate sinks with hot and cold water under... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooking and eating facilities. 654.413 Section 654.413 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL...

  20. When cooking fish wreaks havoc in Danish kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2008-01-01

    Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow....

  1. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  2. Investigation on Furan Levels in Pressure-Cooked Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. Arisseto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food processing contaminant classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. As the occurrence of furan has been reported in a variety of foods processed in sealed containers, the objective of this work was to investigate if the contaminant can be found in home-cooked foods prepared in a pressure cooker. For that, several foods including beans, soy beans, whole rice, beef, pork, potato, and cassava were pressure-cooked and analyzed for the furan content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS. Furan was not found above the limit of quantification in the pressure-cooked samples. No furan has either been found in reheated samples after 24 hours under cold storage. Although levels up to 173 μg/kg were already reported for commercial canned/jarred foods, it seems that the cooking in a pressure cooker may not represent a concern in relation to the occurrence of furan in foods.

  3. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  4. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  5. Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazib, Meriem; Garzon, Raquel; Zaidi, Farid; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-06-01

    The effect of processing (germination, toasting and cooking) of chickpea beans was investigated on the resulting flours characteristics and their potential for obtaining gluten free breads. Rheological properties of dough were recorded using Mixolab(®) and breads were analyzed for their instrumental quality, nutritional and sensory properties. Chickpea based doughs showed low consistency and their rheological behavior was defined by the starch gelatinization and gelification. The bread made with cooked chickpea flour exhibited the lowest specific volume (0.58 mL/g), brightest crumb (L* = 76.20) and the softest texture, but cooking decreased the content of carbohydrates, ash and protein, although increased the protein digestibility. The highest specific volume was obtained in bread made with toasted chickpea flour, although crumb hardness was higher. Overall, processing of chickpea beans, concretely toasting and cooking led to flours that could be used for obtaining gluten free breads with the nutritional characteristics of the legumes and acceptable sensory characteristics.

  6. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BofengMao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can havesignificant impact on pulp strength properties. Wehave studied cooking homogeneity of two kraftdigesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is aone-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phasecontinuous digester (digester B). They are located inthe same mill and use the same softwood chipquality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steamingand cooking facilities and conditions, significantdifferences in pulp strength properties, reject contentsand kappa variations have been found between thepulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has amodem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and airremoval, whereas digester B has poor chippre-steaming conditions. Our strength deliverystudies show that although the two digesters producepulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, thepulp produced in digester A has about 20% higherstrength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lowerreject content and lower kappa variations based onFTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulpproduced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that morehomogeneous cooking,variation in the fibers,i.e., lower lignin/kappa leads to improved pulpstrength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming isimportant/essential for achieving homogeneouscooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improvingchip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to becarded out.

  7. Analysis and Evaluation of Cooking Parameters for Sweet Bakery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vignali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooking process is essential for the preparation of sweet bakery products, such as Panettone, a typical Italian seasonal dessert. This study is aimed at evaluating the features of the finished product leaving the oven chamber using the Design of Experiments technique. Four features of the product like “water activity”, “humidity”, “pH” and “sensorial judge” have been explained as functions of independent variables: recipe of the dough, affecting the dough strength and cooking process parameters, such as time, temperature and oven chamber configuration. A two-level, complete four-factor design has been used to carry out the experiments; consequently the analysis of variance has pointed out the effects of main factors and some of their interaction effects; multiple regression analysis was also carried out to explain the variability and to predict the process. The model can be profitably adopted in order to adjust the cooking process parameters in accordance to the dough recipe or the boundary cooking conditions. This study can be further developed by optimizing the input factors in order to maximize the “overall rating” response of the finished product.

  8. Cooking and Science. Ideas in Science. Notes for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    Presented are seven articles (reprinted from "The Exploratorium" magazine) which focus on the scientific explanations for the specific (and oftentimes peculiar) instructions and procedures called for in many recipes. "Baking, Boiling, and Other Hot Topics" (Joel Myerson) discusses different methods of cooking. "The…

  9. Application of fiber optic interferometers for Cook-off measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Smorenburg, C.; Scholtes, J.H.G.; Meer, B.J. van der

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic interferometer comprising of a Sagnac interferometer and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was developed. The interferometer enabled detection of explosive subtonic expansion velocities during the Cook-off test. The system enabled a comparison between the results of the two interferometer

  10. Nutritional quality and safety of cooked edible crab (Cancer pagurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Marques, António

    2012-07-15

    Edible crab (Cancer pagurus) is one of the most important crustaceans consumed in Southern European countries, either as boiled or steamed cooked product. So far, the majority of studies assessing health benefits and risks associated to seafood consumption have been carried out in raw products, despite being generally cooked before consumption, and mostly in muscle tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of steaming and boiling on the chemical safety and nutritional value of C. pagurus caught in spring and summer. Generally, chemical and elemental composition of brown meat (tissue in the body cavity comprising mainly gonads and hepatopancreas) differed significantly from muscle (white meat in claws and legs). Additionally, the same tissue revealed differences in chemical and elemental composition of raw and cooked C. pagurus, likely due to water leaching. In contrast, few variations between seasons were observed. The results revealed that the consumption of cooked edible crab muscle should be promoted, whereas brown meat ingestion should be done parsimoniously.

  11. Library Media Skills Cook with Family and Consumer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Bunnie

    2005-01-01

    Cooking, sewing, baby-sitting, and storytelling are all units included in Family and Consumer Science classes. This article describes a lesson designed by a consumer science teacher to incorporate media skills into some of these units. The library media specialist and the classroom teacher collaborated on the development of the instructional…

  12. Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at home

  13. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  14. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  15. Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at

  16. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Texture differences of cooked quinoa were studied among 13 different varieties. Correlations between the texture parameters and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking quality, flour pasting properties, and flour thermal properties were determined. The results showed that texture of cooked quinoa was significantly differed among varieties. 'Black,' 'Cahuil,' and 'Red Commercial' yielded harder texture, while '49ALC,' '1ESP,' and 'Col.#6197' showed softer texture. '49ALC,' '1ESP,' 'Col.#6197,' and 'QQ63' were more adhesive, while other varieties were not sticky. The texture profile correlated to physical--chemical properties in different ways. Protein content was positively correlated with all the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters. Seed hardness was positively correlated with TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness at P ≤ 0.09. Seed density was negatively correlated with TPA hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, whereas seed coat proportion was positively correlated with these TPA parameters. Increased cooking time of quinoa was correlated with increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. The water uptake ratio was inversely related to TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Rapid Visco Analyzer peak viscosity was negatively correlated with the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P quinoa.

  17. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the 75th Street... comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program...

  18. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois AGENCY: Federal... revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental impact statement is being prepared for... Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve Interstate 290 (I...

  19. 76 FR 17185 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the Grand Crossing... overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE), a joint effort of the...

  20. Glycemic index of sweetpotato as affected by cooking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the effect of cooking on glucose availability will aid in the recommendation for including sweet potatoes as a regular component in American diets. Heating breaks down starch granules to allow amylopectin and amylose to be more readily digested by pancreatic amylase, which theoreticall...

  1. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  2. Cooking and coughing: Estimating the effects of clean fuel for cooking on the respiratory health of children in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuno, Joseph J; Tan, Carlos Antonio R; Javier, Xylee

    2016-07-04

    Household air pollution (HAP) arising from the use of solid fuels for cooking is known to have adverse health effects including acute respiratory infections in children, which remains a major public health concern in developing countries. Hence, various interventions to reduce HAP have been advocated or piloted in many countries. To provide additional evidence on the effectiveness and applicability of the interventions in various settings, we investigate the effects of clean fuel for cooking on the risks of respiratory illness of children below five years old in the Philippines. We apply the propensity score matching method on a subsample of households culled from the 2013 round of the National Demographic and Health Survey to account for the systematic differences in their characteristics that could influence their choices of cooking fuel. We find that the use of electricity, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas or biogas can lower by 2.4 percentage points the incidence of severe coughing with difficulty in breathing in young children. Our results support worldwide initiatives to promote the household use of clean fuels for cooking and heating to reduce HAP and its undesirable impacts on population health.

  3. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Microwave Cooked Catfish Fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US market place there are many examples of precooked poultry products designed to be reheated in a microwave oven and to a lesser extent fish products such as tilapia. However, there are few US catfish products designed to be microwave cooked or reheated in the market place. The first objecti...

  4. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.

  5. Effects of altitude above sea level on the cooking time and nutritional value of common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R; Chon, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective to determine the effects of altitude above sea level, on the cooking time and nutritional value of common black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Three 100 g samples of the Ostua variety were cooked at 8 individual locations, ranging in altitude from 0 to 2256 meters, in Guatemala, to establish water uptake and cooking time. The cooked samples were separated into cooked beans and cooking broth for chemical analysis. This included moisture, protein, lysine, tannins, total and enzyme susceptible starch, and fiber fractionation. The cooking liquor was analyzed for total solids, moisture, protein, ash and K. A 1200 g sample was cooked for the cooking time established previously, for biological testing of nutritional value, which included Net Protein Ratio (NPR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), and protein digestibility. Altitude influenced cooking time which increased from 78 min at 0 m, to 264 min at 2256 m. Final moisture content in the cooked bean was similar at all altitudes and there was a tendency to yield smaller amounts of solids in the cooking broth at higher altitudes. The increase in cooking time was significant. Bean water uptake at all times was significantly slower and smaller at ambient as compared to water uptake at boiling T, at all altitudes. Protein and lysine content were not affected by altitude, however, tannin and catechin were lower in cooked samples, as compared to the raw material. Altitude did not affect the content of these substances. Total starch and total sugars were higher in the raw sample, as compared to the cooked samples, but there was no effect of altitude. Enzyme susceptible starch (ESS) was lower in the raw sample as compared to the cooked samples, which contained similar amounts with respect to altitude. No change was observed in fiber fractions of the cooked beans. Likewise, the composition of the cooking broth was very similar between cooking locations. There was a small tendency to

  6. The impact of video technology on learning: A cooking skills experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Dawn; Hollywood, Lynsey; Furey, Sinéad; Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2017-03-28

    This study examines the role of video technology in the development of cooking skills. The study explored the views of 141 female participants on whether video technology can promote confidence in learning new cooking skills to assist in meal preparation. Prior to each focus group participants took part in a cooking experiment to assess the most effective method of learning for low-skilled cooks across four experimental conditions (recipe card only; recipe card plus video demonstration; recipe card plus video demonstration conducted in segmented stages; and recipe card plus video demonstration whereby participants freely accessed video demonstrations as and when needed). Focus group findings revealed that video technology was perceived to assist learning in the cooking process in the following ways: (1) improved comprehension of the cooking process; (2) real-time reassurance in the cooking process; (3) assisting the acquisition of new cooking skills; and (4) enhancing the enjoyment of the cooking process. These findings display the potential for video technology to promote motivation and confidence as well as enhancing cooking skills among low-skilled individuals wishing to cook from scratch using fresh ingredients.

  7. Effect of age and cut on cooking loss, juiciness and flavour of South African beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, H C; Strydom, P E

    2011-03-01

    The juiciness and flavour characteristics of 15 aged primal beef cuts of electrically stimulated carcasses, from three different age groups, were assessed (n=61). Cooking losses were determined and proximate analyses (moisture, fat, nitrogen and ash) were performed. Tender cuts were cooked by a dry heat method, and less tender cuts were cooked by moist heat methods. A trained panel (n=10) evaluated sensory quality characteristics including initial and sustained juiciness, aroma and flavour. Flavour intensity was the biggest discriminant between the three age groups and declined with an increase in age. Initial impression of juiciness decreased with increased age of the animal and cooking losses increased nonlinearly with age, irrespective of the muscle. In contrast sustained juiciness increased with increased age. Cuts cooked according to a dry heat cooking method were reported juicier (both initial and sustained) than those cooked by moist heat methods.

  8. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  9. Factors affecting Cook Gunther Tulip and Cook Celect inferior vena cava filter retrieval success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Roan J; Novak, Zdenek; Matthews, Thomas C; Patterson, Mark A; Jordan, William D; Pearce, Benjamin J; Passman, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Success rates vary for the retrieval of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs). The optimal retrieval time and factors influencing retrieval success remain unproven. This study aims to determine optimal time and evaluate factors related to successful IVCF retrieval. An institutional prospectively maintained database was reviewed for all IVCF retrieval attempts from 2006 to 2012. Patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, IVCF type, presence of angulation, and time to retrieval were evaluated with respect to success or failure of retrieval. Statistical analyses (t-test, χ(2), correlations, and Kaplan-Meier plots) were performed comparing successful and unsuccessful retrievals. Of 121 attempted IVCF retrievals, 92 (76%) were successful and 29 (24%) were unsuccessful. There were no significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful attempts in terms of patient demographics, comorbidities, indications for procedure, placement technique, or IVCF type, which included 93 Celect (77%) and 28 Gunther Tulip (23%). Time since IVCF placement was significantly different (P = .025) between the successful and unsuccessful retrieval groups (medians were 105 [7-368] and 162 [43-379] days, respectively). Time since IVCF placement greater than 117 days correlated significantly with unsuccessful IVCF retrieval (R = 0.218; P = .017; odds ratio, 2.88; P = .02). Angulation greater than 20 degrees on anteroposterior radiograph was noted in seven of 29 (24%) unsuccessful retrievals compared with seven of 92 (8%) successful retrievals and was significant (P = .012). Cook Gunther Tulip and Celect IVCF retrieval is most likely to be successful within 3 to 4 months of placement. Unsuccessful retrieval attempts are more likely to occur when IVCF position is angulated. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 81967 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Antidumping... of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (POS cooking ware) from Taiwan... antidumping duty order is porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan that does not have self-...

  11. Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top sirloin steak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Lorenzen, C L; Neely, T R; Miller, R K; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Taylor, J F; Buyck, M J; Reagan, J O

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top sirloin steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top sirloin steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Top sirloin steaks, regardless of city, were consistently cooked to well done or higher degrees of doneness. Dry-heat methods such as outdoor grilling, broiling, and indoor grilling were the most frequent cooking methods used. Four significant interactions existed for OLIKE: USDA quality grade x cooking method (P = .02), city x cooking method (P = .0001), city x degree of doneness (P = .01), and cooking method x degree of doneness (P = .009). Greater differences were found between cooking methods within USDA quality grade than between USDA quality grades within cooking method. Consumers in Houston rated steaks cooked by outdoor grilling higher than those from the other cities, and steaks cooked by indoor grilling were rated the highest among all cooking methods by consumers in Chicago. In Chicago, steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness tended to receive higher ratings, but few differences between degrees of doneness in the other three cities were detected. For outdoor grilling, broiling, and pan-frying, the trend was for OLIKE ratings to decline as degree of doneness increased. The lowest customer satisfaction ratings tended to be given to top sirloin steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness, and consumers most frequently cooked steaks to at least the well done stage. Consumer information programs or the development of postmortem techniques that would ensure acceptable palatability of top sirloin steaks may need to be developed.

  12. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p soybeans.

  13. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooking Food in Bogota Using a Box Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alejandro Jiménez Castellanos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the transient temperature field of a basic box type solar cooker (without attachments such as double glazing, internal reflectors, external reflectors, steam relief line, etc. for Bogotá – Colombia climate conditions, in order to determine if this device can cook on its town. The methodology consisted of three main stages: the development of a physical – mathematical model for heating process, based on energy balances for each of its components: glass container lid, container, absorber wall and fluid, the development of a computational experiment in the software Autodesk Algor Simulation and the comparison of the results. The final water temperature obtained by the physical - mathematical model was 81.85 ℃, and the maximum obtained with the thermal simulation was 79.60 ℃. From the results, it can be concluded that conditions in Bogotá DC are not appropriate to cook with a device of this kind.

  15. 厨神%A GREAT COOK--Joseph Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.

  16. Microcomputers and minipopulations: the 1981 Cook Islands census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G R

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents some of the background behind the installation and use of a microcomputer for census processing and briefly reviews the results of the 1981 census in the light of the Cook Islands' special demographic situation. Since independence from New Zealand in 1965, the Cook Islands has gradually developed a capacity for statistics gathering in general and census taking in particular. The 1981 quinquennial census represents a watershed in the development of local personnel without the aid of external advisors; it was the 1st census to be processed within the Cook Islands by means of a computer. Both the installation of the microcomputer and the processing of the 1981 census are counted as successes. This is due to a number of factors, namely: a long period of careful planning procedures which preceded the choice of system and installation; the enthusiasm of the local staff closely involved in the planning; the emphasis on training; tests of the equipment before installation by computer practitioners with knowledge of local needs and capacities; reasonable goal setting; and the supply, with the system, of adequate spare parts tools and maintenance and training manuals. Like many island populations, that of the Cook Islands is characterized by considerable instability as illustrated by the 1981 census results. As the rate and direction of population change varies from island to island, generalizations across the nation as a whole are difficult. For example, while some of the northern atolls experienced population decline during the latest intercensal period, most had their popultion increase in 1981. All the southern islands declined during the 1976-81 period at annual rates varying from 0.6% to 3.2%. The explanation for these patterns of change lies primarily in the different rates and direction of external migration on each island, as Cook Islanders are exempt from immigration regulations to New Zealand and Australia. In recent years, women have formed a

  17. Catalytic Disposal of Cooking Fume Discharged from the Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; XiangYu

    2001-01-01

    The cooking oil fume pollution have been becoming a serious problem.1 Though several methods on disposal technology of the fume have been developed at home and abroad, such as filtration process, electrostatic process and wet process, practical and effective technology is still needed.2In the present study, we will report a new disposal process of cooking fume, which were turned complete into water and CO2 in the presence of the catalysts.  Catalysts were prepared by the following procedure. First, layer of A12O3 was painted on the inner pore surface of ceramic honeycomb carrier. Second, a solution of platinum and palladium salts in alcohol was used for impregnation in a suitable concentration to obtain a catalyst 0.3% noble metals.  ……

  18. Characterization of fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ling-yan; HU Min; WANG Li; HUANG Xiao-feng; ZHANG Yuan-hang

    2004-01-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected by a three-stage cascade impactor at two kinds of Chinese restaurants to characterize fine organic particulate matter from Chinese cooking sources. Major individual organic compounds have been quantified by GC/MS, including series of alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanals, alkan-2-ones and PAHs.Alkanes and ketones make up a significant fraction of particle-phase organic compounds, ranging from C11 to C26,and C9 to C19, respectively. In addition, other organic compound classes have been identified, such as alkanols,esters, furans, lactones, amides, and nitriles. The mass concentrations of fine particles, alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and PAHs in air emitted from the Uigur style cooking are hundreds times higher than ambient PM2.5 in Beijing.

  19. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, H A; Kerkhof, M; Vries, H

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size. Real-time measurements were made of CO, CO(2), temperature, and water vapor, and passive sampling was performed of nitrogen oxides, over a week-long period in 74 kitchens. During the measurements, inhabitants kept a diary to record appliance use time and use of ventilation provisions. The questionnaire-based and diary-based home classifications for the 'Chance of Accumulation of Combustion Products' (CACP) turned out to agree fairly well. For CO(2) as well as for CO a significant difference between the 'high' and 'low' CACP groups was found for the mean accumulation in the kitchen during cooking of the combustion generated concentrations. These facts are considered to be important experimental evidence of the CACP stratification being valid for our study population. In the homes studied, NO(2) as well as CO concentrations were found to be lower compared with previous studies in The Netherlands. Practical Implications Previous studies on indoor combustion product dispersal conducted in the early- to mid-1980s in the Netherlands showed much higher NO(2) and CO concentrations than the present study. Apparently, the removal of combustion products formed during cooking is more efficient in the (mostly newer) homes that we studied than in the homes studied in the early- to mid-1980s. More detailed knowledge of kitchen situations is needed to improve the CACP model. Future studies can achieve this by using questionnaires on the kitchen situation, diaries and real-time measurements of the combustion products under consideration.

  20. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Bringing modern energy to the world's poor is an urgent necessity. Although steady progress is made in expanding the use of modern household energy services in developing countries, in both scenarios many people still depend on traditional biomass in 2030. Action to encourage more efficient and sustainable use of traditional biomass and help people switch to modern cooking fuels and technologies is therefore urgent.

  1. [Effect of cooking on the purine content of foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, M; Wolfram, G

    1987-12-01

    The total purine content and the content of purines bound in RNA and DNA was determined in selected food (veal meat, pork meat, pork liver, pork spleen, soja meat). Raw and boiled food samples were analysed. During preparation of food the total purine content is changed by losses of water or of purines into cooking water. Simultaneously, a great part of nucleic acids is hydrolysed.

  2. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Nosworthy, Matthew G.; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A study to determine the protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the pro...

  3. Evolução histórica dos utensílios empregados para alimentar lactentes não amamentados Historical evolution of utensils used to feed non breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diez Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo de revisão é descrever os utensílios empregados ao longo da história para alimentar lactentes não amamentados. O levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO, de 1966 a 2007. Para a análise documental, foram processadas buscas na Internet, em enciclopédias, livros de arte, história e museus. Utensílios manufaturados com materiais e formas variadas, dependendo da disponibilidade, poder aquisitivo e cultura, foram empregados desde os primórdios da história para alimentar bebês que, por diferentes motivos, deixaram de ser amamentados. Muitos objetos coexistiram na mesma época e local, outros em tempos e pontos geográficos distantes. A aceitação de uma nova alternativa ocorria sem evidência que comprovasse ou apontasse para os benefícios da mudança. Alguns utensílios voltaram a ser empregados embora a mortalidade infantil fosse elevada à época em que foram utilizados. No início do século XX, as mamadeiras assumiram a forma cilíndrica cônica. A tecnologia trouxe avanços no sentido de melhorar a higienização e possibilitar o controle da contaminação. O vidro deu lugar ao plástico e os bicos de borracha, aos de silicone, mas a mamadeira, como a conhecemos hoje, é a mesma de cem anos atrás.The objective of this article is to describe the utensils used throughout history to feed non breastfed infants. The method used was article review, reference search on the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases from 1966 to 2007 and documental analysis based on data from the internet, encyclopedias, art and history books, and museums. Utensils manufactured in a variety of materials and shapes, depending on availability, purchasing power and culture have been used since early history to feed babies who for different reasons were not breastfed. Many objects coexisted at the same time and place, others at distant sites and times. New alternatives have been accepted without

  4. Stability of vitamin D in foodstuffs during cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Knuthsen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs, vitamin D3 in margarine, and vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in bread. Our set-up illustrated the cooking methods usually performed in households i.e. boiling, frying in pan and oven, and baking. All experiments were performed...... of retention (86–88%). For bread baked, as recommended in the recipe, the retention of vitamin D3 in rye bread at 69% was lower than the retention in wheat bread at 85%. A similar observation was made for vitamin D2, although the retention was slightly higher, 73% and 89%. No difference between retention...... of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in eggs was shown. Cooking may cause detrimental loss of vitamin D, but it depends on the actual foodstuffs and the heating process. Further research is needed to optimise cooking procedures to enhance retention of vitamin D. Vitamin D retention should be taken...

  5. Cooked sausage batter cohesiveness as affected by sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Wieliczko, K; Lim, R; Turnwald, S; Macdonald, G A

    2002-05-01

    In the first trial, m. semitendinosus and m. biceps femoris were held at 0, 10 and 35 °C until they entered rigor, and in the second trial, minced m. semitendinosus was washed in water for 15, 30, 45 or 60 min. The samples from both the trials were then used to make a finely comminuted sausage batter. Soluble sarcoplasmic protein (SSP) levels decreased with increasing rigor temperature (P < 0.05) or washing (P < 0.01). Cooked batter shear stress was not affected by SSP level, but batter shear strain decreased with the decreasing SSP level associated with an increasing rigor temperature (P < 0.05) or washing (P < 0.01). Reducing the SSP content lowered the cook yield (P < 0.05) and emulsion stability (P < 0.01) of the batter from the washed samples compared to that of controls. The results suggest that sarcoplasmic proteins are important in determining the strain values (cohesiveness) of cooked sausage batter.

  6. Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of this pork product. They were 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulphide. Addition of thiamine or cysteine also enabled us to study the effect of these odour precursors on the formation of odorant furans during the cooking of ham. The results revealed a direct link between the thermal degradation of thiamine and the formation of these compounds. By contrast, addition of cysteine in the presence of fructose or xylose did not appreciably increase their production.

  7. Biomass Cooking Fuels and Health Outcomes for Women in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ipsita; Jagger, Pamela; Yeatts, Karin

    2017-03-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, biomass fuels account for approximately 90% of household energy consumption. Limited evidence exists on the association between different biomass fuels and health outcomes. We report results from a cross-sectional sample of 655 households in Malawi. We calculated odds ratios between hypothesized determinants of household air pollution (HAP) exposure (fuel, stove type, and cooking location) and five categories of health outcomes (cardiopulmonary, respiratory, neurologic, eye health, and burns). Reliance on high- or low-quality firewood or crop residue (vs. charcoal) was associated with significantly higher odds of shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chest pains, night phlegm, forgetfulness, dizziness, and dry irritated eyes. Use of high-quality firewood was associated with significantly lower odds of persistent phlegm. Cooks in rural areas (vs. urban areas) had significantly higher odds of experiencing shortness of breath, persistent cough, and phlegm, but significantly lower odds of phlegm, forgetfulness, and burns. With deforestation and population pressures increasing reliance on low-quality biomass fuels, prevalence of HAP-related cardiopulmonary and neurologic symptoms will likely increase among cooks. Short- to medium-term strategies are needed to secure access to high-quality biomass fuels given limited potential for scalable transitions to modern energy.

  8. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  9. A semi-automatic annotation tool for cooking video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Napoletano, Paolo; Schettini, Raimondo; Margherita, Roberto; Marini, Gianluca; Gianforme, Giorgio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In order to create a cooking assistant application to guide the users in the preparation of the dishes relevant to their profile diets and food preferences, it is necessary to accurately annotate the video recipes, identifying and tracking the foods of the cook. These videos present particular annotation challenges such as frequent occlusions, food appearance changes, etc. Manually annotate the videos is a time-consuming, tedious and error-prone task. Fully automatic tools that integrate computer vision algorithms to extract and identify the elements of interest are not error free, and false positive and false negative detections need to be corrected in a post-processing stage. We present an interactive, semi-automatic tool for the annotation of cooking videos that integrates computer vision techniques under the supervision of the user. The annotation accuracy is increased with respect to completely automatic tools and the human effort is reduced with respect to completely manual ones. The performance and usability of the proposed tool are evaluated on the basis of the time and effort required to annotate the same video sequences.

  10. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia;

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied...

  11. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  12. Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Adawy, Tarek A

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cooking treatments (boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking) and germination on the nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas were studied. Cooking treatments and/or germination caused significant (p Germination was less effective than cooking treatments in reducing trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin activity, tannins and saponins; it was more effective in reducing phytic acid, stachyose and raffinose. Cooking treatments and germination decreased the concentrations of lysine, tryptophan, total aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids. However, cooked and germinated chickpeas were still higher in lysine, isoleucine and total aromatic amino acid contents than the FAO/WHO reference. The losses in B-vitamins and minerals in chickpeas cooked by microwaving were smaller than in those cooked by boiling and autoclaving. Germination resulted in greater retention of all minerals and B-vitamins compared to cooking treatments. In vitro protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio and essential amino acid index were improved by all treatments. The chemical score and limiting amino acid of chickpeas subjected to the various treatments varied considerably, depending on the type of treatment. Based on these results, microwave cooking appears to be the best alternative for legume preparation in households and restaurants.

  13. The cost of cooking a meal. The case of Nyeri County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Ray, Charlotte; Boulkaid, Youssef

    2017-06-01

    Energy for cooking is considered essential in achieving modern energy access. Despite this, almost three billion people worldwide still use solid fuels to meet their cooking needs. To better support practitioners and policy-makers, this paper presents a new model for comparing cooking solutions and its key output metric: the ‘levelized cost of cooking a meal’ (LCCM). The model is applied to compare several cooking solutions in the case study area of Nyeri County in Kenya. The cooking access targets are connected to the International Workshop Agreement and Global Tracking Framework’s tiers of cooking energy access. Results show how an increased energy access with improved firewood and charcoal cookstoves could reduce both household’s LCCMs and the total costs compared to traditional firewood cooking over the modelling period. On the other hand, switching to cleaner cooking solutions, such as LPG- and electricity, would result in higher costs for the end-user highlighting that this transition is not straightforward. The paper also contextualizes the results into the wider socio-economic context. It finds that a tradeoff is present between minimizing costs for households and meeting household priorities, thus maximizing the potential benefits of clean cooking without dismissing the use of biomass altogether.

  14. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in cooking oil and related products from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Yan, Junxia; Zhao, Can; Niisoe, Tamon; Adachi, Ayumu; Fujii, Yukiko; Nouda, Chihiro; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants. It has been found that dietary intakes of SCCPs in China have recently increased and are now higher than in Japan and Korea. The contribution of cooking oil to dietary exposure to SCCPs in China was evaluated by analyzing SCCPs in cooking oil, raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, and fried confectionery products collected in China in 2010 and 2012. Detectable amounts of SCCP homologs were found in 48 out of the 49 cooking oil samples analyzed, and the SCCP concentrations varied widely, from cooking oil ranged from Cooking oil might therefore be one of the sources of SCCPs to Chinese diets. SCCPs were also detected in raw seeds used to produce cooking oil, but the concentrations varied widely. The SCCP homolog patterns in the raw seed and cooking oil samples were different, implying that the seeds used to produce the oil (and therefore the soil on which the seeds were produced) were unlikely to be the sources of SCCPs in cooking oil. Further investigations are needed to determine the routes through which cooking oil becomes contaminated with SCCPs during the production and processing of the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  16. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-11-14

    Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different sources has not been considered. This research investigated the associations of the age and source of learning with the aforementioned five factors. A nationally representative (Northern/Republic of Ireland) cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 1049 adults aged between 20-60 years. The survey included both measures developed and tested by the researchers as well as validated measures of cooking (e.g. chopping) and food skills (e.g. budgeting), cooking practices (e.g. food safety), cooking attitudes, diet quality and health. Respondents also stated when they learnt the majority of their skills and their sources of learning. The data was analysed using ANOVAs with post-hoc analysis and Chi(2) crosstabs with a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that child (skills, cooking practices, cooking attitudes, diet quality (with the exception of fibre intake where adult learners were higher) and health. Mother was the primary source of learning and those who learnt only from this source had significantly better outcomes on 12 of the 23 measures. This research highlights the importance of learning cooking skills at an early age for skill retention, confidence, cooking practices, cooking attitude and diet quality. Mother remained the primary source of learning, however, as there is a reported deskilling of domestic cooks, mothers may no longer have the ability to teach cooking skills to the next generation. A focus on alternative sources including practical cooking skills education

  17. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Hyuk [Dept. of Food Nutrion and Food Science, Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips.

  18. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  19. A Study on Educational Contents for Improving College Students’ Awareness of Food and Their Cooking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 郁子; 水田, 千尋; 大場, 君枝

    2015-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on contents of cooking exercises for improving college students’ awareness of food and their cooking skills. Students who are active in kitchen knife exercise at home take breakfast every morning and their breakfasts are complete with staple food, main dish, and side dishes. Therefore, the educational contents to encourage students to increase the frequency of positive and continuous home cooking may possibly lead to improvement of students’ awareness of f...

  20. Using Photovoice with at-risk youth in a community-based cooking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather Clarke; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    We examined the facilitators of and barriers to participants' application of cooking skills beyond Cook It Up!, a pilot community-based cooking program targeting at-risk youth aged 13 to 18. Photovoice is a qualitative research method using still-picture cameras to document participants' health and community realities. Four participants photographed items they perceived as facilitators of or barriers to the application of cooking skills. At a facilitated discussion group, youth discussed why they took certain pictures and how the photos best exemplified facilitators and barriers. Participants agreed upon the themes arising from the dialogue. Data trustworthiness tools were used to ensure that themes arising from the dialogue truly represented participants' perspectives. Four major themes emerged as facilitators: aptitude, food literacy, local and fresh ingredients, and connectedness. Access to unhealthy foods was the only barrier that participants identified. Participants and researchers decided to advocate for the sustainability of community-based cooking programs offered for high school credit. Participants' photos would enhance advocacy efforts with education stakeholders. Cook It Up! provided youth with cooking techniques for healthy, economical, homemade meals, but proof was needed of the transferability of skills outside the program environment. Youth in this study identified important facilitators that enabled the continued use of their cooking skills, and one barrier. Findings underscore the importance of community-based cooking programs tailored to at-risk youth.

  1. Linking biomass fuel consumption and improve cooking stove: A study from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohel, Md. Shawkat Islam; Rana, Md. Parvez; Akhter, Sayma

    2010-09-15

    The study determines the biomass fuel consumption pattern and environmental consequences of biomass fuel usage in the traditional and improve cooking stove. The introduction of improved cooking stove minimizes people's forest dependence by reducing the amount of fuelwood required to meet their household needs. Firewood was the most frequently used biomass fuel. It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. While improve cooking stove help to reduce such consequences.

  2. Chemical composition, carbohydrate digestibility, and antioxidant capacity of cooked black bean, chickpea, and lentil Mexican varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva-Cristobal, L; Osorio-Díaz, P; Tovar, J; Bello-Pérez, L. A

    2010-01-01

    .... The cooked seeds of three Mexican pulses (black bean, chickpea, and lentil) were evaluated regarding their chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity...

  3. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles.

  4. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. after home cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO, iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P. All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.

  5. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prescriptive vs. performance based cook-off fire testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Erikson, William Wilding; Gill, Walter; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    In the fire safety community, the trend is toward implementing performance-based standards in place of existing prescriptive ones. Prescriptive standards can be difficult to adapt to changing design methods, materials, and application situations of systems that ultimately must perform well in unwanted fire situations. In general, this trend has produced positive results and is embraced by the fire protection community. The question arises as to whether this approach could be used to advantage in cook-off testing. Prescribed fuel fire cook-off tests have been instigated because of historical incidents that led to extensive damage to structures and loss of life. They are designed to evaluate the propensity for a violent response. The prescribed protocol has several advantages: it can be defined in terms of controllable parameters (wind speed, fuel type, pool size, etc.); and it may be conservative for a particular scenario. However, fires are inherently variable and prescribed tests are not necessarily representative of a particular accident scenario. Moreover, prescribed protocols are not necessarily adaptable and may not be conservative. We also consider performance-based testing. This requires more knowledge and thought regarding not only the fire environment, but the behavior of the munitions themselves. Sandia uses a performance based approach in assuring the safe behavior of systems of interest that contain energetic materials. Sandia also conducts prescriptive fire testing for the IAEA, NRC and the DOT. Here we comment on the strengths and weakness of both approaches and suggest a path forward should it be desirable to pursue a performance based cook-off standard.

  7. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  8. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  9. Role of lipids in the extrusion cooking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghofe, E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a versatile and very efficient technology that is widely used in food and feed processing. The cooking extruders have found many applications, which include: breakfast cereals, snack foods, other cereal based products, pet food and aquatic foods, texturized vegetable proteins, confectionery products, chemical and biochemical reactions, and oil extraction. Lipids are components that play an important role in most of the extrusion cooking processes. They can act as plastificizers or emulsifiers, and affect more significantly texture and stickiness of the extrudate. This paper reviews effect of oils and other lipids reactions during extrusion cooking as well as the effects of amylase-lipid complexation on extrudate quality.La extrusión es, en general, una tecnología versátil y muy eficiente, que se aplica ampliamente en la elaboración de alimentos y piensos. Los equipos de cocción-extrusión tienen numerosas aplicaciones, entre las que pueden incluirse: los cereales de desayuno listos para comer, los aperitivos, diferentes productos basados en cereales, los piensos para animales domésticos y peces, proteínas vegetales texturizadas, productos de pastelería, reacciones químicas y bioquímicas, y la extracción de aceites. Los lípidos son componentes que juegan un papel importante en la mayoría de los procesos de cocción-extrusión. Pueden actuar como plastificantes o como emulsionantes, suministrando lubricación. En este artículo se revisan con detalle los efectos de las reacciones de los aceites y otros lípidos durante el proceso de cocción-extrucción así como el efecto de la formación de complejos amilasa-lípidos sobre la calidad de los extrudados.

  10. Environment friendly biomass gasifier cookstove for community cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, N L; Rathore, N S

    2015-01-01

    Traditional community cookstoves have a low level of efficiency due to their poor heat transfer efficiency and incomplete combustion. The low efficiency results in a high consumption of fuel wood, thereby creating a need of more fuel wood. This paper deals with the development of a biomass cookstove suitable for community cooking. The stove exhibits approximately 36.38% thermal efficiency and has a thermal power rating of 5 kW. The maximum flame temperature recorded was 712°C. The data indicate that the developed cookstove can save approximately 7155 kg of CO2 per annum.

  11. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology is t...... studies to understand their priorities and opportunities related with the process of technological development; b) be multi-disciplinary, flexible and long-term; facilitate co-working of users, producers, political actors and other actors in the process....

  12. Scientific Literacy in Food Education: Gardening and Cooking in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Carrie A.

    Recent attention to socio-scientific issues such as sustainable agriculture, environmental responsibility and nutritional health has spurred a resurgence of public interest in gardening and cooking. Seen as contexts for fostering scientific literacy---the knowledge domains, methodological approaches, habits of mind and discourse practices that reflect one's understanding of the role of science in society, gardening and cooking are under-examined fields in science education, in part, because they are under-utilized pedagogies in school settings. Although learning gardens were used historically to foster many aspects of scientific literacy (e.g., cognitive knowledge, norms and methods of science, attitudes toward science and discourse of science), analysis of contemporary studies suggests that science learning in gardens focuses mainly on science knowledge alone. Using multiple conceptions of scientific literacy, I analyzed qualitative data to demonstrate how exploration, talk and text fostered scientific literacy in a school garden. Exploration prompted students to engage in scientific practices such as making observations and constructing explanations from evidence. Talk and text provided background knowledge and accurate information about agricultural, environmental and nutritional topics under study. Using a similar qualitative approach, I present a case study of a third grade teacher who explicitly taught food literacy through culinary arts instruction. Drawing on numerous contextual resources, this teacher created a classroom community of food practice through hands-on cooking lessons, guest chef demonstrations, and school-wide tasting events. As a result, she promoted six different types of knowledge (conceptual, procedural, dispositional, sensory, social, and communal) through leveraging contextual resources. This case study highlights how food literacy is largely contingent on often-overlooked mediators of food literacy: the relationships between

  13. Cooke and Wheatstone and the invention of the electric telegraph

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in 1965. Charles Wheatstone collaborated with William Cooke in the invention and early exploitation of the Electric Telegraph. This was the first long distance, faster-than-a-horse messenger. This volume gives an account of the earlier work on which the English invention was founded, and the curious route by which it came to England. It discusses the way in which two such antagonistic men were driven into collaboration and sets out the history of the early telegraph lines, including work on the London and Birmingham Railway and the Great Western Railway.

  14. Effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnaini, Rahmah Mastura; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice was studied. Brown rice was polished to 2%, 4% and 6% of polishing degree using embryo rice machine to produce three levels of embryo rice. All rice sample (brown rice, embryo rice 1 (2%), embryo rice 2 (4%), embryo rice 3 (6%) and white rice) were cooked using electric rice cooker. The raw and cooked rice samples were analyzed for antioxidant by total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Polishing degree and cooking treatment showed significant (p≤ 0.05) effects on both antioxidant activities (TPC, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging values) of the raw and cooked rice samples. Results showed that raw brown rice and raw embryo rice 1 were significantly higher than the other type of rice samples for TPC and FRAP values. In DPPH radical scavenging activities, raw brown rice had the highest value while white rice indicated the otherwise. Cooked brown rice demonstrated significantly higher of FRAP values (p≤ 0.05) than embryo rice 1, followed by embryo rice 2, embryo rice 3 and white rice. No significant differences were observed either between TPC values of cooked brown rice and cooked embryo rice 1 or between the DPPH radical scavenging values of cooked embryo rice 2 and cooked embryo rice 3. High positive correlations were determined between TPC, FRAP and DPPH assays (R2 > 0.70) of the samples. In overall, moderate level of antioxidant activities were detected in the raw and cooked rice samples.

  15. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration with the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC and the Nigeria Agip OU Company (NAOC commenced a training campaign on cooking banana processing methods. This study examined the patterns of utilisation of cooking bananas ten years after the training took place and compared them with plantain. About 95 % of the households interviewed are consuming cooking banana, indicating a broad acceptance of the crop in the region. Overall, two ripening stages termed green and ripe are the most popular ripening stages for the consumption of both plantain and cooking banana, followed by partially ripe maturity stage. The most common forms of consumption for green plantain are, in decreasing order of importance, pottage, boiled, roasted, and fried. Green cooking banana is also mostly eaten in pottage and boiled forms, and less frequently in fried and pounded forms. Ripe plantain is mostly eaten in fried and pottage forms, while ripe cooking banana is mostly eaten in fried and raw forms. Partially ripe plantain is mostly eaten in pottage, fried, boiled, and roasted forms, while partially ripe cooking banana is eaten in fried, pottage and boiled forms. These results indicate that the consumption patterns of plantain and cooking banana are very similar. This similarity has greatly contributed to the rapid integration of cooking banana within the existing plantain consumption and cropping systems.

  16. Seni Kulinari, Kekuasaan, dan Multikulturalisme dalam Master Cooking Boy/ The Real Master Cooking Boy Karya Etsushi Ogawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilawati Kurnia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines manga, the japanese comic „Master Cooking Boy“ and inquires what the manga offers to the reader beside being a popular reading. This essay reviews the history of manga and its function in the Japanese culture. The paper unravels the theories of cultural studies such as hegemony and multiculturalism in the analyse of this manga. This paper discusses the wider horizon of manga as a field of hegemony discourse and multiculturalism. It opens the possibilities to analyse manga in a different perspective and shows how ideology can operates in the popular literature.

  17. Psychrotrophic clostridia causing spoilage in cooked meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, R M; Tompkin, R B

    1999-07-01

    Certain types of commercially produced noncured turkey breast and roast beef are precooked in situ, stored at 4 degrees C or below, and typically given use by dates of greater than 50 days. While of rare, sporadic occurrence, an unpleasant spoilage characterized by strong H2S odor and gas production has been observed in these products. This spoilage is due to the growth of psychrotrophic anaerobic sporeformers. Isolates from roast beef resemble Clostridium laramie while isolates from uncured turkey have been designated C. ctm for cooked turkey meat. The turkey breast isolates were characterized by temperature growth ranges, carbohydrate fermentations, and other biochemical reactions. Growth of all isolates was inhibited in broth media by 3.0% NaCl, 100 ppm nitrite, 2.0% sodium lactate, or 0.2% sodium diacetate. Inoculated studies were performed with three isolates in cooked turkey product. All three isolates grew and spoiled product at 10 and 3.3 degrees C, and one isolate grew at 0.5 and -3 degrees C. Some differences in growth were observed with the lactate and diacetate treatments in turkey meat among the three isolates. One isolate appeared to utilize the lactate, two were inhibited. Overall, 0.1% diacetate consistently delayed growth, although to different degrees, for all isolates.

  18. Passive acoustic monitoring of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Marc O; Castellote, Manuel; Small, Robert J; Atkinson, Shannon; Jenniges, Justin; Rosinski, Anne; Oswald, Julie N; Garner, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The endangered beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) population in Cook Inlet, AK faces threats from a variety of anthropogenic factors, including coastal development, oil and gas exploration, vessel traffic, and military activities. To address existing gaps in understanding about the occurrence of belugas in Cook Inlet, a project was developed to use passive acoustic monitoring to document the year-round distribution of belugas, as well as killer whales (Orcinus orca), which prey on belugas. Beginning in June 2009, ten moorings were deployed throughout the Inlet and refurbished every two to eight months. Despite challenging conditions consisting of strong tidal currents carrying debris and seasonal ice cover, 83% of mooring deployments were successfully recovered. Noise from water flow, vessel traffic, and/or industrial activities was present at several sites, potentially masking some signals. However, belugas were successfully detected at multiple locations. Detections were relatively common in the upper inlet and less common or absent at middle and lower inlet locations. Killer whale signals were also recorded. Some seasonal variability in the occurrence of both belugas and killer whales was evident.

  19. Personal characteristics, cooking at home and shopping frequency influence consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Lee, Yu-Sheng; O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian; Myers, Leann; Terrell, Leonetta; Amoss, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Erin; Stevenson, Peter T; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2017-06-01

    This study examines how the consumption of fruits and vegetables is affected by home cooking habits and shopping patterns, including distance to patronized stores and frequency of shopping, in two low-income predominantly African American urban neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. In-person interviews were conducted in 2013 with 901 adult residents who identified themselves as the primary household shopper. Respondents were asked where and how often they shopped and answered a food frequency questionnaire. Addresses were geocoded and distances to the stores where respondents shopped were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between food consumption and personal factors, neighborhood factors and shopping habits. Consumption of daily servings of fresh produce increased by 3% for each additional trip to a grocery store, by 76% for shopping at a farmer's market, and by 38% for preparing food at home. Each additional trip to a convenience store increased the frequency of consumption of chips, candy and pastries by 3%. The distance from residence to the type of store patronized was not associated with consumption of produce or chips, candy or pastries. Shopping at full-service grocery stores, farmer's markets and cooking at home were positively associated with the consumption of fresh produce while shopping at convenience stores was associated with increased consumption of chips, candy and pastries. These findings are useful for designing programmatic interventions to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption among residents in low-income urban communities.

  20. Cooked garlic and antioxidant activity: Correlation with organosulfur compound composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, D A; Nazareno, M A; Fusari, C M; Camargo, A B

    2017-04-01

    The antioxidant properties and the main beneficial organosulphur compounds of home-cooked garlic samples were studied in order to establish relationships between them. Antioxidant activity was tested by free radical scavenging against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(+)), Fe(III) reducing ability (FRAP) and linoleic acid co-oxidation initiated by soybean lipoxygenase in a micelle system. DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays showed the highest activity for raw garlic samples, while β-carotene bleaching assay yielded the highest activity for stir-fried garlic. Pure organosulphur compounds tested by DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays showed that allicin had an antiradical action mechanism, as well as iron reducing capacity; while antioxidant activity was the main mechanism for ajoenes and 2-VD. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that home-cooked garlic retains its antioxidant activity, and, at the same time, elucidates the mechanisms involved in this activity.

  1. [Production of acrylamide in agricultural products by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Nemoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio

    2004-02-01

    Some model studies were performed using various agricultural Products, to clarify the relation between cooking conditions and production of acrylamide (AA). Disc chips made from dried mashed potato, corn meal, wheat flour, rice flour (jyohshin-ko) and glutinous rice flour (shiratama-ko), and dried sesame (arai-goma) and dried almond were baked at 120-200 degrees C for 5-20 min, and the samples were analyzed for the levels of AA. When the samples were baked for 10 min, the highest production of AA was observed at 180-200 degrees C. When the samples were baked at 180 degrees C, AA levels in agricultural products except sesame were highest after baking for 10 min. Vegetables and fruit were baked at 220 degrees C for 5 min with a oven, high AA concentrations were found in baked potato, asparagus, pumpkin, eggplant and green gram sprouts. Concentrations of AA in potato, asparagus and green gram sprouts baked after being pre-cooked by microwave irradiation were higher than those in the products baked without being precooked. On the other hand, the precooking by boiling reduced the production of AA by baking to 1/10-1/4. Acrylamide was not found in microwaved or boiled vegetables. High free asparagine concentrations in crops tended to result in high concentrations of AA being produced by heating the agricultural products.

  2. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day(-1) to 22, 53, and 77 g day(-1) for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  3. Integration of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a same vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooked vegetables are commonly used in the preparation of ready-to-eat foods. The integration of cooking and cooling of carrots and vacuum cooling in a single vessel is described in this paper. The combination of different methods of cooking and vacuum cooling was investigated. Integrated processes of cooking and vacuum cooling in a same vessel enabled obtaining cooked and cooled carrots at the final temperature of 10 ºC, which is adequate for preparing ready-to-eat foods safely. When cooking and cooling steps were performed with the samples immersed in boiling water, the effective weight loss was approximately 3.6%. When the cooking step was performed with the samples in boiling water or steamed, and the vacuum cooling was applied after draining the boiling water, water loss ranged between 15 and 20%, which caused changes in the product texture. This problem can be solved with rehydration using a small amount of sterile cold water. The instrumental textural properties of carrots samples rehydrated at both vacuum and atmospheric conditions were very similar. Therefore, the integrated process of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a single vessel is a feasible alternative for processing such kind of foods.

  4. Color changes in irradiated cooked pork sausage with different fat sources and packaging during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, C; Jin, S K; Ahn, D U

    2000-05-01

    Pork sausages were prepared with lean pork meat, fat from different sources [backfat (BF), corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO); 10% of lean meat], NaCl (2%), and ice water (10%). The emulsified meat batters were stuffed into casings (3 cm in diameter) and cooked to an internal temperature of 72°C. Cooked sausages were sliced and vacuum- or aerobic-packaged individually. Sausages were irradiated at a 0, 2.5, or 4.5 kGy dose and stored in a 4°C refrigerator for 8 days. Aerobic-packaged, irradiated cooked sausages prepared with BF and FO showed higher Hunter L-values than nonirradiated controls at day 0, but the difference disappeared at day 8. Irradiation increased the Hunter a-value in vacuum-packaged cooked pork sausages regardless of the fat source used, and the increase of the Hunter a-value was dose-dependent. In contrast, the Hunter a-value decreased by irradiation in aerobic-packaged cooked pork sausages prepared with BF or FO. The Hunter a-value of cooked pork sausage with aerobic packaging was significantly reduced at day 8. Hunter b-values increased at Day 8 in irradiated cooked pork sausages except for the sausage prepared with CO at 2.5 kGy. Cooked pork sausages prepared with CO were lighter, and sausage prepared with FO was redder and more yellow (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging.

  5. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Toasted partially defatted cooked... compound and therefore may not exceed a maximum natural background level of 0.2 part per million total... defatted cooked cottonseed flour may be safely used for coloring foods generally, in amounts...

  6. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for Cooked Fish ER17AU06.009...

  7. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; rendering into lard or tallow. 315.1 Section 315.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow... subchapter or rendered into tallow, provided such rendering is done in the following manner: (a) When...

  8. Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more effi...

  9. Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): Linguistic and Clinical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberber, Amanda Miller

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, "a" versus "o" possession and…

  10. Effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Steffi; Witjaksono, Fiastuti; Ridwan, Rahmawati

    2015-01-01

    Cooling of cooked starch is known to cause starch retrogradation which increases resistant starch content. This study aimed to determine the effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response in healthy subjects. Resistant starch contents were analyzed on freshly cooked white rice (control rice), cooked white rice cooled for 10 hours at room temperature (test rice I), and cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated (test rice II). The results showed that resistant starch contents in control rice, test rice I, and test rice II were 0.64 g/100 g, 1.30 g/100 g, and 1.65 g/100 g, respectively. Test rice II had higher resistant starch content than test rice I, hence used in the clinical study along with control rice to characterize glycemic response in 15 healthy adults. The clinical study was a randomized, single-blind crossover study. In the clinical study, test rice II significantly lowered glycemic response compared with control rice (125±50.1 vs 152±48.3 mmol.min/L, respectively; p=0.047). In conclusion, cooling of cooked white rice increased resistant starch content. Cooked white rice cooled for 24 hours at 4°C then reheated lowered glycemic response compared with freshly cooked white rice.

  11. Performance evaluation of solar box cooker assisted with latent heat energy storage system for cooking application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, V. S.; Kumaresan, G.; Sudhakar, P.; Santosh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Solar cooking is one of the most promising techniques to meet the cooking needs in remote areas where electricity and fuel supplies are meager. Solar box cooker is an efficient device used in solar cooking as it is simple to fabricate, easy to operate and hazard-free. In this context, the performance evaluation of a solar box cooker with varied number of reflectors has been undertaken. It was found that the time consumed for cooking in a box type solar cooker with four reflectors is lesser compared to that of a single reflector and its overall utilization efficiency increases with increase in the cooking mass. Further, a latent heat energy storage system was designed and fabricated to cook the food at off-peak hours of solar radiation. This latent heat energy storage system was combined with the solar box cooker. Oxalic acid dihydrate was used as the phase change material due to its high specific enthalpy and its melting point lying close to the cooking temperature. It was found that the solar box cooker with phase change material could be effectively utilized to cook food during off-peak hours of solar radiation.

  12. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... piping for heating and cooking. (a) Leak tests as described in paragraph (b) of this section shall...

  13. 46 CFR 147.50 - Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. 147.50 Section..., heating, and lighting. (a) Flammable and combustible liquids and gases not listed in this section are prohibited for cooking, heating, or lighting on any vessel, with the exception of combustible liquids...

  14. 76 FR 2920 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from...

  15. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (psous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers.

  16. Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.W.A.A.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability and kinetics of the supposed anticarcinogen sulforaphane, the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, from raw and cooked broccoli. Eight men consumed 200 g of crushed broccoli, raw or cooked, with a warm meal in a randomized, free-living, open

  17. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the...

  18. Science of Food and Cooking: A Non-Science Majors Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Bachman, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the science of food and cooking has been observed in our popular literature and media. As a result of this, a new non-science majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, is being taught at our institution. We cover basic scientific concepts, which would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the…

  19. Gas cooking, respiratory and allergic outcomes in the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Weiwei; Gehring, Ulrike; Oldenwening, Marieke; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence for a relationship between gas cooking and childhood respiratory health is inconsistent and few longitudinal studies have been reported. Our aim was to examine the association between gas cooking and the development of respiratory and allergic outcomes longitudinally in a prospec

  20. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and asthma, allergic symptoms and sensitization in young children - the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; De Jongste, JC; De Vries, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Several studies reported inconsistent associations between using gas for cooking and respiratory symptoms or lung function in children. Kitchen ventilation characteristics may modify the relationship between gas cooking and respiratory health. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  1. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  2. Effect of Sous Vide Cooking Method on Nutritional Values of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Coşansu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sous vide is a cooking method in which food is heat processed after vacuum packaging in heat stable pouches. Meat, chicken, fish and vegetables can be cooked by this method; even meals containing these ingredients can be preserved by heat processing after precooking and vacuum packaging steps. Meanwhile sous vide cooking is a preservation method that the product is cooled rapidly after heat processing and can be stored for long periods. By this method, food can be cooked in vacuum packed without losing its flavour, taste and nutritional value. In this review, the effects of sous vide cooking on the major nutrients of vegetables such as antioxidant compounds and vitamins will be mentioned.

  3. Health benefits of the potato affected by domestic cooking: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is an important food crop worldwide and a good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber as well as phytochemicals, which benefits human body as nutrients supplementary and antioxidants. However, cooked potato is also considered as a high-glycemic-index food because of its high content of rapidly digestible starch, long-term consumption of which will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Domestic cooking (boiling, frying, steaming, etc.) are usually adopted before potato consumption. The chemical, physical and enzyme modifications that occur during cooking will alter the potato's antioxidant capacity and digestibility, which subsequently affected on the bioavailability of phytochemicals and the postprandial glycemic response of the human body. We reviewed the recent publications on the effects of domestic cooking on the nutrition, phytochemicals and the glycemic index changes of the cooked potato. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying these changes were discussed, and additional implications and future research goals were suggested.

  4. Technological suitability of transglutaminase preparations in the production of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pyrcz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of replacing the phosphates by the preparations containing transglutaminase enzyme on the quality of cooked ham. Accepted factors of technological variability, preparation raw material (in whole or in muscle trimmings below, the curing brine injection level (30 or 40% and two types of enzyme transglutaminase preparations slightly differentiate sensory desirability, but also physical and chemical properties of cooked hams. In spite of the transglutaminase preparations used in the experiment the reduction of cooking loss was not significantly affect and the improving the tastiness, their technological usefulness in cooked ham production is satisfactory. The beneficial effect of the impact of transglutaminase preparations can be particularly seen in the case of products derived from trimmings. Thanks to these preparations raw meat with less technological suitability or cooking can be used to produce high quality products.

  5. The effects of domestic cooking on the levels of 3-monochloropropanediol in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; Brereton, P; Davies, A

    2001-04-01

    The results are reported of a study to determine the effect of domestic cooking procedures on the level of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in selected foods. Samples of 23 foods comprising stock cubes, gravies, a cake mix, batters, breads, cheese and meats were subjected to a range of cooking procedures including grilling, toasting and microwaving. The resulting levels of 3-MCPD were compared with those present in the foods before cooking. Grilling and toasting produced substantial increases in the 3-MCPD content of bread, forming up to 0.3 mg/kg, and of most cheeses, resulting in levels of up to about 0.1 mg/kg. Microwave cooking produced elevated 3-MCPD levels in some cheeses. Frying laboratory-produced batters increased 3-MCPD levels to about 0.1 mg/kg whereas a retail batter contained no detectable 3-MCPD when fried. The remaining foods showed little or no discernible increase on cooking.

  6. Cooking activity for patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Qun Gong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a degenerative nervous system disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, can damage memory and cognitive function. Cooking activity, an instrumental activity of daily life, is one of the non-pharmacological therapies with positive effect on AD. Here, we review the effectiveness of cooking activity on AD. This paper shows that cooking activity can not only improve patient’s emotional state and alleviate the conduct disorder, but also ease the burden of professional caregiver. Cooking activity also has certain positive effects on patient’s cognition, autonomy and memory function. Now, as one of the instrumental activities of daily life, cooking activity has developed as a useful tool in the intervention trials, serious game, virtual reality training and assessment of daily living activities.

  7. Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook Una Modificación a la Distancia de Cook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Díaz García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una modificación de la distancia de Cook, basándose en la distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, en el contexto del modelo de regresión lineal multivariado con distribución normal. Se establece además, la distribución exacta del estadístico basado en esta distancia de Mahalanobis generalizada, la cual proporciona puntos críticos para identificar “outliers” en un conjunto de datos. Este procedimiento, se ilustra con un ejemplo, en el caso de la regresión lineal múltiple multivariada.A modification of the classical Cook´s distance is proposed in this paper, being based on the distance of widespread Mahalanobis in the context of multivariate normal linear regression model. Further more, the exact distribution of a pivotal type statistics based on this generalized Mahalanobis distance is established, providing critical points for the identification of outliers in data points. The procedure is illustrated with an example, in the case of multiple and multivariate linear regression.

  8. Citric acid and sodium citrate effects on pink color development of cooked ground turkey irradiated pre- and post-cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2006-03-01

    The effects of citric acid (0.15%, 0.3%) and sodium citrate (0.5%, 1.0%) on pink color development in ground turkey following irradiation (0, 2.5, 5.0kGy) were examined. Citric acid and sodium citrate had little effect on pink color when samples were irradiated prior to cooking. In contrast, when samples were cooked prior to irradiation, citric acid (0.3%) and sodium citrate (1.0%) reduced redness as indicated by eliminating a reflectance minimum at approximately 571nm, lessening greater reflectance in the red wavelength region, and preventing greater reducing conditions caused by irradiation. Citric acid significantly reduced pH and yields whereas sodium citrate reduced pH and yields to a lesser extent. Both citric acid and sodium citrate are potential ingredients that can be added during processing to prevent undesirable pink color in precooked irradiated ground turkey and therefore can result in greater acceptance of irradiated products by consumers.

  9. 75 FR 4528 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for Cook Inlet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... plan development. NMFS is hereby soliciting relevant information on Cook Inlet beluga whales and their... Intent to Prepare a Recovery Plan for Cook Inlet Beluga Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... recovery plan for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and requests information from...

  10. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnapriya, K.C.; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T.

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Rice can efficiently uptake uranium from water contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) 2.6 H{sub 2}O), while cooking. • Unusual uranium uptake to the extent of about 1000 ppm is observed when rice is cooked in highly concentrated uranium contaminated water (1240 ppm). • Nature of interaction of uranium with carbohydrates is probed using small monosaccharides like glucose and mannose. • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to be the most stable species in water in such solutions which can form complexes with sugars. • The species (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is also observed in the case of water exposed to the common mineral, uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and similar type of complexation is observed with sugars. - Abstract: The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO{sub 2}(s), both of which exist as UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and

  11. Inefficacy of cooking methods on mercury reduction from shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicourel, E L; Sakuma, A M; Zenebon, O; Tenuta-Filho, A

    2001-09-01

    Shark and other carnivorous fishes present high potential risk of excessive contamination by mercury. The distribution of mercury throughout the body of blue shark--Prionace glauca--was analysed, and the effects on mercury levels by frying and baking in a laboratory oven, and in a microwave oven, were measured. There was no significant statistical difference in mercury levels in the samples taken from regions near the head, or from central and tail parts, indicating homogeneous distribution of the metal in muscles throughout the body. Frying and baking did not affect original mercury levels present in blue shark. This study indicates that specific studies are needed to define the efficacy or inefficacy of the cooking methods on mercury reduction from fish, in order to clearly resolve divergent opinions in the literature.

  12. Influence of microwave and conventional cooking on beef liver lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag, R. S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver slices were cooked with a mixture of cottonseed oil and margarine using microwave oven and gas cooker. The acid values, peroxide numbers, total sterols and fatty acid profiles of unheated and cooked liver slices conventionally and by microwaves were determined. The time required for cooking liver slices by microwaves was one-half of the time required conventionally. Heating the lipid mixture by both heating methods caused highly significant decrease in the acid value. Conversely, the acid values of lipids extracted from cooked liver slices were highly significantly increased by the heating processes. The peroxide values of the lipids conventionally heated were always lower than those obtained by microwaves. The peroxide value of microwavable liver lipids was nearly twice as high as that produced by conventional heating. Heating processes significantly reduced the sterol levels for all lipids under study. The fatty acid analysis of the lipids under heat treatments demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative degradation and production of short-chain acids.

    Rodajas de hígado fueron cocinadas con una mezcla de aceite de semilla de algodón y margarina usando horno microonda y cocina de gas. Se determinaron los índices de acidez, índices de peróxido, esteroles totales y perfiles de ácidos grasos de las rodajas de hígado no calentadas y de las cocinadas convencionalmente y por microondas. El tiempo requerido para la cocción de las rodajas de hígado por microondas fue una vez y media el necesitado por el sistema convencional. La mezcla de lípidos calentada por ambos métodos sufrió una disminución significativa en el índice de acidez. Por el contrario, los lípidos extraídos de las rodajas de hígado cocinado mostraron índices de acidez significativamente elevados, aumentados por el proceso de calentamiento. Los índices de peróxidos de los lípidos calentados convencionalmente fueron siempre más bajos que los obtenidos por

  13. Haptic Routes and digestive destinations in cooking series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jørgensen, Ulla Angkjær

    2010-01-01

    Taking modern television travel cookery series as a starting point, the article investigates the cultural significance of food and place in visual culture. The examples are, respectively, The Keith Floyd Cookery Collection: Floyd Around The Med [2000. BBC DVD, 2007] and The Hairy Bikers Cookbook...... and the media in which aesthetical, cultural and symbolic values are related to the way food is mediatised. The main argument is that cooking television series produce haptic images of place and food that include a specific sensuous and emotional relation between screen and viewer. The haptic imagery...... Series 1 & 2 [BBC DVD, 2006]. The series illustrate the strong connection between travel, food and place in tourist consumer culture, as well as the way motion and emotion are related to sensuous and digestive aspects of touristic food. The series also illustrate the emblematic connection between food...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  15. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  16. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapriya, K C; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T

    2015-10-30

    The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO2(2+), the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO2(2+) with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO2(NO3)2·6H2O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO2(s), both of which exist as UO2(2+) in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and without NaCl affected the extent of chemical interaction but was not consistent with the carbohydrate content. Uranium interaction with D-mannose monitored through ESI-MS, under optimized instrumental parameters, identified the peaks corresponding to uranyl adduct with mannose monomer, dimer and trimer and the species were confirmed by MS/MS studies. The product ion mass spectra showed peaks illustrating water loss from the parent ion as the collision energy was increased, an evidence for the strong interaction of uranium with mannose. This study would constitute the essential background for understanding interaction of uranium with various foods. Extension of this work would involve identification of foodstuff as green heavy metal scavengers.

  17. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qajarbeygi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  18. Conventional food preparation, cook and chill and sous-vide as optional methods for institutional kitchens. Perinteinen ruoanvalmistus, cook and chill ja sous-vide toimintavaihtoehdot suurkeittioessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivaerinta, T., Reisbacka, A., Salminen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation concerning the energy consumption, economics and the appropriateness of the three options when applied in institutional households. The options included in the study were conventional (preparation-cooking-serving), cook and chill and sous-vide (vacuum cooking-chilling). A further aim was to compare industrially produced products to self-made products. Each option was studied in connection with several devices embodying latest technology. The overall price for a portion was found to be cheapest when using the conventional preparation method. The cook and chill method was only slightly more expensive. The result of this study also support the understanding that when appropriately planned, cook and chill and sous-vide food preparation options make possible the rationalisation of kitchen work. The appropriateness of different food preparation methods depends on the versatility of the functions and programmes built into cooking devices. A combination oven is appropriate and conserves energy when cooking or heating up large quantities. Significant waste of water (126-146 1/h) is possible because of the structural solutions and modes of use of such an oven. A microwave oven saves energy when used to heat up ready-made portions. The amount of energy consumed by an air-cooled chilling cabinet in the cooling of food makes it more economical to use than a water-cooled model. The amount of electricity consumed by a refrigerator or an equivalent cold storage is 5-14 times less than that consumed by chilling devices

  19. Genetic diversity and genome-wide association analysis of cooking time in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Karen A; Wiesinger, Jason A; Mendoza, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    Fivefold diversity for cooking time found in a panel of 206 Phaseolus vulgaris accessions. Fastest accession cooks nearly 20 min faster than average.   SNPs associated with cooking time on Pv02, 03, and 06. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America. One of the major factors that limits greater utilization of beans is their long cooking times compared to other foods. Cooking time is an important trait with implications for gender equity, nutritional value of diets, and energy utilization. Very little is known about the genetic diversity and genomic regions involved in determining cooking time. The objective of this research was to assess cooking time on a panel of 206 P. vulgaris accessions, use genome- wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genomic regions influencing this trait, and to test the ability to predict cooking time by raw seed characteristics. In this study 5.5-fold variation for cooking time was found and five bean accessions were identified which cook in less than 27 min across 2 years, where the average cooking time was 37 min. One accession, ADP0367 cooked nearly 20 min faster than average. Four of these five accessions showed close phylogenetic relationship based on a NJ tree developed with ~5000 SNP markers, suggesting a potentially similar underlying genetic mechanism. GWAS revealed regions on chromosomes Pv02, Pv03, and Pv06 associated with cooking time. Vis/NIR scanning of raw seed explained 68 % of the phenotypic variation for cooking time, suggesting with additional experimentation, it may be possible to use this spectroscopy method to non-destructively identify fast cooking lines as part of a breeding program.

  20. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  1. Apoptotic effects of cooked and in vitro digested soy on human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Xu, Wenqing; Sikes, Robert A; Wu, Changqing

    2012-12-01

    Previous laboratory and animal studies reported that soy isoflavones were major bioactive compounds in soy to exert chemoprotection of prostate cancer. However, these studies cannot reflect the realistic effects that soy may induce through diets, and little is known about the bioavailability of isoflavones from whole soy food and their bioactivities after cooking and digestion. In this study, cooking and in vitro digestion were used to prepare soy extracts and the effects of cooking and digestion on the isoflavone contents and bioactivities of the whole soy extracts were examined. The cooking procedure generally increased the amount of daidzin, genistin and daidzein, but decreased that of genistein. Digestion process significantly lowered contents of daidzin and genistin in 60min cooked sample, while increased the contents of daidzin and daidzein and decreased the content of genistein in the uncooked sample. Antioxidant activities of soy extracts increased after cooking and in vitro digestion, while no consistent increase of the four soy isoflavones was determined. The apoptotic effects of soy extracts on both LNCaP and C4-2B cells were generally in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to purified single isoflavones, cooked and digested soy were more effective on induction of prostate cancer cell apoptosis, which indicated synergistic interactions between various bioactive compounds in the whole soy.

  2. Climate and mortality changes due to reductions in household cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the emissions of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the reductions in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the reductions of emissions in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated reductions in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the emission reductions would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.

  3. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  4. Advances to improve the eating and cooking qualities of rice by marker-assisted breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phing Lau, Wendy Chui; Latif, Mohammad Abdul; Y Rafii, Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Puteh, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The eating and cooking qualities of rice are heavily emphasized in breeding programs because they determine market values and they are the appealing attributes sought by consumers. Conventional breeding has developed traditional varieties with improved eating and cooking qualities. Recently, intensive genetic studies have pinpointed the genes that control eating and cooking quality traits. Advances in genetic studies have developed molecular techniques, thereby allowing marker-assisted breeding (MAB) for improved eating and cooking qualities in rice. MAB has gained the attention of rice breeders for the advantages it can offer that conventional breeding cannot. There have been successful cases of using MAB to improve the eating and cooking qualities in rice over the years. Nevertheless, MAB should be applied cautiously given the intensive effort needed for genotyping. Perspectives from conventional breeding to marker-assisted breeding will be discussed in this review for the advancement of the eating and cooking qualities of fragrance, amylose content (AC), gel consistency (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) in rice. These four parameters are associated with eating and cooking qualities in rice. The genetic basis of these four parameters is also included in this review. MAB is another approach to rice variety improvement and development in addition to being an alternative to genetic engineering. The MAB approach shortens the varietal development time, and is therefore able to deliver improved rice varieties to farmers within a shorter period of time.

  5. Biogas cook stoves for healthy and sustainable diets? A case study in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Lee Anderman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cook stoves that replace solid fuels with cleaner energy sources, such as biogas, are gaining popularity in low-income settings across Asia, Africa and South America. Published research on these technologies focuses on their potential to reduce indoor air pollution and improve respiratory health. Effects on other cooking related aspects, such as diets and women’s time management, are less understood. In this study in southern India, we investigate if using biogas cook stoves alters household diets and women’s time management. We compare treatment households who are supplied with a biogas cook stove with comparison households who do not have access to these stoves, while controlling for several socio-economic factors. We find that diets of treatment households are more diverse than diets of comparison households. In addition, women from treatment households spend on average 40 minutes less cooking and 70 minutes less collecting firewood per day than women in comparison households. This study illustrates that alongside known benefits for respiratory health, using alternative cook stoves may benefit household diets and free up women’s time. To inform development investments and ensure these co-benefits, we argue that multiple dimensions of sustainability should be considered in evaluating the impact of alternative cook stoves.

  6. Consumers' sensitivity to androstenone and the evaluation of different cooking methods to mask boar taint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrisser-Pairó, F; Panella-Riera, N; Gil, M; Kallas, Z; Linares, M B; Egea, M; Garrido, M D; Oliver, M A

    2017-01-01

    Boar taint is an unpleasant odour and flavour present in some entire male pigs that is due to the presence of androstenone and skatole. The aim of the study was to assess the sensitivity of 150 consumers to androstenone and to compare the acceptability and liking of meat from castrated and entire pigs, cooked with different cooking methods. Meat samples consisted of loins from castrated (CM) and entire male pigs (EM) with high levels of androstenone cooked by two cooking methods: sous-vide and fried/breaded with garlic and parsley. Consumers evaluated smell and flavour acceptability, and overall liking of CM and EM for each cooking method. The results of the study showed that dislike of androstenone odour increased significantly with sensitivity. The results of acceptability and overall liking were similar in CM and EM for both cooking methods. Therefore, the two cooking methods used in the study may be useful to mask boar taint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Volatile compound profile of sous-vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature-time combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Ruiz, Jorge; Del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Antequera, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60 and 80°C) and time (6 and 24h) to assess the effect on the volatile compound profile. Major chemical families in cooked samples were aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The volatile compound profile in sous-vide cooked lamb loin was affected by the cooking temperature and time. Volatile compounds arising from lipid oxidation presented a high abundance in samples cooked at low or moderate cooking conditions (60°C for 6 and 24h, 80°C for 6h), while a more intense time and temperature combination (80°C for 24h) resulted on a higher concentration of volatile compounds arising from Strecker degradations of amino acids, as 2-methylpropanal and 3-methylbutanal. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at moderately high temperatures for long times would result in the formation of a stronger meaty flavor and roast notes in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2007-01-01

    Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.

  9. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  10. Supplementary catechins attenuate cooking-oil-fumes-induced oxidative stress in rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Huei; Lin, Chun-Yao; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Liou, Shaw-Yih; Li, Ping-Chia; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2009-06-30

    Cooking-oil-fumes containing toxic components may induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to oxidize macromolecules and lead to acute lung injury. Our previous study showed that a decaffineated green tea extract containing (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate can inhibit oxidation, inflammation, and apoptosis. We determined whether the catechins supplement may reduce cooking-oil-fumes-induced acute lung injury in rat. In the urethane-anesthetized Wistar rat subjected to 30-120 min of cooking-oil-fumes exposure, blood ROS significantly increased in the recovery stage. After 30-min cooking-oil-fumes exposure, the enhanced blood ROS level further increased in a time-dependent manner during the recovery stage (321 +/- 69 counts/10 s after 1 h, 540 +/- 89 counts/10 s after 2 h, and 873 +/- 112 counts/10 s after 4 h). Four hours after 30-min cooking-oil-fumes exposure, lung lavage neutrophils and ROS as well as lung tissue dityrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal increased significantly. Two weeks of catechins supplememnt significantly reduced the enhanced lavage ROS, lung dityrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal level. Cooking-oil-fumes-induced oxidative stress decreased lung Bcl-2/Bax ratio and HSP70 expression, but catechins treatment preserved the downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and HSP70 expression. We conclude that catechins supplement attenuates cooking-oil-fumes-induced acute lung injury via the preservation of oil-smoke induced downregulation of antioxidant, antiapoptosis, and chaperone protein expression.

  11. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  12. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2015-02-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn't show any significant differences between cooked and uncooked samples (P > 0.05) regarding physicochemical characteristics. From GC analysis of extracted oils, it was found there is no significant difference in fatty acid composition of cooked, uncooked and control (conventional extraction) samples. The thermal stability (Rancimat) analysis of oil samples showed the cooking process could cause a slight increase in the stability of oils for both varieties (about 40 min). The cooking process also increased total extracted phenolic compounds and considerably decreased total gossypol content of the cottonseed oil; but the extraction efficiency didn't change considerably after elimination of the cooking process. It can be concluded that microwave rays can destroy the structure of oil cells during process and facilitate the oil extraction without any heat treatment before extraction.

  13. Climate change impact of biochar cook stoves in western Kenyan farm households: system dynamics model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Thea; Nicholson, Charles F; Torres, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes

    2011-04-15

    Cook stoves that produce biochar as well as heat for cooking could help mitigate indoor air pollution from cooking fires and could enhance local soils, while their potential reductions in carbon (C) emissions and increases in soil C sequestration could offer access to C market financing. We use system dynamics modeling to (i) investigate the climate change impact of prototype and refined biochar-producing pyrolytic cook stoves and improved combustion cook stoves in comparison to conventional cook stoves; (ii) assess the relative sensitivity of the stoves' climate change impacts to key parameters; and (iii) quantify the effects of different climate change impact accounting decisions. Simulated reductions in mean greenhouse gas (GHG) impact from a traditional, 3-stone cook stove baseline are 3.50 tCO(2)e/household/year for the improved combustion stove and 3.69-4.33 tCO(2)e/household/year for the pyrolytic stoves, of which biochar directly accounts for 26-42%. The magnitude of these reductions is about 2-5 times more sensitive to baseline wood fuel use and the fraction of nonrenewable biomass (fNRB) of off-farm wood that is used as fuel than to soil fertility improvement or stability of biochar. Improved cookstoves with higher wood demand are less sensitive to changes in baseline fuel use and rely on biochar for a greater proportion of their reductions.

  14. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-11-01

    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, "selected" cooked ham and "high quality" cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an "electronic eye" and texture analyzer. The panel of trained assessors identified and evaluated 10 sensory descriptors able to define the quality of the products. Statistical analysis highlighted that sensory characteristics related to appearance and texture were the most significant in discriminating samples belonged to the highest (high quality cooked hams) and the lowest (cooked hams) quality of the product whereas the selected cooked hams, showed intermediate characteristics. In particular, high quality samples were characterized, above all, by the highest intensity of pink intensity, typical appearance and cohesiveness, and, at the same time, by the lowest intensity of juiciness; standard cooked ham samples showed the lowest intensity of all visual attributes and the highest value of juiciness, whereas the intermediate category (selected cooked ham) was not discriminated from the other. Also physical-rheological parameters measured by electronic eye and texture analyzer were effective in classifying samples. In particular, the PLS model built with data obtained from the electronic eye showed a satisfactory performance in terms of prediction of the pink intensity and presence of fat attributes evaluated during the sensory visual phase. This study can be considered a first application of this combined approach that could represent a suitable and fast method to verify if the meat product purchased by consumer match its description in terms of compliance with the claimed quality.

  15. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 t...

  16. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-off of an HMX Based Explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2001-05-09

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  17. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-Off of an HMX Based High Explosive PBX 9501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2001-05-31

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  18. Pressure wave measurements from thermal cook-off of an HMX based high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2000-10-10

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  19. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS....

  20. Influence of cooking time and cooling rate on the functionality and microstructure of processed cheese spreads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaodong; WU Han; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of cooking time and cooling rate on functionality and microstructure of processed cheese spreads. When the cooking time was 20 min, the hardness and apparent viscosity were increased, and formed a homogenous, dense, and three-dimensional protein network, and a stronger gel was formed at this time. The slow cooling can increase the hardness and apparent viscosity of products, protein wall was thicker, and network was closer, so products can formed a stronger gel structure. The influence of cooking time on the functional properties was more significant than the influence of rapid cooling.

  1. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Antioxidant Properties of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Guk; Shin, Young Jee; Lee, Seongeung; Lee, Junsoo; Yoo, Seon Mi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stir-frying, and roasting) and three cooking times (5, 10, and 15 min) on the antioxidant properties of red pepper. Raw and cooked peppers were measured for proximate composition, ascorbic acid (AsA) content, total carotenoid content (TCC), total polyphenol content (TP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Results showed that the proximate composition, AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activities were significantly (pproperties of red pepper.

  2. Influence of cooking conditions on organoleptic and health-related properties of artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Sofía; Mir-Bel, Jorge; Oria, Rosa; Salvador, María L

    2017-02-15

    Colour, pigments, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were investigated in artichokes, green beans, broccoli and carrots cooked under different conditions. Domestic induction hobs with temperature control were used to evaluate the effect of boiling, sous-vide cooking and water immersion cooking at temperatures below 100°C on the properties of each vegetable. Sous-vide cooking preserved chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenolic content and antioxidant activity to a greater extent than boiling for all of the vegetables tested and retained colour better, as determined by a(∗). A reduction of only 10-15°C in the cooking temperature was enough to improve the properties of the samples cooked by water immersion, except for green beans. Artichokes and carrots suffered pronounced losses of antioxidant activity during boiling (17.0 and 9.2% retention, respectively), but the stability of this parameter significantly increased with sous-vide cooking (84.9 and 55.3% retention, respectively).

  3. Determinação da dissolução de alumínio durante cozimento de alimentos em panelas de alumínio Determining aluminum dissolution when cooking food in aluminium cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Tondella Dantas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora os estudos mais recentes não confirmem a correlação entre a presença do alumínio no organismo humano e o Mal de Alzheimer, com freqüência esse assunto é trazido à tona. O presente trabalho foi realizado de forma a avaliar a ocorrência de migração significativa de alumínio proveniente de utensílios domésticos, durante o preparo de alimentos. Foram estudados sete tipos de alimentos com preparos diferenciados e três tipos de panela (caçarola, de pressão e frigideira, nas versões sem e com revestimento (Teflon. A análise do metal foi realizada em espectrômetro de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado. Os resultados demonstraram transferência desprezível do Al para alguns alimentos, sendo que a maior transferência ocorreu no preparo de molho de tomate (baixo valor de pH, na panela sem revestimento. Um cardápio preparado com todos esses alimentos para as duas refeições diárias, mostrou que a massa de Al incorporada pelo alimento corresponde a 2% do limite de ingestão diária de Al (1 mg.kg -1 de peso corporal/dia, considerando-se um indivíduo de 60 kg. Assim, conclui-se que o uso de panelas de alumínio no preparo de alimentos praticamente não interfere na ingestão total do elemento para o ser humano.Aluminum is associated with neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer by some authors. Although this has never been confirmed, there is evidence of an accumulation in kidneys of people with renal problems. This present work was carried out to address this subject by evaluating the occurrence of significant aluminum migration from cooking utensils during food preparation. Eight types of food cooked in different ways and three distinct types of pans (a saucepan, pressure cooker and frying pan, with and without teflon coating, were evaluated. The metal analysis was conducted in an Optical Emission Spectrometer with Inductively Coupled Plasma. The results showed insignificant transference of aluminum in some

  4. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality

  5. The intensive margin of technology adoption--Experimental evidence on improved cooking stoves in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, Gunther; Peters, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Today, almost 3 billion people in developing countries rely on biomass as primary cooking fuel, with profound negative implications for their well-being. Improved biomass cooking stoves are alleged to counteract these adverse effects. This paper evaluates take-up and impacts of low-cost improved stoves through a randomized controlled trial. The randomized stove is primarily designed to curb firewood consumption, but not smoke emissions. Nonetheless, we find considerable effects not only on firewood consumption, but also on smoke exposure and, consequently, smoke-related disease symptoms. The reduced smoke exposure results from behavioural changes in terms of increased outside cooking and a reduction in cooking time. We conclude that in order to assess the effectiveness of a technology-oriented intervention, it is critical to not only account for the incidence of technology adoption - the extensive margin - but also for the way the new technology is used - the intensive margin.

  6. Telemetry data from satellite tags deployed on harbor seals in Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 2004 and 2006 we conducted four harbor seal tagging trips in Cook Inlet during the months of October and May. In total, we captured and released 93 harbor...

  7. Thermal Cook-off of an HMX Based Explosive: Pressure Gauge Experiments and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2002-04-02

    Safety issues related to thermal cook-off are important for handling and storing explosive devices. Violence of event as a function of confinement is important for prediction of collateral events. There are major issues, which require an understanding of the following events: (1) transit to detonation of a pressure wave from a cook-off event, (2) sensitivity of HMX based explosives changes with thermally induced phase transitions and (3) the potential danger of neighboring explosive devices being affected by a cook-off reaction. Results of cook-off events of known size, confinement and thermal history allows for development and/or calibrating computer models for calculating events that are difficult to measure experimentally.

  8. Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M

    2012-12-01

    The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed.

  9. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (Pchestnuts after cooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  10. Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015 (NCEI Accession 0142326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  11. the effect of cooking time on the vitamin c, dietary fiber and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In Nigeria and other tropical African countries where the daily diets are dominated by starchy staple food, vegetable are the most essential and cheapest source of ... CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C IN RAW AND. COOKED VEGETABLES ...

  12. AFSC/NMML: Beluga whale aerial survey in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1993-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted aerial counts of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from 1993 to 2014 (excluding 2013)....

  13. AFSC/NMML: Beluga whale Counts from Aerial Surveys in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1993-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory conducted aerial surveys to monitor the abundance and distribution of beluga whales in Cook Inlet, Alaska. This database...

  14. 76 FR 20179 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of Critical Habitat for Cook Inlet Beluga Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Arctic and subarctic oceans. Five distinct stocks of beluga whales are currently recognized in Alaska... distribution in Cook Inlet such as water temperatures, turbidities, salinities, or the fish species...

  15. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Cook Inlet, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems (NODC Accession 0046027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  17. Socioeconomic Features - Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Summary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Point and line coverage depicting several human-use, or socioeconomic features in the Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula region including oil facilities, oil platforms,...

  18. Metaphorical mapping between raw-cooked food and strangeness-familiarity in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Qu, Yuan; Zheng, Huihui; Lu, Yang; Zhong, Xin; Ward, Anne; Li, Zijun

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated metaphorical mappings between physical coldness-warmth and social distance-closeness. Since the concepts of interpersonal warmth are frequently expressed in terms of food-related words in Chinese, the present study sought to explore whether the concept of raw-cooked food could be unconsciously and automatically mapped onto strangeness-familiarity. After rating the nutritive value of raw or cooked foods, participants were presented with morphing movies in which their acquaintances gradually transformed into strangers or strangers gradually morphed into acquaintances, and were asked to stop the movies when the combined images became predominantly target faces. The results demonstrated that unconscious and automatic metaphorical mappings between raw-cooked food and strangeness-familiarity exist. This study provides a foundation for testing whether Chinese people can think about interpersonal familiarity using mental representations of raw-cooked food and supports cognitive metaphor theory from a crosslinguistic perspective.

  19. Technical aspects of production and analysis of biodiesel from used cooking oil. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C.; Mbarawa, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits of biodiesel fuel has made it more attractive in recent times. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the major hurdle to its commercialization in comparison to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The high cost is primarily due to the raw material, mostly neat vegetable oil. Used cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to review various technological methods of biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The analytical methods for high quality biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil like GC, TLC, HPLC, GPC and TGA have also been summarized in this paper. In addition, the specifications provided by different countries are presented. The fuel properties of biodiesel fuel from used cooking oil were also reviewed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. (author)

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for communities, wildlife refuges, and National, State, and regional parks in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska....

  1. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AFSC/NMML: Cook Inlet Beluga Opportunistic Sightings, 1975 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As a part of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) management of the endangered Cook Inlet beluga whale population, a database of opportunistic beluga whale...

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet...

  4. Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products and Botulism--Food Safety Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Actions ${title} Loading... Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products & Botulism - Food Safety Advisory In August and September 2001, several cases ...

  5. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations...

  6. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Polygons and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, classified according to...

  7. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2017-05-27

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  8. Aerial Surveys of Birds and Mammals in Potential Development Areas in Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Distribution and abundance of waterbirds, marine mammals, and other wildlife were surveyed by helicopter in coastal areas of upper Cook Inlet 13-14 July 1993, in...

  9. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: RIPS (Rip Current Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of rip currents in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent rip zone locations. Location-specific type and source...

  10. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ICE (Ice Extent Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains locations of ice extent in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Vector lines in the data set represent 50 percent ice coverage. Location-specific type and...

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for marine mammals in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  12. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-feng YUAN; Bo SUN; Jing YUAN; Qiao-mei WANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli.

  13. Stability of iodine during cooking: investigation on biofortified and not fortified vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, Patrizia; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Cichelli, Angelo; Chiavaro, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Biofortification of food crops through fertilization and salt iodization are key strategies for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorder. However, considerable losses of iodine can occur during processing. In this study, the stability of iodine in biofortified potatoes, carrots and tomatoes was evaluated during different domestic cooking procedures, as this matter was poorly discussed in literature. The stability of iodized salt during baking and boiling of carrots and potatoes not fortified was also investigated. All the adopted cooking procedures have proven to be suitable to preserve the iodine content in biofortified vegetables. During boiling test with iodized salt, neither potatoes nor carrots were able to absorb iodine added with salt, probably owing to the losses occurred during cooking. On the contrary, baking test on potatoes has not caused a significant degradation of iodized salt, and no significant differences in iodine concentration were detected before and after cooking.

  14. Effect of raw material on cooking quality and nutritional composition of durum wheat spaghetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, L; Mastromatteo, M; Lecce, L; Spinelli, S; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of semolina and wholemeal flour from six durum wheat cultivars on the pasta cooking and nutritional quality was evaluated. The wholemeal spaghetti samples showed an improvement in the chemical composition (high protein and insoluble dietary fibre content) but they have a decline in the cooking quality (high cooking loss) with respect to the semolina spaghetti. In particular, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli and Core samples recorded the highest protein and insoluble dietary fibre content, respectively. As compared to the other samples, the wholemeal spaghetti Iride recorded a higher cooking loss. Moreover, the wholemeal spaghetti showed the lowest overall quality due to the low score of elasticity, firmness and colour. Specifically, the wholemeal Cappelli recorded a slight rise of the overall quality with respect to other wholemeal samples. In conclusion, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli was found to be an optimum compromise between the sensory and nutritional quality.

  15. Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.

    2016-05-01

    Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling

  16. Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

    2008-04-15

    In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio

  17. BSS algorithm for dependent signals using Cook s nonGaussianity measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the generalization of the central limit theorem(CLT) to special dependent variables, this paper shows that maximization of the nonGaussianity(NG) measure can separate the statistically dependent source signals, and the novel NG measure is given by Cook's Euclidean distance using the Chebyshev-Hermite series expansion. Then, a novel blind source separation (BSS) algorithm for linear mixed signals is proposed using Cook's NG measure, which makes it possible to separate statistically dependent source ...

  18. Practical discrimination of good and bad cooked food using metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An increasing concentration of ammonia in cooked food is in direct proportion to the extent of decay. This fact is used to design an electronic nose (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor circuit capable of discriminating good and bad cooked food. On the basis of the data produced by the e-nose circuit, a feedforward multilayer neural network is designed and trained to recognize varying concentrations of ammonia in the food. Test results o...

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden, the Tiger Milk mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sook Shien; Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Tan, Chon Seng; Ng, Szu Ting

    2014-01-01

    Background The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) is used as a traditional medicine to relieve cough, asthma and chronic hepatitis. The traditional uses of the sclerotium are presumably related to its anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) cultivar TM02. Methods The anti-acute inflammatory activity of the scl...

  20. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Yang Yu; Liang-Yu Huang; I-Ching Kuan; Shiow-Ling Lee

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipa...

  1. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh) as compared with some con...

  2. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  3. Cooking Banana Consumption Patterns in the Plantain-growing Area of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tshiunza, M.; Lemchi, J.; Onyeka, U.; Tenkouano, A.

    2001-01-01

    Cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome) were intro-duced into Southeastern Nigeria by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in the mid-1980s as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease (caused by the fungus Mycosphaerel-la fijiensis Morelet) on plantain. However, the people of this region were not familiar with their utilisation methods. To address this lack of the knowledge and thereby sustain cooking banana cultivation, IITA, in collaboration...

  4. A comparison of preprepared commercial infant feeding meals with home-cooked recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Craig, Leone Ca; Marais, Debbi; Bora, Ourania E; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-11-01

    To compare the cost, nutritional and food variety contents of commercial meals and published infant and young child feeding (IYCF) home-cooked recipes, and to compare nutritional contents to age-specific recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Full range of preprepared main meals available within the UK market. Main-meal recipes identified from a survey of Amazon's top 20 best-sellers and IYCF cookbooks available from local libraries. 278 commercial IYCF savoury meals from UK market and 408 home-cooked recipes from best-selling IYCF published cookbooks. Cost and nutritional content per 100 g and food variety per meal for both commercial meals and home-cooked recipes. Commercial products provided more 'vegetable' variety per meal (median=3.0; r=-0.33) than home-cooked recipes (2.0). Home-cooked recipes provided 26% more energy and 44% more protein and total fat than commercial products (r=-0.40, -0.31, -0.40, respectively) while costing less (£0.33/100 g and £0.68/100 g, respectively). The majority of commercial products (65%) met energy density recommendations but 50% of home-cooked recipes exceeded the maximum range. The majority of commercial meals provided an energy-dense meal with greater vegetable variety per meal to their home-cooked counterparts. Home-cooked recipes provided a cheaper meal option, however the majority exceeded recommendations for energy and fats. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  6. Thermal imaging during infrared final cooking of semi-processed cylindrical meat product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Gamze; Icier, Filiz

    2016-11-01

    The temperature measurements during the infrared cooking of the semi-cooked cylindrical minced beef product (koefte) were taken by both contact (thermocouples) and non-contact (thermal imaging) techniques. The meat product was semi-cooked till its core temperature reached up to 75 °C by ohmic heating applied at 15.26 V/cm voltage gradient. Then, infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.7, 5.7 and 8.5 kW/m2), applied distances (10.5, 13.5 and 16.5 cm) and applied durations (4, 8 and 12 min). The average surface temperature increased as the heat flux and the applied duration increased but the applied distance decreased. The temperature distribution of the surface during infrared cooking was determined successfully by non-contact measurements. The temperature homogeneity varied between 0.77 and 0.86. The process condition of 8.5 kW/m2 for 8 min resulted in core temperature greater than 75 °C, which was essential for safe production of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. Thermal imaging was much more convenient method for minimizing the point measurement mistakes and determining temperature distribution images more clear and visual.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Hamburger Cooking Process Using Finite Difference and CFD Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sargolzaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady-state heat transfer in hamburger cooking process was modeled using one dimensional finite difference (FD and three dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD models. A double-sided cooking system was designed to study the effect of pressure and oven temperature on the cooking process. Three different oven temperatures (114, 152, 204°C and three different pressures (20, 332, 570 pa were selected and 9 experiments were performed. Applying pressure to hamburger increases the contact area of hamburger with heating plate and hence the heat transfer rate to the hamburger was increased and caused the weight loss due to water evaporation and decreasing cooking time, while increasing oven temperature led to increasing weight loss and decreasing cooking time. CFD predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental results than the finite difference (FD ones. But considering the long time needed for CFD model to simulate the cooking process (about 1 hour, using the finite difference model would be more economic.

  8. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  9. Cooking characterization of Coleus tuberosus noodle in various arenga starch substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftakhussolikhah, Ariani, Dini; Angwar, Mukhamad; Jeremia Kevin M., M.

    2017-01-01

    Coleus tuberosus is one of local commodities in Indonesia which contains high carbohydrate. However, its utilization isn't done maximally. Therefore, C. tuberosus made into flour by grater method, and then be used for noodle making with arenga strach as substituting material. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of C. tuberosus flour substitution in the noodle preparation from arenga starch on its cooking properties. In this study, noodle was made in some variations which were 100% arenga starch; 75% arenga starch:25% C. tuberosus flour; 50% arenga starch:50% C. tuberosus flour; 25% arenga starch:75% C. tuberosus flour and 100% C. tuberosus flour. Characterization of noodle were investigated including water content, cooking time, cooking loss, swelling index, and expansion ratio Noodle was compared with two commercial products. The result showed that arenga starch substitution in C. tuberosus noodle affect cooking properties of noodle. The higher concentration of C. tuberosus flour caused swelling index and expansion ratio getting low. The water content, cooking loss and cooking time were increased as the C. tuberosus flour substitution ratio increase. None of the noodle resulted from C. tuberosus flour and arenga starch mixture was exactly as same as maize and rice commercial noodles. However 25% of C.tuberosus noodle has better characteristics than other C.tuberosus noodles.

  10. The effect of muscle, cooking method and final internal temperature on quality parameters of beef roast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Dąbrowska, Ewa; Jankowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Cierach, Marek

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of cooking conditions (dry air and steam) and final internal temperature (75, 85, 95°C) on the physico-chemical properties of beef infraspinatus (INF) and semimembranosus (SEM) muscles as well as their tenderness and juiciness. Cooking method and temperature influenced moisture, total collagen content in cooked meat and cooking loss, whereas muscle type affected fat, total collagen content and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were affected by cooking method, which also influenced juiciness of roasts. Temperature affected tenderness and juiciness, whereas muscle type influenced juiciness. The most desirable tenderness had INF heated in steam and dry air to 95°C. Processing SEM in dry air to 85 and 95°C lowered the juiciness of the roasts. There were significant correlations between physico-chemical, sensorial and image attributes, however high accuracy of prediction (r(2)>0.8) was achieved only for SEM muscle.

  11. Potential Health Implications of the Consumption of Thermally-Oxidized Cooking Oils – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falade Ayodeji Osmund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oils are an integral part of a human diet as they are used in almost all types of culinary practices. They serve as sources of lipids with a significant nutritive value and health benefits which can be attributed to their fatty acid compositions and biological antioxidants. However, cooking oils are usually subjected to thermal oxidation which occurs when fresh cooking oil is heated at high temperatures during various food preparations. Repeated use of cooking oils in the commercial food industry is also common to maximize profit. Thermal oxidation of edible oils had since attracted great attention of nutritionist and researchers given the deteriorative effect such as generation of very cytotoxic compounds, loss of carotenoid, phenolics and vitamins thus reducing the overall antioxidant properties of the oils. Furthermore, several in vivo studies had suggested that consumption of thermally-oxidized cooking oils might not be healthy as it might negatively influence the lipid profile (increased low density lipoprotein (LDL, decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL and elevated cholesterol level, haematological system (alteration in concentration of heamoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, kidney function, and induce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress which have been associated with the pathogenesis of various degenerative diseases. Therefore, thermal oxidation seems not to provide any health benefit, as it deteriorates cooking oils and the consumption of the oils may predispose consumers to various disease conditions that may ensue from free radical generation, thereby having deleterious effect on human health.

  12. Nutritional and chemical alteration of raw, irradiated and cooked chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andrea C. Penati; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: andrea@dtr.com.br; acpferre@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; Brazzaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luis de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The work objective was analyzing the centesimal and mineral composition to verifying the alterations on the nutritional characteristics caused by the cooking process. Also were carried out analysis of the iron availability in vitro, protein digestibility in vitro and the profile of amino acids in the raw and cooked in the control and irradiated seeds (doses of 2 kGy, 4 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy). The results of the mineral analysis showed that only phosphorus decrease with cooking process and it decreased ash and carbohydrates available. In the control and in the doses of 4 kGy and 6 kGy the cooking has not influenced the digestibility of the protein, but the treatments that received radiation doses of 2 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy were influenced. The cooked chickpea has shown better digestibility in higher doses of radiation although the treatments have shown low digestibility. The raw chickpea presented a better dialysis of iron in the control and in the doses 2 kGy and 4 kGy and the cooked chickpea presented improvement according to the increase of radiation doses. In relation to the essential amino acids, the chickpea has presented an adequate nutritional value, except for the methionine. (author)

  13. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon.

  14. Effect of salt addition on sous vide cooked whole beef muscles from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudagna, S R; Pazos, A A; Guidi, S M; Sanchez, G; Carp, D J; Gonzalez, C B

    2008-07-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-1.4%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, 0-0.5%) were added to Semitendinosus muscles and submitted to sous vide cooking at different temperatures (55-75°C). The effects of these three factors on pH, cooking loss, instrumental colour parameters, protein solubilization and distribution, and micro- and ultra-structure were evaluated. Quadratic surface responses equations were obtained from data (pH, cooking loss and colour parameters) as a function of the salts concentrations and cooking temperature. Both salts - alone or in combination - successfully reduced cooking loss. The best results were obtained for the combinations 0.25%STPP+1.20%NaCl and 0.25%STPP+0.70%NaCl, and temperatures between 60 and 65°C. Under these conditions, cooking loss was reduced close to 0%. pH was only dependent on STPP concentration, with a threshold concentration value of 0.25%. Temperature increment and NaCl addition produced a redness reduction. STPP incorporation recovered partially this parameter in comparison to non-added samples. Microscopy and SDS-PAGE results support the effect of the selected combinations of factors, suggesting that both salts together induced protein solubilization and gelation upon heating.

  15. Effect of processing and cooking on mineral and phytic acid content of buckwheat-enriched tagliatelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrec Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of buckwheat flour - non-treated (NBF and autoclaved (TBF were used for the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle (control sample at the level of 10-30% and the produced tagliatelle samples (dry and cooked were examined in terms of mineral and phytic acid (PA content. Both NBF and TBF possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of all investigated minerals compared to whole wheat flour (WWF, but significantly lower (p < 0.05 PA content. Cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe compared to the cooked control sample, while mineral content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples was not significantly different from the control. Autoclaving significantly reduced (p < 0.05 PA content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples compared to cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle samples and the control sample. The mineral bioavailability defined through molar ratio of mineral to phytate was slightly improved in buckwheat-containing tagliatelle samples, but it still remains at low level. Regarding all results, the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle with NBF at higher levels of substitution (20-30% resulted in significant increase in mineral content and bioavailability.

  16. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  17. Development of thermoacoustic engine operating by waste heat from cooking stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. M.; Abakr, Y. A.; Riley, P. H.; Hann, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    There are about 1.5 billion people worldwide use biomass as their primary form of energy in household cooking[1]. They do not have access to electricity, and are too remote to benefit from grid electrical supply. In many rural communities, stoves are made without technical advancements, mostly using open fires cooking stoves which have been proven to be extremely low efficiency, and about 93% of the energy generated is lost during cooking. The cooking is done inside a dwelling and creates significant health hazard to the family members and pollution to environment. SCORE (www.score.uk.com) is an international collaboration research project to design and build a low-cost, high efficiency woodstove that uses about half amount of the wood of an open wood fire, and uses the waste heat of the stove to power a thermoacoustic engine (TAE) to produce electricity for applications such as LED lighting, charging mobile phones or charging a 12V battery. This paper reviews on the development of two types of the thermoacoustic engine powered by waste heat from cooking stove which is either using Propane gas or burning of wood as a cooking energy to produce an acceptable amount of electricity for the use of rural communities.

  18. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  19. Weight maintenance through behaviour modification with a cooking course or neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Greve, Tine; Kreutzer, Martin; Pedersen, Ulla; Nielsen, Claus Meyer; Toubro, Søren; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effect on weight regain of behaviour modification consisting of either a gourmet cooking course or neurolinguistic programming (NLP) therapy. Fifty-six overweight and obese subjects participated. The first step was a 12-week weight loss program. Participants achieving at least 8% weight loss were randomized to five months of either NLP therapy or a course in gourmet cooking. Follow-up occurred after two and three years. Forty-nine participants lost at least 8% of their initial body weight and were randomized to the next step. The NLP group lost an additional 1.8 kg and the cooking group lost 0.2 kg during the five months of weight maintenance (NS). The dropout rate in the cooking group was 4%, compared with 26% in the NLP group (p=0.04). There was no difference in weight maintenance after two and three years of follow-up. In conclusion, weight loss in overweight and obese participants was maintained equally efficiently with a healthy cooking course or NLP therapy, but the dropout rate was lower during the active cooking treatment.

  20. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  1. History of Astronomy at James Cook University, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Duerbeck, H.; Glass, I.; Malville, K.; Marsden, B.; Simonia, I.; Slee, B.; Stephenson, F. R.; Strom, R.; Whittingham, I.; Wielebinski, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Centre for Astronomy at James Cook University (JCU) in Australia has been offering totally internet-delivered Master of Astronomy degrees since 2003 and Doctor of Astronomy and Ph.D. degrees since 2004. In 2005 a new dimension was added with unique offerings in the history of astronomy at both Masters and Doctoral levels. With the aid of 1 full-time staff member and 10 adjunct staff, 4 students have now graduated with Ph.D. degrees, 1 student died from cancer after completing the first draft of his thesis, and 14 students are currently enrolled in Ph.D. degrees. In addition 12 students have completed Master of Astronomy degrees in history of astronomy, and there are 3 students who are currently enrolled for Masters degrees. As part of its commitment to the international development of history of astronomy, the Centre for Astronomy also arranges boutique `invitation only’ history of astronomy conferences in March each year, and produces the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage.

  2. HEAT EXCHANGE NETWORKS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE COOKING OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Laborde

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to aboard one of the challenges in Engineering teaching: It´s the application in professional practice?, along with attending to the actual requirements of achieve energetic efficiency in industrial process and to reuse wastes of food industry, this work, presents the application of heat exchange networks for the resolution of a real case: pre-treatment of waste cooking oils (WCO withacid catalysis for biodiesel production. Different methods and software are applied to obtain the minimum amounts of heat and the heat exchange network for a processing capacity of 0,19 kg/s of WCO. A minimum temperature difference (Tmin of 10°C is considered and the minimum requirements of heating and cooling result 4629,87 W and 10066,30 W, respectively. If this exchange network is not considered, this values increase to 26838,33 W and 21958,33 W, respectively. Applying heat exchange network, decrease 78,92% the required steam service in the process and water cooling service decreases 62,48%, demonstrating that integration reduces energetic requirements respect the non-integrated process.

  3. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using sonochemical reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingu, Shishir M; Gogate, Parag R; Rathod, Virendra K

    2010-06-01

    Investigation into newer routes of biodiesel synthesis is a key research area especially due to the fluctuations in the conventional fuel prices and the environmental advantages of biodiesel. The present work illustrates the use of sonochemical reactors for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Transesterification of used frying oil with methanol, in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst has been investigated using low frequency ultrasonic reactor (20 kHz). Effect of different operating parameters such as alcohol-oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, temperature, power, pulse and horn position on the extent of conversion of oil have been investigated. The optimum conditions for the transesterification process have been obtained as molar ratio of alcohol to oil as 6:1, catalyst concentration of 1 wt.%, temperature as 45 degrees C and ultrasound power as 200 W with an irradiation time of 40 min. The efficacy of using ultrasound has been compared with the conventional stirring approach based on the use of a six blade turbine with diameter of 1.5 cm operating at 1000 rpm. Also the purification aspects of the final product have been investigated.

  4. Modeling of power control schemes in induction cooking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Alessio; Conti, Massimo; Turchetti, Claudio; Orcioni, Simone

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, with remarkable advancements of power semiconductor devices and electronic control systems, it becomes possible to apply the induction heating technique for domestic use. In order to achieve the supply power required by these devices, high-frequency resonant inverters are used: the force commutated, half-bridge series resonant converter is well suited for induction cooking since it offers an appropriate balance between complexity and performances. Power control is a key issue to attain efficient and reliable products. This paper describes and compares four power control schemes applied to the half-bridge series resonant inverter. The pulse frequency modulation is the most common control scheme: according to this strategy, the output power is regulated by varying the switching frequency of the inverter circuit. Other considered methods, originally developed for induction heating industrial applications, are: pulse amplitude modulation, asymmetrical duty cycle and pulse density modulation which are respectively based on variation of the amplitude of the input supply voltage, on variation of the duty cycle of the switching signals and on variation of the number of switching pulses. Each description is provided with a detailed mathematical analysis; an analytical model, built to simulate the circuit topology, is implemented in the Matlab environment in order to obtain the steady-state values and waveforms of currents and voltages. For purposes of this study, switches and all reactive components are modelled as ideal and the "heating-coil/pan" system is represented by an equivalent circuit made up of a series connected resistance and inductance.

  5. Gasification Performance of a Top-Lit Updraft Cook Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Mehta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study of a top-lit updraft cook stove with a focus on gasification. The reactor is operated with primary air only. The performance is studied for a variation in the primary airflow, as well as reactor geometry. Temperature in the reactor, air flow rate, fuel consumption rate, and producer gas composition were measured. From the measurements the superficial velocity, pyrolysis front velocity, peak bed temperature, air fuel ratio, heating value of the producer gas, and gasification rate were calculated. The results show that the producer gas energy content was maximized at a superficial velocity of 9 cm/s. The percent char remaining at the end of gasification decreased with increasing combustion chamber diameter. For a fixed superficial velocity, the gasification rate and producer gas energy content were found to scale linearly with diameter. The energy content of the producer gas was maximized at an air fuel (AF ratio of 1.8 regardless of the diameter.

  6. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  7. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D

    2017-07-01

    A study to determine the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were determined using the appropriate rodent models. All pulses had high digestibility values, >70%, with PDCAAS values greater than 0.5, thereby qualifying as a quality protein in the United States, but only navy beans qualified as a good source of protein. All pulses except whole green lentils, split red lentils, and split green peas would qualify as sources of protein with protein ratings between 20 and 30.4 in Canada. These findings support the use of pulses as protein sources in the regulatory context of both the United States and Canada.

  8. Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2012-06-13

    Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion.

  9. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil).

  10. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Font de Mora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO is one of the most sustainable solutions to replace conventional fossil fuels in the transport sector. It can achieve greenhouse gas savings up to 88% and at the same time reducing the disposal of a polluting waste. In addition, it does not provoke potential negative impacts that conventional biofuels may eventually cause linked to the use of arable land. For this reason, most policy frameworks favor its consumption. This is the case of the EU policy that double-counters the use of residue and waste use to achieve the renewable energy target in the transport sector. According to different sources, biodiesel produced from UCO could replace around 1.5%–1.8% of the EU-27 diesel consumption. This paper presents an in-depth thermoeconomic analysis of the UCO biodiesel life cycle to understand its cost formation process. It calculates the ExROI value (exergy return on investment and renewability factor, and it demonstrates that thermoeconomics is a useful tool to assess life cycles of renewable energy systems. It also shows that UCO life cycle biodiesel production is more sustainable than biodiesel produced from vegetable oils.

  11. Chemical characteristic of PM2.5 emission and inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Han, Bin; He, Fei; Xu, Jia; Zhao, Ruojie; Zhang, Yujuan; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-08-01

    To illustrate chemical characteristic of PM2.5 emission and assess inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking, 5 sets of duplicate cooking samples were collected, using the most used 5 types of oil. The mass abundance of 14 elements, 5 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated; the signature and diagnostic ratio of cooking in the domestic kitchen were analyzed; and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs via inhalation were assessed in two scenarios. The analysis showed that OC was the primary composition in the chemical profile; Na was the most abundant element that might be due to the usage of salt; Cr and Pb, NO3(-) and SO4(2-), Phe, FL and Pyr were the main heavy metals/water-soluble ions/PAHs, respectively. Phe and FL could be used to separate cooking and stationary sources, while diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + CHR), BaA/CHR, BaP/BghiP and BaP/BeP should be applied with caution, as they were influenced by various cooking conditions. Carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs were evaluated in two scenarios, simulating the condition of cooking with no ventilation and with the range hood on, respectively. The integrated risk of heavy metals and PAHs was 2.7 × 10(-3) and 5.8 × 10(-6), respectively, during cooking with no ventilation. While with the usage of range hood, only Cr(VI), As and Ni might induce potential carcinogenic risk. The difference in the chemical abundance in cooking sources found between this and other studies underlined the necessity of constructing locally representative source profiles under real conditions. The comparison of carcinogenic risk suggested that the potentially adverse health effects induced by inorganic compositions from cooking sources should not be ignored. Meanwhile, intervention methods, such as the operation of range hood, should be applied during cooking for health protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  12. 75 FR 62144 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China and Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ..., Deputy Agency Ethics Official, at 202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business proprietary information... countervailing duties). If you are a trade/business association, provide the information, on an aggregate basis...: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware...

  13. Synthesis graphene layer at different waste cooking palm oil temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Asli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is one of the most recent carbon nanomaterials that has attracted attention because of its superior properties. The formation of the graphene on the Ni surface appears due to segregation and precipitation of a high amount of carbon from the source material during the cooling process. The growth of graphene at different waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) temperatures using double thermal chemical vapour deposition method (DTCVD) was investigated. The samples were prepared at various vaporization temperatures of WCPO is range from 250 °C to 450 °C by increment 50 °C and the temperature of Ni substrate constant at 900 °C. The structural of the graphene were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, UV-Visible and Raman's spectroscopy. FESEM images at optimum temperature (350 °C) display hexagonal shapes since the graphene layers were formed after precipitation of the carbon. It the meantime, UV-Visible spectra shows the sharp peak at 250 nm whereupon the highest of reflectivity value. This peak is an indication the presence of the graphene layers on Ni substrate. The position and half width 2D peak of the Raman spectra were subjected to detail analyses in order to determine the quantity and quality of the graphene layer. At the temperature 350°C, the Raman's spectroscopy result shown the multilayer of the graphene based on I2D/IG ratio is approximately constant (equal to˜0.43).

  14. Microwave irradiation biodiesel processing of waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motasemi, Farough; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    Major part of the world's total energy output is generated from fossil fuels, consequently its consumption has been continuously increased which accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and also increases the price of these valuable limited resources. Biodiesel is a renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable diesel fuel which it can be the best environmentally friendly and easily attainable alternative for fossil fuels. The costs of feedstock and production process are two important factors which are particularly against large-scale biodiesel production. This study is intended to optimize three critical reaction parameters including intensity of mixing, microwave exit power and reaction time from the transesterification of waste cooking oil by using microwave irradiation in an attempt to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. To arrest the reaction, similar quantities of methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1) and potassium hydroxide (2% wt) as the catalyst were used. The results showed that the best yield percentage (95%) was obtained using 300W microwave exit power, 300 rpm stirrer speed (intensity of mixing) and 78°C for 5 min. It was observed that increasing the intensity of mixing greatly ameliorates the yield percentage of biodiesel (up to 17%). Moreover, the results demonstrate that increasing the reaction time in the low microwave exit power (100W) improves the yield percentage of biodiesel, while it has a negative effect on the conversion yield in the higher microwave exit power (300W). From the obtained results it was clear that FAME was within the standards of biodiesel fuel.

  15. Impact of prehistoric cooking practices on paleoenvironmental proxies in shell midden constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Staudigel, Philip; Murray, Sean T.; Westphal, Hildegard; Swart, Peter K.

    2016-04-01

    Paleoenvironmental proxy records such as oxygen isotopes of calcareous skeletal structures like fish otoliths or mollusk shells provide highest-resolution information about environmental conditions experienced by the organism. Accumulations of such skeletal structures by ancient coastal populations in so called "shell midden" deposits provide us with sub-seasonally resolved paleoclimate records covering time spans up to several millennia. Given their high temporal resolution, these deposits are increasingly used for paleoclimate reconstructions and complement our understanding of ancient climate changes. However, gathered as comestibles, most of these skeletal remains were subject to prehistoric cooking methods prior to deposition. The associated alteration of the chemical proxy signatures as well as the subsequent error for paleoenvironmental reconstructions remained almost entirely neglected so far. Here, we present clumped isotope, conventional oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as element:Ca ratios measured in modern bivalve shells after exposing them to different prehistoric cooking methods. Our data show that most cooking methods considerably alter commonly used paleoclimate proxy systems which can lead to substantial misinterpretations of ancient climate conditions. Since the magnitude of chemical alteration is not distinguishable from natural temperature variability in most coastal settings, the alteration of shell midden constituents by prehistoric cooking remains likely unnoticed in most cases. Thus, depending on the cooking method, pre-depositional heating might have introduced considerable errors into previous paleoclimate studies. However, our data also show that clumped isotope thermometry represents a suitable diagnostic tool to detect such pre-depositional cooking events and also allows differentiating between the most commonly applied prehistoric cooking methods.

  16. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Value-added of used cooking oil using noni (Morinda citrofilia) extract and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Supriyatin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of noni extract and bagasse to the number of free fatty acids and peroxide on used cooking oil. This study used a completely randomized design with factorial experiment consisting of two factors: noni extract and administration bagasse. The oil used was cooking oil that has been used 3 times to fry catfish. The study was conducted in the laboratory of Biochemistry, Department ofBiology Science UNJ. Data was analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (α Oil fortification analysis result in negative value of vit A, D and E on cooking oil used. Preliminary test results showed that the used cooking oil on catfish 3 times frying has a peroxide value of 20.2 MeK O2/kg and the number of free fatty acids of 2.2%, which is already quite high and out of SNI limit. This basis the reason of usingthe oil as a sample. Combination of noni and bagasse applied on cooking oil has shown the lowest peroxide value (0.533 mg-equivalen peroxide per kg sample (MeK O2/kg)) compared with administration of bagasse (0.8 MeK O2/kg) and noni alone (0.67 MeK O2/kg). Giving noni and bagasse also figured lower fatty acids (1,878%) compared to administration of noni (1.94%) and bagasse (2,191%) only on used cooking oil. Statistical analysis shows p cooking oil. It can be concluded that the administration of noni extract and bagasse gave effect on free fatty acids and peroxide on used oil.

  18. Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Arbex

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of cooking-generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. In the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P = 0.046 for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF25-75, a decrease of 3.5% (P = 0.035 was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF25-75 that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. The present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.

  19. The Cookbook = Manual de Cocina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This bilingual combination cookbook and instructional text is intended for use in training Spanish-speaking individuals for jobs as cooks. The first section is a dictionary of cooking terms consisting of parallel English and Spanish lists of foods, cooking terms, utensils, and common cooking directions and substitutions. The second section deals…

  20. Modifications in the AA5083 Johnson-Cook Material Model for Use in Friction Stir Welding Computational Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    REPORT Modifications in the AA5083 Johnson-Cook Material Model for Use in Friction Stir Welding Computational Analyses 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...TERMS AA5083, friction stir welding , Johnson-Cook material model M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, C.-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of...Use in Friction Stir Welding Computational Analyses Report Title ABSTRACT Johnson-Cook strength material model is frequently used in finite-element

  1. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassy Bhawamai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, but lower protocatechuic acid (PA, than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.

  2. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawamai, Sassy; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Hou, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice. PMID:27652685

  3. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P meats (P meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P meat was faded by irradiation (P meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Quality of charcoal produced using micro gasification and how the new cook stove works in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Mary; Mahmoud, Yahia; Mendum, Ruth; Iiyama, Muyiki; Jamnadass, Ramni; Roing de Nowina, Kristina; Sundberg, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    Wood based energy is the main source of cooking and heating fuel in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its use rises as the population increases. Inefficient cook stoves result in fuel wastage and health issues associated with smoke in the kitchen. As users are poor women, they tend not to be consulted on cook stove development, hence the need for participatory development of efficient woodfuel cooking systems. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Embu, Kenya to assess energy use efficiency and concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter from charcoal produced using gasifier cook stoves, compared to conventional wood charcoal. Charcoal made from Grevillea robusta prunings, Zea mays cob (maize cob) and Cocos nucifera (coconut shells) had calorific values of 26.5 kJ g-1, 28.7 kJ g-1 and 31.7 kJ g-1 respectively, which are comparable to conventional wood charcoal with calorific values of 33.1 kJ g-1. Cooking with firewood in a gasifier cook stove and use of the resultant charcoal as by-product to cook another meal in a conventional charcoal stove saved 41% of the amount of fuel compared to cooking with firewood in the traditional three stone open fire. Cooking with firewood based on G. robusta prunings in the traditional open fire resulted in a concentration of fine particulate matter of 2600 μg m-3, which is more than 100 times greater than from cooking with charcoal made from G. robusta prunings in a gasifier. Thirty five percent of households used the gasifier for cooking dinner and lunch, and cooks preferred using it for food that took a short time to prepare. Although the gasifier cook stove is energy and emission efficient there is a need for it to be developed further to better suit local cooking preferences. The energy transition in Africa will have to include cleaner and more sustainable wood based cooking systems.

  5. Investigation of the amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots and estimation of daily iron intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D Y; Chen, Z G; Lei, H Q; Lu, M Q; Li, R; Li, L X

    1990-09-01

    The amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots and that in food cooked in aluminum, stainless steel, and clay pots were determined. It was found that the amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots was two to five times higher than that in food cooked in the other types of pots. According to the test results, the estimated increase in daily iron intake was about 14.5 mg for adults and 7.4 mg for children when Chinese iron pots were used.

  6. Production of resistant starch by extrusion cooking of acid-modified normal-maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize extrusion cooking and hydrothermal treatment to produce resistant starch (RS) as an economical alternative to a batch-cooking process. A hydrothermal treatment (110 degrees C, 3 d) of batch-cooked and extruded starch samples facilitated propagation of heat-stable starch crystallites and increased the RS contents from 2.1% to 7.7% up to 17.4% determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber. When starch samples were batch cooked and hydrothermally treated at a moisture content below 70%, acid-modified normal-maize starch (AMMS) produced a greater RS content than did native normal-maize starch (NMS). This was attributed to the partially hydrolyzed, smaller molecules in the AMMS, which had greater mobility and freedom than the larger molecules in the NMS. The RS contents of the batch-cooked and extruded AMMS products after the hydrothermal treatment were similar. A freezing treatment of the AMMS samples at -20 degrees C prior to the hydrothermal treatment did not increase the RS content. The DSC thermograms and the X-ray diffractograms showed that retrograded amylose and crystalline starch-lipid complex, which had melting temperatures above 100 degrees C, accounted for the RS contents.

  7. Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Saito

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are commonly present in cereal grains and are not completely destroyed during their cooking and processing. When mycotoxins contaminate staple foods, the risk for exposure becomes serious. In East Asia, including Japan, rice is consumed as a staple food, and with the increasingly Westernized lifestyle, the consumption of wheat has increased. The mycotoxins commonly associated with rice and wheat are total aflatoxin (AFL and ochratoxin A (OTA, respectively. This study examined the retention of AFL and OTA during the cooking of rice and pasta. AFL was retained at 83%–89% the initial level after the cooking of steamed rice. In pasta noodles, more than 60% of the OTA was retained. These results show that AFL and OTA are relatively stable during the cooking process, suggesting that a major reduction in the exposure to these mycotoxins cannot be expected to occur by cooking rice and pasta. The estimated exposure assessment at the high consumer level (95th percentile and the mycotoxin contamination level determined by taking into account these reductions in the present study should be useful for the establishment of practical regulations for mycotoxins in staple foods.

  8. Cooked blueberries: anthocyanin and anthocyanidin degradation and their radical-scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Amaro, L Filipe; Pinho, Olivia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2010-08-25

    This study examined anthocyanin and anthocyanidin composition and radical-scavenging activity of three cultivars of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Bluecrop, Bluetravel, and Ozarkblue) before and after cooking. A total of 13 anthocyanins were separated and monitored in methanolic extracts of raw fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD). Principal component analysis using the anthocyanin profile as variables revealed differences according to cultivar origin. Of the six common anthocyanidins, four were identified and quantified in the hydrolysates, namely, malvidin, the most abundant, followed by cyanidin, petunidin, and delphynidin. A systematic evaluation of the degradation of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins of blueberries cooked in stuffed fish was performed. The percentage of anthocyanin degradation in cooked blueberries (by progressive heating from 12 to 99 °C for 60 min) ranged between 16 and 30% for Bluecrop, 30-42% for Bluetravel, and 12-41% for Ozarkblue. However, cooked blueberries maintained or increased radical-scavenging activity when evaluated by the 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Overall, results show that cooked blueberries can serve as a good source of bioactive phytochemicals.

  9. Cotyledon thermal behavior and pectic solubility as related to cooking quality in common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Lugo, I; Parra, C; Portilla, M; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Moreno, E

    1997-01-01

    The characteristic of proteins, starch and pectic substances in cotyledons of two bean cultivars varying in cooking time were determined to investigate their possible contribution to bean cooking quality. Both cultivars showed the same enthalpies of starch gelatinization but different protein denaturation enthalpies. The proportion of hot water soluble pectins was higher in Michigan, the cultivar with the lower cooking time, than in Ojo de Cabra, the cultivar with the higher cooking time. These results were not due to differences in pectin methylation or in the ratio of monovalent to divalent cations in the tissue, suggesting that in fresh beans the beta-elimination reaction is not the sole or predominant route of thermal pectin degradation. Overall, this study indicates that varietal differences in bean cooking quality may be reflections of the rate of pectin loss during soaking/heating and that the thermal properties of starch and protein fractions seem to have a minor contribution. Researchers involved in this study propose that in fresh beans, the thermal pectin loss results from a two step mechanism: pectin enzymic breakdown during the bean soaking followed by thermal solubilization rather than beta-elimination during the bean heating.

  10. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  11. Effects of cooking temperatures on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of chicken stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Bunch, Tucker; Shoemaker, Charles; Loss, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    As a base for sauces, soups, and cooking liquids for meats, grains, and vegetables, stocks can be integral to the overall quality of restaurant menu items, however, science-based studies on the effects of cooking methods on the physiochemical and sensory properties of stock are lacking. The effects of starting (22 °C, 85 °C, and 99 °C) and cooking temperatures (85 °C and 99 °C) of chicken stock on clarity, color, viscosity, protein content, amino acid content, mineral content, and overall liking were measured. Protein content and viscosity were significantly higher for stocks cooked at 99 °C, but no effect on amino acid content, color, or clarity was observed. Calcium concentration in stocks cooked at 99 °C was significantly (P professionals to develop more efficient techniques in the kitchen, and by product developers to optimize the overall quality and acceptance of stock. This work documents the effects of preparation method on the physical and chemical properties, and consumer acceptance of chicken stock. This information can be used by product developers, culinary scientists, and professional chefs to optimize stock-based products. Culinary educators can use this information to provide students with objective evidence-based rationale for the techniques underlying a celebrated culinary tradition. This is also an example of how research can facilitate collaboration between culinary and food science professionals. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Fuel for Life: Domestic Cooking Fuels and Women’s Health in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Nie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence that household air pollution is associated with poor health in China, and that this form of air pollution may even be more of a health concern in China than the much-publicized outdoor air pollution. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between household air pollution and health in China based on nationally representative and longitudinal data. This study examines the association between the type of domestic cooking fuel and the health of women aged ≥16 in rural China. Methods: Using longitudinal and biomarker data from the China Family Panel Studies (n = 12,901 and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 15,539, we investigate the impact of three major domestic cooking fuels (wood/straw, coal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG on health status using both cross-sectional and panel approaches. Results: Compared to women whose households cook with dirty fuels like wood/straw, women whose households cook with cleaner fuels like LPG have a significantly lower probability of chronic or acute diseases and are more likely to report better health. Cooking with domestic coal instead of wood or straw is also associated with elevated levels of having certain risks (such as systolic blood pressure related to cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that using cleaner fuels like LPG is associated with better health among women in rural China, suggesting that the shift from dirty fuels to cleaner choices may be associated with improved health outcomes.

  13. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Monikankana [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039 (India); Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G. [Combustion Gasification Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2009-04-15

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW{sub th} with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application. (author)

  14. Elimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in artificially contaminated eggs through correct cooking and frying procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dagostim Savi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a serious foodborne disease associated with the presence of bacteria in eggs or foods containing raw eggs. However, the use of appropriate procedures of cooking and frying can eliminate this contamination. There are few studies on the elimination of contamination of Salmonella in hens' eggs through typical frying procedures, especially for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or S. typhimurium. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate conditions for cooking and frying hens' eggs artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium, making them free of bacterial contamination. Hens' eggs were artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium and subjected to various processes of cooking, frying and food preparation. It was observed that the minimum time necessary to eliminate contamination through cooking procedures is 5 minutes after the water starts boiling, and also that, cooking in the microwave oven complete eliminates the bacterial contamination. When the eggs were fried on both sides, keeping the yolk hard, a complete bacterial elimination was observed. Mayonnaise prepared with vinegar presented a decrease in bacterial colonies when compared mayonese prepared with lemon.

  15. Tolerance Testing for Cooked Porridge made from a Sorghum Based Fortified Blended Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Chambers, Edgar Iv; Alavi, Sajid

    2016-05-01

    Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor.

  16. The Effects Of Ultrasonic Application For The Microbiological Quality Of Bulk Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Istanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation is one of natural phenomenon that often discussed in light atomic reaction nuclear application and electromagnetic wave especially in gamma ray X ray and UV light. Commonly we usually think that they are negative deadly and dangerous for living creatures. Radiaton may be correlated with thermal phenomenon but this reasearch was applied to get audio phenomenon and radiation especially ultrasonic radiation. Sound is a particle of vibration that propagates through medium and transmitted as longitudinal wave in which the displacement of the medium is parallel to the propagation of the wave. Radiation is the emission of waves in all directions in space by vibratory sources transducers form small balls or knob 234 this study were irradiating exposing to bulk cooking oils. The bulk cooking oil was treated by the ultrasonic exposure 1.5 hours and 3 hours and 24-hour incubation that it showed no aerobic colony. And besides the untreated bulk cooking oil showed a few aerobic colonies. And also the untreated used bulk cooking oil showed more some aerobic colonies. The research results shows that ultrasonic exposure at 48 kHz for 1.5 hours can enhance the microbiological quality of bulk cooking oil for 10 day storage.

  17. Identifying constituents of whey protein concentrates that reduce the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Lucey, J A

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein concentrate constituents were tested for their ability to reduce naturally occurring pink color defect and pink cooked color induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in ground turkey. β-lactoglobulin (1.8%), α-lactalbumin (0.8%), bovine serum albumin (0.15-0.3%), lactose (1.0-3.0%), potassium chloride (500-1500ppm), and ferrous iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) had no effects on cooked pink color. Lactoferrin (30-5000ppm) increased or decreased pink color depending on its concentration in samples without added sodium nitrite or nicotinamide. Annatto (0.1-1.0ppm) reduced pink color whereas the higher concentration of magnesium chloride (22-88ppm) and ferric iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) increased pink color in samples with added nicotinamide. Calcium chloride (160-480ppm) was the only tested constituent that consistently reduced pink cooked color in samples with and without added nitrite and nicotinamide. Due to the variability of whey protein concentrates and the number of constituents that do not reduce pink cooked color, the addition of calcium alone or dried milk minerals containing calcium, phosphate, and citrate, represents a better means to regularly prevent the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

  18. Increased advanced glycation end product specific fluorescence in repeatedly heated used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Anupriya; Bhatia, Alka; Ram, Anil Kumar; Goel, Sumit

    2017-07-01

    Repeated heating of cooking oils is known to cause their degradation and generation of toxins. Dietary Advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are formed when the foods are cooked in dry heat at very high temperatures. dAGEs are believed to contribute significantly to total pool of AGEs in body. In this study, cooking oil samples used for frying snacks were collected from 102 shops. AGEs were extracted using Aqueous-TCA-chloroform method. Fluorescent AGE levels were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and compared with AGEs in corresponding fresh oil samples collected from same shops. Palm oil was most commonly (62.5%) used for cooking. Most of the samples were subjected to several rounds of heating (1-6). AGE specific fluorescence (ASF) in used oil (range = 8.5-745.11) samples was found to be significantly higher in 88/102 as compared to the corresponding fresh oil samples. Treatment with inhibitors like lime concentrate and vitamin C decreased ASF (10/14 and 10/11 samples respectively) of the used oils. The results suggest that cooking oil subjected to repeated heating can contribute to increase in fluorescent AGEs in diet. Simple practices like liberal use of common household substances like lime concentrate may help to reduce these in fried food.

  19. Decoloration Kinetics of Waste Cooking Oil by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng

    2016-03-01

    In order to decolorize, waste cooking oil, a dark red close to black solution from homes and restaurants, was subjected to 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment. By virtue of UV/Vis spectrophotometric method, the influence of Gamma irradiation to decoloration kinetics and rate constants of the waste cooking oil in the presence of H2O2 was researched. In addition, the influence of different factors such as H2O2 concentration and irradiation dose on the decoloration rate of waste cooking oil was investigated. Results indicated that the decoloration kinetics of waste cooking oil conformed to the first-order reaction. The decoloration rate increased with the increase of irradiation dose and H2O2 concentration. Saponification analysis and sensory evaluation showed that the sample by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment presented better saponification performance and sensory score. Furthermore, according to cost estimate, the cost of the 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 was lower and more feasible than the H2O2 alone for decoloration of waste cooking oil.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception towards the Consumption of Waste Cooking Oil between Suburban and Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanisah Kamilah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The improper discarding method of toxic waste cooking oil (WCO and the repetitive usage of it are polluting the environment and harmful to human, respectively. Thus, survey regarding the consumption of waste cooking oil (WCO was conducted in Kampung Nelayan, Penang (rural area and Gurun, Kedah (suburban area. Each developed questionnaire containing the total amount of 26 questions, which five open-ended questions and 21 closed questions. Feedbacks of over 180 responses were received from Gurun, Kedah and 200 responses from Kampung Nelayan, Pulau Pinang. Focus group survey and face-to-face interview method were done in Gurun, Kedah and Kampung Nelayan, Pulau Pinang, respectively based on the suitability of the area. Personal information such as race, gender, and occupation of participants was recorded for further information. The percentage of 80% of the respondents was females and there was higher percentage of housewives (59% in Kampung Nelayan compared to Gurun. Majority of the respondents were consuming palm oil (95% and producing waste cooking oil (WCO up to 6-10 L/mth and 1 L/mth in Kampung Nelayan and Gurun, respectively. Survey analysis also showed that 2-3% of the respondents utilised the cooking oil repeatedly until it is fully utilised. Around 7-9% of respondents consumed the cooking oil up to three times before discarding it. As the conclusion, most of the respondents have limited knowledge regarding the WCO management, which could affect the health of a consumer and adulterates the environment.  

  1. Type of adsorbent and column height in adsorption process of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnelly, Hervelly, Taufik, Yusman; Melany, Ivo Nila

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to find out the best adsorbent and column height that can adsorb color and soluble impurities substances in used cooking oil. This research was meant for knowledge development of refined cooking oil technology. The used of this research was giving out information on the recycling process of used cooking oil. Research design used 2 × 2 factorial pattern in randomized group design with 6 repetitions. The first factor is adsorbent type (J) that consist of activated carbon (J1) and Zeolit (J2). The second factor is column height (K) with variations of 15 cm (k1) and 20 cm (k2). Chemical analysis parameter are free fatty acid, water content and saponification value. Physical parameter measurement was done on color with Hunter Lab system analysis and viscosity using viscometer method. Chemical analysis result of preliminary research on used cooking oil showed water content of 1,9%, free fatty acid 1,58%, saponification value 130,79 mg KOH/g oil, viscosity 0,6 d Pas and color with L value of -27,60, a value 1,04 and b value 1,54. Result on main research showed that adsorbent type only gave effect on water content whereas column height and its interaction was not gave significant effect on water content. Interaction between adsorbent type (J) and column height (K) gave significant effect to free fatty acid, saponification value, viscosity and color for L, a and b value of recycled cooking oil.

  2. Indoor terpene emissions from cooking with herbs and pepper and their secondary organic aerosol production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Farren, Naomi J.; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Kilic, Dogushan; Kumar, Nivedita K.; Pieber, Simone M.; Slowik, Jay G.; Tuthill, Rosemary N.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.; El Haddad, Imad

    2016-11-01

    Cooking is widely recognized as an important source of indoor and outdoor particle and volatile organic compound emissions with potential deleterious effects on human health. Nevertheless, cooking emissions remain poorly characterized. Here the effect of herbs and pepper on cooking emissions was investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge using state of the art mass spectrometric analysis of particle and gas-phase composition. Further, the secondary organic aerosol production potential of the gas-phase emissions was determined by smog chamber aging experiments. The emissions of frying meat with herbs and pepper include large amounts of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes as well as various terpenoids and p-cymene. The average total terpene emission rate from the use of herbs and pepper during cooking is estimated to be 46 ± 5 gg-1Herbs min-1. These compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere and lead to significant amounts of secondary organic aerosol upon aging. In summary we demonstrate that cooking with condiments can constitute an important yet overlooked source of terpenes in indoor air.

  3. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion

  4. Shelf life of cooked goat blood sausage prepared with the addition of heart and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Ferreira, V C S; Araújo, I B S; Dalmás, P S; Madruga, M S

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on the effect of two packaging formats (vacuum packaging and over-wrap packaging) on the shelf life of cooked sausage prepared with blood, heart, kidney and goat meat fragments under storage at 4±1°C for a period of 90 days. The storage time and type of packaging significantly affected the chemical (pH, moisture, protein and TBARS number), physical (shear force) and microbial (mould and yeast) parameters of cooked sausage. Vacuum packaging maintained the microbiological and chemical qualities of cooked goat blood sausage for a longer period of time (63 days) compared to over-wrap packaging (41 days) and could be a viable alternative to refrigerated storage of the product for quality maintenance.

  5. African American students' reactions to Benjamin Cooke's "Nonverbal Communication Among Afro-Americans: An Initial Classification".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Deric M; Stewart, Felicia R

    2011-01-01

    The nonverbal communication behavior of Black people continues to take new forms as time progresses. In Kochman's 1972 book, Rappin' and Stylin' Out: Communication in Urban Black America, Benjamin Cooke introduced an initial classification and code of nonverbal behaviors among people of African descent. In this study, students react to Cooke's study conducted in the late 1960s by commenting on Cooke's initial findings in comparison to nonverbal behaviors practiced among Black people as of late. Respondents suggest that while differences and variations exist between the expression of nonverbal behaviors exhibited by the original group studied and people recently observed, there yet remains a similarity in the cultural significance and motivation behind the displays.

  6. The impact of patients' involvement in cooking on their mortality and morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jandorf, Sofie; Siersma, Volkert; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    measures. This study analysed the association between involvement in cooking and each of seven pre-specified outcomes was analysed in Cox regression models with stepwise adjustment for possible confounders and mediators. Results. 92% of the patients with T2DM consumed a warm main meal  five times per week......Objective. This study explored the impact of involvement in cooking on long-term morbidity and mortality among patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and subjects. Data are from the population-based study Diabetes Care in General Practice. In baseline questionnaires......, 1348 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM gave information on how frequently they consumed a warm main meal and how often they cooked it themselves. The selected patients were followed up for 19 years in the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Main outcome...

  7. Susceptibility to Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines from Cooked Food: Role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2005-08-22

    A number of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx) are produced from the condensation of creatinine, hexoses and amino acids during the cooking of meat (1). There are many variables that impact the production and subsequent ingestion of these compounds in our diet. Temperature, type of meat product, cooking method, doneness, and other factors affect the quantity of these carcinogens consumed by humans. Estimates of ingestion of these carcinogens are 1-20 ng/kg body weight per day (2). Human case control studies that correlate meat consumption from well-done cooking practices with cancer incidence indicate excess tumors for breast, colon, stomach, esophagus, and possibly prostate (3-5).

  8. The use of asparaginase to reduce acrylamide levels in cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Oruna-Concha, Maria-Jose; Elmore, J Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Strategies proposed for reducing the formation of the suspected carcinogen acrylamide in cooked foods often rely on a reduction in the extent of the Maillard reaction, in which acrylamide is formed from the reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars. However, the Maillard reaction also provides desirable sensory attributes of cooked foods. Mitigation procedures that modify the Maillard reaction may negatively affect flavour and colour. The use of asparaginase to convert asparagine to aspartic acid may provide a means to reduce acrylamide formation, while maintaining sensory quality. This review collates research on the use of enzymes, asparaginase in particular, to mitigate acrylamide formation. Asparaginase is a powerful tool for the food industry and it is likely that its use will increase. However, the potential adverse effects of asparaginase treatment on sensory properties of cooked foods and the need to achieve sufficient enzyme-substrate contact remain areas for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Burden of diseases estimates associated to different red meat cooking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Poulsen, Morten; Nauta, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    , affected population, intake and dose–response data are obtained by literature survey. The selected endpoints are four types of cancer: colorectal, prostate, breast and pancreatic. The burden of disease per cooking practice, endpoint, sex and age is estimated in the Danish population, using disability......The burden of disease estimate has been performed for diseases attributable to nutritional deficiency, foodborne pathogens, the environment, infection and other factors. However, the burden of disease estimate attributable to different food processing practices has not been investigated before....... The aim of this study is to compare the burden of disease estimate attributed to red meat consumption processed using different cooking practices.The red meat cooking practices were categorized into three: (A) barbecuing/grilling; (B) frying/broiling and (C) roasting/baking. The associated endpoints...

  10. [Preliminary study concerning emissions of the volatile organic compounds from cooking oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Qing; Tian, Gang; Nie, Lei; Qu, Song; Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan

    2012-09-01

    Cooking oil fume is one of the important sources of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are the key precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in air. In this study, the production of cooking oil fume was simulated by heating typical pure vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil and blend oil) at different temperatures in beakers to investigate the VOCs emission characteristics. The emitted VOCs were sampled with a Tenax adsorption tube and analyzed using GC-MS after thermal desorption. The results showed that the emission of VOCs increased with the increase of the heating temperature for all the investigated cooking oils, and at a given temperature, the blend oil emitted the lowest amount of VOCs. The VOCs emission intensity at different heating temperatures fitted well with binomial equations and ranged from 1.6-11.1 mg x (kg x min)(-1).

  11. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method.

  12. [Variation in amount of radioactive cesium before and after cooking dry shiitake and beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the change of radioactive cesium content in food due to cooking in order to estimate the internal radiation exposure due to from radioactive materials in food. Our results revealed that soaking dry shiitake in water decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 50%, compared with that present in uncooked shiitake. Radioactive cesium in beef was decreased by about 10%, 12%, 60-65% and 80% by grilling, frying, boiling and stewing, respectively, compared to uncooked beef. For cooked beef, the decrease in the ratio of radioactive cesium was significantly different among the types of cooking. The decrease ratio of radioactive cesium in boiled and stewed beef was 8 times higher than that in grilled and fried beef.

  13. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Physico-Chemical and Quality Attributes of Eggplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthumporn Utra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two types of eggplants (Solanum melongena L., Chinese Eggplant and Indian Eggplant were cooked at three different cooking methods including frying, grilling and superheated steam (SHS. The objective of this research was to discover the effect of different cooking methods on the quality attributes of eggplant in terms of the physico-chemical properties, antioxidant properties and overall acceptability. The conditions for frying and grilling were set at 170°C for 7 minutes meanwhile; two parameters were used in SHS including 170°C for 7 minutes and 220°C at 15 minutes as the optimum conditions. SHS gives highest results in terms of physicochemical properties and antioxidant properties but frying methods gain high scores for the overall acceptability. Based on the results it can be concluded that even though SHS gives healthier and better results of the eggplant, but, texture, taste and aroma will influence on the acceptability of the final food products.

  14. [Study on the chemical compositions of VOCs emitted by cooking oils based on GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Tian, Gang; Li, Jing; Shao, Xia; Wang, Min-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in air, and the differences in the compositions of VOCs lead to their different contribution to atmospheric reaction. Cooking oil fume is one of the important sources of atmospheric VOCs, and its chemical compositions are distinct under different conditions of oil types, food types, cooking methods and heating temperatures etc. In this study, the production of cooking oil fume was simulated by heating typical pure vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil and blend oil) at different temperatures in beakers to investigate the chemical compositions of VOCs. The emitted VOCs were sampled with a Tenax adsorption tube and analyzed using GC-MS after thermal desorption. According to spectral library search and map analysis, using area normalized semi-quantitative method, preliminary qualitative and quantitative tests were conducted for the specific components of VOCs under different conditions.

  15. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  17. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  18. Awareness of coeliac disease among chefs and cooks depends on the level and place of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Shin, Seong; Coppell, Kirsten J

    Coeliac disease is triggered by gluten. The only treatment is lifelong avoidance of dietary gluten. Dining out and travelling are particular challenges with a huge impact on quality of life. We examined the knowledge about coeliac disease and gluten-free food preparation among chefs and cooks, and culinary students in Dunedin, New Zealand. Outlets serving gluten-free food were identified. The head chefs or cooks were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding demographics, education, qualification, experience and knowledge of coeliac disease and gluten-free food preparation. Ninety restaurant chefs and cooks, and 35 first-year culinary students participated. Half of participating chefs and cooks had received no formal training, but all were aware of the term gluten-free diet. Twelve (13%) were unaware of coeliac disease, all of whom were non-European and worked at an ethnic restaurant which did not have gluten-free policies in place. There was no significant difference in awareness of coeliac disease between chefs and students (p=0.36). However, students were significantly more aware of necessary gluten-free food preparation (p=0.007) and scored better in the gluten-free quiz (p=0.01) than chefs and cooks. Awareness of coeliac disease did not necessarily mean that policies were in place to prepare contamination-free gluten-free meals. Chefs and cooks from countries with a low incidence of coeliac disease lacked knowledge about gluten-free food preparation and had difficulties recognising gluten containing foods. Patients with coeliac disease wanting to dine out should be advised to choose a restaurant with care.

  19. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  20. Effect of different fat level on microwave cooking properties of goat meat patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K; Rajkumar, V

    2013-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various fat levels on the cooking and sensory properties of goat meat patties cooked by microwave energy. Goat meat patties were prepared with refined vegetable oil to get fat level of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Each patty was cooked in a microwave oven with full power (700 W) operating at 2450 MHz to an internal temperature of 75-80 °C. pH value of raw patties with 5% fat level were lower compared to patties with 10, 15 and 20% fat level. Fat level did not affect emulsion stability of batter but it decreased as fat level increased. Microwave cooking time decreased as fat levels increased. With an increase in fat contents, protein and moisture in raw patties decreased and in cooked meat patties with 5% fat had higher protein and moisture content than those with more fat. Patties with 5% level showed lower cooking loss than other fat level. Water activity of patties was affected by fat level and patties with 15 and 20% fat had lower water activity than patties with 5 and 10% fat. As fat level increased, shear force value decreased indicating soft texture. Subjective colour evaluation indicated that 5% patties were darker and redder than patties with more fat. Sensory analysis revealed that goat meat patties with 5 and 10% fat had less flavour and juicer than patties with 15 and 20% fat. Goat meat patties with 20% fat were the juiciest. Tenderness and oiliness increased significantly with an increase in fat level. Patties with 15% fat were rated higher overall palatability than others.

  1. Cluster Analysis of Indonesian Province Based on Household Primary Cooking Fuel Using K-Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Each household definitely provides installations for cooking. Kerosene, which is refined from petroleum products once dominated types of primary fuel for cooking in Indonesia, whereas kerosene has an expensive cost and small efficiency. Other household use LPG as their primary cooking fuel. However, LPG supply is also limited. In addition, with a very diverse environments and cultures in Indonesia led to diversity of the installation type of cooking, such as wood-burning stove brazier. The government is also promoting alternative fuels, such as charcoal briquettes, and fuel from biomass. The use of other fuels is part of the diversification of energy that is expected to reduce community dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The use of various fuels in cooking that vary from one region to another reflects the distribution of fuel basic use by household. By knowing the characteristics of each province, the government can take appropriate policies to each province according each character. Therefore, it would be very good if there exist a cluster analysis of all provinces in Indonesia based on the type of primary cooking fuel in household. Cluster analysis is done using K-Means method with K ranging from 2-5. Cluster results are validated using Silhouette Coefficient (SC). The results show that the highest SC achieved from K = 2 with SC value 0.39135818388151. Two clusters reflect provinces in Indonesia, one is a cluster of more traditional provinces and the other is a cluster of more modern provinces. The cluster results are then shown in a map using Google Map API.

  2. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  3. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas-phase emissions of heated cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Li, Zijun; Chan, ManNin; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-06-01

    Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e., corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils) was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19-20 °C and 65-70 % relative humidity (RH). The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS). The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1. 7 × 1011 molecules cm-3 s, was 1. 35 ± 0. 30 µg min-1, 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol) in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of SOA was -1.51 to -0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

  4. Resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of cooked “ayocote” bean (phaseolus coccineous)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    “Ayocote” beans (Phaseolus coccineous) were cooked and studied regarding their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility. Protein and ash contents were 20.46 and 1.39%, respectively, which are among the lowest levels for seeds of the Phaseolus genus. On the contrary, lipid content was relatively high (3.31%). Available starch (AS) values decreased with storage at 4ºC, changing from 37.93 (freshly cooked “control” seeds) to 32.18% (seeds stored for 96h). An inverse pattern was fou...

  5. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  6. The proof and the pudding what mathematicians, cooks, and you have in common

    CERN Document Server

    Henle, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Tie on your apron and step into Jim Henle's kitchen as he demonstrates how two equally savory pursuits-cooking and mathematics-have more in common than you realize. A tasty dish for gourmets of popular math, The Proof and the Pudding offers a witty and flavorful blend of mathematical treats and gastronomic delights that reveal how life in the mathematical world is tantalizingly similar to life in the kitchen. Take a tricky Sudoku puzzle and a cake that fell. Henle shows you that the best way to deal with cooking disasters is also the best way to solve math problems. Or take an L-shaped billi

  7. Sensory evaluation and cooking loss of meat of broiler chicken fed probiotics and thyme essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Alfaig; Maria Angelovičova; Martin Kral; Ondrej Bučko; Maria Walczycka

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics and thyme essential oil (TEO) as feed additives on the sensory attributes, cooking loss and the texture of broiler chicken meat. Day-old broilers Ross 308  (n = 400) were randomly divided into four groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics 0.05%, TEO 0.05% and combination of probiotics and TEO, while the fattening period was 42 days. Warner Bratzler shear force, cooking loss and the following sensory attribu...

  8. Invastigation influence of Additives to RiceWater Absorption and cooked rice quaitity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jialian; Yang Ronghua

    2001-01-01

    Using glucono-δ-lactone, sodium polyphosphate, emulsifier, 3- cyclodextrin and proteinase as main additive, the water-absorbing quality of rice under different conditions and the methods to improve the edible quality of cooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicates that the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increased significantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate and glucono-δ-lactone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved by soaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-δ-lactone, emulsifier, β -cyclodextrin and protease.

  9. First Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off Offers Tastes from Around the World | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Employee Diversity Team (EDT), with the support of the R&W Club Frederick, hosted its first Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off on March 27, in the lobby of Building 549, at NCI at Frederick. The event drew chefs of all nationalities from around the NCI at Frederick community. The goal of the cook-off was to encourage members of the community to embrace various ethnic cultures and backgrounds, according to Andrea Frydl, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, and EDT chairperson.

  10. Improving patients' home cooking - A case series of participation in a remote culinary coaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rani; Pober, David M; Budd, Maggi A; Silver, Julie K; Phillips, Edward M; Abrahamson, Martin J

    2017-08-01

    This case series describes and examines the outcomes of a remote culinary coaching program aimed at improving nutrition through home cooking. Participants (n = 4) improved attitudes about the perceived ease of home cooking (p < 0.01) and self-efficacy to perform various culinary skills (p = 0.02); and also improved in confidence to continue online learning of culinary skills and consume healthier food. We believe this program might be a viable response to the need for effective and scalable health-related culinary interventions.

  11. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh as compared with some conventional methods, i.e. boiling, pressure and roasting

  12. Evaluating the cooking process for obtaining hard candy from araza (Eugenia stipitata) pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sandoval; Patricia Bastidas Garzón

    2010-01-01

    This work was aimed at preparing hard candy from arazá (a fruit tree from the Amazon rainforest) using a sugar solution consis- ting of glucose syrup and invert sugar; this was cooked with fruit pulp to concentrate it. Temperature, time, soluble solids and vis- cosity were measured when cooking the mixture. Heat transfer was studied in an agitated steam jacketed kettle using the expe- rimental data. The best arazá hard candy formulation consisted of 15% fruit pulp, 2% pectin regarding the ...

  13. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  14. Effect of cooking and supplementation with different kinds of meats on the nutritional value of mash (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatty, N; Gilani, A H; Nagra, S A

    2000-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the nutritional value of mash (Vigna mungo) in raw and cooked forms and as effected by supplementation with different kind of meat, i.e. poultry, mutton and beef at 10, 15 and 20% levels. Nutritional assessment of all mash-containing diets (without or with supplementation) was made by chemical analysis as well as through rat assay. Mash contained 23.83% protein. Cooking resulted in minor changes in nutrients. Mash had 1.79% lysine which was reduced by 35% on cooking. All other amino acids also showed losses during cooking. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of diet containing raw mash was 1.9% and cooking improved it to 2.8%. True digestibility (TD) also showed a significant improvement. Supplementation of mash with different kinds of meat did not improve the PER significantly over unsupplemented diet containing cooked mash only. TD, however, was improved from 74.89% in cooked to 75.58-87.06% in supplemented diets. Similarly net protein utilization (NPU), as a result of meat supplementation, improved from 43.54% in cooked to 42.88%-51.96%. Higher PER, TD and NPU values were observed in diets containing mash supplemented with 20% level of different meats.

  15. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  16. Effect of tumbling method, phosphate level and final cook temperature on histological characteristics of tumbled porcine muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassidy, R.D.; Ockerman, H.W.; Krol, B.; Roon, P.S. van; Plimpton Jr, R.F.; Cahill, V.R.

    1978-01-01

    Six groups of hams were cured, tumbled, canned and cooked. Duplicate histological samples were removed from both the surface and deep muscles of fresh, cured and cooked hams, prepared and stained both with haematoxylin and trichrome staining solutions. Results indicated that tumbling significantly (

  17. Effect of precooking and polyphosphate treatment on the quality of catfish fillets cooked in pouch in boiling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum-sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meats and poultry products. However, there are very few examples of vacuum-sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the propert...

  18. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  19. Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.

  20. 76 FR 13602 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... International Trade Administration Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From the People's Republic of China... revocation of the antidumping duty order on porcelain- on-steel cooking ware (``POS cookware'') from the... the ITC of the magnitude of the margins likely to prevail should the order be revoked. See...

  1. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, A.F.S.; Ramasamy, A.; Castro-Giner, F.; Minelli, C.; Accordini, S.; Sorheim, I.C.; Pin, I.; Kogevinas, M.; Jögi, R.; Balding, D.J.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Janson, C.; Zock, J.P.; Heinrich, J.; Jarvis, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchi

  2. Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2007-12-01

    Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1-0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and both calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate were tested for their effects on pink cooked color in whole breast muscle. The combination of calcium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, not calcium chloride alone, was necessary for a reduction in pink cooked color induced by nicotinamide. Subsequently, in the presence of phosphate, both calcium chloride and sodium citrate reduced pink cooked color and were most effective in combination. Tricalcium phosphate also was capable of reducing pink cooked color in ground turkey, however substituting tricalcium phosphate for sodium tripolyphosphate resulted in lower pH and cooking yields. Neither calcium chloride nor tricalcium phosphate was capable of reducing pink cooked color in whole turkey breast. Currently, a combination of sodium tripolyphosphate, calcium chloride, and sodium citrate represents the most suitable means for reducing or preventing the pink color defect in uncured ground turkey.

  3. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  4. Development of Psychosocial Scales for Evaluating the Impact of a Culinary Nutrition Education Program on Cooking and Healthful Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Williams, Joel E.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Griffin, Sara F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Develop scales to assess the impact of the "Cooking with a Chef" program on several psychosocial constructs. Methods: Cross-sectional design in which parents and caregivers were recruited from child care settings (Head Start, faith-based, public elementary schools), and cooks were recruited from church and school kitchens. Analysis…

  5. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  6. The influence of inulin addition on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat (approximately 35 % lower cooked sausage, made with addition of 5% inulin, (sausage A were examined and compared with those of conventionally cooked sausage (sausage B. Chemical composition was evaluated according to standard ISO methods. Instrumental measurements of colour (L

  7. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively.

  8. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 12, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. An ASTER image was acquired at 12:42 AST on January 12, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The perspective rendition shows the eruption plume derived from the ASTER image data. ASTER's stereo viewing capability was used to calculate the 3-dimensional topography of the eruption cloud as it was blown to the south by prevailing winds. From a maximum height of 3060 m (9950 ft), the plume cooled and its top descended to 1900 m (6175 ft). The perspective view shows the ASTER data draped over the plume top topography, combined with a base image acquired in 2000 by the Landsat satellite, that is itself draped over ground elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The topographic relief has been increased 1.5 times for this illustration. Comparison of the ASTER plume topography data with ash dispersal models and weather radar data will allow the National Weather Service to validate and improve such models. These models are used to forecast volcanic ash plume trajectories and provide hazard alerts and warnings to aircraft in the Alaska region. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with

  9. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of seven accessions of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott tubers growing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewu, Muinat N; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (cocoyam) is cultivated mainly for its edible tubers. The effect of cooking the tubers on the proximate composition of seven accessions (UFCe1-UFCe7) of the crop growing in South Africa was investigated. When compared with the uncooked, the ash and crude fibre contents of the accessions significantly decreased after cooking. The moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate and caloric contents increased with cooking in all the accessions, except UFCe1 and UFCe5 where the crude lipid content reduced. The results indicate that cooking enhanced the carbohydrate, energy and protein contents of the tubers. They further showed that the tubers could be used for allergic infants, old people and invalids since the fibre contents were still appreciably high despite the slight reduction after cooking the tubers.

  10. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat. None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by (1)H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. However, study by SPME-GC/MS evidenced that steaming and sous-vide cooking modified the volatile profile of sea bass meat, especially in farmed specimens. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous-vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-04-15

    Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while α-aminoadipic (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical traits of raw and cooked fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss from different strains and farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fillets and cooking yields, water holding capacity, textural properties, colour, proximate composition, collagen and fatty acids of five strains (IT1, IT2, IT3, USA, UK of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, reared in three farms (F1, F2, F3, were measured before and after cooking. Physico-chemical parameters of the strains greatly differed both in raw and cooked state. IT2 and USA recorded the highest yields. IT2 distinguished from the other strains, showing lowest values of hardness, chewiness, gumminess and springiness. It also had brighter and less pigmented flesh with low fat, mainly in the raw state. USA strain showed the most valuable traits in terms of texture and colour, and had higher fat and collagen content in flesh. The physico-chemical profile of each strain was differently modified by cooking. USA strain maintained a positive texture and colour profile after cooking and its quality was the best.

  13. Effect of different cooking methods on minerals, vitamins and nutritional quality indices of kutum roach (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayat; Mahmoudzadeh, Maryam; Rezaei, Masoud; Mahmoudzadeh, Leila; Khaksar, Ramin; Khosroshahi, Nader Karimian; Babakhani, Aria

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the influence of four cooking methods (baking, boiling, microwaving and frying) was evaluated on the nutritional value of kutum roach. Proximate, fatty acid composition, vitamin and mineral contents and also nutritional quality indices (NQI) of kutum roach were investigated before and after cooking treatment. All treated samples showed increase in protein, ash and lipid contents and decrease in the content of total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) in comparison to raw fish fillets (control group). Cooking methods had no significant effect on omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) except for frying that increased it. Nonetheless, all of the cooking methods reduced vitamin B1, A and D contents. Boiling significantly decreased mineral contents including Na, K, P and Zn. Considering the overall nutritional quality indices, vitamin and mineral contents, baking is the best cooking method among other applied methods.

  14. Effect of processing conditions on phytic acid, calcium, iron, and zinc contents of lime-cooked maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, Ricardo; Turcios, Juan Carlos; Colmenares de Ruiz, Ana Silvia; de Palomo, Patricia Palocios

    2004-03-10

    Tortillas are made by cooking maize in a lime solution during variable times and temperatures, steeping the grain for up to 12 h, washing and grinding it to a fine dough, and cooking portions as flat cakes for up to 6 min. The effects of the main processing steps on the chemical composition, nutritive value, and functional and physicochemical characteristics have been areas of research. The present work evaluates the effect of lime concentration (0, 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6%) and cooking times (45, 60, and 75 min) on phytic acid retention of whole maize, its endosperm, and germ, as well as on the content of calcium, iron, and zinc on the same samples. The effects of steeping time and temperature and steeping medium on the phytic acid of lime-cooked maize were also studied. Finally, phytic acid changes from raw maize to tortilla were also measured. The results indicated that lime concentration and cooking time reduce phytic acid content in whole grain (17.4%), in endosperm (45.8%), and in germ (17.0%). Statistical analyses suggested higher phytic acid loss with 1.2% lime and 75 min of cooking. Cooking with the lime solution is more effective in reducing phytic acid than cooking with water. Steeping maize in lime solution at 50 degrees C during 8 h reduced phytic acid an additional 8%. The total loss of phytic acid from maize to tortilla was 22%. Calcium content increased in whole maize, endosperm, and germ with lime concentration and cooking and steeping times. The increase was higher in the germ than in the endosperm. The level, however, can be controlled if steeping of the cooked grain is conducted in water. Iron and zinc contents were not affected by nixtamalization processing variables but were affected in steeping.

  15. 香瓜子汤料水用香辛料煮制特性研究%Cooking Characteristics of Soup Water of Sunflower Seed Cooked with Spices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 宋宗庆; 李春保; 沈旭; 孙艳艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究香瓜子汤料水用香辛料煮制特性,确定多种料包的配比及更换频次.[方法]采用分先光度法对8种香辛料煮制后溶液的吸光度进行了检测,并采用挥发油残留测定法对煮制后的香辛料挥发油残留进行了测定.[结果]枸杞子和花椒的利用限制为2锅(4 h);金银花、胡椒、干姜、八角和丁香限制在3锅(6 h)以内;而甘草可在3~4锅范围内(6~10 h)进行调整.枸杞子和花椒可混合,更换频次为1次/2锅;胡椒、金银花、干姜、八角和丁香可混合,更换频次为1次/3锅;甘草不宣与其他香料混合,更换频次为1次/4锅.[结论]为香瓜子煮制工艺研究提供了理论依据.%[ Objective ] Cooking characteristics of soup water of sunflower seed cooked with spices were studied in order to make sure the proportion and changing frequency of different spices. [ Method] Absorbances of soup water of 8 spices were determined by spectrophotometric method,and volatile oil residues of 2 spices were determined. [ Result] Wolfoerry fruit and Chinese prickly ash could be cooked for 2 pots (4 h);honeysuckle, pepper, dried ginger, aniseed and clove should be limited in 3 pots (6 h) ;while glycyrrhiza could be cooked within 3 ~4 pots (6 ~ 10 h). Wolfberry fruit and Chinese prickly ash could be mixed, with changing frequency of 1 time/2 pots;honeysuckle, pepper, dried ginger, aniseed and clove could be mixed, with changing frequency of 1 time/3 pots;while glycyrrhiza shouldn' t be mixed with the other spices, with changing frequency of 1 time/4 pots. [ Conclusion] The research provides theoretical basis for studies on cooking technology of sunflower seed.

  16. The Influence of Spices on the Volatile Compounds of Cooked Beef Patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Il Suk; Nam, Ki Chang; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Heang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influences of spices on the amounts and compositions of volatile compounds released from cooked beef patty. Beef patty with 0.5% of spice (nutmeg, onion, garlic, or ginger powder, w/w) was cooked by electronic pan until they reached an internal temperature of 75℃. A total of 46 volatile compounds (6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 5 hydrocarbons, 6 ketones, 9 sulfur compounds, and 14 terpenes) from cooked beef patties were detected by using purgeand- trap GC/MS. The addition of nutmeg, onion, or ginger powder significantly reduced the production of the volatile compounds via lipid oxidation in cooked beef patty when compared to those from the control. Also, the addition of nutmeg and garlic powder to beef patty generated a lot of trepans or sulfur volatile compounds, respectively. From these results, the major proportion by chemical classes such as alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur compounds, and terpenes was different depending on the spice variations. The results indicate that addition of spices to the beef patty meaningfully changes the volatile compounds released from within. Therefore, it can be concluded that spices can interact with meat aroma significantly, and thus, the character of each spice should be considered before adding to the beef patty.

  17. Initial experience in 115 patients with the retrievable Cook Celect vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, O; Given, M F; Kavnoudias, H; Street, M; Thomson, K R; Lyon, S M

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with the retrievable Cook Celect inferior vena cava (IVC) filter (William Cook, Europe) with regard to insertion, efficiency, ease of retrieval, and any associated complications. A retrospective review was performed of 115 patients (41 female, 74 male, mean age 47.97 years) who underwent Cook Celect IVC filter insertion between December 2005 and October 2007. Filter insertion was successful in all patients. Of the 115 filters inserted, 57 have been successfully retrieved (49.6%) to date. The successful retrieval rate from attempted retrieval was 93.4%. The mean dwell time of successfully retrieved filters was 114.9 days (range 14-267 days). Failed retrievals were due to a thrombosed vena cava (n = 1) and endothelialisation of the filter (n = 3). In the failed retrieval group the mean implantation time was 142 days (range 78-211 days). While this is the first retrospective clinical study on the Cook Celect filter, results to date are promising. We demonstrated an efficacious filter with a high successful retrieval rate of 93.4% and a low complication rate. The filter was assessed with extended dwell times (range 14-267 days). Failed retrieval secondary to hook endothelialisation continues to be an issue with this filter. We recognize that a limitation of our study was the lack of systematic follow-up for clinically silent complications. Further studies to evaluate longer term outcomes and effectiveness of this filter are warranted.

  18. Laundry Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides instructions for clarifying cooking oil and using it with either wood ash lye or commercial lye to make laundry soap. It also provides (in appendices): a discussion of oils and soaps, including the history of soap; instructions for preparing an 18 percent lye solution; instructions for preparing soap using lye from wood ash;…

  19. Gas cooking is associated with small reductions in lung function in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshammer, H.; Fletcher, T.; Heinrich, J.; Hoek, G.; Hruba, F.; Pattenden, S.; Rudnai, P.; Slachtova, H.; Speizer, F.E.; Zlotkowska, R.; Neuberger, M.

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistent effects of gas cooking on lung function have been reported. In a previous study from Austria, we demonstrated a significant, though small, reduction of lung function parameters in children living in homes with gas stoves. We used a larger international database to check if this finding

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Øyvind; Brattebø, Guttorm; Rostrup, Morten

    2004-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P tent. The concentration is high enough to cause significant COHb levels in venous blood after 120 minutes' stay in the tent.