WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooking food

  1. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  2. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  3. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy aspects in food extrusion-cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Moscicki, L.; Mitrus, M.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical and practical energy balance considerations in food extrusion-cooking are presented in the paper. Based on the literature review as well as on own measurement results, the baro-thermal treatment of different vegetable raw materials is discussed together with the engineering aspects of th

  5. Domestic cooking and food skills: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Laura; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; Spence, Michelle; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-24

    Domestic cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) encompass multiple components, yet there is a lack of consensus on their constituent parts, inter-relatedness, or measurement, leading to limited empirical support for their role in influencing dietary quality. This review assessed the measurement of CS and FS in adults (>16 years); critically examining study designs, psychometric properties of measures, theoretical basis, and associations of CS/FS with diet. Electronic databases (PsychInfo), published reports, and systematic reviews on cooking and home food preparation interventions provided 834 articles of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Multiple CS/FS measures were identified across three study designs-qualitative, cross-sectional, and dietary interventions-conducted from 1998 to 2013. Most measures were not theory-based, limited psychometric data were available, with little consistency of items or scales used for CS/FS measurements. Some positive associations between CS/FS and fruit and vegetables intake were reported, though lasting dietary changes were uncommon. The role of psycho-social (e.g., gender, attitudes) and external factors (e.g., food availability) on CS/FS is discussed. A conceptual framework of CS/FS components is presented for future measurement facilitation, which highlights the role for CS/FS on food-related behavior and dietary quality. This will aid future dietary intervention design.

  6. Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161980.html Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows ... shows. They also noted whether the shows mentioned food safety. The findings were published in the November-December ...

  7. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  8. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  9. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  10. Investigation on Furan Levels in Pressure-Cooked Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. Arisseto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food processing contaminant classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. As the occurrence of furan has been reported in a variety of foods processed in sealed containers, the objective of this work was to investigate if the contaminant can be found in home-cooked foods prepared in a pressure cooker. For that, several foods including beans, soy beans, whole rice, beef, pork, potato, and cassava were pressure-cooked and analyzed for the furan content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS. Furan was not found above the limit of quantification in the pressure-cooked samples. No furan has either been found in reheated samples after 24 hours under cold storage. Although levels up to 173 μg/kg were already reported for commercial canned/jarred foods, it seems that the cooking in a pressure cooker may not represent a concern in relation to the occurrence of furan in foods.

  11. [Effect of cooking on the purine content of foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, M; Wolfram, G

    1987-12-01

    The total purine content and the content of purines bound in RNA and DNA was determined in selected food (veal meat, pork meat, pork liver, pork spleen, soja meat). Raw and boiled food samples were analysed. During preparation of food the total purine content is changed by losses of water or of purines into cooking water. Simultaneously, a great part of nucleic acids is hydrolysed.

  12. Influence of a School-Based Cooking Course on Students' Food Preferences, Cooking Skills, and Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Rola; Sibeko, Lindiwe

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Project CHEF, a hands-on cooking and tasting program offered in Vancouver public schools, on students' food preferences, cooking skills, and confidence. Grade 4 and 5 students in an intervention group (n = 68) and a comparison group (n = 32) completed a survey at baseline and 2 to 3 weeks later. Students who participated in Project CHEF reported an increased familiarity and preference for the foods introduced through the program. This was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for broccoli, swiss chard, carrots, and quinoa. A higher percentage of students exposed to Project CHEF reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in: cutting vegetables and fruit (97% vs 81%), measuring ingredients (67% vs 44%), using a knife (94% vs 82%), and making a balanced meal on their own (69% vs 34%). They also reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in confidence making the recipes introduced in the program: fruit salad (85% vs 81%), minestrone soup (25% vs 10%), and vegetable tofu stir fry (39% vs 26%). Involving students in hands-on cooking and tasting programs can increase their preferences for unpopular or unfamiliar foods and provide them with the skills and cooking confidence they need to prepare balanced meals.

  13. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  14. Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at home

  15. Balancing food values: Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at

  16. Scientific Literacy in Food Education: Gardening and Cooking in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Carrie A.

    Recent attention to socio-scientific issues such as sustainable agriculture, environmental responsibility and nutritional health has spurred a resurgence of public interest in gardening and cooking. Seen as contexts for fostering scientific literacy---the knowledge domains, methodological approaches, habits of mind and discourse practices that reflect one's understanding of the role of science in society, gardening and cooking are under-examined fields in science education, in part, because they are under-utilized pedagogies in school settings. Although learning gardens were used historically to foster many aspects of scientific literacy (e.g., cognitive knowledge, norms and methods of science, attitudes toward science and discourse of science), analysis of contemporary studies suggests that science learning in gardens focuses mainly on science knowledge alone. Using multiple conceptions of scientific literacy, I analyzed qualitative data to demonstrate how exploration, talk and text fostered scientific literacy in a school garden. Exploration prompted students to engage in scientific practices such as making observations and constructing explanations from evidence. Talk and text provided background knowledge and accurate information about agricultural, environmental and nutritional topics under study. Using a similar qualitative approach, I present a case study of a third grade teacher who explicitly taught food literacy through culinary arts instruction. Drawing on numerous contextual resources, this teacher created a classroom community of food practice through hands-on cooking lessons, guest chef demonstrations, and school-wide tasting events. As a result, she promoted six different types of knowledge (conceptual, procedural, dispositional, sensory, social, and communal) through leveraging contextual resources. This case study highlights how food literacy is largely contingent on often-overlooked mediators of food literacy: the relationships between

  17. [Food prices in Brazil: prefer cooking to ultra-processed foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Diniz, Danielle Pereira

    2016-08-29

    This study aims to describe the prices of food groups consumed in Brazil considering the nature, extent, and purpose of their processing. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008-2009. The mean prices of the groups (natural, cooking ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed) and their respective food subgroups were estimated for Brazil according to income, region, and area. Natural products and cooking ingredients showed lower prices per calorie when compared to the other groups, suggesting an economic advantage to preparing meals at home when compared to replacing them with ultra-processed foods. Families with the highest income paid the highest prices for their food, while families in the Northeast and North regions and rural areas paid the lowest. While fresh foods (meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables) tend to cost more than ultra-processed foods, dry grains (like rice and beans) are a more economical alternative for adopting healthy eating practices.

  18. A Study on Educational Contents for Improving College Students’ Awareness of Food and Their Cooking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 郁子; 水田, 千尋; 大場, 君枝

    2015-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on contents of cooking exercises for improving college students’ awareness of food and their cooking skills. Students who are active in kitchen knife exercise at home take breakfast every morning and their breakfasts are complete with staple food, main dish, and side dishes. Therefore, the educational contents to encourage students to increase the frequency of positive and continuous home cooking may possibly lead to improvement of students’ awareness of f...

  19. Science of Food and Cooking: A Non-Science Majors Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Bachman, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the science of food and cooking has been observed in our popular literature and media. As a result of this, a new non-science majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, is being taught at our institution. We cover basic scientific concepts, which would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the…

  20. Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products and Botulism--Food Safety Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Actions ${title} Loading... Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products & Botulism - Food Safety Advisory In August and September 2001, several cases ...

  1. Involving children in cooking activities: A potential strategy for directing food choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; da Quinta, Noelia; Chokupermal, Krithika; Urdaneta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables.

  2. The effects of domestic cooking on the levels of 3-monochloropropanediol in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; Brereton, P; Davies, A

    2001-04-01

    The results are reported of a study to determine the effect of domestic cooking procedures on the level of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in selected foods. Samples of 23 foods comprising stock cubes, gravies, a cake mix, batters, breads, cheese and meats were subjected to a range of cooking procedures including grilling, toasting and microwaving. The resulting levels of 3-MCPD were compared with those present in the foods before cooking. Grilling and toasting produced substantial increases in the 3-MCPD content of bread, forming up to 0.3 mg/kg, and of most cheeses, resulting in levels of up to about 0.1 mg/kg. Microwave cooking produced elevated 3-MCPD levels in some cheeses. Frying laboratory-produced batters increased 3-MCPD levels to about 0.1 mg/kg whereas a retail batter contained no detectable 3-MCPD when fried. The remaining foods showed little or no discernible increase on cooking.

  3. Practical discrimination of good and bad cooked food using metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An increasing concentration of ammonia in cooked food is in direct proportion to the extent of decay. This fact is used to design an electronic nose (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor odour sensor circuit capable of discriminating good and bad cooked food. On the basis of the data produced by the e-nose circuit, a feedforward multilayer neural network is designed and trained to recognize varying concentrations of ammonia in the food. Test results o...

  4. Cooking for geeks: real science, great hacks, and good food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potter, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Functional Fixedness 5 A Few Words on Nutrition 10 Tips for Newbies 12 Picking a Recipe 22 Reading Between the Lines 26 Cooking for One...

  5. Metaphorical mapping between raw-cooked food and strangeness-familiarity in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Qu, Yuan; Zheng, Huihui; Lu, Yang; Zhong, Xin; Ward, Anne; Li, Zijun

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated metaphorical mappings between physical coldness-warmth and social distance-closeness. Since the concepts of interpersonal warmth are frequently expressed in terms of food-related words in Chinese, the present study sought to explore whether the concept of raw-cooked food could be unconsciously and automatically mapped onto strangeness-familiarity. After rating the nutritive value of raw or cooked foods, participants were presented with morphing movies in which their acquaintances gradually transformed into strangers or strangers gradually morphed into acquaintances, and were asked to stop the movies when the combined images became predominantly target faces. The results demonstrated that unconscious and automatic metaphorical mappings between raw-cooked food and strangeness-familiarity exist. This study provides a foundation for testing whether Chinese people can think about interpersonal familiarity using mental representations of raw-cooked food and supports cognitive metaphor theory from a crosslinguistic perspective.

  6. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  7. Laboratory Development and Lecture Renovation for a Science of Food and Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Borchardt, Adrienne C.

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, a new nonscience majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, was developed at our institution. The course covered basic scientific concepts that would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the context of food and food preparation. Recently, the course has been revamped in three major ways: (1)…

  8. Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-12-01

    Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants.

  9. The use of asparaginase to reduce acrylamide levels in cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Oruna-Concha, Maria-Jose; Elmore, J Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Strategies proposed for reducing the formation of the suspected carcinogen acrylamide in cooked foods often rely on a reduction in the extent of the Maillard reaction, in which acrylamide is formed from the reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars. However, the Maillard reaction also provides desirable sensory attributes of cooked foods. Mitigation procedures that modify the Maillard reaction may negatively affect flavour and colour. The use of asparaginase to convert asparagine to aspartic acid may provide a means to reduce acrylamide formation, while maintaining sensory quality. This review collates research on the use of enzymes, asparaginase in particular, to mitigate acrylamide formation. Asparaginase is a powerful tool for the food industry and it is likely that its use will increase. However, the potential adverse effects of asparaginase treatment on sensory properties of cooked foods and the need to achieve sufficient enzyme-substrate contact remain areas for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots and estimation of daily iron intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D Y; Chen, Z G; Lei, H Q; Lu, M Q; Li, R; Li, L X

    1990-09-01

    The amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots and that in food cooked in aluminum, stainless steel, and clay pots were determined. It was found that the amount of dissolved iron in food cooked in Chinese iron pots was two to five times higher than that in food cooked in the other types of pots. According to the test results, the estimated increase in daily iron intake was about 14.5 mg for adults and 7.4 mg for children when Chinese iron pots were used.

  11. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -IH and Vacuum cooking -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Murasaki, Masahiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. This study was aimed at making balance space foods menu for the healthy space-life. The kitchen utensil has a limit in the space environment. And a method to warm is only heater without fire. Therefore purpose of this study, we make the space foods which make by using vacuum cooking device and the IH heater We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores.. We could make the space foods which we devised with vacuum cooking and IH deliciously. As a result of sensuality examination, the eight points in ten points of perfect scores was appeared. This result showed, our space food menu is delicious. We can store these space foods with a refrigerator for 20 days by making vacuum cooking. This thing is at all important result so that a save is enabled when surplus food was done in future by performing vacuum cooking. We want to make delicious space foods menu with vacuum cooking and IH heater more in future.

  12. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cooking Food in Bogota Using a Box Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alejandro Jiménez Castellanos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the transient temperature field of a basic box type solar cooker (without attachments such as double glazing, internal reflectors, external reflectors, steam relief line, etc. for Bogotá – Colombia climate conditions, in order to determine if this device can cook on its town. The methodology consisted of three main stages: the development of a physical – mathematical model for heating process, based on energy balances for each of its components: glass container lid, container, absorber wall and fluid, the development of a computational experiment in the software Autodesk Algor Simulation and the comparison of the results. The final water temperature obtained by the physical - mathematical model was 81.85 ℃, and the maximum obtained with the thermal simulation was 79.60 ℃. From the results, it can be concluded that conditions in Bogotá DC are not appropriate to cook with a device of this kind.

  14. Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Saito

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are commonly present in cereal grains and are not completely destroyed during their cooking and processing. When mycotoxins contaminate staple foods, the risk for exposure becomes serious. In East Asia, including Japan, rice is consumed as a staple food, and with the increasingly Westernized lifestyle, the consumption of wheat has increased. The mycotoxins commonly associated with rice and wheat are total aflatoxin (AFL and ochratoxin A (OTA, respectively. This study examined the retention of AFL and OTA during the cooking of rice and pasta. AFL was retained at 83%–89% the initial level after the cooking of steamed rice. In pasta noodles, more than 60% of the OTA was retained. These results show that AFL and OTA are relatively stable during the cooking process, suggesting that a major reduction in the exposure to these mycotoxins cannot be expected to occur by cooking rice and pasta. The estimated exposure assessment at the high consumer level (95th percentile and the mycotoxin contamination level determined by taking into account these reductions in the present study should be useful for the establishment of practical regulations for mycotoxins in staple foods.

  15. The development and validation of measures to assess cooking skills and food skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Hollywood, Lynsey; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2017-09-02

    With the increase use of convenience food and eating outside the home environment being linked to the obesity epidemic, the need to assess and monitor individuals cooking and food skills is key to help intervene where necessary to promote the usage of these skills. Therefore, this research aimed to develop and validate a measure for cooking skills and one for food skills, that are clearly described, relatable, user-friendly, suitable for different types of studies, and applicable across all sociodemographic levels. Two measures were developed in light of the literature and expert opinion and piloted for clarity and ease of use. Following this, four studies were undertaken across different cohorts (including a sample of students, both 'Food preparation novices' and 'Experienced food preparers', and a nationally representative sample) to assess temporal stability, psychometrics, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of both measures. Analysis included T-tests, Pearson's correlations, factor analysis, and Cronbach's alphas, with a significance level of 0.05. Both measures were found to have a significant level of temporal stability (P skills confidence measure ranged from 0.78 to 0.93 across all cohorts. The food skills confidence measure's Cronbach's alpha's ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. The two measures also showed a high discriminate validity as there were significant differences (P skills confidence and P skills confidence) between Food preparation novices' and 'Experienced food preparers.' The cooking skills confidence measure and the food skills confidence measure have been shown to have a very satisfactory reliability, validity and are consistent over time. Their user-friendly applicability make both measures highly suitable for large scale cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies to assess or monitor cooking and food skills levels and confidence.

  16. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  17. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds...

  18. Application of induction heating in food processing and cooking: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction heating is an electromagnetic heating technology that has several advantages such as high safety, scalability, and high energy efficiency. It has been applied for a long time in metal processing, medical applications, and cooking. However, the application of this technology in the food pro...

  19. A Culinary Cornucopia at the Second Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagine traveling the globe, sampling cuisines from countries as disparate as Russia, Switzerland, India, and Ethiopia. Sounds like a dream vacation, doesn’t it? Thanks to the Employee Diversity Team (EDT) and its group of gastronomic volunteers, the NCI at Frederick community was taken on this culinary journey, gratis, at the second annual Ethnic Food Cook-off. Read more...

  20. Tolerance Testing for Cooked Porridge made from a Sorghum Based Fortified Blended Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Chambers, Edgar Iv; Alavi, Sajid

    2016-05-01

    Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor.

  1. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  2. First Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off Offers Tastes from Around the World | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Employee Diversity Team (EDT), with the support of the R&W Club Frederick, hosted its first Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off on March 27, in the lobby of Building 549, at NCI at Frederick. The event drew chefs of all nationalities from around the NCI at Frederick community. The goal of the cook-off was to encourage members of the community to embrace various ethnic cultures and backgrounds, according to Andrea Frydl, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, and EDT chairperson.

  3. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  4. Conventional food preparation, cook and chill and sous-vide as optional methods for institutional kitchens. Perinteinen ruoanvalmistus, cook and chill ja sous-vide toimintavaihtoehdot suurkeittioessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivaerinta, T., Reisbacka, A., Salminen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation concerning the energy consumption, economics and the appropriateness of the three options when applied in institutional households. The options included in the study were conventional (preparation-cooking-serving), cook and chill and sous-vide (vacuum cooking-chilling). A further aim was to compare industrially produced products to self-made products. Each option was studied in connection with several devices embodying latest technology. The overall price for a portion was found to be cheapest when using the conventional preparation method. The cook and chill method was only slightly more expensive. The result of this study also support the understanding that when appropriately planned, cook and chill and sous-vide food preparation options make possible the rationalisation of kitchen work. The appropriateness of different food preparation methods depends on the versatility of the functions and programmes built into cooking devices. A combination oven is appropriate and conserves energy when cooking or heating up large quantities. Significant waste of water (126-146 1/h) is possible because of the structural solutions and modes of use of such an oven. A microwave oven saves energy when used to heat up ready-made portions. The amount of energy consumed by an air-cooled chilling cabinet in the cooling of food makes it more economical to use than a water-cooled model. The amount of electricity consumed by a refrigerator or an equivalent cold storage is 5-14 times less than that consumed by chilling devices

  5. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  6. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  7. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which is...

  8. Sterilization of ready-to-cook Bibimbap by combined treatment with gamma irradiation for space food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Han, In-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Bibimbap, Korean traditional cooked rice mixed with various kinds of vegetables, together with mushrooms and a ground meat, and seasoned with red pepper paste, was developed as a ready-to-cook food by combined treatment with irradiation for the use in space. By gamma irradiation of 25 kGy, the total aerobic bacteria of Bibimbap that was initial by 6.3 log CFU/g decreased to below detection limit, but its sensory qualities were drastically decreased. To enhance the sensory quality, the effects of antioxidant in Bibimbap were evaluated. A treatment with 0.1% of vitamin C, vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiated at 25 kGy and -70 °C showed higher sensory scores than only the irradiation process. This result indicates that the radiation technology may be useful to produce a variety of space foods with high quality of taste and flavor, when combined with other methods.

  9. A New Mehod to Cook Rice Food,An infant of new Rice Cooker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hanyou

    2002-01-01

    Objective:In order to enhance the rice food nutritional quality and the human quality of life.Method:Summarize my lifeexperiences and my cooking rice experience with present Chinese food cookers but in different way to reach the high quality ricefood. Result:The steaming rice method is easy to do and the rice is tasteful and nutritional,comparing with the previous old generationsfood cookers. Conclusions:(1)This cooking method is worth and easy to be adapted by the rice taking people.(2)Through furtherresearch,the new rice cooker of modem generation can be developed according to these principles.This kind of cooker may well bemarketed and used by the rice taking people.

  10. Hazard identification and characterisation, and dose response assessment of spore forming pathogens in cooked chilled food containing vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusden FM van; MGB

    2001-01-01

    A hazard identification and characterisation, including a preliminary dose response assessment, of sporeforming pathogens in cooked chilled food containing vegetables was performed according to the structure and principles for a quantitative microbiological risk assessment as described by the Codex

  11. Cooking and disgust sensitivity influence preference for attending insect-based food events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerman, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Insects are energy-efficient and sustainable sources of animal protein in a world with insufficient food resources to feed an ever-increasing population. However, much of the western world refuses to eat insects because they perceive them as disgusting. This research finds that both animal reminder disgust and core disgust reduced people's willingness to attend a program called "Bug Appétit" in which insects were served as food. Additionally, people who were low in sensitivity to animal reminder disgust were more willing to attend this program after having been primed to think about cooking. Cooking is a process by which raw ingredients are transformed into finished products, reducing the "animalness" of meat products that renders them disgusting. Sensitivity to core disgust did not interact with cooking to influence willingness to attend the program. While prior research has emphasized that direct education campaigns about the benefits of entomophagy (the consumption of insects) can increase willingness to attend events at which insect-based food is served, this is the first demonstration that indirect priming can have a similar effect among a subset of the population.

  12. Cooking as Inquiry: A Method to Stir Up Prevailing Ways of Knowing Food, Body, and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brady

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a method of research called ‘ cooking as inquiry. ‘ This method seeks to add layers to the typically disembodied practices of social research that have long overlooked the body and the mundane rituals of foodmaking as sites of knowledge. Informed by autoethnography and collective biography, cooking as inquiry recognizes bodies and food as sites of knowledge and engages researchers as researcher-participants in reflexive, collaborative study that explores the ways in which the embodied self is performed relationally through foodmaking. In addition to a discussion of the epistemological and methodological frames of this method, this paper offers a case study that describes a project conducted by a colleague and the author.

  13. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouzia Sultana; Kamrunnahar; Hafsa Afroz; Afroz Jahan; Md Fakruddin; Suvamoy Datta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.

  14. Development of a new simple estimating method for protein, fat, and carbohydrate in cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumae, T

    2000-01-01

    Evaluations of daily nutrient intakes with practical accuracy contribute not only to public but also to personal health. To obtain accurate estimations of nutrient intake, chemical analyses of a duplicate sample of all foods consumed are recommended. But these analytical methods are expensive, time consuming, and not practically applicable for field surveys dealing with numerous food samples. To solve this problem, a new rapid and simple method of estimating nutrients is developed here. Elemental compositions of cooked foods were examined using a high speed and high performance carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen autoanalyzer, and the results showed good reproducibility. A significant correlation between Kjeldahl's and the autoanalyzer methods was observed in the nitrogen measurement (n=20; r =0.999; p< 0.001), and very good agreement was observed between the methods. Therefore, the nitrogen amount obtained by the autoanalyzer was used for the estimation of the protein proportion in the cooked foods. The fat and carbohydrate proportions estimated by the new method correlated with the values obtained by the chemical method (p< 0.001 each). There were also good agreements of fat and carbohydrate proportions between the chemical and the new estimation methods. According to these results, the new, rapid and simple estimation method established in this study should be applicable to nutritional research.

  15. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  16. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  17. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may be a holistic approach to solving these issues. We study four approaches to providing food and fuel for cooking in a small-scale farming community. Present practice (PP of synthetic fertilizer based food production and provision of wood fuel from outside the farming area is compared to three modeled, integrated technology options: integrated food and household-scale biogas production (HH Biogas, integrated food and village-scale biogas production (Village Biogas, and integrated food and wood fuel production (Agroforestry. Integrated approaches are able to eliminate the import of wood fuel, reduce synthetic fertilizer use by 24%, 35% and 44% and soil loss by 15%, 20% and 87%, respectively, compared to present practice. An Emergy Assessment (EmA shows that integrated approaches are relevant substitutes to present practice considering biophysical efficiency indicated by Unit Emergy Value (in solar emjoules (sej per J of output and dependence on renewable inputs indicated by the Global Renewability Fraction (in %: 2.6–3.0 × 105 sej/J and 38%–48% (PP, 2.5–2.8 × 105 sej/J and 41%–46% (HH Biogas, 2.4–2.6 × 105 sej/J and 45%–47% (Village Biogas, 1.7–2.4 × 105 sej/J and 49%–66% (Agroforestry. Systematic recycling and use of local resources may play a pivotal role in reducing the dependence on non-renewable resources in Ghanaian farming, ensuring long-term soil fertility and stemming the current deforestation of wood reserves.

  18. Genetically modified CHO cells for studying the genotoxicity of heterocyclic amines from cooked foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.H.; Wu, R.W.; Felton, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed metabolically competent CHO cells to evaluate the genotoxicity associated with heterocyclic amines, such as those that are present in cooked foods. Into repair-deficient UV5 cells we introduced cDNAs for expressing cytochrome P450IA2 and acetyltransferases. We then genetically reverted these transformed lines to obtain matched metabolically competent repair-deficient/proficient lines. For a high mutagenic response, we find a requirement for acetyltransferase with IQ but not with PhIP. This system allows for both quantifying mutagenesis and analyzing the mutational spectra produced by heterocyclic amines.

  19. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Bolwig, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may be a ......). Systematic recycling and use of local resources may play a pivotal role in reducing the dependence on non-renewable resources in Ghanaian farming,ensuring long-term soil fertility and stemming the current deforestation of wood reserves....

  20. Modelling extrudate expansion in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extruder operation parameters in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process. Buckingham's pi dimensional analysis method is applied to establish the model. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. pump efficiency, water content...... and temperature, are formed to model the extrusion process from dimensional analysis. The model is evaluated with experimental data for extrusion of whole wheat flour and fish feed. The average deviations of the model correlations are 5.9% and 9% based on experimental data for the whole wheat flour and fish feed...

  1. Evaluation of the LiveWell@School Food Initiative Shows Increases in Scratch Cooking and Improvement in Nutritional Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Carpenter, Leah; Currie, Venita; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the effects of the LiveWell@School Food Initiative (LW@SFI), a Colorado-based childhood obesity prevention program that partners with school districts to enable them to serve more scratch cooked foods through culinary training, action planning, and equipment grants. Methods: This evaluation…

  2. Soft matter approaches to structured foods: from "cook-and-look" to rational food design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbink, Job

    2012-01-01

    Developments in soft matter physics are discussed within the context of food structuring. An overview is given of soft matter-based approaches used in food, and a relation is established between soft matter approaches and food technology, food creation, product development and nutrition. Advances in food complexity and food sustainability are discussed from a physical perspective, and the potential for future developments is highlighted.

  3. Temporality in British young women's magazines: food, cooking and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rosemary J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-10-01

    The present study examines seasonal and temporal patterns in food-related content of two UK magazines for young women focusing on food types, cooking and weight loss. Content analysis of magazines from three time blocks between 1999 and 2011. Desk-based study. Ninety-seven magazines yielding 590 advertisements and 148 articles. Cluster analysis of type of food advertising produced three clusters of magazines, which reflected recognised food behaviours of young women: vegetarianism, convenience eating and weight control. The first cluster of magazines was associated with Christmas and Millennium time periods, with advertising of alcohol, coffee, cheese, vegetarian meat substitutes and weight-loss pills. Recipes were prominent in article content and tended to be for cakes/desserts, luxury meals and party food. The second cluster was associated with summer months and 2010 issues. There was little advertising for conventional foods in cluster 2, but strong representation of diet plans and foods for weight loss. Weight-loss messages in articles focused on short-term aesthetic goals, emphasising speedy weight loss without giving up nice foods or exercising. Cluster 3 magazines were associated with post-New Year and 2005 periods. Food advertising was for everyday foods and convenience products, with fewer weight-loss products than other clusters; conversely, article content had a greater prevalence of weight-loss messages. The cyclical nature of magazine content - indulgence and excess encouraged at Christmas, restraint recommended post-New Year and severe dieting advocated in the summer months - endorses yo-yo dieting behaviour and may not be conducive to public health.

  4. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1 to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion, meat inclusion (0 or 20%, and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2 to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15, and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15, whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  5. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home.

  6. Soft matter food physics--the physics of food and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from 'hard matter systems', such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to 'soft matter' in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.

  7. Soft matter food physics—the physics of food and cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from ‘hard matter systems’, such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to ‘soft matter’ in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.

  8. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products. 70.13 Section 70.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading...

  9. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; van Asselt, Esther D; Zwietering, Marcel H;

    2012-01-01

    cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function...

  10. Detection of lead (pb and aluminum (Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala in Kosti City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala.The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 19-26

  11. Effect of consumption of food cooked in iron pots on iron status and growth of young children: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adish, A A; Esrey, S A; Gyorkos, T W; Jean-Baptiste, J; Rojhani, A

    1999-02-27

    In less-developed countries, novel strategies are needed to control iron-deficiency anaemia, the most common form of malnutrition. We undertook a community-based randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of iron or aluminium cooking pots in young Ethiopian children. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. The primary outcomes were change in children's haemoglobin concentration, weight, or length over the study period. We also did a laboratory study of total and available iron in traditional Ethiopian foods cooked in iron, aluminium, and clay pots. 407 children, one per household, entered the study. The change in haemoglobin concentration was greater in the iron-pot group than in the aluminium-pot group (mean change to 12 months 1.7 [SD 1.5] vs 0.4 [1.0] g/dL; mean difference between groups 1.3 g/dL [95% Cl 1.1-1.6]). The mean differences between the groups in weight and length gain to 12 months (adjusted for baseline weight or length) were 0.6 cm (95% CI 0.1-1.0) and 0.1 kg (-0.1 to 0.3). The laboratory study showed that total and available iron was greatest in foods cooked in iron pots, except for available iron in legumes for which there was no difference between types of pot. Ethiopian children fed food from iron pots had lower rates of anaemia and better growth than children whose food was cooked in aluminium pots. Provision of iron cooking pots for households in less-developed countries may be a useful method to prevent iron-deficiency anaemia.

  12. Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Buckley, Stephen; Collins, Matthew J.; Estalrrich, Almudena; Brothwell, Don; Copeland, Les; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Huguet, Rosa; Bastir, Markus; Santamaría, David; Madella, Marco; Wilson, Julie; Cortés, Ángel Fernández; Rosas, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Neanderthals disappeared sometime between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago. Until recently, Neanderthals were understood to have been predominantly meat-eaters; however, a growing body of evidence suggests their diet also included plants. We present the results of a study, in which sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were combined with morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify material entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for inhalation of wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale and ingestion of a range of cooked plant foods. We also offer the first evidence for the use of medicinal plants by a Neanderthal individual. The varied use of plants that we have identified suggests that the Neanderthal occupants of El Sidrón had a sophisticated knowledge of their natural surroundings which included the ability to select and use certain plants.

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption and food values: National patterns in the United States by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility and cooking frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-07-01

    More frequent cooking at home may help improve diet quality and be associated with food values, particularly for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). To examine patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption and food values among adults (aged 20 and older) in the United States, by SNAP participation and household cooking frequency. Analysis of cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9560). A lower percentage of SNAP participants consumed fruit (total: 35% vs. 46%, p=0.001; fresh: 30% vs. 41%, p6times/week was associated with greater vegetable consumption compared to cooking food keeps (medium cookers: 57% vs. 45%, pconsumption in the United States is low regardless of cooking frequency. Efforts to improve diet quality should consider values on which food purchases are based. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibility to Exposure to Heterocyclic Amines from Cooked Food: Role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2005-08-22

    A number of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx) are produced from the condensation of creatinine, hexoses and amino acids during the cooking of meat (1). There are many variables that impact the production and subsequent ingestion of these compounds in our diet. Temperature, type of meat product, cooking method, doneness, and other factors affect the quantity of these carcinogens consumed by humans. Estimates of ingestion of these carcinogens are 1-20 ng/kg body weight per day (2). Human case control studies that correlate meat consumption from well-done cooking practices with cancer incidence indicate excess tumors for breast, colon, stomach, esophagus, and possibly prostate (3-5).

  15. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 1. Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate from PVC films during home-use and microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startin, J R; Sharman, M; Rose, M D; Parker, I; Mercer, A J; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1987-01-01

    Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) into a diverse range of foods arising from the domestic use of plasticized PVC films has been determined using a stable isotope dilution GC/MS procedure. Aspects of home use reported in this study include the wrapping and covering of foods such as cheese, cooked meats, sandwiches, cakes, fresh fruit and vegetables; the use of films during food preparation such as marinading; covering during microwave reheating of previously prepared foods, and covering during microwave cooking. Contact between film and foods was for differing temperatures and times, representative of the range of conditions likely to be experienced in practice in the home. Migration increased with both the length of contact time and temperature of exposure, with the highest levels observed where there was a direct contact between the film and food, and where the latter had a high fat content on the contact surface. Highest levels of migration were observed for cheese, cooked meats, cakes and for microwave-cooked foods, whilst lower levels were observed for wrapping of unfilled sandwiches, fruit and vegetables (except avocado), and for food preparation including microwave reheating where there was covering of the food in a container but little or no direct contact.

  16. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.; Knol, D.; Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Blom, W.A.M.; Matthee, J.; Janssen, H.G.; Trautwein, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  17. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  18. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.; Knol, D.; Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Blom, W.A.M.; Matthee, J.; Janssen, H.G.; Trautwein, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  19. Diabetes Cooking Schools Improve Knowledge and Skills in Making Healthful Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Wells, Linda; Bock, Margaret Ann

    2012-01-01

    Rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing nationally and in New Mexico, particularly in ethnic minorities. A key self-care area with challenging barriers is healthy eating. The New Mexico Cooperative Extension Service conducts diabetes cooking schools statewide together with community health providers. The study reported here determined if this…

  20. Diabetes Cooking Schools Improve Knowledge and Skills in Making Healthful Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Wells, Linda; Bock, Margaret Ann

    2012-01-01

    Rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing nationally and in New Mexico, particularly in ethnic minorities. A key self-care area with challenging barriers is healthy eating. The New Mexico Cooperative Extension Service conducts diabetes cooking schools statewide together with community health providers. The study reported here determined if this…

  1. Molecular Gastronomy: A Food Fad or an Interface for Science-based Cooking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.; McClements, D.J.; Ubbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    A review is given over the field of molecular gastronomy and its relation to science and cooking. We begin with a brief history of the field of molecular gastronomy, the definition of the term itself, and the current controversy surrounding this term. We then highlight the distinction between molecu

  2. "Watching a person who knows how to cook, you'll learn a lot". Linked lives, cultural transmission, and the food choices of Puerto Rican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Ronni Lee; Devine, Carol M

    2011-04-01

    In-depth individual interviews were conducted with mainland- and island-dwelling Puerto Rican girls (n=23) to determine how migration, acculturation, and family contexts influenced food choices. Interview data from girls with diverse migration experiences (U.S. mainland raised, recent migrants to U.S. mainland, and Puerto Rico raised) were triangulated with extensive participant observation conducted in New York State and Puerto Rico. Data analysis using a ground theory approach revealed that participants' access to traditional foods varied in three domains: mothers' (cultural orientation, health, work, and cooking skills); household (composition, presence of Puerto Rican grandmother, and cooking skills); and girls' (migration experience, food preferences and values, and cooking skills) characteristics. Four food choice types emerged from participant narratives that differed in these domains: everybody cooks, tradition keeper, seeker, and on my own. Varied language orientations and migration experiences were represented among girls across all four food choice types, ranging from consistent to limited access to traditional food, demonstrating the limitations of one-dimensional models for understanding dietary acculturation. Findings demonstrate how a multidimensional, culture-specific model, including both cultural and structural characteristics, can influence dietary acculturation at the family and household level and food choices among immigrant adolescent girls, and guide future research and interventions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, A; Mohd Shahrul, S; Chan, S X; Noorhazliza, A P; Khairunnisak, M; Nur Azlina, M F; Qodriyah, H M S; Kamisah, Y; Jaarin, K

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of repeatedly heated oil can be detrimental to health. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil. The quality of cooking oil was also investigated. A cross-sectional study involving pretested questionnaire was undertaken in April 2009. The questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect data from the respondents (n=100) by face-to-face interview. The results showed that majority of respondents had only moderate (53.0%) or low (18.0%) level of knowledge regarding this issue. Most respondents (67.0%) agreed that it is not a good practice. The majority (69.0%) agreed that the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil is detrimental to health. Despite that, most respondents (63.0%) admitted that they had used cooking oil repeatedly. Most (62.0%) of the cooking oil samples taken from the night market food outlets were considered fit for human consumption. In conclusion, the level of knowledge of night market food outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding this issue needs to be improved in order to ensure the safety of fried food purchased from such establishments.

  4. Food-Bridging: A New Network Construction to Unveil the Principles of Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Simas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we propose, analyze, and discuss a possible new principle behind traditional cuisine: the Food-bridging hypothesis and its comparison with the food-pairing hypothesis using the same dataset and graphical models employed in the food-pairing study by Ahn et al. (2011. The Food-bridging hypothesis assumes that if two ingredients do not share a strong molecular or empirical affinity, they may become affine through a chain of pairwise affinities. That is, in a graphical model as employed by Ahn et al., a chain represents a path that joints the two ingredients, the shortest path represents the strongest pairwise chain of affinities between the two ingredients. Food-pairing and Food-bridging are different hypotheses that may describe possible mechanisms behind the recipes of traditional cuisines. Food-pairing intensifies flavor by mixing ingredients in a recipe with similar chemical compounds, and food-bridging smoothes contrast between ingredients. Both food-pairing and food-bridging are observed in traditional cuisines, as shown in this work. We observed four classes of cuisines according to food-pairing and food-bridging: (1 East Asian cuisines, at one extreme, tend to avoid food-pairing as well as food-bridging; and (4 Latin American cuisines, at the other extreme, follow both principles. For the two middle classes: (2 Southeastern Asian cuisines, avoid food-pairing and follow food-bridging; and (3 Western cuisines, follow food-pairing and avoid food-bridging.

  5. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  6. Tianjin Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Acoastal city 75 kilometers from Beijing? Tianjin harbors several rivers joining in the city before they flow out to sea. Typical family meals in Tianjin feature fresh and saltwater seafood. For Tianjiners, the city,s name alone connotes the smell of stewed fish and baked corn bread. In the past, many Tianjiners worked as boatmen on ferries transporting goods along the Haihe River. Others lived on fishing in the sea. Tianjin’s fishermen nonetheless settled on land and cooked from brick stoves with dried reeds as firewood. To prepare the food, place vegetables on

  7. Estimated dietary exposure to mycotoxins after taking into account the cooking of staple foods in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakuma, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Akashi, Hajime; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    .... When mycotoxins contaminate staple foods, the risk for exposure becomes serious. In East Asia, including Japan, rice is consumed as a staple food, and with the increasingly Westernized lifestyle, the consumption of wheat has increased...

  8. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  9. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, María; Knol, Diny; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodologies for the analysis of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extraction were evaluated to allow the GC-MS analysis of large numbers of prepared vegetable, fish and meat products, egg and bakery items in a practically feasible manner. The optimized methods resulted in a good sensitivity and allowed the analysis of both PS and POPs in the broad selection of foods at a wide range of concentrations. Calibration curves for both PS and POPs showed correlation coefficients (R(2)) better than 0.99. Detection limits were below 0.24mgkg(-1) for PS and 0.02mgkg(-1) for POPs, respectively. Average recovery data were between 81% and 105.1% for PS and between 65.5 and 121.8% for POPs. Good results were obtained for within- and between-day repeatability, with most values being below 10%. Entire sample servings were analyzed, avoiding problems with inhomogeneity and making the method an exact representation of the typical use of the food by the consumer.

  10. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Gong, Zaiwu; Huang, Minji; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and II-consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the II-consistency results. PMID:28216589

  11. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route, inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and I I -consistency are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results.

  12. New Vacuum Cooling Device for Cooked Food%新型熟食品真空冷却装置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 刘宝林; 宋晓燕

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the characteristics of vacuum cooling of cooked food, and propose a power configuration pattern for the vacuum cooling of cooked food. [Method] The requirements of vegetables, fruits and cooked food for the power configuration of vacuum cooling device were analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of the existing vacuum cooling device were analyzed, and the performance of each vacuum pump was studied. [Result] The pump with mechanical scal and catcher were applicable to the processing of fruits, vegetables and few cooked food; the water ring-air jet device was applicable to cooked food, but it could only reduce the temperature to loom temperature and its working conditions changed greatly; the working conditions of water ring-Roots pump were much stable, but it can also only reduce the temperature to room temperature. [Conclusion] The power configuration pattern consisting of water ring, Roots pump and refrigerator is applicable to the vacuum cooling of cooked food.%[目的]综合分析熟食品真空冷却的特点,提出一种适用于熟食品真空冷却的动力配置方案.[方法]分析了果蔬和熟食品对真空冷却设备的不同配置要求.结合目前应用现状,着重分析已有真空冷却装置的优缺点以及各真空泵的工作特性.[结果]机械油封泵与捕水器的组合形式适用于处理果蔬和小批量的熟食品;水环-大气喷射装置适用于熟食品,但只能将其降到常温,且机组的工况变动大;水环-罗茨泵装置工况稳定,但只能将其降到常温.[结论]采用水环泵、罗茨泵和制冷机组组成动力配置方案适用于热食品的真空冷却.

  13. Jet Cooked Starch and Essential Oil Composites as Antimicrobial Coating on Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 76 million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States. Foodborne illness result from consumption of food contaminated with pathogens and its toxins. Essential oils such as cinnamon, garlic, oregano are known to possess antimicrobial properties. Stable aqueous star...

  14. The kitchen as laboratory : reflections on the science of food and cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, C.; Ubbink, J.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    In this global collaboration of essays, chefs and scientists advance culinary knowledge by testing hypotheses rooted in the physical and chemical properties of food. Using traditional and cutting-edge tools, ingredients, and techniques, these pioneers create, and sometimes revamp, dishes that respon

  15. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products.

  16. Cooking Bolshevik: Anastas Mikoian and the making of the "Book about Delicious and Healthy Food".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Both one of the most iconic cookbooks of all time and one of the strangest, the "Kniga o vkusnoi i zdorovoi pishche" became the culinary bible of the Soviet household during the mid-twentieth century. The logical culmination of a decade of Soviet culinary evolution under the leadership of Anastas Mikoian, the original "Book about Delicious and Healthy Food" is a microcosm of Stalinist civilization that exemplifies the contradictory trends making up Soviet politics and culture in the late 1930s. Drawing on previously unexamined documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation, Anastas Mikoian's personal papers retained in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as published primary sources, this article seeks to contextualize the complex tale of the cookbook's origins in a broader narrative of the construction of the Soviet Union's official food culture under Mikoian's leadership during the 1930s.

  17. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K. Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected ...

  18. The associations among family meal frequency, food preparation frequency, self-efficacy for cooking, and food preparation techniques in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Kirby, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiological quality of cooked foods and drinks sold in higher educational institutions around Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat Provinces, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Abdullah D.; Sali, Khosiya; Hayeeyusoh, Nurainee; Hayeewangoh, Zubaidah; Thadah, Amporn

    2017-08-01

    Quality of cooked foods and drinks water sold within the vicinity of higher institutions located in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces were randomly sampled and microbiologically evaluated. As to Thai National Food Safety Standard, various food menu and drinks were subjected to conventionally determining the bacterial index; Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform and fecal coliform as well as the detection of indicator organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. As for bacterial index, results showed that curry-type likes PSU-stir-fried liver (7.5x106 CFU/g), and and the lowest was PSU-Koleh chicken Roast (1.72x103 CFU/g). The highest and lowest counts of soup-type items were observed in YPH-KaengSom soup (1.9x107 CFU/g), and PSU-Palo soup (0.4x103 CFU/g), respectively. Higher bacterial counts were also found in YPH-spicy stir-fried chicken (7.5 x 106 CFU/g), and YPH-squid salad (2.2x107 CFU/g). For drinks, bacterial count ranged 2.0 x 103 to 8.3 x 103 CFU/g, and NRU-iced grape juice having the highest bacterial count (2.0x106 CFU/g). Overall, foods not complying to the Thai National Food Safety Standard of 1 x 103 CFU/g from higher to lower were those of soup, stir-fried, salad, fried, and curry categories with as much as 4:17 (23.53%), 4:21 (19.05%), 2:11 (18.18%), 2:16 (12.5%) and 1:12 (8.33%), respectively. As for Coliform and fecal coliform, the highest (>1100 MPN/g) and the lowest (0.34 MPN/g),were not much found in all food categories with percentages of 23.53, 24.00, 13.79, 9.10, and 47.37 for curry (4:17), soup (6:15), stir-fried (4:29), fried (2:22), and salad (9:19), respectively. However, indicator organisms were not detected in almost all food samples except PSU-chicken yellowish curry, NRU-chicken TongYam soup, NRU-Long-tail tuna soup, NRU-KaengSom soup, YPE-watery soup, NRU-stir-fried liver, NRU-omelets, NRU-fried chicken, YPE-crispy fish salad, and NRU-salted eggs salad, which showed the presence of E. coli, but not

  20. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pablo Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  1. Estimation of arsenic intake from drinking water and food (raw and cooked) in a rural village of northern Chile. Urine as a biomarker of recent exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-05-22

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8-92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day⁻¹) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL⁻¹. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  2. Analysis of acrylamide in cooked foods by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Johan; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

    2002-07-01

    A method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with electrospray for the analysis of acrylamide in foods is reported. The method comprises the addition of deuterium-labelled acrylamide-d3, extraction with water, mixed mode solid phase extraction, ultrafiltration and a graphitised carbon column for chromatography. The transitions m/z 72 > 55, 72 > 54, 72 > 44, 72 > 27, 72 > 72 and 75 > 58 were recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode for identification and quantification. In-house validation data for products from potatoes and cereals (30 to 10,000 microg kg(-1)) are presented (accuracy 91 to 102%, relative standard deviation 3 to 21%). Interlaboratory validation data (comparison with gas chromatography mass spectrometry, 25 to 2000 microg kg(-1)) showed excellent results (r2 = 0.998).

  3. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2......-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were used, To simulate the human exposure further, we chose a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ- and PhIP-doses, Throughout the study female mice were given diets with or without 0.03% IQ or 0.03% PhIP, Two additional groups were given...... azoxymethane (AOM) (5 mg/kg body weight) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCI) (20 mg/kg body weight), respectively, one dose a week for two weeks, Animals were killed after four and 10 weeks, After four weeks only the mice dosed with IQ and PhIP had aberrant crypt foci, A much higher number...

  4. Does differential particulate food supply explain the presence of mussels in Wellington Harbour (New Zealand) and their absence on neighbouring Cook Strait shores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Jeremy G.; Pledger, Shirley; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2007-03-01

    Rocky intertidal reef communities in Wellington Harbour, New Zealand, are dominated by mussels (the ribbed mussel Aulacomya maoriana, the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus). Only a few kilometres away, outside the Harbour on exposed Cook Strait shores, these mussels are absent. We tested the hypothesis of bottom-up food limitation as the explanation for this distributional difference. The water column at three Harbour sites and five Cook Strait coastal sites was sampled over an 18-month period for temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total particulate matter (TPM), particulate organic matter (POM), percent organic matter (PCOM), chlorophyll a (Chl a), particle counts (number of particles mL -1 in the range 2.5-63 μm), percent carbon, percent nitrogen, and C:N ratio. Mean values of PCOM and Chl a were significantly higher ( p M. galloprovincialis > A. maoriana). We interpret these field-based and laboratory-based findings as providing support for the hypothesis that multi-species mussel distributions and hence intertidal community structure at Cook Strait sites are regulated at least in part by particulate food supply.

  5. Microbial Evaluation of Cooked Foods Served in the Central Restaurant of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Winter and Summer 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are the most important thing cause of illness and death in developing countries. Food safety is essential for central university kitchens because of the high number of meals served every day. These central university kitchen systems are of special interest as students are at relatively high-risk of developing serious complications from exposure to food bacterial contamination hazards. A total of 144 samples of cooked foods, collected in winter and summer 2015 from the restaurants of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were studied to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Results were analyzed through SPSS 22.0 and t-test. According to coliform count, the highest rate of contamination was in Kebab (1.17×102 CFU/g and lowest was in fish (0.8×102 CFU/g and also the highest rate of contamination of Escherichia coli (E.coli was in Kebab (6 samples, and the lowest contamination level was in fish and in this regard no sample was reported to be positive. According to staphylococcus aureus, the highest contamination rate was in rice (0.97×102 CFU/g and lowest was in fish (0.63×102 CFU/g. Kebab had the highest contamination of ‎coliforms and staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus in summer. None of the tested samples was confirmed with respect to salmonella, clostridium perfringens and staphylococcus aureus. Among the foods served in the university restaurants, Kebab had the highest bacterial contamination and fishes the lowest. Improved methods of cooking and food processing, prevention of secondary bacterial contamination, continuous monitoring and surveillance of food processing are the most important measures to prevent food contamination.

  6. Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R

    2011-01-11

    The nature and causes of the disappearance of Neanderthals and their apparent replacement by modern humans are subjects of considerable debate. Many researchers have proposed biologically or technologically mediated dietary differences between the two groups as one of the fundamental causes of Neanderthal disappearance. Some scenarios have focused on the apparent lack of plant foods in Neanderthal diets. Here we report direct evidence for Neanderthal consumption of a variety of plant foods, in the form of phytoliths and starch grains recovered from dental calculus of Neanderthal skeletons from Shanidar Cave, Iraq, and Spy Cave, Belgium. Some of the plants are typical of recent modern human diets, including date palms (Phoenix spp.), legumes, and grass seeds (Triticeae), whereas others are known to be edible but are not heavily used today. Many of the grass seed starches showed damage that is a distinctive marker of cooking. Our results indicate that in both warm eastern Mediterranean and cold northwestern European climates, and across their latitudinal range, Neanderthals made use of the diverse plant foods available in their local environment and transformed them into more easily digestible foodstuffs in part through cooking them, suggesting an overall sophistication in Neanderthal dietary regimes.

  7. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p < 0.05) from 56% at baseline to 25% at post-treatment. Dyad cholesterol intake at dinner also significantly decreased over time; however, changes in energy intake, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at dinner were not significant. A large effect size was found for changes in parent ratings of enjoyment of cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention.

  8. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J. (Richland, WA); Diaz, Aaron A. (W. Richland, WA); Judd, Kayte M. (Richland, WA); Pappas, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Cliff, William C. (Richland, WA); Pfund, David M. (Richland, WA); Morgen, Gerald P. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  9. Effects on nutrient intake of a family-based intervention to promote increased consumption of low-fat starchy foods through education, cooking skills and personalised goal setting: the Family Food and Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Peter J; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2012-06-01

    Reducing the prevalence of fat-rich, energy-dense diets is a public health priority. The present parallel-designed randomised study compared three interventions aimed to increase intakes of low-fat starchy foods and to reduce fat intakes among 589 individuals from 169 families in the Family Food and Health Project (FFHP). Intervention A was education only, intervention B provided 'cook and eat' sessions only, whereas intervention C included personalised goal setting, 'cook and eat' and education. Diet was assessed at baseline (T0) and at 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2) and 18 months (T3) post-intervention. Retention rates were 75 % at T1, 63 % at T2 and 40 % at T3. ANCOVA (baseline intake as covariate) was assessed between intervention differences at T1, T2 and T3. At T1, individuals in intervention C consumed less fat (P = 0·02) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·001), starch (P = 0·04) vitamin C (P = 0·002) and NSP (P = 0·01) than those in intervention A. Whereas similar dietary intakes were reported across interventions at T2, participants in intervention C had less energy-dense diets that contained more NSP and vitamin C at T3 than intervention A (P fat (P = 0·01) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·02) at T2 than the least socially deprived (n 240). These data demonstrate the importance of personalised goal setting to translate knowledge and practical cooking skills into healthier food choices, suggesting that low-fat starchy food-focused interventions may be effective in reducing fat intake.

  10. Final cook temperature monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of stainless steel cooking pots in reducing iron-deficiency anaemia in food aid-dependent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Leisel; Woodruff, Bradley A; Seal, Andrew; Tripp, Kathryn; Mselle, Laurent Sadikiel; Abdalla, Fathia; Bhatia, Rita; Mirghani, Zhara

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of stainless steel (Fe alloy) cooking pots in reducing Fe-deficiency anaemia in food aid-dependent populations. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Between December 2001 and January 2003, three surveys among children aged 6-59 months and their mothers were conducted in 110 households randomly selected from each camp. The primary outcomes were changes in Hb concentration and Fe status. Two long-term refugee camps in western Tanzania. Children (6-59 months) and their mothers were surveyed at 0, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Stainless steel pots were distributed to all households in Nduta camp (intervention); households in Mtendeli camp (control) continued to cook with aluminium or clay pots. Among children, there was no change in Hb concentration at 1 year; however, Fe status was lower in the intervention camp than the control camp (serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration: 6.8 v. 5.9 microg/ml; P pots did not increase Hb concentration or improve Fe status in children or their mothers. The use of stainless steel prevents rusting but may not provide sufficient amounts of Fe and strong educational campaigns may be required to maximize use. The distribution of stainless steel pots in refugee contexts is not recommended as a strategy to control Fe deficiency.

  12. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes.

  14. An assessment of the microbiological quality of lightly cooked food (including sous-vide) at the point of consumption in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, F; Sadler-Reeves, L; Shore, J; Aird, H; Elviss, N; Fox, A; Kaye, M; Willis, C; Amar, C; DE Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

    2017-05-01

    This observational study aims to investigate the microbiological quality of commercially prepared lightly cooked foods with a major component of food of animal origin and collected as would be served to a consumer. A total of 356 samples were collected from catering (92%), retail (7%) or producers (1%) and all were independent of known incidents of foodborne illness. Using standard methods, all samples were tested for: the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. and enumerated for levels of, Bacillus spp. including B. cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriacea and aerobic colony count (ACC). Results were interpreted as unsatisfactory, borderline or satisfactory according to the Health Protection Agency guidelines for assessing the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat foods placed on the market. Amongst all samples, 70% were classified as satisfactory, 18% were borderline and 12% were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality. Amongst the unsatisfactory samples, six (2%) were potentially injurious to health due to the presence of: Salmonella spp. (one duck breast); Campylobacter spp. (two duck breast and one chicken liver pâté); L. monocytogenes at 4·3 × 103 cfu (colony-forming units)/g (one duck confit with foie gras ballotin) and C. perfringens at 2·5 × 105 cfu/g (one chicken liver pâté). The remaining unsatisfactory samples were due to high levels of indicator E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae or ACC.

  15. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  16. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  17. Discussion of the question on the cooked food of vacuum PRE-cooling machine%熟食品真空预冷机标准问题的论述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范磊; 李保国; 苏树强; 雷海斌

    2012-01-01

    首先对熟食品真空预冷的理论意义、实践意义以及国内外的研究现状进行论述;其次对开发熟食品真空预冷机过程中需要解决的难题、主要技术指标进行说明;再次通过对国内的食品标准发展环境的阐述解释了制定熟食品真空预冷机标准的必要性;第四是对拟定的熟食品真空预冷机标准所包括主要内容的描述;最后对熟食品真空预冷机标准的发展前景进行展望。%This article first discussed the cooked food's vacuum rapid cooling of the theoretical and practical significance and research status at home and abroad.Second,the problems of the development process of the cooked food rapid cooling machines,the major technical indicators were explained.Once again on talking domestic food standards development environment to explain developping cold cooked food vacuum machine standards was necessary.Fourth was the pre-cooling of cooked food vacuum machine standards' main content's description.Finally,the vacuum pre-cooling machine cooked food standards and future development.

  18. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  19. My dad's a 'barbie' man and my mum's the cooking girl: Boys and the social construction of food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Academics from a variety of disciplines claim that gender has an influence on men's and women's food choices and portion sizes at mealtime and snack time. While these socially constructed norms present health-related implications for both men and women, it is arguable that men have a greater risk of problems associated with overweight as a consequence of gendered food choices and dietary practices. This article reports on qualitative research data attained from Australian boys in early childhood and middle primary school years. The data were thematically analysed using inductive analysis. The voices of boys provide the opportunity to understand how gendered food choices, among males, emerge in contemporary Western culture. Such research can also potentially play a role in developing strategies to assist boys in making healthy food selection, which will ultimately assist their food-related health literacy as they move towards adolescence and adulthood.

  20. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  1. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  2. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  3. Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

    1991-06-01

    Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context.

  4. 淋水式杀菌技术在潮式卤水熟肉食品的应用%Application of Water Spray Sterilization Technology in Chaozhou Brine Cooked Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 郭卓钊; 郭美媛; 郭奕纯; 黄妙云; 杨曼

    2012-01-01

    本文叙述淋水式杀菌技术在潮式卤水传统食品生产中的应用,介绍了淋水式杀菌处理的优点.通过分析不同的处理温度和处理时间对潮式卤水的影响来确定最佳的杀菌方式,淋水式杀菌不仅能实现潮式卤水工业化生产杀菌,还能有效保留潮式卤水食品的风味和色泽.%This paper described the application of water spray sterilization technology in Chouzhou brine cooked food. The optima) sterilization conditions were determined by analyzing the effect for Chouzhou brine cooked food at different temperature and time. Water spray sterilization technology could be used for the production sterilization of Chouzhou brine cooked food, as well as keeping food flavor and color.

  5. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-temperature long-time heat treatment of meat from a gastronomic viewpoint. The effect of cooking time and cooking temperature on the sensory properties of beef eye of round (semitendinosus) was investigated by a sensory descriptive study. The results showed that both cooking time (3, 6, 9, and 12 hours....... The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs...

  6. Clyde Cook

    OpenAIRE

    Couderc, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Né le 16 décembre 1891 à Port McQuarrie (Australie), Clyde Cook émigre avec sa famille aux Etats-Unis dès son plus jeune âge. À 12 ans il travaille déjà dans un cirque comme clown et danseur acrobatique, puis fait le tour du monde en présentant un numéro de danse excentrique. On le verra ainsi en 1913 à Paris aux Folies-Bergère dans la revue « Valse éternelle ». Il semble qu’il débute comme clown vedette aux États-Unis avec la troupe des Ziegfeld Follies au New York Hippodrome ; son show dure...

  7. Cooking with Gordon”: Food, Health, and the Elasticity of Evangelical Gender Roles (and Belt Sizes on The 700 Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Warren Cooper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines evangelical gender paradigms as expressed through a 700 Club cooking segment facilitated by Gordon Robertson, the son of Pat Robertson—founder of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN, The 700 Club, Christian Coalition, and one-time presidential candidate. Several themes converge within this cooking show, including health and nutrition, family ritual, and gender roles. Using the cooking segment as data, I draw on scholarship on body, gender, family and ritual to argue that evangelical discourses are labile in their responses to recent socio-cultural shifts and suggest that “Sunday Dinners: Cooking with Gordon” defies caricatures of evangelical gender formation and signals a possible shift to soft-patriarchy and quasi-egalitarianism, at least within public, visual discourse. “Sunday Dinners” underscores the centrality of the family in evangelical discourse—even as conceptions of gender are in flux—as it seeks to facilitate everyday rituals via cooking and eating together.

  8. Heat-induced formation of mepiquat by decarboxylation of pipecolic acid and its betaine derivative. Part 2: Natural formation in cooked vegetables and selected food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Stadler, Richard H; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    Mepiquat (N,N-dimethylpiperidinium) is a plant growth regulator registered for use as its chloride salt in many countries on cereals and other crops. Recent model system studies have shown that natural chemicals present in crop plants, such as pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine, may furnish mepiquat through different chemical pathways, when subjected to temperatures in the range of 200°C. In this study, we cooked raw vegetables that did not contain mepiquat to a palatable state using different traditional cooking methods, and detected mepiquat in 9 out of 11 oven-cooked vegetables, reaching up to 189μg/kg dry wt in oven-cooked broccoli. Commercial oven potato fries generated mepiquat during cooking, typically in the range of 20-60μg/kg. Only traces of mepiquat (vegetables, including potatoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way...... could be an attempt to predict sensory properties based on temperature profiles obtained during cooking. There are still very few scientific studies in the molecular gastronomy field, but hopefully the future brings more studies in this area leading to even more delicious foods in the future....

  10. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra-Bernad, C; García-Segovia, P; Martínez-Monzó, J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the application of the sous-vide (90 °C) required longer cooking times than cook-vide (90 °C) and traditional cooking (100 °C). Losses in anthocyanins (for purple-flesh potatoes) and ascorbic acid (for green beans) were higher applying traditional cooking. β-Carotene extraction increased in carrots with traditional cooking and cook-vide (P vide. Traditional cooking was the most aggressive treatment in green beans because the secondary walls were reduced compared with sous-vide and cook-vide. Sous-vide preserved organelles in the carrot cells, which could explain the lower extraction of β-carotene compared with cook-vide and traditional cooking. Sous-vide cooking of purple-flesh potato is recommended to maintain its high anthocyanin content. Traditional boiling could be recommended for carrots because increase β-carotenes availability. For green beans, cook-vide, and sous-vide provided products with higher ascorbic acid content. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it before eating. Limit processed meats such as sausage, bologna, salami and hot dogs. Many processed meats — ... a main ingredient. Cook fresh vegetables the heart-healthy way Try cooking vegetables in a tiny bit ...

  13. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. Function Pots, pans, and other tools used in ...

  14. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Damiano; Guerrini, Alessandra; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Maietti, Silvia; Poppi, Irene; Tacchini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2013-08-15

    The Amazonian Croton lechleri stem bark essential oil was tested for its anti-mutagenic potential by performing the Ames test against heterocyclic amines (HCAs), in continuing research on applicative functional profile of this phytocomplex as food ingredient (Rossi et al., 2011). Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was used with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The anti-mutagenic properties was assayed with the following HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), the imidazoles 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminodipirydo-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2). All HCAs with S9 induced mutagenicity at 10(-10) mol/plate. Without S9, IQ and MeIQ showed mutagenicity at 10(-8) mol/plate, MeIQx and Glu-P-1 at 10(-5) mol/plate, while Glu-P-2 was inactive. In presence of HACs (10(-9) mol/plate), C. lechleri essential oil was tested for mutagen-protective properties (concentration range: 0.01-0.10 mg/plate) taking the Highest Uneffective Dose (HUD) as threshold reference. With S9 mix, C. lechleri essential oil displayed a significant reduction of revertants at 0.05 mg/plate, from 21% to 34%. The essential oil showed mutagen-protective efficacy against IQ and MeIQ tested as direct mutagens (10(-7) mol/plate), with a revertants percentage reduction of 39% and 40%, respectively. No anti-mutagen capacity was noted for MeIQx and Glu-P-1 (10(-5) mol/plate). Since HACs are known as possible colon and liver cancer inducers, C. lechleri essential oil was tested for its cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative capacity against LoVo and HepG2 cancer cell lines showing IC50 of 74.95±0.05 μg/ml (LoVo) and 82.28±0.03 μg/ml (HepG2), displaying a promising role of this essential oil as a functional food ingredient with interesting mutagen preventing properties.

  15. Fall 2017 Announcements: Cooking & Food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    mark rotella

    2017-01-01

    .... 10 Journalist Eckhardt and her husband, photographer David Hagerman, have assembled a collection of recipes from Turkish provinces neighboring Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, learning...

  16. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pan. You need only a small amount of oil or cooking spray for this cooking method. Using herbs and ... sparingly, dried mustard adds a zesty flavor while cooking. Vinegar ... make your own marinade, use 1 part oil to 2 parts vinegar or citrus juice, and ...

  17. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unsafe food can also spread foodborne illnesses like salmonellosis and Campylobacter (pronounced: kam-pye-low-BAK-tur) ... Why Should I Care About Germs? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Cooking Tips and Resources Contact Us Print Resources ...

  18. Assessment of Enterotoxin Production and Cross-Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus between Food Processing Materials and Ready-To-Eat Cooked Fish Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Hong, Sung-Sam; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent staphylococcal enterotoxin A production in tryptone soy broth and on ready-to-eat cooked fish paste at 12 to 37 °C, as well as cross-contamination between stainless steel, polyethylene, and latex glove at room temperature. A model was developed using Barany and Roberts's growth model, which satisfactorily described the suitable growth of S. aureus with R(2)-adj from 0.94 to 0.99. Except at 12 °C, S. aureus cells in TSB presented a lag time lower (14.64 to 1.65 h), grew faster (0.08 to 0.31 log CFU/h) and produced SEA at lower cell density levels (5.65 to 6.44 log CFU/mL) compare to those inoculated on cooked fish paste with data of 16.920 to 1.985 h, 0.02 to 0.23 log CFU/h, and 6.19 to 7.11 log CFU/g, respectively. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) visual immunoassay test showed that primary SEA detection varied considerably among different storage temperature degrees and media. For example, it occurred only during exponential phase at 30 and 37 °C in TSB, but in cooked fish paste it took place at late exponential phase of S. aureus growth at 20 and 25 °C. The SEA detection test was negative on presence of S. aureus on cooked fish paste stored at 12 and 15 °C, although cell density reached level of 6.12 log CFU/g at 15 °C. Cross-contamination expressed as transfer rate of S. aureus from polyethylene surface to cooked fish paste surface was slower than that observed with steel surface to cooked fish paste under same conditions. These results provide helpful information for controlling S. aureus growth, SEA production and cross-contamination during processing of cooked fish paste.

  19. Effect of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) food, ugali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, K E; Munck, L; Eggum, B O

    1988-01-01

    1. The present work was undertaken to study the effects of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Three different sorghum varieties; Dabar, Feterita and Argentine containing zero, intermediate to low and high levels of polyphenols respectively were used in the study. From these varieties uncooked, uncooked acidified, cooked, and cooked acidified diets were prepared. Diets were characterized with regard to resistant starch (RS), dietary fibre (DF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and amino acid content. Raw materials were further analysed for content and composition of non-starch polysaccharides and Klason lignin. The nutritional properties were studied in balance trials with rats. True protein digestibility (TD), biological value (BV), net protein utilization, digestible amino acids, digestible energy (DE) and digestible DF were used as criteria in the nutritional study. 2. Cooking at neutral and acid pH resulted in significantly higher assayed values for DF. Increase in DF could be accounted for by formation of RS. Approximately 50% of RS was recovered in the faeces. 3. In vitro values for protein associated with ADF and in vivo balance values using rats suggest that an endosperm protein fraction, kafirins, was made unavailable during cooking. This resulted in reduced TD and increased BV. It is assumed that unavailable kafirins serve as a nitrogen source for microflora in the hind-gut. 4. Dietary polyphenols changed the excretory route for N from urine to faeces. This resulted in lower TD and higher BV in Argentine (high in polyphenols) than in Dabar and Feterita (low in polyphenols), although dietary lysine (first limiting amino acid) was the same in the three varieties. 5. Variation in DE of the diets was attributed to DF, RS and the amount of faecal protein, which in turn were influenced by undigested kafirins and polyphenols.

  20. 压力烹调对五种食材中淀粉消化性的影响%Effect of pressure cooking on in vitro carbohydrate digestion properties of five starchy food materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓丽; 范志红; 王淑颖; 吴伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of cooking methods on starchy materials including azuki bean,lotus seed,dried sliced Chinese yam,seeds of Euryale ferox Salisb,and seed of Semen Coicis with respect of carbohydrate digestion characteristics,in order to provide information need for scientific consumption of starchy traditional foodstuffs.Method:Starch hydrolysis time course,starch fractions including rapid digestion starch(RDS),slow digestion starch(SDS),resistant starch(RS) were measured by pancreatic digestion enzyme hydrolysis procedures in vitro.Result:Pressure-cooking significantly elevated the hydrolysis rate and modified the profile of starch fractions of the samples.Pressure-cooking samples had significantly higher hydrolysis index(HI) and RDS,and lower RS,comparing to that of the normal cooking treatments in all samples,while the expected glucose loads(EGLs) was still significantly lower than that of the cooked rice,the reference sample.The azuki bean and lotus seeds maintained low digestion rate and low EGL.Conclusion:The pressure cooking treatment can increase the in vitro digestibility of hard-to-cook starchy materials,which was beneficial to those who had compromised digestion ability.Control of starch fraction profile and EGL can be realized by choosing slow digestive food materials and modifying the pressure cooking parameters.%目的:探讨不同烹调方法对红小豆、莲子、山药片、芡实、薏米5种富含淀粉的保健食材的碳水化合物消化特性的影响,为科学食用传统食材提供依据。方法:体外模拟消化方法测定各时间点的水解率、快消化淀粉、慢消化淀粉和抗性淀粉等指标。结果:压力烹调显著影响样品的水解速率和淀粉类型,水解指数增大,快消化淀粉含量增加,抗性淀粉含量减少。但所有样品的预期血糖负荷均显著低于粳米样品。红小豆和莲子经过压力烹调仍保持低消化速度和低EGL特性

  1. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  2. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scie

  3. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed

  4. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  5. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    ... and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages...

  7. 9 CFR 318.22 - Determination of added water in cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sausages. 318.22 Section 318.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.22 Determination of added water in cooked sausages. (a) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply. (1) Cooked sausage. Cooked sausage is any...

  8. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gastrointestinal system handle the increase in dietary fiber. References Duyff RL. Cook for flavor and health. In: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 5th ed. New ...

  9. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for Cooked Fish ER17AU06.009...

  10. Determinação da dissolução de alumínio durante cozimento de alimentos em panelas de alumínio Determining aluminum dissolution when cooking food in aluminium cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Tondella Dantas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora os estudos mais recentes não confirmem a correlação entre a presença do alumínio no organismo humano e o Mal de Alzheimer, com freqüência esse assunto é trazido à tona. O presente trabalho foi realizado de forma a avaliar a ocorrência de migração significativa de alumínio proveniente de utensílios domésticos, durante o preparo de alimentos. Foram estudados sete tipos de alimentos com preparos diferenciados e três tipos de panela (caçarola, de pressão e frigideira, nas versões sem e com revestimento (Teflon. A análise do metal foi realizada em espectrômetro de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado. Os resultados demonstraram transferência desprezível do Al para alguns alimentos, sendo que a maior transferência ocorreu no preparo de molho de tomate (baixo valor de pH, na panela sem revestimento. Um cardápio preparado com todos esses alimentos para as duas refeições diárias, mostrou que a massa de Al incorporada pelo alimento corresponde a 2% do limite de ingestão diária de Al (1 mg.kg -1 de peso corporal/dia, considerando-se um indivíduo de 60 kg. Assim, conclui-se que o uso de panelas de alumínio no preparo de alimentos praticamente não interfere na ingestão total do elemento para o ser humano.Aluminum is associated with neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer by some authors. Although this has never been confirmed, there is evidence of an accumulation in kidneys of people with renal problems. This present work was carried out to address this subject by evaluating the occurrence of significant aluminum migration from cooking utensils during food preparation. Eight types of food cooked in different ways and three distinct types of pans (a saucepan, pressure cooker and frying pan, with and without teflon coating, were evaluated. The metal analysis was conducted in an Optical Emission Spectrometer with Inductively Coupled Plasma. The results showed insignificant transference of aluminum in some

  11. Freezing and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety What Can You Freeze? Is Frozen Food Safe? Does Freezing Destroy Bacteria & Parasites? Freshness & Quality ... Temperatures Freezer Storage Time Safe Thawing Refreezing Cooking Frozen Foods Power Outage in Freezer Frozen Cans Frozen Eggs ...

  12. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASH diet; High blood pressure - DASH; Hypertension - DASH; Low-salt diet - DASH ... Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash of lemon and other citrus fruits, or wine, to soups and other dishes. Or use them ...

  13. The influence of socio-demographic, psychological and knowledge-related variables alongside perceived cooking and food skills abilities in the prediction of diet quality in adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Laura; Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2016-10-26

    Interventions to increase cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) as a route to improving overall diet are popular within public health. This study tested a comprehensive model of diet quality by assessing the influence of socio-demographic, knowledge- and psychological-related variables alongside perceived CS and FS abilities. The correspondence of two measures of diet quality further validated the Eating Choices Index (ECI) for use in quantitative research. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a quota-controlled nationally representative sample of 1049 adults aged 20-60 years drawn from the Island of Ireland. Surveys were administered in participants' homes via computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) assessing a range of socio-demographic, knowledge- and psychological-related variables alongside perceived CS and FS abilities. Regression models were used to model factors influencing diet quality. Correspondence between 2 measures of diet quality was assessed using chi-square and Pearson correlations. ECI score was significantly negatively correlated with DINE Fat intake (r = -0.24, p socio-demographic, knowledge, psychological variables and CS and FS abilities on dietary outcomes varied, with regression models explaining 10-20 % of diet quality variance. CS ability exerted the strongest relationship with saturated fat intake (β = -0.296, p food choices (ECI) (β = 0.04, p > 0.05). Greater CS and FS abilities may not lead directly to healthier dietary choices given the myriad of other factors implicated; however, CS appear to have differential influences on aspects of the diet, most notably in relation to lowering saturated fat intake. Findings suggest that CS and FS should not be singular targets of interventions designed to improve diet; but targeting specific sub-groups of the population e.g. males, younger adults, those with limited education might be more fruitful. A greater understanding of the interaction of factors

  14. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; van den Top, Hester; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Lopez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-12-15

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83-100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).

  15. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  16. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Toasted partially defatted cooked... compound and therefore may not exceed a maximum natural background level of 0.2 part per million total... defatted cooked cottonseed flour may be safely used for coloring foods generally, in amounts...

  17. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings.

  18. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  19. Dietary intake, food processing, and cooking methods among Amish and non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia: relevance to nutritional risk factors for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyun Carter, Gebra B; Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Clinton, Steven K; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Paskett, Electra D; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2011-11-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the source, storage, preparation, and intake of food among Amish and non-Amish adults to understand dietary practices as a potential contributing factor to lower cancer incidence rates. Interviews were conducted with a random sample of 134 Amish and 154 non-Amish adults including questions about dietary practices and a 24-h dietary recall. Amish compared to non-Amish adults reported (1) less refrigeration in homes (85% vs. 100%, P food from restaurants and grocery stores (P cancer although neither group achieves current diet and cancer prevention guidelines. Lifestyle factors, screening, and healthcare access may be contributing to the lower cancer incidence rates among the Amish and these results suggest areas of intervention to reduce the cancer burden.

  20. Shanghai Home-Cooking in Shikumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Apopular dish in Shanghai is soaked rice—cooked rice reheated in boiling water. It is usually eaten together with pickles, and so cannot be considered particularly upscale or nutritious. However, a recent survey of the social and economic situation in urban Shanghai indicated that 66 percent of the people in Shanghai eat soaked rice and pickles for breakfast everyday. Soaked rice is a typical food among Shanghai’s shikumen

  1. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  2. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  3. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  4. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  5. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  6. Research on the Splash of Cooked Food with Soup during Vacuum Cooling Process%带汤汁熟食品真空预冷飞溅现象分析及防止研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范磊; 李保国; 雷海斌; 苏树强

    2012-01-01

    真空预冷带汤汁熟食品时,会发生汤汁飞溅现象.为防止飞溅,选取番茄蛋汤作为研究对象,分别采用分段式降压法和回压法进行实验并与自动式降压法进行了对比,发现两种方法均可有效防止沸腾飞溅的发生,使失水率减少38%,但冷却时间也会相对延长.%When vacuum cooling the cooked food with soup, there was the phenomenon of soup splashing. In this paper, the tomato egg soup boiling and splashing during vacuum cooling process were studied through an observation window opened in the container. Adopting the means of controlling the filling gas valve opening and closing, and using segmented depressurization method and back pressure method can effectively prevent the occurrence of the boiling splash. The water loss rate is decreased 38%, but the relative cooling time is extended.

  7. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  8. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 4. Waxed paper for packaging dry goods including bread, confectionery and for domestic use including microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Nichol, J; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Retail samples of dry goods (bread, biscuits and breakfast cereals) packaged in waxed paper were examined for the presence of mineral hydrocarbon wax. Bread loaves contained up to 50 mg/kg of the wax (associated with the outer surfaces) and crackers up to 185 mg/kg. Mineral oil was found in bread samples, at up to 550 mg/kg and was dispersed throughout indicating its use in food processing machinery as the likely source. Retail confectionery products wrapped in waxed paper (containing 12-44% w/w) gave rise to levels of 12-1300 mg/kg mineral hydrocarbon in the individually wrapped sweets. Migration into boiled sweets was lowest at 10-130 mg/kg, whilst soft chews and toffee products contained 110-1300 mg/kg. The distribution of wax hydrocarbons (principally n-alkanes) in the confectionery coincided exactly with that for the paper wrapping, with a range of C23 to C33 (95% material) centred around C26. This indicated that the transfer to the food occurred largely by adhesion rather than by diffusion since the latter would be expected to favour preferential migration of the low molecular weight components. In simulated home-use experiments with waxed bags sold in the United States for domestic use, migration into sandwiches and cake amounted to 40 mg/kg (1% transfer of wax). Use of these waxed bags in the microwave oven (as recommended) gave rise to contamination of foods from 210 to 1650 mg/kg (up to 60% transfer of wax).

  9. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated ...

  10. Food Safety for Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 2 hours to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection. Thoroughly cook eggs. Never serve foods that contain ... Food That's Dropped to the Floor? Campylobacter Infections Salmonella Infections Produce Precautions Staying Healthy While You Travel Food ...

  11. Are You Storing Food Safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should be stored in tight containers. With commercially frozen foods, it's important to follow the cooking instructions on ... It appears as grayish-brown leathery spots on frozen food. It can occur when food is not securely ...

  12. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  13. Chemical changes during extrusion cooking. Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camire, M E

    1998-01-01

    Cooking extruders process a variety of foods, feeds, and industrial materials. Greater flexibility in product development with extruders depends upon understanding chemical reactions that occur within the extruder barrel and at the die. Starch gelatinization and protein denautration are the most important reactions during extrusion. Proteins, starches, and non-starch polysaccharides can fragment, creating reactive molecules that may form new linkages not found in nature. Vitamin stability varies with vitamin structure, extrusion conditions, and food matrix composition. Little is known about the effects of extrusion parameters on phytochemical bioavailability and stability. Reactive extrusion to create new flavor, antioxidant and color compounds will be an area of interest in the future.

  14. Development and acceptability of a novel milk-free soybean-maize-sorghum ready-to-use therapeutic food (SMS-RUTF) based on industrial extrusion cooking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Victor O; Irena, Abel H; Dibari, Filippo; Collins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Peanut milk-based ready-to-use therapeutic food (P-RUTF) primarily used to treat severe acute malnutrition at community setting is expensive. We developed an alternative milk-free soybean-maize-sorghum-based RUTF (SMS-RUTF) using locally grown ingredients that have the potential to support local economy and reduce the cost of RUTF. We describe the production process and results of acceptability of the new product. Acceptability and tolerance of SMS-RUTF was compared with P-RUTF among 45 children aged 4-11 years old based on a cross-over design. Each child consumed 250 g RUTF for 10 days followed by a five-day washout period and a subsequent 10-day period on the second RUTF. The SMS-RUTF was as acceptable as the P-RUTF among normal children aged 4-11 years of age with no associated adverse effects. SMS-RUTF was stable for at least 12 months without detectable microbiological or chemical deterioration. The major challenge encountered in SMS-RUTF development was the difficulty to accurately determine key nutrient composition due to its high oil content. Use of diversified locally available ingredients to produce RUTF is feasible. The SMS-RUTF meets expected standards and is acceptable to children aged 4-11 months old. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SMS-RUTF is required.

  15. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    . An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling......Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal...

  16. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal...... of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling....... An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...

  17. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  18. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The Effect of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Expression on the Mutagenicity and Metabolism of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4-5,b]pyridine in CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfatti, M A; Wu, R W; Felton, J S

    2004-08-13

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase proteins (UGT) catalyze the glucuronidation of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In previous studies UGT1A1 has been implicated in the detoxification of certain food-borne-carcinogenic-heterocyclic amines. To determine the importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) in the biotransformation of the cooked-food carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), genetically modified CHO cells that are nucleotide excision repair-deficient, and express cytochrome P4501A2 (UV5P3 cell line) were transfected with a cDNA plasmid of human UGT1A1 to establish the UDPglucuronosyltransferase 1A1 expressing 5P3hUGT1A1 cell line. Expression of the UGT1A1 gene was verified by screening neogene expressing clonal isolates (G-418 resistant) for their sensitivity to cell killing from PhIP exposure. Five of eleven clones were chosen for further analysis due to their resistance to cell killing. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the presence of the UGT1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins. All five clones displayed a 52 kDa protein band, which corresponded to a UGT1A1 control protein. Only four of the clones had a protein band that corresponded to the CYP1A2 control protein. Correct fragment size of the cDNAs in the remaining 4 clones was confirmed by RT-PCR and quantification of the mRNA product was accomplished by real-time RT-PCR. Expression of UGT1A1 in the transfected cells was 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} fold higher relative to the UV5P3 parental cells. One clone (No.14) had a 10 fold higher increase in expression at 1.47 x 10{sup 5} over the other three clones. This clone was also the most active in converting N-hydroxy-PhIP to N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide conjugates in microsomal metabolism assays. Based on the D{sub 50} values, the cytotoxic effect of PhIP was decreased {approx}350 fold in the 5P3hUGT1A1 cells compared to the UV5P3 control cells. In addition no significant increase in mutation frequency was observed in the

  20. A Study on the Safety of Vacuum Cooking Method in the New Cooking System

    OpenAIRE

    山下,由美子; 溝下,あさみ; 村田, 美穂子; 谷口,美佐子; 白砂,千登勢; 水井,富美恵; 岡田,正浩

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,we investigated the shelf-life of vacuum cooked products, which are being increasingly utilized on many fronts, including hotel and hospital catering. We focused on important factors for food hygiene through bacterial and organoleptic testing and investigated the leaching of hazardous substances from vacuum packaging materials due to heating with steam convection ovens. Bacterial testing detected only small amounts of general bacteria even after two weeks of storage foll...

  1. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; rendering into lard or tallow. 315.1 Section 315.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow... subchapter or rendered into tallow, provided such rendering is done in the following manner: (a) When...

  2. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the...

  3. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  4. How Do Cooks Actually Cook Vegetables? A Field Experiment With Low-Income Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter; Evans, Susan H

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables in the diet contribute to disease prevention. However, low-income households underconsume fresh vegetables, perhaps because of cost and of unavailability at nearby stores. A third reason may lurk behind those barriers: cooks' unfamiliarity with various and appealing ways to prepare vegetables. To illuminate that possibility and to suggest interventions that could be designed more effectively to boost vegetable consumption, this study took the novel step of providing ample, if temporary, supplies of a fresh vegetable to random sets of clients of food pantries. A week later, telephone interviews obtained details about preparations of meals and snacks that household cooks had made with their unexpected bounty. Among the experiment's 10 vegetables, some were used twice as often as others. Even more striking, cooks practiced a narrow repertoire of preparation methods, dominated by boiling and steaming, across most of the vegetables. Fats and salt were often added to boiled and steamed preparations. Implications are drawn to suggest kinds of recipes-pairings of vegetables and of vegetables with underused means of preparation-that could expand cooks' repertoires and add variety in flavors, appearances of dishes, meal textures, and aromas. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. What’s cooking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    to understand how people, spaces and food interact and how this interaction influences food behaviour (Mikkelsen, 2011). This requires transdisciplinarity and holistic approach (Rasmussen and Smidt, 2001), which leads to discussing the possibilities within the combination of the two fields, food and design...

  6. Using Photovoice with at-risk youth in a community-based cooking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather Clarke; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    We examined the facilitators of and barriers to participants' application of cooking skills beyond Cook It Up!, a pilot community-based cooking program targeting at-risk youth aged 13 to 18. Photovoice is a qualitative research method using still-picture cameras to document participants' health and community realities. Four participants photographed items they perceived as facilitators of or barriers to the application of cooking skills. At a facilitated discussion group, youth discussed why they took certain pictures and how the photos best exemplified facilitators and barriers. Participants agreed upon the themes arising from the dialogue. Data trustworthiness tools were used to ensure that themes arising from the dialogue truly represented participants' perspectives. Four major themes emerged as facilitators: aptitude, food literacy, local and fresh ingredients, and connectedness. Access to unhealthy foods was the only barrier that participants identified. Participants and researchers decided to advocate for the sustainability of community-based cooking programs offered for high school credit. Participants' photos would enhance advocacy efforts with education stakeholders. Cook It Up! provided youth with cooking techniques for healthy, economical, homemade meals, but proof was needed of the transferability of skills outside the program environment. Youth in this study identified important facilitators that enabled the continued use of their cooking skills, and one barrier. Findings underscore the importance of community-based cooking programs tailored to at-risk youth.

  7. Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  8. Extrusion cooking with glucose supplementation reduced fumonisin concentrations and toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion cooking involves forcing material through a heated barrel under high pressure using one (single-screw configuration) or two (twin-screw configuration) augers. We previously demonstrated (Bullerman et al., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56:2400-2405, 2008; Voss et al., Journal o...

  9. The Impact of Glucuronidation on the Bioactivation and DNA Adduction of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfatti, M A; Ubick, E A; Felton, J S

    2005-03-31

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of many different chemicals. Glucuronidation is especially important for detoxifying reactive intermediates from metabolic reactions, which otherwise can be biotransformed into highly reactive cytotoxic or carcinogenic species. Detoxification of certain food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is highly dependent on UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant carcinogenic HA found in well-done cooked meat, is extensively glucuronidated by UGT1A proteins. In humans, CYP1A2 catalyzed N-hydroxylation and subsequent UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation is a dominant pathway in the metabolism of PhIP. Therefore, changes in glucuronidation rates could significantly alter PhIP metabolism. To determine the importance of UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation in the biotransformation of PhIP, UGT1A proficient Wistar and UGT1A deficient Gunn rats were exposed to a single 100 {micro}g/kg oral dose of [{sup 14}C]-PhIP. Urine was collected over 24 h and the PhIP urinary metabolite profiles were compared between the two strains. After the 24 h exposure, livers and colon were removed and analyzed for DNA adduct formation by accelerator mass spectrometry. Wistar rats produced several PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides that accounted for {approx}25% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. In the Gunn rats, PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides were reduced by 68-92%, compared to the Wistar rats, and comprised only 4% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. PhIP-DNA adduct analysis from the Gunn rats revealed a correlation between reduced PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide levels in the urine and increased hepatic DNA adducts, compared to the Wistar rats. These results indicate that UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation of PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP is an important pathway for PhIP detoxification. Failure to form glucuronide conjugates

  10. 食品改良剂对速冻熟制拉面质构特性的影响%Effects of food improvers on the textural properties of frozen cooked plucking-noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海燕; 章绍兵; 陆启玉

    2015-01-01

    该文以高筋粉为原料制作速冻拉面,研究了多种食品改良剂对速冻拉面质构特性的影响。结果表明:适量添加食用碱、瓜尔豆胶、黄原胶、谷氨酰胺转氨酶(TG酶)或硬脂酰乳酸钠(SSL)可以明显增加拉面的拉断力和拉伸距离,从而改善拉面的延伸性。食盐、食用碱、黄原胶、TG酶、葡萄糖氧化酶(GOD)、木薯交联淀粉和马铃薯醋酸酯淀粉对拉面的硬度增加有重要贡献。添加黄原胶、瓜尔豆胶或TG酶可以明显增加拉面的弹性。此外,食用碱和TG酶能够有效改善拉面的黏聚性和回复性。对速冻熟制拉面整体质构特性改良效果较好的添加剂有食盐、食用碱、瓜尔豆胶、黄原胶和TG酶。%In this paper,high–gluten flour was used as raw material to produce frozen plucking–noodles. The effects of various food improvers on the textural properties of frozen plucking–noodles were researched. The results showed that adding a appropriate amount of edible alkali,guar gum, xanthan gum,glutamine transglutaminase enzyme(TG)or sodium stearyl lactate(SSL)could significantly increase the tensile force and stretch distance of plucking–noodles,and then improved the extensibility of the noodles. Salt,edible alkali,xanthan gum,TG enzyme,glucose oxidase(GOD), crosslinked tapioca starch and acetylated potato starch had a significant contribution to the hardness increases of plucking–noodles. Adding xanthan gum,guar gum or TG enzyme could significantly increase the elasticity of the noodles. In addition,edible alkali and TG enzyme could effectively improve adhesiveness and resilience of the frozen plucking–noodles. The additives having a better effect to the overall textural property of quick–freezing cooked noodles were salt,edible alkali,guar gum, xanthan gum,and TG enzyme.

  11. Integration of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a same vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooked vegetables are commonly used in the preparation of ready-to-eat foods. The integration of cooking and cooling of carrots and vacuum cooling in a single vessel is described in this paper. The combination of different methods of cooking and vacuum cooling was investigated. Integrated processes of cooking and vacuum cooling in a same vessel enabled obtaining cooked and cooled carrots at the final temperature of 10 ºC, which is adequate for preparing ready-to-eat foods safely. When cooking and cooling steps were performed with the samples immersed in boiling water, the effective weight loss was approximately 3.6%. When the cooking step was performed with the samples in boiling water or steamed, and the vacuum cooling was applied after draining the boiling water, water loss ranged between 15 and 20%, which caused changes in the product texture. This problem can be solved with rehydration using a small amount of sterile cold water. The instrumental textural properties of carrots samples rehydrated at both vacuum and atmospheric conditions were very similar. Therefore, the integrated process of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a single vessel is a feasible alternative for processing such kind of foods.

  12. Genetic diversity and genome-wide association analysis of cooking time in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Karen A; Wiesinger, Jason A; Mendoza, Fernando A

    2015-08-01

    Fivefold diversity for cooking time found in a panel of 206 Phaseolus vulgaris accessions. Fastest accession cooks nearly 20 min faster than average.   SNPs associated with cooking time on Pv02, 03, and 06. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America. One of the major factors that limits greater utilization of beans is their long cooking times compared to other foods. Cooking time is an important trait with implications for gender equity, nutritional value of diets, and energy utilization. Very little is known about the genetic diversity and genomic regions involved in determining cooking time. The objective of this research was to assess cooking time on a panel of 206 P. vulgaris accessions, use genome- wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genomic regions influencing this trait, and to test the ability to predict cooking time by raw seed characteristics. In this study 5.5-fold variation for cooking time was found and five bean accessions were identified which cook in less than 27 min across 2 years, where the average cooking time was 37 min. One accession, ADP0367 cooked nearly 20 min faster than average. Four of these five accessions showed close phylogenetic relationship based on a NJ tree developed with ~5000 SNP markers, suggesting a potentially similar underlying genetic mechanism. GWAS revealed regions on chromosomes Pv02, Pv03, and Pv06 associated with cooking time. Vis/NIR scanning of raw seed explained 68 % of the phenotypic variation for cooking time, suggesting with additional experimentation, it may be possible to use this spectroscopy method to non-destructively identify fast cooking lines as part of a breeding program.

  13. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-11-14

    Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different sources has not been considered. This research investigated the associations of the age and source of learning with the aforementioned five factors. A nationally representative (Northern/Republic of Ireland) cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 1049 adults aged between 20-60 years. The survey included both measures developed and tested by the researchers as well as validated measures of cooking (e.g. chopping) and food skills (e.g. budgeting), cooking practices (e.g. food safety), cooking attitudes, diet quality and health. Respondents also stated when they learnt the majority of their skills and their sources of learning. The data was analysed using ANOVAs with post-hoc analysis and Chi(2) crosstabs with a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that child (skills, cooking practices, cooking attitudes, diet quality (with the exception of fibre intake where adult learners were higher) and health. Mother was the primary source of learning and those who learnt only from this source had significantly better outcomes on 12 of the 23 measures. This research highlights the importance of learning cooking skills at an early age for skill retention, confidence, cooking practices, cooking attitude and diet quality. Mother remained the primary source of learning, however, as there is a reported deskilling of domestic cooks, mothers may no longer have the ability to teach cooking skills to the next generation. A focus on alternative sources including practical cooking skills education

  14. the effect of cooking time on the vitamin c, dietary fiber and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In Nigeria and other tropical African countries where the daily diets are dominated by starchy staple food, vegetable are the most essential and cheapest source of ... CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C IN RAW AND. COOKED VEGETABLES ...

  15. Effect of Sous Vide Cooking Method on Nutritional Values of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Coşansu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sous vide is a cooking method in which food is heat processed after vacuum packaging in heat stable pouches. Meat, chicken, fish and vegetables can be cooked by this method; even meals containing these ingredients can be preserved by heat processing after precooking and vacuum packaging steps. Meanwhile sous vide cooking is a preservation method that the product is cooled rapidly after heat processing and can be stored for long periods. By this method, food can be cooked in vacuum packed without losing its flavour, taste and nutritional value. In this review, the effects of sous vide cooking on the major nutrients of vegetables such as antioxidant compounds and vitamins will be mentioned.

  16. Health benefits of the potato affected by domestic cooking: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is an important food crop worldwide and a good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber as well as phytochemicals, which benefits human body as nutrients supplementary and antioxidants. However, cooked potato is also considered as a high-glycemic-index food because of its high content of rapidly digestible starch, long-term consumption of which will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Domestic cooking (boiling, frying, steaming, etc.) are usually adopted before potato consumption. The chemical, physical and enzyme modifications that occur during cooking will alter the potato's antioxidant capacity and digestibility, which subsequently affected on the bioavailability of phytochemicals and the postprandial glycemic response of the human body. We reviewed the recent publications on the effects of domestic cooking on the nutrition, phytochemicals and the glycemic index changes of the cooked potato. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying these changes were discussed, and additional implications and future research goals were suggested.

  17. Older Adults and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as take-out foods, leftovers from a restaurant meal, and meals-on wheels deliveries. Thoroughly cook ... to use 3 to 4 months Deli prepared convenience foods such as egg, chicken, ham, and macaroni ...

  18. 深圳市某区熟肉制品食品添加剂使用现状及对策研究%The present situation of the food additive usage in cooked meat in some district in Shenzhen and the countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴保臣; 管新艳; 管穗丽

    2015-01-01

    [objective]To understand the status of food additives in cooked meat products and found the main problems in Shenzhen district,which wil provide a scientific basis for per-fecting the management policy.[Method]Using the three steps random sampling method,we test the food additives including nitrite,tartrazine and sunset yel ow,in the cooked food of three food production units,25 restaurants,and 20 flow units.[Results]The food additives of nitrite,tartrazine,sunset yel ow is exceeding,and the percent of pass is relatively low in the cooked meat products.Significant dif erence was existed in the circulation and catering links ( =6.06,8.12,20.59;P =0.014,0.001,0.001).[Conclusion]The regulators for production should expand the supervision model of cooked meat products to the food cooked meat products,and to encourage conditional distribution unit in establishing perfect food traceability system and establishing in-spection or self -checking combining conventional self control system.%【目的】了解深圳市某区熟肉制品食品添加剂的使用现状,发现存在的主要问题,为完善管理政策提供科学依据。【方法】采用三环节随机抽样法,以亚硝酸盐、柠檬黄、日落黄等常见食品添加剂为检测项目,对某区生产经营熟肉制品的3家食品生产单位、25家餐饮单位及20家流通单位所生产经营的熟肉制品进行抽样检验。【结果】亚硝酸盐、柠檬黄、日落黄等食品添加剂存在超标使用情况,餐饮环节熟肉制品食品添加剂合格率相对偏低,且流通环节和餐饮环节存在显著性差异(=6.06,8.12,20.59;P =0.014,0.001,0.001)。【结论】监管部门应推广生产环节熟肉制品的监管模式到餐饮环节,并鼓励有条件的流通单位在建立完善的食品追溯系统的同时建立送检或自检相结合常规自我控制体系。

  19. Cooking in prison – from crook to cook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    which may improve their ability to subsequently desist from crime. Findings are derived from 13 months (1090 hours) of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish maximum security prison for men, including in-depth interviews with 68 prisoners. This research finds that prisoners spent a great deal of time...... abilities and personal resources. During incarceration few roles are available for prisoner. The self-catering system offers the role as a cook which offers an opportunity for identity realignment from crook to cook....

  20. Infrared processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  1. Scary food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mykletun, Reidar Johan

    2009-01-01

    This article portrays the changing status and use of a traditional Norwegian meal, Smalahove, in designing tourist experiences. Against all odds, this peculiar relic of Nordic gastronomy (salted, smoked and cooked sheep's head) has become a part of the destination brand of Voss, a small West Norw...... destinations and regional food products....

  2. Performance evaluation of solar box cooker assisted with latent heat energy storage system for cooking application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, V. S.; Kumaresan, G.; Sudhakar, P.; Santosh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Solar cooking is one of the most promising techniques to meet the cooking needs in remote areas where electricity and fuel supplies are meager. Solar box cooker is an efficient device used in solar cooking as it is simple to fabricate, easy to operate and hazard-free. In this context, the performance evaluation of a solar box cooker with varied number of reflectors has been undertaken. It was found that the time consumed for cooking in a box type solar cooker with four reflectors is lesser compared to that of a single reflector and its overall utilization efficiency increases with increase in the cooking mass. Further, a latent heat energy storage system was designed and fabricated to cook the food at off-peak hours of solar radiation. This latent heat energy storage system was combined with the solar box cooker. Oxalic acid dihydrate was used as the phase change material due to its high specific enthalpy and its melting point lying close to the cooking temperature. It was found that the solar box cooker with phase change material could be effectively utilized to cook food during off-peak hours of solar radiation.

  3. RESIZING AND AUTOMATION OF COOKING OF COLD CUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício da Cunha Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooking using steam, at an industrial level, should be a reliable and safe process regarding operational repeatability of pre-set parameters. This work aims to implement an automatic system for direct steam injection , for cooking salamis at an industry of Rio Grande do Sul. Costs of losses of cold cuts have been measured before and after the implementation of the project and also calculations of transfer of heat and mass have been performed - application of letters of Heisler - to obtain the correct time and temperatures for this kind of food, resulting in a project of a vapor distributor with temperature and time controls, guaranteeing a product with uniform cooking and, therefore, quality. The realignment of the project proposed in this study resulted in the reduction of direct losses of discarded products at 98 % , with consequent reduction in operational and energy costs.

  4. Food Safety for Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Food Safety for Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Food Safety for Your Family Print A A A What's ... not cross your mind as you cook is food safety. Why is food safety so important? Proper food ...

  5. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  6. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2007-02-01

    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  7. Quality evaluation of cook-chilled chicory stems (Cichorium intybus L., Catalogna group) by conventional and sous vide cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Massimiliano; Gonnella, Maria; Giannino, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    Chicory stems, appreciated both raw and cooked, represent a nutritious and refined food. In this study the effects on the quality of stems cooked by conventional (boiling, steaming and microwaving) and innovative (sous vide) methods were analysed. Several physical, chemical and sensory traits were compared using two local varieties (Galatina and Molfettese) of southern Italy (Puglia region). Independently of the variety, the sous vide method did not significantly affect (redness, yellowness and hue angle) or had the least impact on (lightness and total colour difference) quality parameters among the four methods as compared with the raw product. Following sensory analysis, the sous vide product always showed the highest score among the cooking methods. Moreover, this innovative method did not affect total phenol (TP) content and antioxidant activity (AA) compared with uncooked stems of both varieties. Microwaving increased TP content and AA (though associated with higher weight loss), while different responses depending on the chicory variety were observed after boiling and steaming. The results indicate the sous vide technique as optimal to preserve several traits, including organoleptic ones, for the quality of cook-chilled chicory stems. They also provide product-specific information usually required for cooking process strategies in the industrial sector of ready-to-eat vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. What’s cooking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    and wicked problems (Rittel, 1973; Kolko, 2012) in the process of creating desirable solutions (Fallman, D., 2003) to change food-related behaviour (Abdussalam, Foster and Käferstein, 1989). Food and meals in our environment are embedded in complex physical, social and cultural contexts and there is a need......When Charles Eames was asked about the boundaries of design, he replied, “What are the boundaries of problems” (Burns et. al, 2006). This quote pinpoints the wide aspect of design, and as the complexity of society is increasing it becomes important to discuss how design can deal with complex...

  9. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational Curricula. Food Service. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Larry; Shin, Masako

    This document, one of eight in a multi-cultural competency-based vocational/technical curricula series, is on food service. This program is designed to run 24 weeks and cover 15 instructional areas: orientation, sanitation, management/planning, preparing food for cooking, preparing beverages, cooking eggs, cooking meat, cooking vegetables,…

  10. Effect of precooking and polyphosphate treatment on the quality of catfish fillets cooked in pouch in boiling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum-sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meats and poultry products. However, there are very few examples of vacuum-sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the propert...

  11. Application of ISO22000 Systems in Cooked Meat Products%ISO22000体系在肉制品加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝臻

    2008-01-01

    The safety of cooked meat products is related to the hazard of food in tache of consumption. As the hazard exists in any tache of food chain, any one of the chain should try his best to control the safety of the food. The safety of the cooked meat products is always one of the most important problems. ISO22000: 2005 "Food safety management systems-Requirements for any organization in the food chain" offers a standard for the cooked meat products safety management.

  12. Captain Cook Chased a Chook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Schlunke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we write the contemporary 'histories' of Captain Cook when they include such textual and material diversity? When that diversity ranges from children's rhymes to convenience stores as well as journals now claimed as iconic documents of the enlightenment? How might the insights of Bruno Latour into how the 'experimental' is produced in the laboratory be helpful in showing how Cook is produced in a settler culture? How does revealing the 'experimental' (the material and textual ethnography of history show us new ways of 'doing' history that engages with its textual as well as its material diversity.

  13. What’s Cooking, Man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    in contemporary culture. The article is informed by poststructural gender theory and understands ‘doing food’ and ‘doing masculinity’ as two mutually constituting practices. The analyses identify four new tendencies in the construction of masculinity in cooking shows at the beginning of the twenty-first century......: 1) rechefisation, 2) the TV chef as a moral entrepreneur, 3) the TV chef and the revitalisation of the national myth and 4) cooking as masculine escapism. The article concludes that the innovation of the masculine identity that was launched in The Naked Chef has not continued; rather, the genre has...

  14. Haptic Routes and digestive destinations in cooking series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jørgensen, Ulla Angkjær

    2010-01-01

    Taking modern television travel cookery series as a starting point, the article investigates the cultural significance of food and place in visual culture. The examples are, respectively, The Keith Floyd Cookery Collection: Floyd Around The Med [2000. BBC DVD, 2007] and The Hairy Bikers Cookbook...... and the media in which aesthetical, cultural and symbolic values are related to the way food is mediatised. The main argument is that cooking television series produce haptic images of place and food that include a specific sensuous and emotional relation between screen and viewer. The haptic imagery...... Series 1 & 2 [BBC DVD, 2006]. The series illustrate the strong connection between travel, food and place in tourist consumer culture, as well as the way motion and emotion are related to sensuous and digestive aspects of touristic food. The series also illustrate the emblematic connection between food...

  15. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh) as compared with some con...

  16. “It Is Good for My Family’s Health and Cooks Food in a Way That My Heart Loves”: Qualitative Findings and Implications for Scaling Up an Improved Cookstove Project in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Cohen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of indoor, three-stone fire pits in resource–poor countries is a substantial burden on human health and the environment. We conducted a pilot intervention promoting the purchase and use of an improved cookstove in rural Kenya. The goals of this qualitative inquiry were to understand the motivation to purchase and use; perceived benefits and challenges of cookstove use; and the most influential promotion activities for scaling up future cookstove promotion. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 cookstove promoters and 30 cookstove purchasers in the Luo community. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis conducted. Women reported the need for less firewood, fuel cost savings, reduced smoke, improved cooking efficiency, reduced eye irritation, lung congestion and coughing as major benefits of the cookstove. Cost appeared to be a barrier to wider adoption. The most persuasive promotion strategies were interpersonal communication through social networks and cooking demonstrations. Despite this cost barrier, many women still considered the improved cookstove to be a great asset within their household. This inquiry provided important guidance for future cookstove implementation projects.

  17. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day(-1) to 22, 53, and 77 g day(-1) for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  18. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  19. A Story About Mr Cook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海燕

    2004-01-01

    Mr Cook lived in the capital. He sang well and often composed (创作) a lot of music himself. People liked to listen to his songs and music. He hated the noise and often went to the quiet places and stayed there for days. There he could compose a few pieces of new music.

  20. A semi-automatic annotation tool for cooking video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Napoletano, Paolo; Schettini, Raimondo; Margherita, Roberto; Marini, Gianluca; Gianforme, Giorgio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In order to create a cooking assistant application to guide the users in the preparation of the dishes relevant to their profile diets and food preferences, it is necessary to accurately annotate the video recipes, identifying and tracking the foods of the cook. These videos present particular annotation challenges such as frequent occlusions, food appearance changes, etc. Manually annotate the videos is a time-consuming, tedious and error-prone task. Fully automatic tools that integrate computer vision algorithms to extract and identify the elements of interest are not error free, and false positive and false negative detections need to be corrected in a post-processing stage. We present an interactive, semi-automatic tool for the annotation of cooking videos that integrates computer vision techniques under the supervision of the user. The annotation accuracy is increased with respect to completely automatic tools and the human effort is reduced with respect to completely manual ones. The performance and usability of the proposed tool are evaluated on the basis of the time and effort required to annotate the same video sequences.

  1. How to Ship Food Gifts without Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu ... Ship Food Gifts Without Risk Even foods that are smoked, cured or fully cooked should be kept cold, experts advise To use the sharing features ...

  2. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  3. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far we...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  4. The effect of vitamin A-fortified coconut cooking oil on the serum retinol concentration of Filipino children 4-7 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Luz V; Magsadia, Clarita R; Velasco, Rowena E; Pedro, Ma Regina A; Barba, Corazon V C; Tanchoco, Celeste C

    2005-01-01

    A 6-month intervention trial was conducted among 542 Filipino children aged 4 to 7 years to determine the effect of vitamin A-fortified coconut cooking oil intake on their vitamin A status and to identify factors that influence this. Children were randomly assigned to the Experimental group, with vitamin A-fortified cooking oil ration; to Control-1 group with unfortified cooking oil ration; and to Control-2 group without cooking oil ration. In all groups, children's serum retinol concentration improved. Relative change in serum retinol concentration was significantly higher among the Experimental group, with one-third of total vitamin A intake coming from vitamin A-fortified cooking oil intake, than in the Control groups, with more than half of intake from other vitamin A-rich foods. Determinants of post-intervention serum retinol concentration included baseline serum retinol concentration, caregiver's education, receipt of high-dose vitamin A capsule, interaction between consumption of vitamin A-fortified cooking oil and of other vitamin A-rich foods, and between households purchasing cooking oil and food expenditure. Intake of vitamin A-fortified cooking oil combined with vitamin A-rich foods was necessary to increase serum retinol concentration. It is recommended to vigorously promote the consumption of vitamin A-fortified cooking oil together with other vitamin A-rich sources to sustain the prevention and control of vitamin A deficiency.

  5. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating.

  6. Apoptotic effects of cooked and in vitro digested soy on human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Xu, Wenqing; Sikes, Robert A; Wu, Changqing

    2012-12-01

    Previous laboratory and animal studies reported that soy isoflavones were major bioactive compounds in soy to exert chemoprotection of prostate cancer. However, these studies cannot reflect the realistic effects that soy may induce through diets, and little is known about the bioavailability of isoflavones from whole soy food and their bioactivities after cooking and digestion. In this study, cooking and in vitro digestion were used to prepare soy extracts and the effects of cooking and digestion on the isoflavone contents and bioactivities of the whole soy extracts were examined. The cooking procedure generally increased the amount of daidzin, genistin and daidzein, but decreased that of genistein. Digestion process significantly lowered contents of daidzin and genistin in 60min cooked sample, while increased the contents of daidzin and daidzein and decreased the content of genistein in the uncooked sample. Antioxidant activities of soy extracts increased after cooking and in vitro digestion, while no consistent increase of the four soy isoflavones was determined. The apoptotic effects of soy extracts on both LNCaP and C4-2B cells were generally in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to purified single isoflavones, cooked and digested soy were more effective on induction of prostate cancer cell apoptosis, which indicated synergistic interactions between various bioactive compounds in the whole soy.

  7. Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2007-01-01

    Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.

  8. Potential Health Implications of the Consumption of Thermally-Oxidized Cooking Oils – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falade Ayodeji Osmund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oils are an integral part of a human diet as they are used in almost all types of culinary practices. They serve as sources of lipids with a significant nutritive value and health benefits which can be attributed to their fatty acid compositions and biological antioxidants. However, cooking oils are usually subjected to thermal oxidation which occurs when fresh cooking oil is heated at high temperatures during various food preparations. Repeated use of cooking oils in the commercial food industry is also common to maximize profit. Thermal oxidation of edible oils had since attracted great attention of nutritionist and researchers given the deteriorative effect such as generation of very cytotoxic compounds, loss of carotenoid, phenolics and vitamins thus reducing the overall antioxidant properties of the oils. Furthermore, several in vivo studies had suggested that consumption of thermally-oxidized cooking oils might not be healthy as it might negatively influence the lipid profile (increased low density lipoprotein (LDL, decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL and elevated cholesterol level, haematological system (alteration in concentration of heamoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, kidney function, and induce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress which have been associated with the pathogenesis of various degenerative diseases. Therefore, thermal oxidation seems not to provide any health benefit, as it deteriorates cooking oils and the consumption of the oils may predispose consumers to various disease conditions that may ensue from free radical generation, thereby having deleterious effect on human health.

  9. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  10. Awareness of coeliac disease among chefs and cooks depends on the level and place of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Shin, Seong; Coppell, Kirsten J

    Coeliac disease is triggered by gluten. The only treatment is lifelong avoidance of dietary gluten. Dining out and travelling are particular challenges with a huge impact on quality of life. We examined the knowledge about coeliac disease and gluten-free food preparation among chefs and cooks, and culinary students in Dunedin, New Zealand. Outlets serving gluten-free food were identified. The head chefs or cooks were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding demographics, education, qualification, experience and knowledge of coeliac disease and gluten-free food preparation. Ninety restaurant chefs and cooks, and 35 first-year culinary students participated. Half of participating chefs and cooks had received no formal training, but all were aware of the term gluten-free diet. Twelve (13%) were unaware of coeliac disease, all of whom were non-European and worked at an ethnic restaurant which did not have gluten-free policies in place. There was no significant difference in awareness of coeliac disease between chefs and students (p=0.36). However, students were significantly more aware of necessary gluten-free food preparation (p=0.007) and scored better in the gluten-free quiz (p=0.01) than chefs and cooks. Awareness of coeliac disease did not necessarily mean that policies were in place to prepare contamination-free gluten-free meals. Chefs and cooks from countries with a low incidence of coeliac disease lacked knowledge about gluten-free food preparation and had difficulties recognising gluten containing foods. Patients with coeliac disease wanting to dine out should be advised to choose a restaurant with care.

  11. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  12. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2017-05-27

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  13. Stability of iodine during cooking: investigation on biofortified and not fortified vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, Patrizia; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Cichelli, Angelo; Chiavaro, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Biofortification of food crops through fertilization and salt iodization are key strategies for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorder. However, considerable losses of iodine can occur during processing. In this study, the stability of iodine in biofortified potatoes, carrots and tomatoes was evaluated during different domestic cooking procedures, as this matter was poorly discussed in literature. The stability of iodized salt during baking and boiling of carrots and potatoes not fortified was also investigated. All the adopted cooking procedures have proven to be suitable to preserve the iodine content in biofortified vegetables. During boiling test with iodized salt, neither potatoes nor carrots were able to absorb iodine added with salt, probably owing to the losses occurred during cooking. On the contrary, baking test on potatoes has not caused a significant degradation of iodized salt, and no significant differences in iodine concentration were detected before and after cooking.

  14. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o a rm ct a s tion Basics for Handling Food Safely Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne ... and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling food. · Don’t cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, ...

  15. A comparison of preprepared commercial infant feeding meals with home-cooked recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Craig, Leone Ca; Marais, Debbi; Bora, Ourania E; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-11-01

    To compare the cost, nutritional and food variety contents of commercial meals and published infant and young child feeding (IYCF) home-cooked recipes, and to compare nutritional contents to age-specific recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Full range of preprepared main meals available within the UK market. Main-meal recipes identified from a survey of Amazon's top 20 best-sellers and IYCF cookbooks available from local libraries. 278 commercial IYCF savoury meals from UK market and 408 home-cooked recipes from best-selling IYCF published cookbooks. Cost and nutritional content per 100 g and food variety per meal for both commercial meals and home-cooked recipes. Commercial products provided more 'vegetable' variety per meal (median=3.0; r=-0.33) than home-cooked recipes (2.0). Home-cooked recipes provided 26% more energy and 44% more protein and total fat than commercial products (r=-0.40, -0.31, -0.40, respectively) while costing less (£0.33/100 g and £0.68/100 g, respectively). The majority of commercial products (65%) met energy density recommendations but 50% of home-cooked recipes exceeded the maximum range. The majority of commercial meals provided an energy-dense meal with greater vegetable variety per meal to their home-cooked counterparts. Home-cooked recipes provided a cheaper meal option, however the majority exceeded recommendations for energy and fats. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  17. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  18. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. GHASEMI; M. T. Hamed MOSAVIAN; M. H. Haddad KHODAPARAST

    2009-01-01

    Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr) on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  19. Role of lipids in the extrusion cooking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghofe, E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a versatile and very efficient technology that is widely used in food and feed processing. The cooking extruders have found many applications, which include: breakfast cereals, snack foods, other cereal based products, pet food and aquatic foods, texturized vegetable proteins, confectionery products, chemical and biochemical reactions, and oil extraction. Lipids are components that play an important role in most of the extrusion cooking processes. They can act as plastificizers or emulsifiers, and affect more significantly texture and stickiness of the extrudate. This paper reviews effect of oils and other lipids reactions during extrusion cooking as well as the effects of amylase-lipid complexation on extrudate quality.La extrusión es, en general, una tecnología versátil y muy eficiente, que se aplica ampliamente en la elaboración de alimentos y piensos. Los equipos de cocción-extrusión tienen numerosas aplicaciones, entre las que pueden incluirse: los cereales de desayuno listos para comer, los aperitivos, diferentes productos basados en cereales, los piensos para animales domésticos y peces, proteínas vegetales texturizadas, productos de pastelería, reacciones químicas y bioquímicas, y la extracción de aceites. Los lípidos son componentes que juegan un papel importante en la mayoría de los procesos de cocción-extrusión. Pueden actuar como plastificantes o como emulsionantes, suministrando lubricación. En este artículo se revisan con detalle los efectos de las reacciones de los aceites y otros lípidos durante el proceso de cocción-extrucción así como el efecto de la formación de complejos amilasa-lípidos sobre la calidad de los extrudados.

  20. Food Safety-Related Aspects of Parasites in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2015-01-01

    As natural foods derive from soil or water environments, they may contain the infective stages of parasites endemic to these environments. Infective stages may enter the human food supply via infected animal hosts so there is a need for increased awareness of the impact of parasites on the food supply. Safe handling of food and good kitchen hygiene can prevent or reduce the risk posed by contaminated foodstuffs. In addition, parasites cannot cause a health problem in any thoroughly cooked foods.

  1. Quality of charcoal produced using micro gasification and how the new cook stove works in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Mary; Mahmoud, Yahia; Mendum, Ruth; Iiyama, Muyiki; Jamnadass, Ramni; Roing de Nowina, Kristina; Sundberg, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    Wood based energy is the main source of cooking and heating fuel in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its use rises as the population increases. Inefficient cook stoves result in fuel wastage and health issues associated with smoke in the kitchen. As users are poor women, they tend not to be consulted on cook stove development, hence the need for participatory development of efficient woodfuel cooking systems. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Embu, Kenya to assess energy use efficiency and concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter from charcoal produced using gasifier cook stoves, compared to conventional wood charcoal. Charcoal made from Grevillea robusta prunings, Zea mays cob (maize cob) and Cocos nucifera (coconut shells) had calorific values of 26.5 kJ g-1, 28.7 kJ g-1 and 31.7 kJ g-1 respectively, which are comparable to conventional wood charcoal with calorific values of 33.1 kJ g-1. Cooking with firewood in a gasifier cook stove and use of the resultant charcoal as by-product to cook another meal in a conventional charcoal stove saved 41% of the amount of fuel compared to cooking with firewood in the traditional three stone open fire. Cooking with firewood based on G. robusta prunings in the traditional open fire resulted in a concentration of fine particulate matter of 2600 μg m-3, which is more than 100 times greater than from cooking with charcoal made from G. robusta prunings in a gasifier. Thirty five percent of households used the gasifier for cooking dinner and lunch, and cooks preferred using it for food that took a short time to prepare. Although the gasifier cook stove is energy and emission efficient there is a need for it to be developed further to better suit local cooking preferences. The energy transition in Africa will have to include cleaner and more sustainable wood based cooking systems.

  2. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  3. Food Follies: Food Safety for College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This project involves the production and dissemination of a basic food storage and safety course geared toward college students. The course covers basic preparation, sanitation, proper cooking temperatures, chilling and storage, as well as common pathogens to be aware of. MALS

  4. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood.

  5. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Smart Substitutions Updated:Dec 16,2016 Healthy eating doesn’ ... mean giving up all the foods you love! Smart substitutions can help you maintain an overall healthy ...

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills in UK adults: cross-sectional analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Adamson, Ashley J; Halligan, Joel; O'Brien, Nicola; Purves, Richard; Stead, Martine; Stocken, Deborah; White, Martin

    2015-08-05

    Poor cooking skills may be a barrier to healthy eating and a contributor to overweight and obesity. Little population-representative data on adult cooking skills has been published. We explored prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills among adult respondents to wave 1 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-9). Socio-demographic variables of interest were sex, age group, occupational socio-economic group and whether or not respondents had the main responsibility for food in their households. Cooking skills were assessed as self-reported confidence in using eight cooking techniques, confidence in cooking ten foods, and ability to prepare four types of dish (convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredients, a main meal from basic ingredients, and cake or biscuits from basic ingredients). Frequency of preparation of main meals was also reported. Of 509 respondents, almost two-thirds reported cooking a main meal at least five times per week. Around 90 % reported being able to cook convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredient, and a main dish from basic ingredients without help. Socio-demographic differences in all markers of cooking skills were scattered and inconsistent. Where these were found, women and main food providers were most likely to report confidence with foods, techniques or dishes, and respondents in the youngest age (19-34 years) and lowest socio-economic group least likely. This is the only exploration of the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of adult cooking skills using recent and population-representative UK data and adds to the international literature on cooking skills in developed countries. Reported confidence with using most cooking techniques and preparing most foods was high. There were few socio-demographic differences in reported cooking skills. Adult cooking skills interventions are unlikely to have a large population impact, but may have important individual effects

  7. [Variation in amount of radioactive cesium before and after cooking dry shiitake and beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the change of radioactive cesium content in food due to cooking in order to estimate the internal radiation exposure due to from radioactive materials in food. Our results revealed that soaking dry shiitake in water decreased the radioactive cesium content by about 50%, compared with that present in uncooked shiitake. Radioactive cesium in beef was decreased by about 10%, 12%, 60-65% and 80% by grilling, frying, boiling and stewing, respectively, compared to uncooked beef. For cooked beef, the decrease in the ratio of radioactive cesium was significantly different among the types of cooking. The decrease ratio of radioactive cesium in boiled and stewed beef was 8 times higher than that in grilled and fried beef.

  8. Development of Catalytic Cooking Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden); Tena, Emmanuel; Berger, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2004-04-01

    Gas catalytic combustion for gas stoves or cooking plates (closed catalytic burner system with ceramic plates) is a very promising technique in terms of ease of cleaning, power modulation and emissions. Previous investigations show that wire mesh catalysts, prepared and supplied by Catator AB (CAT), seem to be very well suited for such applications. Beside significantly reducing the NOx-emissions, these catalysts offer important advantages such as good design flexibility, low pressure drop and high heat transfer capacity, where the latter leads to a quick thermal response. Prior to this project, Gaz de France (GdF) made a series of measurements with CAT's wire mesh catalysts in their gas cooking plates and compared the measured performance with similar results obtained with theirs cordierite monolith catalysts. Compared to the monolith catalyst, the wire mesh catalyst was found to enable very promising results with respect to both emission levels (<10 mg NO{sub x} /kWh, <5 mg CO/kWh) and life-time (>8000 h vs. 700 h at 200 kW/m{sup 2}). It was however established that the radiation and hence, the thermal efficiency of the cooking plate, was significantly less than is usually measured in combination with the monolith (15 % vs. 32 %). It was believed that the latter could be improved by developing new burner designs based on CAT's wire mesh concept. As a consequence, a collaboration project between GdF, CAT and the Swedish Gas Technology AB was created. This study reports on the design, the construction and the evaluation of new catalytic burners, based on CAT's wire mesh catalysts, used for the combustion of natural gas in gas cooking stoves. The evaluation of the burners was performed with respect to key factors such as thermal efficiency, emission quality and pressure drop, etc, by the use of theoretical simulations and experimental tests. Impacts of parameters such as the the wire mesh number, the wire mesh structure (planar or folded), the

  9. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  10. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bockki; Lee, Seung Mi; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Inglett, George E; Lee, Suyong

    2010-10-01

    With rising consumer awareness of obesity, the food industry has a market-driven impetus to develop low-fat or fat-free foods with acceptable taste and texture. Fancy buckwheat flour was thus subjected to steam jet-cooking and the performance of the resulting product in cake-baking was evaluated as a fat replacer. Steam jet-cooking caused structural breakdown and starch gelatinization of buckwheat flour, thus increasing its water hydration properties. In the pasting measurements, steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited high initial viscosity, while no peak viscosity was observed. Also, the suspensions of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited shear-thinning behaviors, which were well characterized by the power law model. When shortening in cakes was replaced with steam jet-cooked buckwheat gels, the specific gravity of cake batters significantly increased, consequently affecting cake volume after baking. However, shortening replacement with steam jet-cooked buckwheat up to 20% by weight appeared to be effective in producing cakes as soft as the control without volume loss. When buckwheat flour was thermomechanically modified by steam jet-cooking, it was successfully incorporated into cake formulations for shortening up to 20% by weight, producing low-fat cakes with comparable volume and textural properties to the control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  12. Fast Food in the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大龙

    2001-01-01

    The favorite food in the United States is the hamburger, a kind of round sandwich of cooked ground beef. The favorite place to buy a hamburger is a fast food restaurant. At fast food restaurants people order their food, wait a few minutes, and carry it to their tables themselves.

  13. Personal characteristics, cooking at home and shopping frequency influence consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; Lee, Yu-Sheng; O'Malley, Keelia; Luckett, Brian; Myers, Leann; Terrell, Leonetta; Amoss, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Erin; Stevenson, Peter T; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2017-06-01

    This study examines how the consumption of fruits and vegetables is affected by home cooking habits and shopping patterns, including distance to patronized stores and frequency of shopping, in two low-income predominantly African American urban neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. In-person interviews were conducted in 2013 with 901 adult residents who identified themselves as the primary household shopper. Respondents were asked where and how often they shopped and answered a food frequency questionnaire. Addresses were geocoded and distances to the stores where respondents shopped were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between food consumption and personal factors, neighborhood factors and shopping habits. Consumption of daily servings of fresh produce increased by 3% for each additional trip to a grocery store, by 76% for shopping at a farmer's market, and by 38% for preparing food at home. Each additional trip to a convenience store increased the frequency of consumption of chips, candy and pastries by 3%. The distance from residence to the type of store patronized was not associated with consumption of produce or chips, candy or pastries. Shopping at full-service grocery stores, farmer's markets and cooking at home were positively associated with the consumption of fresh produce while shopping at convenience stores was associated with increased consumption of chips, candy and pastries. These findings are useful for designing programmatic interventions to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption among residents in low-income urban communities.

  14. 食品3D打印技术引领烹饪方式与健康饮食新革命%Food 3D print technique leads to the new revolution of cooking way and healthy diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柳婧

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, food 3D print technique has progressed a lot, and it may enter into each family and become the new favorite. This paper describes the principles, advantages and current situation of 3D food print technology, analyzes its impactonthetraditionalwayoffoodprocessing,andmakesareasonableprospectonchangesofcookingway.%近年来食品3D打印技术在不断的发展前进,未来的食品3D打印机可能会进入每个家庭,成为厨房的新宠。本文阐述了食品3D打印技术的原理、现状和优势,分析了其对传统食品加工方式的影响,并对食品3D打印即将带来的烹饪方式变革作出合理展望。

  15. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking r...

  16. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a limit

  17. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  18. Hard-to-cook phenomenon in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubaiwa, Juliet; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Chidewe, Cathrine; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous legume crops are pivotal in providing proteins and food security to sub-Saharan African rural communities, but most of these crops are underutilized because of the so-called hard-to-cook (HTC) phenomenon in combination with inadequate processing techniques. This review studies the case

  19. Glycerol Esters from Real Waste Cooking Oil Using a Robust Solid Acid Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkatesh, S.; van Zwol, P.; Dimian, A.C.; Gitis, V.; Rothenberg, G.

    2014-01-01

    Notwithstanding the food-​for-​fuel debate, turning waste cooking oil and fat (WCO) into a valuable product is a classic example of green chem. We demonstrate that sulfated zirconia and lanthanum-​supported sulfated zirconia are good catalysts for the esterification of WCO free fatty acids (FFAs)

  20. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a

  1. Effects of cooking temperatures on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of chicken stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Bunch, Tucker; Shoemaker, Charles; Loss, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    As a base for sauces, soups, and cooking liquids for meats, grains, and vegetables, stocks can be integral to the overall quality of restaurant menu items, however, science-based studies on the effects of cooking methods on the physiochemical and sensory properties of stock are lacking. The effects of starting (22 °C, 85 °C, and 99 °C) and cooking temperatures (85 °C and 99 °C) of chicken stock on clarity, color, viscosity, protein content, amino acid content, mineral content, and overall liking were measured. Protein content and viscosity were significantly higher for stocks cooked at 99 °C, but no effect on amino acid content, color, or clarity was observed. Calcium concentration in stocks cooked at 99 °C was significantly (P professionals to develop more efficient techniques in the kitchen, and by product developers to optimize the overall quality and acceptance of stock. This work documents the effects of preparation method on the physical and chemical properties, and consumer acceptance of chicken stock. This information can be used by product developers, culinary scientists, and professional chefs to optimize stock-based products. Culinary educators can use this information to provide students with objective evidence-based rationale for the techniques underlying a celebrated culinary tradition. This is also an example of how research can facilitate collaboration between culinary and food science professionals. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Elimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in artificially contaminated eggs through correct cooking and frying procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dagostim Savi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a serious foodborne disease associated with the presence of bacteria in eggs or foods containing raw eggs. However, the use of appropriate procedures of cooking and frying can eliminate this contamination. There are few studies on the elimination of contamination of Salmonella in hens' eggs through typical frying procedures, especially for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or S. typhimurium. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate conditions for cooking and frying hens' eggs artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium, making them free of bacterial contamination. Hens' eggs were artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium and subjected to various processes of cooking, frying and food preparation. It was observed that the minimum time necessary to eliminate contamination through cooking procedures is 5 minutes after the water starts boiling, and also that, cooking in the microwave oven complete eliminates the bacterial contamination. When the eggs were fried on both sides, keeping the yolk hard, a complete bacterial elimination was observed. Mayonnaise prepared with vinegar presented a decrease in bacterial colonies when compared mayonese prepared with lemon.

  3. Increased advanced glycation end product specific fluorescence in repeatedly heated used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Anupriya; Bhatia, Alka; Ram, Anil Kumar; Goel, Sumit

    2017-07-01

    Repeated heating of cooking oils is known to cause their degradation and generation of toxins. Dietary Advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are formed when the foods are cooked in dry heat at very high temperatures. dAGEs are believed to contribute significantly to total pool of AGEs in body. In this study, cooking oil samples used for frying snacks were collected from 102 shops. AGEs were extracted using Aqueous-TCA-chloroform method. Fluorescent AGE levels were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and compared with AGEs in corresponding fresh oil samples collected from same shops. Palm oil was most commonly (62.5%) used for cooking. Most of the samples were subjected to several rounds of heating (1-6). AGE specific fluorescence (ASF) in used oil (range = 8.5-745.11) samples was found to be significantly higher in 88/102 as compared to the corresponding fresh oil samples. Treatment with inhibitors like lime concentrate and vitamin C decreased ASF (10/14 and 10/11 samples respectively) of the used oils. The results suggest that cooking oil subjected to repeated heating can contribute to increase in fluorescent AGEs in diet. Simple practices like liberal use of common household substances like lime concentrate may help to reduce these in fried food.

  4. The trans fatty acids content of selected foods in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akmar, Z D; Norhaizan, M E; Azimah, R; Azrina, A; Chan, Y M

    2013-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to determine the TFA content of bakery products, snacks, dairy products, fast foods, cooking oils and semisolid fats, and breakfast cereals and Malaysian fast foods...

  5. Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.

    2016-05-01

    Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling

  6. Food Safety for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how these foods have been cooked. If the server does not know the answer, ask to speak ... at Askkaren.gov and PregunteleaKaren.gov . Send e-mail inquiries to mphotline.fsis@usda.gov or submit ...

  7. Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain barley, bulgur, brown rice, wild rice, or quinoa. J Try whole-wheat pasta instead of regular ... whole-wheat couscous (a quick- cooking grain), or quinoa instead of white rice. Making smart food choices ...

  8. Energetic consequences of thermal and nonthermal food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Weintraub, Gil S; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-11-29

    Processing food extensively by thermal and nonthermal techniques is a unique and universal human practice. Food processing increases palatability and edibility and has been argued to increase energy gain. Although energy gain is a well-known effect from cooking starch-rich foods, the idea that cooking meat increases energy gain has never been tested. Moreover, the relative energetic advantages of cooking and nonthermal processing have not been assessed, whether for meat or starch-rich foods. Here, we describe a system for characterizing the energetic effects of cooking and nonthermal food processing. Using mice as a model, we show that cooking substantially increases the energy gained from meat, leading to elevations in body mass that are not attributable to differences in food intake or activity levels. The positive energetic effects of cooking were found to be superior to the effects of pounding in both meat and starch-rich tubers, a conclusion further supported by food preferences in fasted animals. Our results indicate significant contributions from cooking to both modern and ancestral human energy budgets. They also illuminate a weakness in current food labeling practices, which systematically overestimate the caloric potential of poorly processed foods.

  9. Improving patients' home cooking - A case series of participation in a remote culinary coaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rani; Pober, David M; Budd, Maggi A; Silver, Julie K; Phillips, Edward M; Abrahamson, Martin J

    2017-08-01

    This case series describes and examines the outcomes of a remote culinary coaching program aimed at improving nutrition through home cooking. Participants (n = 4) improved attitudes about the perceived ease of home cooking (p < 0.01) and self-efficacy to perform various culinary skills (p = 0.02); and also improved in confidence to continue online learning of culinary skills and consume healthier food. We believe this program might be a viable response to the need for effective and scalable health-related culinary interventions.

  10. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh as compared with some conventional methods, i.e. boiling, pressure and roasting

  11. CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations: "Cook"ed to perfection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN celebrated its 60th anniversary with a gala celebration. Hundreds of CERN staff members and users, dignitaries from CERN Member States and representatives of international organisations filled the marquee for a ceremony featuring speeches as well as music from the EU Youth Orchestra. CERN Recruitment Unit section leader Anna Cook was called in at the last minute to host the ceremony.   Anna had just got back from a run on her day off when she got the call. On the line CERN60 project leader Sascha Schmeling, Globe manager Bernard Pellequer and video editor Jacques Fichet had a problem. French-Swiss journalist Darius Rochebin, who had been pegged to host CERN's 60th anniversary ceremony, had been forced to cancel at the last minute, just three days before the event. Would Anna host the celebration – a ceremony to be attended by hundreds and broadcast around the world for all to see? After asking whether it was a joke, she said: “OK, I&rsquo...

  12. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...

  13. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1958 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1958, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  14. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1956 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1956, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  15. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1954 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1954, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  16. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1957 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1957, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  17. Annual report, Cook Inlet District, 1959 season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Cook Inlet and Resurrection Bay for 1959, including lists of operators and extensive statistics.

  18. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  19. 2015 Cook & Tift County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Tift and Cook Counties GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task NOAA Contract No. EA133C-11-CQ-0010 Woolpert Order No. 75271...

  20. 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home 1. Clean Always wash your food, hands, counters and cooking tools. • Wash hands in warm soapy water for ... microwave • Marinate foods in the fridge. OVER 2012 Food Safety at Home Why should you care about food ...

  1. Burden of diseases estimates associated to different red meat cooking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Poulsen, Morten; Nauta, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    , affected population, intake and dose–response data are obtained by literature survey. The selected endpoints are four types of cancer: colorectal, prostate, breast and pancreatic. The burden of disease per cooking practice, endpoint, sex and age is estimated in the Danish population, using disability......The burden of disease estimate has been performed for diseases attributable to nutritional deficiency, foodborne pathogens, the environment, infection and other factors. However, the burden of disease estimate attributable to different food processing practices has not been investigated before....... The aim of this study is to compare the burden of disease estimate attributed to red meat consumption processed using different cooking practices.The red meat cooking practices were categorized into three: (A) barbecuing/grilling; (B) frying/broiling and (C) roasting/baking. The associated endpoints...

  2. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Physico-Chemical and Quality Attributes of Eggplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthumporn Utra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two types of eggplants (Solanum melongena L., Chinese Eggplant and Indian Eggplant were cooked at three different cooking methods including frying, grilling and superheated steam (SHS. The objective of this research was to discover the effect of different cooking methods on the quality attributes of eggplant in terms of the physico-chemical properties, antioxidant properties and overall acceptability. The conditions for frying and grilling were set at 170°C for 7 minutes meanwhile; two parameters were used in SHS including 170°C for 7 minutes and 220°C at 15 minutes as the optimum conditions. SHS gives highest results in terms of physicochemical properties and antioxidant properties but frying methods gain high scores for the overall acceptability. Based on the results it can be concluded that even though SHS gives healthier and better results of the eggplant, but, texture, taste and aroma will influence on the acceptability of the final food products.

  3. [Study on the chemical compositions of VOCs emitted by cooking oils based on GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Tian, Gang; Li, Jing; Shao, Xia; Wang, Min-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in air, and the differences in the compositions of VOCs lead to their different contribution to atmospheric reaction. Cooking oil fume is one of the important sources of atmospheric VOCs, and its chemical compositions are distinct under different conditions of oil types, food types, cooking methods and heating temperatures etc. In this study, the production of cooking oil fume was simulated by heating typical pure vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil and blend oil) at different temperatures in beakers to investigate the chemical compositions of VOCs. The emitted VOCs were sampled with a Tenax adsorption tube and analyzed using GC-MS after thermal desorption. According to spectral library search and map analysis, using area normalized semi-quantitative method, preliminary qualitative and quantitative tests were conducted for the specific components of VOCs under different conditions.

  4. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Physico-Chemical and Structural Characteristics of Vegetables Cooked Under Sous-Vide, Cook-Vide, and Conventional Boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; García Segovia, Purificación; Martínez Monzó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In this paper, physico-chemical and structural properties of cut and cooked purple-flesh potato, green bean pods, and carrots have been studied. Three different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking (boiling water at 100 °C), cook-vide (at 80 and 90 °C) and sous-vide (at 80 °C and 90 °C). Similar firmness was obtained in potato applying the same cooking time using traditional cooking (100 °C), and cook-vide and sous-vide at 90 °C, while in green beans and carrots the app...

  6. Evaluation of thermal treatment markers in wheat flour-derived products cooked in conventional and in low-emissivity ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Corradini, Claudio; Massini, Roberto

    2013-10-15

    Different markers for the assessment of thermal treatment entity of food products were investigated on a model bread prepared from wheat flour. Samples were submitted to different cooking procedures by combining three different times and temperatures, and employing two different ovens: a low-emissivity oven and a conventional one. The cook value index was calculated for each sample to evaluate the entity of the thermal treatment. Furosine, maltose:maltulose ratio, colour indexes (L, a, b) have been evaluated in all samples. Furosine has been quantified by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, maltose:maltulose ratio was determined by HPAEC-PAD, colour indexes were measured by spectrophotometer method. Values for weight loss during cooking and surface temperature have also been monitored. A statistical analysis showed good correlation between the cook value index and all the parameters evaluated. Low emissivity oven shown higher performances and lower energy consumption than conventional oven. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Blogging For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Senyei, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Bloggers and foodies everywhere will want this full-color book The only thing better than cooking and eating is talking about it! Combine your two loves—food and blogging—with this ultimate guide for food bloggers everywhere. Food Blogging For Dummies shows you how to join the blogosphere with your own food blog. This unique guide covers everything: how to identify your niche, design your site, find your voice, and create mouthwatering visuals of your best recipes and menus using dazzling lighting and effects. You'll learn how to optimize your blog for search, connect with social m

  8. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Hempel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15% was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa (30% CO2/70% N2 settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days. This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS, bacon slices (BA, and meat and potato pies (PP. Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

  9. Food Applications and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  10. [Customer satisfaction study in two roman hospitals: comparison between "cook & serve" and "cook & chill"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perata, E; Ferrari, P; Tarsitani, G

    2005-01-01

    We studied patient's satisfaction rate for hospital dishes comparing "cook & chill" method with "cook & serve". As principal instrument we used a comparative questionnaire, anonymous and self-compiled, which is able to evaluate the differences of customer satisfaction's rate between the two methods.

  11. Implementation of a Cooking Bus Intervention to Support Cooking in Schools in Wales, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrott, Jeremy; Holliday, Jo; Murphy, Simon; Macdonald, Sarah; Roberts, Joan; Moore, Laurence; Phillips, Ceri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The teaching of cooking is an important aspect of school-based efforts to promote healthy diets among children, and is frequently done by external agencies. Within a limited evidence base relating to cooking interventions in schools, there are important questions about how interventions are integrated within school settings. The purpose…

  12. Condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, NR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available the quantity and profile of condensed tannins in traditional wet-cooked and modern ready-to-eat extrusion-cooked sorghum porridges. CT were analyzed using normal-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection and their content was compared to CT and total phenols...

  13. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    a lot of energy into shopping and cooking, both of which are highly planned. These food consumers go after high quality natural product keep a watchful eye on prices. 9. The enthusiastic food consumers, followed by the rational food consumers, care most about ecology, animal welfare and genetic......Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European...... food consumers, however, they are also very conservative, both in their choice and use of food. 3. Spanish food consumers can be divided into five segments, which differ both in the way they use food and in the importance it has for their attainment of central life values. The segments can only...

  14. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour.

  15. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  16. Cooking aesthetics and lunch discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of children in developed democracies eat at least one meal a day in an institutional context, such as in school, but research about the ways in which school contexts influence children’s perception of food is limited. This paper analyzes how two very different contexts shape the...

  17. Extrusion cooking, craft or science?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1992-01-01

    It is not longer ago than the seventies when a food extruder was described as a piece of equipment, consisting out of a barrel and one or two screws. The function of the extruder was believed to receive an agricultural product, to transport it from a feed section to a screw metering section over

  18. Experimental investigation of novel indirect solar cooker with indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, H.M.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [Solar Energy Department, National Research Centre, El-Behooth Street, Dokki, 12622 Giza (Egypt); Nada, S.A. [Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, High Institute of Technology, Benha University, Benha 13512 (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    In the present study, a novel indirect solar cooker with outdoor elliptical cross section, wickless heat pipes, flat-plate solar collector and integrated indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit is designed, constructed and tested under actual meteorological conditions of Giza, Egypt. Two plane reflectors are used to enhance the insolation falling on the cooker's collector, while magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (T{sub m} = 89 C, latent heat of fusion 134 kJ/kg) is used as the PCM inside the indoor cooking unit of the cooker. It is found that the average daily enhancement in the solar radiation incident on the collector surface by the south and north facing reflectors is about 24%. Different experiments have been performed on the solar cooker without load and with different loads at different loading times to study the possibility of benefit from the virtues of the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipes and PCMs in indirect solar cookers to cook food at noon and evening and to keep food warm at night and in early morning. The results indicate that the present solar cooker can be used successfully for cooking different kinds of meals at noon, afternoon and evening times, while it can be used for heating or keeping meals hot at night and early morning. (author)

  19. Physicochemical changes in the hull of corn grains during their alkaline cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Regino; Reguera, Edilso; Mendoza, Leobardo; Figueroa, Juan Manuel; Sánchez-Sinencio, Feliciano

    2004-06-16

    The alkaline cooking of corn in a solution of Ca(OH)2 to produce corn-based foods is oriented to make corn proteins available, to incorporate Ca to the cooked grains, and also to remove the corn hull. This process (nixtamalization) is known in Mexico and Guatemala from prehispanic times; however, the effect of the alkaline cooking on the corn hull remains poorly documented. In this work, the physicochemical changes that take place in the corn hull during its cooking in a saturated solution of Ca(OH)2 were studied using infrared, X-ray diffraction, 13C cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR, confocal imaging microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry techniques. The main effect of this treatment on the hull is the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin, increasing the hull permeability and, as a consequence, facilitating the entry of the alkaline solution into the corn kernel. No significant changes were observed in the cellulose fiber network, which remains as native cellulose I, with a crystalline index, according to 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra, of 0.60. The alkaline treatment does not allow the cellulose fibers to swell and their regeneration in the form of cellulose(II). It seems any attempt to make use of the Ca binding capacity of the hull to increase the Ca availability in nixtamalized corn-based foods requires a separated treatment for the hull and kernel. On alkaline cooking, the hull hemicellulose fraction dissolves, losing its ability to bind Ca as a way to incorporate this element into foods elaborated from nixtamalized corn.

  20. Evaluation of the “Eat Better Feel Better” Cooking Programme to Tackle Barriers to Healthy Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada L. Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a 6-week community-based cooking programme, “Eat Better Feel Better”, aimed at tackling barriers to cooking and healthy eating using a single-group repeated measures design. 117 participants enrolled, 62 completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires, and 17 completed these and a 3–4 months follow-up questionnaire. Most participants were female, >45 years, and socioeconomically deprived. Confidence constructs changed positively from baseline to post-intervention (medians, scale 1 “not confident” to 7 “very confident”: “cooking using raw ingredients” (4, 6 p < 0.003, “following simple recipe” (5, 6 p = 0.003, “planning meals before shopping” (4, 5 p = <0.001, “shopping on a budget (4, 5 p = 0.044, “shopping healthier food” (4, 5 p = 0.007, “cooking new foods” (3, 5 p < 0.001, “cooking healthier foods” (4, 5 p = 0.001, “storing foods safely” (5, 6 p = 0.002; “using leftovers” (4, 5 p = 0.002, “cooking raw chicken” (5, 6 p = 0.021, and “reading food labels” (4, 5 p < 0.001. “Microwaving ready-meals” decreased 46% to 39% (p = 0.132. “Preparing meals from scratch” increased 48% to 59% (p = 0.071. Knowledge about correct portion sizes increased 47% to 74% (p = 0.002. Spending on ready-meals/week decreased. Follow-up telephone interviewees (n = 42 reported developing healthier eating patterns, spending less money/wasting less food, and preparing more meals/snacks from raw ingredients. The programme had positive effects on participants’ cooking skills confidence, helped manage time, and reduced barriers of cost, waste, and knowledge.

  1. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hoffman; Mariette Gerber

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanist...

  2. Comparative Study on Histopatological and Histomorphometric Effect of Raw and Cooked Garlic on Spermatogenesis in Testis and Epidydims of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khadijeh bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: The present study aims at studying two forms of raw and cooked garlic to identify the effect of this plant on the amount of change in histopatological of spermatogenesis of wistar rat.Materials & Methods: 40 male rats were divided into five equal groups (4 treatment 1 control group the first and second treatment were received palete food consisted of 5% and 15% of raw garlic every day. The third and fourth reatment were received palete food consisted of 5%and 15% of cooked garlic as a food . The control group received standard palete food every day in a month. Finally,the testis were taken out of stomach and after preparing tissue and coloring, they were gone under microscopic studies. Thence, the data were analyzed using SPSS and Duncan test.Results: The study indicated that the amount of sexual cells in the group having cook garlic for 15% compared with that of controlled group had a significant increase and the amount of sexual cells in the group using raw garlic as a food had a significant decrease compared with that of the controlled group.Conclusion: Prescription of cooked garlic has an influence on Proliferation of sexual cells in testicular tubules and epidydymes and so increased spermatogenesis in this group in caparison with the control group. However, prescribing raw garlic has harmful effects on tissue of testis and process of spermatogenes in empric compared with the control group.

  3. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Kushiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.

  4. Normalising convenience food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    habits among Danes aged 20–25. The article presents two types of empirical patterns. The first types of patterns are the degree to which and the different ways in which convenience food is normalised to use among the young Danes. The second types of patterns are the normative places of convenient food......The construction of convenience food as a social and cultural category for food provisioning, cooking and eating seems to slide between or across understandings of what is considered “proper food” in the existing discourses in everyday life and media. This article sheds light upon some...... of the social and cultural normativities around convenience food by describing the ways in which convenience food forms part of the daily life of young Danes. Theoretically, the article is based on a practice theoretical perspective. Empirically, the article builds upon a qualitative research project on food...

  5. Cooking on Slovene national television during socialism: an overview of cooking programmes from 1960 to 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tominc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief historical overview of cooking programmes broadcast on TV Ljubljana between 1960 and 1990 that were mainly produced in Slovenia. From the famous chef Ivan Ivačič in the early 1960s through “Vegeta’s kitchen” in the 1970s to a children’s cooking show, Lonček, kuhaj [Little pot, cook!] in 1990, I analyse the contents of these shows and demonstrate their thematic variation. I also place them in their historical context, especially in terms of socialist television. Cooking shows, which were not only a source of knowledge about new equipment, ingredients and cooking techniques, also revealed to the audience during socialism a different lifestyle, tastes and manners, making television one of the important contributors to the idea of the community, either as a class or nation. Despite this, compared to contemporary cooking shows, the genre of the time remains directed towards education, a feature generally not dissimilar to cooking shows in non-socialist contexts.

  6. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries.

  7. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    Furan is formed in canned, jarred or browned food items. As furan is carcinogenic in animal experiments, attention has been drawn to the presence in commercial and home-cooked foods. The formation of furan in home cooked foods were studied as well as the stability of furan during cooking, saving...... and reheating of meals. In addition the occurrence of furan in some commercially dried and browned food products were determined. Several recipes of European homemade food were prepared but in most cases fortunately furan was not found. I few exceptions were e.g. apple pie (133 ng/g furan in the rasp) and tea...... buns with raisins (83 ng/g furan in the raisins). The influence on heating and reheating of ready to eat foods like different soups, baked beans and vegetable meals known to contain furan, showed that heating roughly reduced the furan level to half the initial level and reheating reduced the level...

  8. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  9. Effects of extrusion processing on nutrients in dry pet food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Extrusion cooking is commonly used to produce dry pet foods. As a process involving heat treatment, extrusion cooking can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the nutritional quality of the product. Desirable effects of extrusion comprise increase in palatability, destruction of

  10. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  11. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-10-15

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking rice with arsenic-contaminated water also increases arsenic burden in cooked rice. Inorganic arsenic is the main species of S and SE Asian rice (80 to 91% of the total arsenic), and the concentration of this toxic species is increased in cooked rice from inorganic arsenic-rich cooking water. The people of Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), the arsenic hot spots in the world, eat an average of 450g rice a day. Therefore, in addition to drinking water, dietary intake of arsenic from rice is supposed to be another potential source of exposure, and to be a new disaster for the population of S and SE Asian countries. Arsenic speciation in raw and cooked rice, its bioavailability and the possible health hazard of inorganic arsenic in rice for the population of S and SE Asia have been discussed in this review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A qualitative evaluation of UC CalFresh Plan, Shop, Save, Cook curriculum reveals additional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Nicoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available UC ANR Cooperative Extension (UCCE conducted six focus groups in 2013 with CalFresh-eligible adults to determine how to improve the existing evaluation method for the Plan, Shop, Save, Cook nutrition education classes. Focus group participants (n = 54 cited many behavior changes that are captured by the existing method. During the focus groups, changes in cooking practices and types of food purchased emerged as two domains that are not currently captured. A small pilot study conducted on 22 of the 54 focus group participants suggests that using a telephone interview to survey participants is a feasible and practical approach to collect follow-up data on long-term behavior changes. More rigorous follow-up studies may guide the development of policies aimed at increasing diet quality and food security of adult CalFresh participants.

  13. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Anhong; Pan Chongdao; Xiao Deyan; Hou Hong

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking. It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly, accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment, which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  14. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Kerr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets. After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted.

  15. Factors Influencing Adoption and Implementation of Cooking with Kids, an Experiential School-Based Nutrition Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diker, Ann; Walters, Lynn M.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Baker, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine factors leading to adoption and implementation of nutrition education curricula. Data from two Web-based surveys (n = 313) and 27 interviews were used to explore how Diffusion of Innovations' perceived attributes contributed to adoption and implementation of Cooking with Kids (CWK) food and nutrition…

  16. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  17. Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

  18. "Savoir Fare": Are Cooking Skills a New Morality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John; Begley, Andrea; Gallegos, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in cooking skills in a diverse range of fields, such as health, education and public policy. There appears to be an assumption that cooking skills are in decline and that this is having an adverse impact on individual health and well-being, and family wholesomeness. The problematisation of cooking skills…

  19. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power for cooking and heating. 129.550 Section 129.550... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for cooking and heating must be suitable for marine use. Equipment designed and installed to comply with...

  20. Estimation of glycaemic index of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) cooked fruits and chips, and pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Gin; Gómez, Georgina; Pérez, Ana M; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of a food's potential to increase postprandial blood glucose, as compared to the effect produced by food taken as reference, such as glucose or white bread. Currently researchers and consumers are interested in low GI foods, since their consumption is associated with better weight control and reduced risk of incidence of chronic diseases, like diabetes. In the present study, the GI value for peach palm cooked fruit, peach palm chips and pitahaya pulp was estimated. The methodology established by the FAO/WHO for determining the GI of food was used. A total of 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers were selected and they ingested the fore mentioned foods on different occasions, in 25 g portions of available carbohydrates, after 12-14 h overnight fast. Blood glucose levels were measured in 30 min intervals up to 120 min after ingestion. Average GI value was 48 +/- 11 for the pitahaya pulp and 35 +/- 6 for the peach palm cooked fruit, which may be classified as low glyceamic index foods. The GI of peach palm chips was 60 +/- 7, corresponding to a food with a moderate GI. The processing for producing the chips caused an increase in the GI value when compared to the cooked fruit, probably because the stages of miIling, moulding and baking promote availability of starch during hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes.

  1. Effect of temperatures on the growth, toxin production, and heat resistance of Bacillus cereus in cooked rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ding, Tian; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is capable of producing enterotoxin and emetic toxin, and Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to the consumption of food contaminated with endospores. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth and toxin production of B. cereus in cooked rice and to determine the effect of temperature on toxin destruction. Cooked rice inoculated with B. cereus was stored at 15, 25, 35, and 45°C or treated at 80, 90, and 100°C. The results indicated that emetic toxin was produced faster than enterotoxin (which was not detected below 15°C) at all the storage temperatures (15-45°C) during the first 72 h. Emetic toxin persisted at 100°C for 2 h, although enterotoxin was easily to be destroyed by this treatment within 15 min. In addition, B. cereus in cooked rice stored at a warm temperature for a period was not inactivated due to survival of the thermostable endospores. These data indicate that the contaminated cooked rice with B. cereus might present a potential risk to consumers. Results from this study may help enhance the safety of such food, and provide valuable and reliable information for risk assessment and management, associated with the problem of B. cereus in cooked rice.

  2. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  3. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  4. Food nanotechnology: water is the key to lowering the energy density of processed foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    International audience; It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid processed food similar to a celery stalk using self-assembled, water-filled, edible nanocells or nanotubes would substantially lower its energy density (

  5. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, G; Liuzzi, V.; M. Faccia; G. Alviti; G. Cacace; A. Di Luccia

    2011-01-01

    The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel) accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, ...

  6. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil).

  7. Effects of Leached Amylose and Amylopectin in Rice Cooking Liquidon Texture and Structure of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of leached amylose (AM and amylopectin (AP on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice were investigated separately by replacing cooking liquid with AM and AP separated from pouring cooking liquid. The pouring of cooking water reduced the hardness (from 28.45 to 19.42N and stickiness (from 1.74 to 1.19N·s significantly. However, the addition of AM and AP enhanced the hardness (27.63N and stickiness (1.71N·s.Scanning electron microscopy show that the leached short-chain AM entered the surface hollows in the cooked rice after water evaporation. Meanwhile, the Long-chain AM cross-linked to formed a three-dimensional network structures, which covered on the filled hollows. This distribution led to a harder texture of cooked rice. The leached AP absorbed water and swelledto form masses. Atthe gelatinization temperature,theAPmassesagglomeratedtoformafilmlayer,whichcoveredtheunevenstructure, the thicker and smoother film contributed to the sticky texture.

  8. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, then cooked and after cooled and packed. The meat cooking is the last step in the cooked sausage production technology, and let us obtain a stable and eatable product. The effect of the heat and the lenght of processing are the main responsibles for modifications in water- and salt-soluble protein fractions. Indeed myofibrils denature themselves after cooking and consequently their solubility decreases; particularly the denaturation begins over 30°C in the myosin chain, instead the actin solubility begins to decrease over 60°C, being the actin more stable than myosin (Barbieri et al., 1997...

  9. Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modulate renal genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón G; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Guzman-Maldonado, Horacio S; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-07-01

    Food consumption with different bioactive compounds could reduce the risk of diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cooked common beans on differentially expressed genes in whole kidney homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After 4weeks of treatment with a cooked bean supplemented (10%) diet, animals fed with Flor de Mayo bean (FMB) exerted the greatest protective effect, since they presented the lowest blood glucose levels, consistent with an increase in blood insulin levels, a decrease in urine albumin and urea levels and an increase in creatinine clearance (P≤.05). Regarding the gene expression of kidneys evaluated using expressed sequence tag, consumption of cooked beans improved the expression of Glu1, Cps1, Ipmk, Cacna1c, Camk1, Pdhb, Ptbp3 and Pim1, which are related to the elimination of ammonium groups, the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative response, as well as cell signaling and apoptosis. In addition, the beneficial effects observed were not related to their polyphenolic and saponin profile, suggesting the activity of other bioactive compounds or the synergistic interaction of these compounds. These results suggest that the consumption of cooked common beans (FMB) might be used as an alternative for the regulation of genes related to renal alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between Mutations of the Pectin Methylesterase Gene in Soybean and the Hardness of Cooked Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kyoko; Hirata, Kaori; Masuda, Ryoichi; Yasui, Takeshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Nagaya, Taiko; Hajika, Makita

    2015-10-14

    Hardness of cooked soybeans [Glycine max (L). Merr.] is an important attribute in food processing. We found one candidate gene, Glyma03g03360, to be associated with the hardness of cotyledons of cooked soybeans, based on a quantitative trait locus and fine-scale mapping analyses using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Japanese cultivars, "Natto-shoryu" and "Hyoukei-kuro 3". Analysis of the DNA sequence of Glyma03g03360, a pectin methylesterase gene homologue, revealed three patterns of mutations, two of which result in truncated proteins and one of which results in an amino acid substitution. The truncated proteins are presumed to lack the enzymatic activity of Glyma03g03360. We classified 24 cultivars into four groups based on the sequence of Glyma03g03360. The texture analysis using the 22 cultivars grown in different locations indicated that protein truncation of Glyma03g03360 resulted in softer cotyledons of cooked soybeans, which was further confirmed by texture analysis performed using F2 populations of a cross between "Enrei" and "LD00-3309", and between "Satonohohoemi" and "Sakukei 98". A positive correlation between hardness and calcium content implies the possible effect of calcium binding to pectins on the hardness of cooked soybean cotyledons.

  11. Role of Chinese cooking emissions on ambient air quality and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Stevanovic, Svetlana; Ristovski, Zoran; Salimi, Farhad; Gao, Jun; Wang, Hongli; Li, Li

    2017-07-01

    Chinese-style cooking often involves volatilization of oils which can potentially produce a large number of pollutants, which have adverse impact on environment and human health. Therefore, we have reviewed 75 published studies associated with research topic among Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, involving studies on the roles of food ingredients and oil type, cooking style impacting on generated pollutants, and human health. The highest concentration occurred including: 1) when peat, wood, and raw coal were used in stoves; 2) olive oil was adopted; 3) cooking with high temperatures; and 4) without cleaning technology. We conclude that PM concentrations for cooking emissions were between 0.14 and 24.46mg/cm(3). VOC concentrations varied from 0.35 to 3.41mg/m(3). Barbeque produced the greatest mass concentrations compared to Sichuan cuisine, canteen and other restaurants. The PAHs concentration emitted from the exhaust stacks, dining area and kitchen ranged from 0.0175μg/m(3) to 83μg/m(3). The largest amount of gaseous pollutants emitted was recorded during incomplete combustion of fuel or when a low combustion efficiency (CO2/ (CO+CO2)impacts on the environment and human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Furosine as an index of heat treatment intensity in meat products: Its application to cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, C; Spagnolello, A

    1997-06-01

    Furosine, a product of acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds, has been proposed as an index of the heat treament intensity in various food products. In this paper we suggest furosine as an index of heat treatment in pork-meat products as well. Furosine is not detectable in fresh raw pork muscle and in injected tumbled pork muscle, the latter being used for the production of cooked ham. Activation energy of furosine formation in raw muscle and tumbled muscle, in the temperature range of 70 °-90 °C, was 79.2 kJ/mole and 81.7 kJ/mole, respectively. Furosine concentration was assessed in cooked hams whose time-temperature profiles, with reference to the cooking and cooling processes, were well known, thus enabling the verification of the feasibility of its use in the evaluation of heat damage. The good correlation between the values found during this investigation and the values foreseen by kinetic calculation confirms that furosine can be used as an index of heat treatment intensity in the production of cooked ham.

  13. Prevalence and patterns of cooking dinner at home in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Long, Judith A; Harhay, Michael O; Polsky, Daniel E; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of cooking dinner at home in the USA and test whether home dinner preparation habits are associated with socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, country of birth and family structure. Cross-sectional analysis. The primary outcome, self-reported frequency of cooking dinner at home, was divided into three categories: 0-1 dinners cooked per week ('never'), 2-5 ('sometimes') and 6-7 ('always'). We used bivariable and multivariable regression analyses to test for associations between frequency of cooking dinner at home and factors of interest. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample consisted of 10 149 participants. Americans reported cooking an average of five dinners per week; 8 % never, 43 % sometimes and 49 % always cooked dinner at home. Lower household wealth and educational attainment were associated with a higher likelihood of either always or never cooking dinner at home, whereas wealthier, more educated households were more likely to sometimes cook dinner at home (P dinners at home (mean = 4·4, 95 % CI 4·2, 4·6). Households with foreign-born reference persons cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·8, 95 % CI 5·7, 6·0) than households with US-born reference persons (mean = 4·9, 95 % CI 4·7, 5·1). Households with dependants cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·2, 95 % CI 5·1, 5·4) than households without dependants (mean = 4·6, 95 % CI 4·3, 5·0). Home dinner preparation habits varied substantially with socio-economic status and race/ethnicity, associations that likely will have implications for designing and appropriately tailoring interventions to improve home food preparation practices and promote healthy eating.

  14. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  15. Evaluating energy efficiency and emissions of charred biomass used as a fuel for household cooking in rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Nemer

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa a large share of the energy use utilize biomass as a fuel. In some countries more than 90 percent of the energy use is biomass. This energy is primarily used for cooking, heating and drying. Cooking food on an open fire or using a traditional stove will combust the firewood inefficiently and leads to pollution in the form of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and other hazardous pollutants. Indoor pollution has serious health effects and especially women and children ar...

  16. Evaluating energy efficiency and emissions of charred biomass used as a fuel for household cooking in rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Nemer

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa a large share of the energy use utilize biomass as a fuel. In some countries more than 90 percent of the energy use is biomass. This energy is primarily used for cooking, heating and drying. Cooking food on an open fire or using a traditional stove will combust the firewood inefficiently and leads to pollution in the form of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and other hazardous pollutants. Indoor pollution has serious health effects and especially women and children ar...

  17. Physico-chemical, textural and structural characteristics of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by vacuum, cooking temperature, and cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Gázquez, Antonio; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the influence of different factors on sous-vide cooked pork. Pork cheeks were cooked at different combinations of temperature (60°C or 80°C), time (5 or 12h) and vacuum (vacuum or air packaged). Weight losses were lower and moisture content higher in samples cooked for a shorter time (P=0.054) and at a lower temperature (PVacuum packaging showed no influence on any of the studied variables. For the treatments evaluated, cooking temperature×time combination seems to be more important than vacuum packaging in the textural and colour parameters of pork cheeks.

  18. Efficacy of Combined Sous Vide-Microwave Cooking for Foodborne Pathogen Inactivation in Ready-to-Eat Chicory Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Massimiliano; Gonnella, Maria; de Candia, Silvia; Serio, Francesco; Baruzzi, Federico

    2017-07-01

    There is a variety of different food processing methods, which can be used to prepare ready-to-eat foods. However, the need to preserve the freshness and nutritional qualities leads to the application of mild technologies which may be insufficient to inactivate microbial pathogens. In this work, fresh chicory stems were packed under a vacuum in films, which were transparent to microwaves. These were then exposed to microwaves for different periods of time. The application of sous vide microwave cooking (SV-MW, 900 W, 2450 MHz), controlled naturally occurring mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds for up to 30 d when vacuum-packed vegetables were stored at 4 °C. In addition, the process lethality of the SV-MW 90 s cooking was experimentally validated. This treatment led to 6.07 ± 0.7 and 4.92 ± 0.65 log cfu/g reduction of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated over the chicory stems (100 g), respectively. With an initial load of 9 log cfu/g for both pathogens, less than 10 cfu/g of surviving cells were found after 90 s cooking. This shows that short-time microwave cooking can be used to effectively pasteurize vacuum-packed chicory stems, achieving >5 log cfu/g reduction of E. coli and L. monocytogenes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Homestyle quick-cooking rice meal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Basman, Irenei Camila V; Tinsay, Cathrina B; Tasarra, Christy G

    2002-01-01

    The study developed processes for quick-cooking rice meal products (QCRMP) paella and bringhe originally based on homestyle recipes. These QCRMPs consisted of basal quick-cooking waxy Malagkit Sungsong and non-waxy irrigated rice (IR) 42 Philippine rice cultivars, dehydrated vegetables, textured vegetable proteins (TVPs) as meat analogs, and seasonings. The rehydrated QCRMP paella and bringhe were found to be more acceptable than their conventionally prepared counterparts at 5% level of significance based on results of sensory acceptability evaluation by 50 consumer panelists. Improvement of the sensory attributes of the QCRMPs was ascribed to the use of alternate concentrates and powdered ingredients which imparted more intense flavors to the developed products than their fresh counterparts.

  20. Effect of dehulling, germination and cooking on nutrients, anti-nutrients, fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties in lentil (Lens culinaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, R S; Bhartiya, Anuradha; Yadav, Pradhuman; Kant, Lakshmi; Mishra, K K; Aditya, J P; Pattanayak, A

    2017-03-01

    The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of lentil flour after dehulling, germination and cooking of seeds were investigated. Dehulling showed no significant effect on protein content, however, protein content decreased in most of the varieties after germination and cooking. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly after dehulling (2.0-41.64 %) and cooking (2.08-31.07 %) whereas, germination had no significant effect on TSS content. Total lipids increased significantly after dehulling (21.56-42.86 %) whereas, it decreased significantly after germination (2.97-26.52 %) and cooking (23.05-58.63 %). Cooking was more effective than other methods in reducing trypsin inhibitors (80.51-85.41 %). Dehulling was most effective in reducing tannins (89.46-92.99 %) and phytic acid (52.63-60.00 %) content over raw seed. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid content decreased while linolenic acid content increased after dehulling. Dehulling, germination and cooking decreased the content of antioxidant metabolite (gallic acid, catechin and quercetin) and also antioxidant activities. Raw samples followed by germinated samples showed the highest concentrations of phytochemicals responsible for antioxidant activity and also the antioxidant capacities. Present study showed germination and cooking would be useful in formulation and development of lentil based functional foods for human health benefits.

  1. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  2. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer. A work...... further user attention. The EffiCooker also may replace many other kitchen appliances, e. g. steamer, rice cooker, double boiler, chocolate melter, deep fat fryer, etc....

  3. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  4. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full...

  5. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapriya, K C; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T

    2015-10-30

    The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO2(2+), the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO2(2+) with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO2(NO3)2·6H2O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO2(s), both of which exist as UO2(2+) in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and without NaCl affected the extent of chemical interaction but was not consistent with the carbohydrate content. Uranium interaction with D-mannose monitored through ESI-MS, under optimized instrumental parameters, identified the peaks corresponding to uranyl adduct with mannose monomer, dimer and trimer and the species were confirmed by MS/MS studies. The product ion mass spectra showed peaks illustrating water loss from the parent ion as the collision energy was increased, an evidence for the strong interaction of uranium with mannose. This study would constitute the essential background for understanding interaction of uranium with various foods. Extension of this work would involve identification of foodstuff as green heavy metal scavengers.

  6. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qajarbeygi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  7. Exposure to cooking oil fumes and oxidative damages: a longitudinal study in Chinese military cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes (COF) contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde, which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to COF and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient (β), β=0.06, 95% CI 0.001-0.12) and (β=0.07, 95% CI 0.001-0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  8. Change in Localizations of Arsenic in Rice Grains After Cooking with High Arsenic Waters - µXRF and XANES studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S.; Ryan, B.; Kumar, N.; Bortz, T.; Bolen, Z. T.

    2016-12-01

    Threats of Arsenic (As) through food uptake, via consumption of rice, is a potential pathway that presents a concern not only for the millions of inhabitants who reside in river valleys and irrigate their soil with contaminated water, but the global rice market as well. This study focuses on high As rice from India and Bangladesh grown in such soils, and the effect of boiling rice with As-contaminated water in preparation for dietary intake. Husked and unhusked rice grains were boiled with >500 µg/L As-bearing water from the field to simulate local cooking methods. The resulting cooked water was analyzed using iCAP low limit detection via ICP-MS to understand the changes in dissolved elemental concentrations before and after cooking, and HPLC was introduced to measure for changes in As speciation in the waters. Using spectroscopic methods such as µXRF mapping associated with µXANES, distribution/localization and speciation changes of As in rice grains were identified. Further, with Linear Combination Fitting (LCF) of XANES spectra utilizing relevant reference compounds (As-S, AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA), organic and inorganic As species were able to be mapped within rice grains. The results for uncooked/raw grains showed that predominantly As-S combined with AsIII and AsV accounted for 90% of speciation in most samples, localized in areas such as the outer aleurone layer. When analyzing cooked rice grains, the speciation appears to be an unidentified As species while the best LCF shows between 63-93% of As as MMA. Arsenic was found less localized throughout the cooked grains but rather heterogeneously distributed when compared to the uncooked/raw samples. The analyses of boiled/cooked water resulted in a significant decrease in dissolved As post-cooking (90%), but a subsequent increase in elements such as K, La, Li, Mo, Na, Ni, and Zr was observed; As-V was shown to be the main in-As species in the cooked water. The impact that this study portrays is consuming rice

  9. Bio-Wastes as an Alternative Household Cooking Energy Source in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Terefe Tucho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to the present day, wood has been used to supply the needs for cooking in rural Africa. Due to the ongoing deforestation, households need to change to other energy sources. To cover this need, a large amount of people are using residues from agriculture (straw, manure instead. However, both straw and manure also have a function in agriculture for soil improvement. Using all the straw and manure will seriously affect the food production. In this paper we first determine the amount of energy that households need for cooking (about 7 GJ per year. Then we estimate the amount of residues that can be obtained from the agricultural system and the amount of energy for cooking that can be derived from this amount when different conversion techniques are used. The amount of residues needed is strongly affected by the technology used. The traditional three stone fires require at least two times as much resource than the more advanced technologies. Up to 4 ha of land or 15 cows are needed to provide enough straw and manure to cook on the traditional three stone fires. When more efficient techniques are used (briquetting, biogas this can be reduced to 2 ha and six cows. Due to large variation in resource availability between households, about 80% of the households own less than 2 ha and 70% holds less than four cows. This means that even when modern, energy efficient techniques are used the largest share of the population is not able to generate enough energy for cooking from their own land and/or cattle. Most rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa may share similar resource holding characteristics for which the results from the current findings on Ethiopia can be relevant.

  10. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Sayers, Ken

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records.

  12. Advantages of sous-vide cooked red cabbage: structural, nutritional and sensory aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; Tárrega, Amparo; García Segovia, Purificación; Martínez Monzó, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The comparison between equivalent cooking treatments should be applied in a systematic way. This study proposes a methodical way to provide cooked samples with similar firmness using two cooking treatments. In addition, the structural, nutritional and sensory properties of red cabbage cooked with sous-vide treatment in comparison with traditional cooking (boiling water) was evaluated. Changes in texture, color and anthocyanin content were measured in samples cooked with traditional cooking...

  13. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  14. Antilisterial effects of ethanolic extracts of some edible Thai plants on refrigerated cooked pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Stonsaovapak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis.Effective methods for reducing L. monocytogenes in foods would reduce the likelihood of foodborneoutbreaks of listeriosis and decrease economic losses to the food industry. Crude ethanolic extracts from 50 edible Thai plants were screened for inhibitory effects on isolated strains and type strains of L.monocytogenes by the well assay technique. Ethanolic extracts of Micromelum minutum, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper retrofractum and Cucurbita moschata, which showed listerial growth inhibition,were applied to cooked pork to determine their antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. Pork was cooked to an internal temperature of 85C, allowed to cool to 8C and then treated by surface application with the plant extracts. Low (102 cfu g-1 or high (105 cfu g-1 population of L.monocytogenes were applied and samples were stored at 4C for up to 7 days. M. minutum and A.heterophyllus extracts were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. These results suggested that some edible Thai plant extracts might be useful as antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eatpork.

  15. Effect of domestic cooking methods on the total antioxidant capacity of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Miglio, Cristiana; Del Rio, Daniele; Salvatore, Sara; Serafini, Mauro; Brighenti, Furio

    2009-01-01

    As well as tables of food composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) databases--developed in past years for investigating health effects of antioxidant-rich foods in epidemiological and nutritional studies--have been created on the basis of analytical data from raw plant material. However, most vegetables are commonly cooked before consumption. With the aim of completing a previously developed TAC database, the effect of the major domestic practices (i.e. boiling, pan-frying and deep-frying) on the TAC of commonly consumed cooked vegetables was evaluated. Based on dry weight, boiling generally resulted in positive TAC changes whereas a general negative effect on the TAC was observed in pan-fried vegetables. Deep-frying produced a TAC increase of potato, artichoke and aubergine but a TAC reduction of mushroom and onion. The present study clearly indicates that cooking is not always a detrimental process when the TAC is used as an index to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of vegetables.

  16. Reduction of iodate in iodated salt to iodide during cooking with iodine as measured by an improved HPLC/ICP-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liejun; Li, Xiuwei; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Iodate is a strong oxidant, and some animal studies indicate that iodate intake may cause adverse effects. A key focus of the safety assessment of potassium iodate as a salt additive is determining whether iodate is safely reduced to iodide in food. To study the reduction of iodate in table salt to iodide and molecular iodine during cooking. Fifteen food samples cooked with and without iodated salt were prepared in duplicate. The iodine in the cooked food was extracted with deionized water. The iodine species in the extracts were determined by using an improved high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). The cooking temperature and the pH of the food were determined. The conversion rate of iodate in iodated salt to iodide and molecular iodine was 96.4%±14.7% during cooking, with 86.8%±14.5% of the iodate converted to iodide ions and 9.6% ±6.2% converted to molecular iodine to lose. The limit of detection, limit of quantification, relative standard deviation and recovery rate of the method HPLC/ICP-MS were 0.70 μg/L for I(-) (0.69 μg/L for IO3(-)), 2.10 μg/L for I(-) (2.06 μg/L for IO3(-)), 2.6% and 101.6%±2.6%, respectively. Almost all iodate added to food was converted into iodide and molecular iodine during cooking. The improved HPLC/ICP-MS was reliable in the determination of iodine species in food extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Composición centesimal y contenido de minerales en comidas rápidas: hamburguesas y salchichas de viena de primeras marcas crudas y cocidas Proximate composition and mineral content in fast foods: top brand-hamburguers and vienna sausages raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina De Landeta

    2012-09-01

    of Latin America. We determined the proximate and mineral composition of industrially-produced hamburgers and sausages most consumed in Argentina, in the way they are sold and after being subjected to home cooking as recommended by manufacturers. By comparing the results with those of meat cuts shown in Food Composition Tables (TCA of The National University of Luján, we found that the lipid content of regular burgers and sausages was higher than that of beef cuts, even those with higher lipid content. In the case of reduced calorie products, the decrease of fat content was more significant in the sausages with lipid percentages comparable to lean beef cuts. The sodium content in regular and reduced calorie hamburguers and sausages are increased between 700 and over 1000% compared to commonly consumed meat cuts (no salt added. Therefore, unlike meats that have a K / Na ratio greater than 3 both in sausages and hamburgers, significant decreases were found in this parameter. Hamburgers that were grill roasted produced a decrease of water content that caused an apparent increase of macronutrients and minerals, while the boil of Vienna sausages produced no significant difference in the proximate and mineral composition, except a reduction in Na, K and P.

  18. Tracing the source of cooking oils with an integrated approach of using stable carbon isotope and fatty acid abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Yang, Hong; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jinzhao

    2012-08-15

    We report a new approach to identify swill-cooked oils that are recycled from tainted food and livestock waste from commercial vegetable and animal oils by means of carbon isotope values and relative abundance of fatty acids. We test this method using 40 cooking oil samples of different types with known sources. We found significant differences in both total organic carbon isotope as well as compound-specific isotope values and fatty acid C(14)/C(18) ratios between commercial vegetable oils refined from C(3) plants (from -35.7 to -27.0‰ and from 0 to 0.15) and animal oils (from -28.3 to -14.3‰ and from 0.1 to 0.6). Tested swill-cooked oils, which were generally refined by mixing with animal waste illegally, fall into a narrow δ(13)C/fatty acid ratio distribution: from -25.9 to -24.1‰ and from 0.1 to 0.2. Our data demonstrate that the index of a cross-plotting between fatty acid δ(13)C values and C(14)/C(18) ratios can be used to distinguish clean commercial cooking oils from illegal swill-cooked oils.

  19. Comparison between boiling and vacuum cooking (sous-vide) in the bioaccessibility of minerals in bovine liver samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francisco L F; de Lima, João P S; Melo, Luciana S; da Silva, Yarina S M; Gouveia, Sandro T; Lopes, Gisele S; Matos, Wladiana O

    2017-10-01

    Only some of ingested nutrients are available for absorption by the organism. The foods generally are submitted to some heat processing that may interfere in the bioaccessibility of nutrients. There are no studies of the influence of cooking under vacuum (sous vide) on the bioaccessibility of minerals. This study evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg and Zn in bovine liver samples after traditional cooking in water and using the sous vide procedure. All heat treatments of bovine liver promoted the increase of the bioaccessibility of Ca, Cu, Fe, K and Mg, except for Zn when the effect was the opposite. The sous vide method provided higher bioaccessibility of these minerals than cooking in boiling water, except for K when both methods presented equivalent values. Samples of raw liver and liver cooked using sous vide method presented the following percentage of bioaccessible fraction, respectively: 39.7% and 95.8% (Ca), 8.78% and 26.9% (Cu), 8.80% and 39.5% (Fe), 30.2% and 42.6% (K), 26.4% and 43.9% (Mg), 24.8% and 36.3% (Zn). Thus, under the aspect of improvement availability of studied minerals by organism, the sous-vide technique was the most suitable to cook bovine liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

  2. Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

  3. A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Fogliano, V.; Pellegrini, N.; Stanton, C.; Scholz, G.; Lalljie, S.P.D.; Somoza, V.; Knorr, D.; Rao Jasti, P.; Eisenbrand, G.

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking/heat treatment, including other food-processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food-borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents, prolo

  4. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of cooked Lupinus mutabilis and its purified alkaloids in subjects with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeón, M E; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Fornasini, M

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing an epidemic of chronic non-communicable chronic diseases with high socio-economic costs. Studies of traditional foods with beneficial health properties could contribute to diminish these problems. Legumes rich in proteins like Lupinus mutabilis decreases blood glucose and improves insulin sensitivity in animals and humans. We report the results of a phase II clinical trial conducted to assess the role of cooked L. mutabilis and its purified alkaloids on blood glucose and insulin in volunteers with diabetes. Results indicate that consumption of cooked L. mutabilis or its purified alkaloids decreased blood glucose and insulin levels. The decreases in serum glucose concentrations from base line to 90 minutes were statistically significant within both treatment groups; however, there were not differences between groups. Serum insulin levels were also decreased in both groups however the differences were not statistically significant. None of the volunteers in either group presented side effects.

  6. Facile residue analysis of recent and prehistoric cook-stones using handheld Raman spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Laura; Cao, Bin; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Joshi, Amitabh; Scully, Rob; Sanders, Virgil; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    We performed food residue analysis of cook-stones from experimental and prehistoric earth ovens using a handheld Raman spectrometry. Progress in modern optical technology provides a facile means of rapid non-destructive identification of residue artifacts from archaeological sites. For this study spectral signatures were obtained on sotol (Dasylirion spp.) experimentally baked in an earth oven as well as sotol residue on an experimentally used processing tool. Inulin was the major residue component. The portable handheld Raman spectrometer also detected traces of inulin on boiling stones used to boil commercially obtained inulin. The Raman spectra of inulin and sotol may be useful as signatures of wild plant residues in archaeology. Spectroscopic analysis of millennia-old cook-stones from prehistoric archaeological sites in Fort Hood, TX revealed the presence of residues whose further identification requires improvement of current optical methods.

  7. Study of food habits, food practices and taboos in Bangladesh: their implications in nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, R; Hussain, M A; Abdullah, M; Ahmad, K

    1979-06-01

    The paper reports the findings of a retrospective study conducted to determine the prevailing food habits, food taboos and practices among 381 mothers selected randomly from twelve villages situated in 4 administrative divisions of Bangladesh. Undesirable food taboos and practices, maldistribution of food, lack of understanding of the nutritional needs of the vulnerable groups and bad cooking practices were found to be widespread in rural Bangladesh. Nutritional and health implications of these are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  8. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  9. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on adolescent intelligence and social competence in Bangladesh with special reference to daily drinking/cooking water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Watanabe, Chiho; Shimizu, Hana; Tasmin, Saira; Tasnim, Sayra; Sultana, Nayar

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana. Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person). Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.

  10. Impact of structural characteristics on starch digestibility of cooked rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    To examine the impact of structural characteristics of cooked rice grains on their starch digestibility, a simulated in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion technique was applied to intact and homogenised cooked rice samples. The starch hydrolysis percentage increased during simulated small intestinal digestion, in which approximately 65% and 24% of the starch was hydrolysed within the first 5min, for homogenised and intact cooked rice, respectively. The kinetic constant of homogenised cooked rice, which was regarded as an estimated digestion rate, was ∼8 times higher than the intact cooked rice. The homogenised and intact samples were also examined for any microstructural changes occurring during the in vitro digestion process using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. In the intact samples, the aleurone layers of the endosperm remained as thin-film like layers during in vitro digestion and thus may be regarded as less digestible materials that influence cooked rice digestibility.

  11. Used cooking oil as a green chemical admixture in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmia, B.; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ashraful Alam, Md; Sidek, L. M.; Hidayah, B.

    2013-06-01

    According to National Statistics Approximately 1.35 billion gallons of used oil are generated yearly. With the increasing of the concrete usage, a more cost effective and economic new type of admixtures may give positive impacts on the Malaysian construction building as well as worldwide concrete usage. To objective of this is study is to investigate the effect of used cooking oil in terms of slump test, compressive strength test and rebound hammer. By adding the used cooking oil to the concrete, it increases the slump value from 4% to 72%. And the compressive strength have an increment from 1% to 16.8%. The used cooking oil obtains the optimum contribution to the concrete mix proportion of containing used cooking oil of 1.50% from the cement content. The result of used cooking oil from experimental program of slump value and compressive strength proved that used cooking oil have positive effects on replacement of commercially available superplasticizer.

  12. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  13. Professional cooking: new approaches; Restauration professionnelle: nouvelles approches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on professional cooking to present the existing gas solutions to manage together the space heating, the air conditioning, the refrigeration and the cooking: evolution of markets with new consumer habits, natural gas technologies and innovations, architecture of cooking rooms: esthetics and functionality, opening of energy markets and new gas supplying contracts. (J.S.)

  14. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    values. We call them the uninvolved, the moderate, the conservative, the rational and the hedonistic food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 18% of the population. These consumers are uninvolved in practically every......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central life...... for the French population as a whole in nearly all dimensions of food related lifestyle. This is the picture of a food consumer one would get if one only looked at the average for the whole population and did not divide it into segments: moderate interest in nearly all aspect of shopping and cooking. 5...

  15. Convenience on the menu? A typological conceptualization of family food expenditures and food-related time patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, T P; Weenas, Djiwo

    2015-05-01

    One of the most fundamental, but also controversial, food trends of the past years is convenience food. This article investigates the underexplored relationship between the heterogeneity in (convenience) food consumption (a feature of a food culture's cuisine) and meal patterns (characteristics of a food culture's structure). This study hopes to illustrate that convenience food can be interpreted both as a means to maintain a food culture's structure and as a means to overturn it. Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed using data from the HBS 2005 survey on families' food expenditures to conceptualize convenience-orientation and to examine the relationships with families' meal behaviors. Whereas outsourcing cooking is most prevalent among single-person households; two-or more-person households are most likely to buy unprocessed and natural foods and to spend most time cooking and eating in. A higher consumption of convenience food is also more likely to affect individuals' kitchen than table habits.

  16. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnapriya, K.C.; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T.

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Rice can efficiently uptake uranium from water contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) 2.6 H{sub 2}O), while cooking. • Unusual uranium uptake to the extent of about 1000 ppm is observed when rice is cooked in highly concentrated uranium contaminated water (1240 ppm). • Nature of interaction of uranium with carbohydrates is probed using small monosaccharides like glucose and mannose. • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to be the most stable species in water in such solutions which can form complexes with sugars. • The species (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is also observed in the case of water exposed to the common mineral, uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and similar type of complexation is observed with sugars. - Abstract: The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO{sub 2}(s), both of which exist as UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and

  17. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...... aspects of food, with the possible exception of price and the social aspect. Their food-related lifestyle is characterized by the fact that they hardly food to achieve basic values at all. Whatever it is these consumers want to achieve in their lives, they achieve it through other channels than food. 4...

  18. Careers that Combine Culinary and Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, Michelle

    Imagine yourself perusing the aisles of your local grocery store. You head down the frozen food section and, being a cost-conscious shopper with little to no time to cook, you choose a seemingly delectable heat-and-serve meal of grilled chicken medallions and sautéed spinach doused in a mushroom sauce. Taking a closer look at the bag, you ask yourself, is this a delicious food concoction of culinary art or of food technology?

  19. Marine Ice Atlas for Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    microwave/imager TDD thawing degree-day USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USCB U.S. Census Bureau USCG U.S. Coast Guard USNO U.S. Naval Observatory WMO...large com- mercial fishing fleet based there. Homer, also a center for tourism , has a population of about 4,800. Marine facilities there include a deep...the importance of commercial navigation, fishing, and tourism access to remote sites around Cook Inlet, the practice continues today with even greater

  20. Conference in honor of Kenneth Cooke

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The meeting explored current directions of research in delay differential equations and related dynamical systems and celebrated the contributions of Kenneth Cooke to this field on the occasion of his 65th birthday. The volume contains three survey papers reviewing three areas of current research and seventeen research contributions. The research articles deal with qualitative properties of solutions of delay differential equations and with bifurcation problems for such equations and other dynamical systems. A companion volume in the biomathematics series (LN in Biomathematics, Vol. 22) contains contributions on recent trends in population and mathematical biology.

  1. Local Cooking Oil Faces Foreign Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Alarming local oil industry This year, the purchasing price of rapeseed from China's major production bases has gone up due to the decline in planting area of oil-bearing crops. In this June, the purchase price of rapeseeds from Anhui Province, a major rape production base in China, increased by 10%~20% from this May and by 50%~60% over last year. It was even 0.26 yuan /jin (half a kilogram) higher than the highest price level of last year. Domestic oil price rise has also resulted in the increasing import of cooking oil.

  2. 76 FR 2708 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... (Third Review)] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan; Top-of-the-Stove Stainless Steel Cooking... revocation of the antidumping duty order on imports of porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan and the... antidumping duty order on imports of porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan and the countervailing...

  3. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the...

  4. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference: Sodium in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium in foods primarily comes from food processing (77%) but also from salting at the table, home cooking, and inherent food sodium. Excessive sodium intake in the U.S. is a public health concern. Comprehensive data on the sodium content of the U.S. food supply is essential to assessing levels of ...

  5. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    Furan is formed in canned, jarred or browned food items. As furan is carcinogenic in animal experiments, attention has been drawn to the presence in commercial and home-cooked foods. The formation of furan in home cooked foods were studied as well as the stability of furan during cooking, saving...... crisps (diameter 40 mm x width 2 mm) by deep frying in oil at 150°, 170° and 190°C to the same water content (crispiness) of ~ 2% simulating industrial conditions, the furan content increased from 12-15 ng/g up to 31-52 ng/g. A similar study on French fries (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) showed furan contents of 11...

  6. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  7. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ermy Teti; Sakti Hutabarat; Asriati Nofionna

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  8. On the Origin of AMS "Cooking Organic Aerosol" at a Rural Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M; Paglione, M; Decesari, S; Facchini, M C; O'Dowd, C; Plass-Duellmer, Christian; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-12-15

    A number of field observations employing aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) have demonstrated that organic matter rich in monocarboxylic acids and aliphatic carbonyls originating from cooking activities (the COA factor) contributes significantly to ambient organic matter (OM) in urban environments. Little is known about the contribution and nature of COA in rural localities. We studied the correlation of COA with chemical tracers at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy. Our statistical approach, based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) shows that the COA factor was clearly linked to local emissions of chloride and methanesulfonic acid (MSA), chemical tracers not associated with cooking emissions, or with combustion sources. While the association with Cl is not understood at this stage, the emission of reduced sulfur compounds, aliphatic carbonyls and monocarboxylic acids is consistent with several agricultural practices (e.g., manure storage) and waste disposal systems (e.g., landfills) which characterize the suburban and rural areas of the Po Valley and of other many populated environments. It is concluded that the nature and origins of the AMS COA factor measured at a rural site are complex and include far more than the emissions from food cooking.

  9. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  10. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Emilie A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  11. Cassava cyanogens and free amino acids in raw and cooked leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngudi, D Diasolua; Kuo, Y-H; Lambein, F

    2003-08-01

    Cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz) constitute the main daily source of protein as supplement to the major staple food, the processed cassava roots in remote rural areas of Africa. Konzo, an upper motoneurone disease with permanent spastic paralysis of both legs, has been reported among populations consuming this unbalanced diet. In commercial pounded cassava leaves residual cyanogens and the presence of inherent potentially toxic non-protein amino acids were analysed to check their safety. The initial total cyanogens before cooking ranged from 35.9+/-0.4 to 107.5+/-0.8 mg HCN (hydrogen cyanide) equivalent kg(-1) dry weight. After cooking, the residual cyanogens were significantly reduced (Pcassava leaves. The non-protein amino acids gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and alpha-amino butyric acid (alpha-ABA) were detected. No known potentially toxic non-protein amino acid was found. In konzo-affected areas, cassava leaves with inadequate preparation and cooking can be a non-negligible source of dietary exposure to cyanogens apart from the cassava roots that are suggested to be involved in the aetiology of konzo.

  12. What’s cooking? - Cognitive training of executive function in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Ying eWang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive function involves the efficient and adaptive engagement of the control processes of updating, shifting and inhibition (Miyake, 2000 to guide behavior toward a goal. It is associated with decrements in many other cognitive functions due to aging (Raz, 2000; West, 1996 with itself particularly vulnerable to the effect of aging (Treitz, Heyder, & Daum, 2007. Cognitive training in the form of structural experience with executive coordination demands exhibited effective enhancement in the elderly (Hertzog, Kramer, Wilson, & Ulman, 2009. The current study was thus aimed at the development and evaluation of a training regime for executive function in the elderly. The breakfast cooking task of Craik and Bialystock (2006 was adapted into a multitasking training task in a session (pre-test vs. post-test by group (control vs. training. In the training condition, participants constantly switched, updated and planned in order to control the cooking of several foods and concurrently performed a table-setting secondary task. Training gains were exhibited on task related measures. Transfer effect was selectively observed on the letter-number sequencing and digit symbol coding test. The cooking training produced short term increase in the efficiency of executive control processing. These effects were interpreted in terms of the process overlap between the training and the transfer tasks.

  13. Instant multigrain porridge: effect of cooking treatment on physicochemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandge, Harshad M; Sharma, Savita; Dar, Basharat Nabi

    2014-01-01

    Multigrain blends of wheat, mungbean, sorghum, barley, corn (50:20:15:10:5) and flaxseeds @ 1% were processed by instantization (cooking) treatments to produce instant multigrain porridge. Cooking treatment involved three processing steps, Soaking (A: Soaked for 5 h at 50 °C, B: Soaked for 3.5 h at 65 °C), Steaming at 15 psi for 10, 15, 20 min. and drying at 40 °C. Quality evaluation (physical, textural and sensory) of multigrain porridge was used as criteria to select the best processing condition for instantization. Per cent water absorption of grains increased significantly with increase in soaking time/temperature. Complete gelatinization of starch with no stickiness in cooked grains was obtained at 65 °C/3.5 h (soaking) followed by steaming (15 psi/15 min). The results suggest that multigrain blends can be instantized into an acceptable and nutritional, traditional breakfast food (porridge). The multigrain porridge given soaking treatment at 65 °C/3.5 h and steaming treatment for 20 min was having better physical and sensory properties.

  14. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from different cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Gang; Lang, Jianlei; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Sen

    2016-11-01

    Cooking fume is regarded as one of the main sources of urban atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its chemical characteristics would be different among various cooking styles. In this study, VOCs emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were collected. VOCs concentrations and emission characteristics were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Barbecue gave the highest VOCs concentrations (3494 ± 1042 μg/m3), followed by Hunan cuisine (494.3 ± 288.8 μg/m3), Home cooking (487.2 ± 139.5 μg/m3), and Shandong cuisine (257.5 ± 98.0 μg/m3). The volume of air drawn through the collection hood over the stove would have a large impact on VOCs concentration in the exhaust. Therefore, VOCs emission rates (ER) and emission factors (EF) were also estimated. Home cooking had the highest ER levels (12.2 kg/a) and Barbecue had the highest EF levels (0.041 g/kg). The abundance of alkanes was higher in Home cooking, Shandong cuisine and Hunan cuisine with the value of 59.4%-63.8%, while Barbecue was mainly composed of alkanes (34.7%) and alkenes (39.9%). The sensitivity species of Home cooking and Hunan cuisine were alkanes, and that of Shandong cuisine and Barbecue were alkenes. The degree of stench pollution from cooking fume was lighter.

  15. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  16. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAnhong; PanChongdao; 等

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking.It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly,accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment,which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  17. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    Household cooking energy accounts for a major part of the total energy consumed in Nigeria. Factors ... energy for cooking can be classified into solid fuels and non-solid fuels. ... previously used fuel [11] whereas, other factors such as culture ...

  18. Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and exposure to combustion products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, SM; Brunekreef, B; Oldenwening, M; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; De Vries, H

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a questionnaire-based system for classifying homes into groups with distinctly different chances of accumulating combustion products from cooking appliances. The system was based on questions about type of cooking appliance, type and use of ventilation provisions, and kitchen size. Real

  19. A Touching and Contagious Captain Cook: Thinking History through Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Muecke

    2011-04-01

    What, then, is Cook when he is displaced from ‘western’ history and spread around cultures like a virus? How precarious or robust, then, are the historical certainties associated with Cook-monumentalised Kurnell and its place in time as ‘the birthplace of modern Australia’?

  20. Perceptions of Improved Biomass and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Stoves in Puno, Peru: Implications for Promoting Sustained and Exclusive Adoption of Clean Cooking Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollada, Jacqueline; Williams, Kendra N.; Miele, Catherine H.; Danz, David; Harvey, Steven A.; Checkley, William

    2017-01-01

    Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors. Six in-home observations of meal preparation were also conducted. Six major barriers to consistent use of clean stoves were identified: (1) perceived differences in food taste and nutrition by stove type; (2) cooking niches filled by different stoves; (3) social norms related to cooking practices; (4) safety concerns; (5) comparative costs of using different stoves; and (6) lack of awareness and concern about long-term health risks. These findings suggest that to successfully reduce household air pollution, clean cooking programs and policies must consider the many factors influencing adoption beyond health, such as cost, taste, fears, and cultural traditions. These factors could be incorporated into community-based and national efforts to scale-up sustained and exclusive adoption of clean cooking. PMID:28208813

  1. Perceptions of Improved Biomass and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Stoves in Puno, Peru: Implications for Promoting Sustained and Exclusive Adoption of Clean Cooking Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollada, Jacqueline; Williams, Kendra N; Miele, Catherine H; Danz, David; Harvey, Steven A; Checkley, William

    2017-02-13

    Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors. Six in-home observations of meal preparation were also conducted. Six major barriers to consistent use of clean stoves were identified: (1) perceived differences in food taste and nutrition by stove type; (2) cooking niches filled by different stoves; (3) social norms related to cooking practices; (4) safety concerns; (5) comparative costs of using different stoves; and (6) lack of awareness and concern about long-term health risks. These findings suggest that to successfully reduce household air pollution, clean cooking programs and policies must consider the many factors influencing adoption beyond health, such as cost, taste, fears, and cultural traditions. These factors could be incorporated into community-based and national efforts to scale-up sustained and exclusive adoption of clean cooking.

  2. Perceptions of Improved Biomass and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Stoves in Puno, Peru: Implications for Promoting Sustained and Exclusive Adoption of Clean Cooking Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hollada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors. Six in-home observations of meal preparation were also conducted. Six major barriers to consistent use of clean stoves were identified: (1 perceived differences in food taste and nutrition by stove type; (2 cooking niches filled by different stoves; (3 social norms related to cooking practices; (4 safety concerns; (5 comparative costs of using different stoves; and (6 lack of awareness and concern about long-term health risks. These findings suggest that to successfully reduce household air pollution, clean cooking programs and policies must consider the many factors influencing adoption beyond health, such as cost, taste, fears, and cultural traditions. These factors could be incorporated into community-based and national efforts to scale-up sustained and exclusive adoption of clean cooking.

  3. HEAT EXCHANGE NETWORKS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE COOKING OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Laborde

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to aboard one of the challenges in Engineering teaching: It´s the application in professional practice?, along with attending to the actual requirements of achieve energetic efficiency in industrial process and to reuse wastes of food industry, this work, presents the application of heat exchange networks for the resolution of a real case: pre-treatment of waste cooking oils (WCO withacid catalysis for biodiesel production. Different methods and software are applied to obtain the minimum amounts of heat and the heat exchange network for a processing capacity of 0,19 kg/s of WCO. A minimum temperature difference (Tmin of 10°C is considered and the minimum requirements of heating and cooling result 4629,87 W and 10066,30 W, respectively. If this exchange network is not considered, this values increase to 26838,33 W and 21958,33 W, respectively. Applying heat exchange network, decrease 78,92% the required steam service in the process and water cooling service decreases 62,48%, demonstrating that integration reduces energetic requirements respect the non-integrated process.

  4. Urban After-School Partnership Teaches Cooking and My Plate Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Brill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen percent of children in the U.S. are clinically obese and many more are overweight and at risk for obesity. The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity warrant greater efforts in early prevention. A key factor associated with energy intake and weight gain is consumption of foods away from home. Programs to promote eating more home-prepared foods present an encouraging area of intervention for improving children’s diet quality and diminishing childhood obesity. This study reports on an urban after-school cooking program implemented through a partnership between Rutgers Cooperative Extension and the Boys and Girls Club. Post-test measures and qualitative observations found that the program increased cooking skills and enjoyment, interest in healthy eating and exposure to healthy foods, and provided knowledge and tools to help modify students’ eating habits away from school. Partnerships between after-school providers and Cooperative Extension can provide effective programming in areas with widespread poverty and limited resources.

  5. Genotoxicity of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P F; Chiang, T A; Ko, Y C; Lee, H

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Taiwanese nonsmoking women have found that exposure to fumes from cooking oils may be an important risk factor. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils (lard, soybean, and peanut oils) often used in Taiwan for preparing Chinese meals were collected for genotoxicity analysis in SOS chromotest and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. The induction factors of the SOS chromotest in Escherichia coli PQ 37 were dependent on the concentrations of lard and soybean cooking oil extracts without S9 mix. In addition, when CHO-K1 cells were exposed to condensates of cooking oil fumes for 12 h, SCEs showed a dose-related increase in extracts of lard and soybean oil fumes. This result provides experimental evidence and is in accordance with the findings of epidemiologic studies that women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at an increase risk of contracting lung cancer. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Comparative study of frying to other cooking techniques influence on the nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bognár, A.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Frying is one of the oldest methods of food preparation. It improves the sensory quality of food by formation of aroma compounds, attractive colour, crust and texture. Undesirable changes involved are loss of nutritive quality e.g. due to degradation of heat - susceptible vitamins. The influence of common frying methods (frying in an oven, in a pan deep frying on cooking time and nutritive value of vegetables, potatoes, meat, poultry and fish is described and compared to other cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stewing. Frying of vegetables, potatoes and breaded meat, poultry and fish, no matter whether in a pan or by deep - frying, is associated with fat uptake (2 - 14 g per 100 g of raw food while non - breaded high fat food of animal origin loses fat during frying (2 - 30%. Data suggest that the fat quantity absorbed during frying increases up to a saturation limit which depends on the kind of food and on the amount of panade. Deep - fried meat, poultry and fish usually absorb less fat than meat, poultry and fish fried in a pan. The kind of fat had no essential influence on fat uptake. After frying of vegetable food and of breaded meat, poultry and fish, the content of protein, carbohydrates and minerals was nearly fully retained while boiling and steaming reduced the mineral content by 25-50%. In the majority of cases frying including deep frying also retained the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C better than boiling, steaming and stewing.

  7. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  8. Zoonosis that is Transmitted Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Budhi Murdiati

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Zoonosis can be transmitted through a number of routes including food of animal products . Foodborne disease is a disease transmitted through food, while zoonosis is defined as a disease that can be transmitted from animal to man or vice versa . Then, if agent in foodborne disease is a zoonotic, it could be defined as foodborne zoonosis . The outbreaks of Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy (BSE followed by Avian influenza (AI have caused increasing concern in the food safety of animal products, especially after men were confirmed die from Al infection . Consumers are wondering whether the disease could be transmitted through the animal products from the infected animals . The safety of animal originated food is affected by the practices along the food chain, from farm to consumer plate . Human health hazard could enter the food at any points of the food chain . At the food preparation, some of the foodborne zoonosis can be prevented by the program of five keys for safer food, i .e. keep food clean, separate raw from cooked food, cook food thoroughly, store food at safe temperatures and use water and raw materials that are safe .

  9. Volatile Compounds Profile of Sous-Vide Cooked Pork Cheeks as Affected by Cooking Conditions (Vacuum Packaging, Temperature and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sanchez del Pulgar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C, time (5 or 12 h and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged. As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status.

  10. Volatile compounds profile of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by cooking conditions (vacuum packaging, temperature and time).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pulgar, Jose Sanchez; Roldan, Mar; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2013-10-10

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of pork cheeks as affected by the cooking conditions was investigated. Pork cheeks were cooked under different combinations of temperature (60 °C or 80 °C), time (5 or 12 h) and vacuum (vacuum or air-packaged). As a general rule, the VOCs originating from lipid degradation were positively affected by the cooking temperature and negatively by the cooking time, reaching the highest amounts in pork cheeks cooked at 80 °C during 5 h and the lowest in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h. On the contrary, VOCs originated from amino acids and Maillard reactions were positively affected by both factors. The proportion between lipid degradation and amino acids reactions was estimated by the hexanal/3-methylbutanal ratio, which reached its highest values in samples cooked at 60 °C during 5 h in the presence of air and the lowest values in samples cooked at 80 °C during 12 h, regardless of the vacuum status.

  11. Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Migration Level of Bisphenol-A in Sous-Vide-Cooked Trout Fillets at Different Cooking Temperatures and Cooking Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Fatih; Seyyar, Esra

    2016-04-20

    The effects of different cooking temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) and cooking levels (medium and well) on some quality properties, the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), and the migration level of bisphenol-A (BPA) in trout fillets cooked by sous-vide were investigated. As a result, as expected, cooking caused a reduction in water content of the samples, whereas pH, TBARS, L*, and b* values increased. Cooking loss values ranged between 14.78 and 20.51%. Whereas IQ, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC could not be detected in the analyzed samples, varying levels of IQx (up to 0.16 ng/g) and MeIQx (up to 5.66 ng/g) were detected. It was determined that total HCA amounts ranged between 1.28 and 5.75 ng/g, and all or a big part of the total HCAs belonged to MeIQx. In addition, the migration level of BPA in sous-vide-cooked samples ranged between 4.93 and 27.11 ng/g.

  12. How comparative psychology can shed light on human evolution: Response to Beran et al.'s discussion of "Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Warneken, Felix

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported a study (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015) examining whether chimpanzees possess several cognitive capacities that are critical to engage in cooking. In a subsequent commentary, Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, and Brosnan Learning & Behavior (2015) asserted that our paper has several flaws. Their commentary (1) critiques some aspects of our methodology and argues that our work does not constitute evidence that chimpanzees can actually cook; (2) claims that these results are old news, as previous work had already demonstrated that chimpanzees possess most or all of these capacities; and, finally, (3) argues that comparative psychological studies of chimpanzees cannot adequately address questions about human evolution, anyway. However, their critique of the premise of our study simply reiterates several points we made in the original paper. To quote ourselves: "As chimpanzees neither control fire nor cook food in their natural behavior, these experiments therefore focus not on whether chimpanzees can actually cook food, but rather whether they can apply their cognitive skills to novel problems that emulate cooking" (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015, p. 2). Furthermore, the methodological issues they raise are standard points about psychological research with animals-many of which were addressed synthetically across our 9 experiments, or else are orthogonal to our claims. Finally, we argue that comparative studies of extant apes (and other nonhuman species) are a powerful and indispensable method for understanding human cognitive evolution.

  13. Mutagens from heated Chinese and U.S. cooking oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, P G; Xu, G X; Blot, W J; Fraumeni, J F; Trivers, G E; Pellizzari, E D; Qu, Y H; Gao, Y T; Harris, C C

    1995-06-07

    The lung cancer incidence in Chinese women is among the highest in the world, but tobacco smoking accounts for only a minority of the cancers. Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Chinese women have implicated exposure to indoor air pollution from wok cooking, where the volatile emissions from unrefined cooking oils are mutagenic. This study was conducted to identify and quantify the potentially mutagenic substances emitted from a variety of cooking oils heated to the temperatures typically used in wok cooking. Several cooking oils and fatty acids were heated in a wok to boiling, at temperatures (for the cooking oils) that ranged from 240 degrees C to 280 degrees C (typical cooking temperatures in Shanghai, China). The oils tested were unrefined Chinese rapeseed, refined U.S. rapeseed (known as canola), Chinese soybean, and Chinese peanut in addition to linolenic, linoleic, and erucic fatty acids. Condensates of the emissions were collected and tested in the Salmonella mutation assay (using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA104). Volatile decomposition products also were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Aldehydes were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV spectroscopy. 1,3-Butadiene, benzene, acrolein, formaldehyde, and other related compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively detected, with emissions tending to be highest for unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil and lowest for peanut oil. The emission of 1,3-butadiene and benzene was approximately 22-fold and 12-fold higher, respectively, from heated unrefined Chinese rapeseed oil than from heated peanut oil. Lowering the cooking temperatures or adding an antioxidant, such as butylated hydroxyanisole, before cooking decreased the amount of these volatile emissions. Among the individual fatty acids tested, heated linolenic acid produced the greatest quantities of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and acrolein. Separately, the mutagenicity of individual

  14. Thoughts: Field Notes on the Future of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicco Muratore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tastes, purchasing and consuming habits, cooking methods, and customer expectations; they’re all changing. The farm-to-table trend is a growing trend and for some, it’s a demand when cooking at home or eating out. Dan Barber’s book, The Third Plate, Field Notes on the Future of Food, reflects on the history of thriving agriculture and the necessity of sustainable farming. As an aspiring chef in Boston, Nicco Muratore depicts his reflections on the book and thought-provoking stance on the future of farming and cooking.

  15. How SARS Taught Me to Cook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAVALEE

    2003-01-01

    DURING the week-long May Day holiday I usually hold a party, or enjoy the good weather on outings with friends, but thanks to the SARS epidemic in Beijing this year, I stayed at home the entire May Day holiday. It was no problem finding something to do with my ample spare time, as I can surf the Internet for hours on end. My biggest headache was eating.Having dined in cafeterias and restaurants for the previous ten years or so, I had never learned to cook, but as SARS had begun to spread in Beijing in late April, the cafeteria in my work unit and most restaurants were closed for the holiday.

  16. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  17. Energy-Efficient Cooking of Spaghetti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Akash

    2011-03-01

    Spaghetti is a dual-career family dinner favorite. But how much energy is consumed in the process, and how can it be optimized? I performed an experiment to test two methods for preparing a spaghetti meal. In both cases, the water was rapidly heated to the boiling point. The flame was kept at maximum for the first experiment until the spaghetti was cooked. In the second experiment, the flame was reduced and the top covered, such that the water was kept at 100C. The two methods are compared in terms of the total time required to prepare the meal and amount of energy required. A discussion of potential savings for the latter method--and possible uses for that savings--is discussed.

  18. “What’s Cooking?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejenova, Silviya

    2016-01-01

    “What’s cooking?” is old-fashioned slang for asking about what is happening or what someone is planning. In this chapter, it denotes an approach to prospective data collection in qualitative research and captures the gist of a case study from the field of haute cuisine that inspired the saying....... The approach involves seeking proactively, noticing, and acting creatively upon serendipitous opportunities that are associated with the case’s future. These opportunities may bring researchers into contact with social worlds other than those in which the studied case is grounded and may require...... that they negotiate and play diverse roles for data collection, yielding novel insights and offering possibilities for building interesting stories and theories. Next I describe the background of and inspiration for the approach, introduce its elements and workings, and highlight potential benefits and caveats....

  19. The Relationships between Selection and Processing Food with Escherichia coli Contaminant on Food Stall Serving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tris Eryando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli in food stalls surrounding the X Campuss in Depok, year 2012. The research conducted to examine food safety, which were served in surrounding the campus X in Depok. Escherichia coli (E. coli existence was used to indicate the quality of hygiene and sanitation of the food that was served. Using the cross sectional method, the research examined the persons who served the food to be sold in the food stalls in the campus. There were 173 food servers chosen as the respondents from 10 different food stalls around the university. The existence of E. coli examined in the microbiology laboratory in the Faculty of Public Health. Using the most probable number (MPN method found that 59.54% of the food served in the campus were contaminated E. coli. Factors affecting the existence of E. coli were the raw materials (vegetables treated and the length of cooking of the materials (rice/beens. The improper treatment such as washing with no running water or even unwashed vegetables had 5 times risk of the E. coli contamination. Cooking less than 15 minutes was also more risky than cooking more than 15 minutes. As a result, this is very important to find a method to improve knowledge and to increase practical skills in food safety. Furthermore, in this research area may give contribution to avoid E. coli contamination which will prevent unnecessary illness among students in the campus.

  20. Should Traditional Roast Ducks Follow The Fast Food Pattern?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It had to happen.Fast food has crept into every facet of life in China,but one area of culinary delight was thought too sacred to tamper with. The time-honored cooking process of Peking roast duck,has finally succumbed to modernity. Quanjude,Beijing’s most famous Peking roast duck brand,has been cooking the juicy birds hung on a pole over a wood fire since

  1. Food-related life style in Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    . They also like shopping. They are not completely dismissive of new ways of cooking food, but recipes must be based on traditions, and preferably also on familiar products. 4. The uninterested conservative food consumers stand for 19% of the population. Also this segment stresses the security...... is not equated with security, but then eating and food products are not linked to any other values either. They plan little, but are tempted by new products - as long as they don't req more effort or new cooking skills, and especially if they fit in with eating habits characterized by a large propensity to eat...

  2. Fuelwood Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions by the Use of Improved Cooking Stoves in an Afromontane Forest, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dresen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many Sub-Saharan African countries, fuelwood collection is among the most important drivers of deforestation and particularly forest degradation. In a detailed field study in the Kafa region of southern Ethiopia, we assessed the potential of efficient cooking stoves to mitigate the negative impacts of fuelwood harvesting on forests. Eleven thousand improved cooking stoves (ICS, specifically designed for baking Ethiopia’s staple food injera, referred to locally as “Mirt” stoves, have been distributed here. We found a high acceptance rate of the stove. One hundred forty interviews, including users and non-users of the ICS, revealed fuelwood savings of nearly 40% in injera preparation compared to the traditional three-stone fire, leading to a total annual savings of 1.28 tons of fuelwood per household. Considering the approximated share of fuelwood from unsustainable sources, these savings translate to 11,800 tons of CO2 saved for 11,156 disseminated ICS, corresponding to the amount of carbon stored in over 30 ha of local forest. We further found that stove efficiency increased with longer injera baking sessions, which shows a way of optimizing fuelwood savings by adapted usage of ICS. Our study confirms that efficient cooking stoves, if well adapted to the local cooking habits, can make a significant contribution to the conservation of forests and the avoidance of carbon emission from forest clearing and degradation.

  3. Current Level and Correlates of Traditional Cooking Energy Sources Utilization in Urban Settings in the Context of Climate Change and Health, Northwest Ethiopia: A Case of Debre Markos Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumlachew Geremew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional biomass has been the major source of cooking energy for major segment of Ethiopian population for thousands of years. Cognizant of this energy poverty, the Government of Ethiopia has been spending huge sum of money to increase hydroelectric power generating stations. Objective. To assess current levels and correlates of traditional cooking energy sources utilization. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches on systematically selected 423 households for quantitative and purposively selected 20 people for qualitative parts. SPSS version 16 for windows was used to analyze the quantitative data. Logistic regression was fitted to assess possible associations and its strength was measured using odds ratio at 95% CI. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Result. The study indicated that 95% of households still use traditional biomass for cooking. Those who were less knowledgeable about negative health and environmental effects of traditional cooking energy sources were seven and six times more likely to utilize them compared with those who were knowledgeable (AOR (95% CI = 7.56 (1.635, 34.926, AOR (95% CI = 6.68 (1.80, 24.385, resp.. The most outstanding finding of this study was that people use traditional energy for cooking mainly due to lack of the knowledge and their beliefs about food prepared using traditional energy. That means “…people still believe that food cooked with charcoal is believed to taste delicious than cooked with other means.”  Conclusion. The majority of households use traditional biomass for cooking due to lack of knowledge and belief. Therefore, mechanisms should be designed to promote electric energy and to teach the public about health effects of traditional cooking energy source.

  4. The Organoleptic and Smoked Catfish Histology from Pre-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venny Yuliastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is one of the main commodities in fresh water aquaculture. Indonesia catfish production increased 37,49% in 2010 until 2014. Protein content of catfish is 17.7-26.7% and fat about 0.95 until 11.5%. The objective of this study was to determine the best organoleptic and to study the changes of tissue structure of catfish caused by process precooking and smoking process. Precooked Catfish with variation 5, 10 and 15 minute; temperature of 100oC, and smoked for 7 hours with a temperature of 90°C, analyzed in laboratory. The results organoleptic consumers is the favored smoke catfish without any pre – cooking and catfish-results of pre-cooking for 5 minutes i.e. ten successive sense 8.66; 7.66 smell 8.46; 7.8appearance 8.13;5.93 texture 6.86; 6.93. Organoleptic low on pre-cooked for 15 minutes the sense of 5.66 smell 7 appearance of 2.93 texture 5.53. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes has the highest water content of 26.33%. Pre–cooked for 5 minutes with the lowest value of 16.23%. smoked catfish without any pre–cooking has the highest value of aw 0.82. Pre–cooked for 15 minutes had the lowest value of 0.78. Observation on histology showed fresh catfish the structure of the connective tissue still compact. Precooked catfish, myomer begins damage, catfish smoke without pre-cooking is characterized by the formation of fibrils wafy fibers are separated from one another and pre-cooking smoked catfish, myoseptum damaged and lead to the distance inter myomer but myomer still intact.

  5. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    temperature and cooks --no fuel tanks have to be filled, no fuel lines connected, no pressure gauges monitored , and no valves and nozzles have to be...summarized in Table 1. TABLE 1 FOOD SERVICE SYSTEM COST Item Galley Equipment Sanitation Equipment ISO Reefers M-77 Warer Heaters Generator

  6. Sonic ingredients in television food programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rørdam Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this article is the use, significance, and role of sound in food and food travel programmes, exemplified by cooking programmes broadcast on Danish television – public service and commercial channels. The aim is to demonstrate how sound and music in this kind of programme plays an important part mediating both the cooking and the kitchen as wellordered and well organized. The use of music represents flow, but refers also to locality, globality and identity, and is often linked to the notions of nostalgia, tradition and authenticity, and contributes to an aesthetization of food programmes as it forms part of the performance and presentation of meals. The early kitchen programmes emphasized on information, as a kind of living cooking books as the idea was to enlighten the housewives and their practices by challenging their common sense choices introducing a more French inspired kitchen. In relation to such kitchen programmes todays cooking programmes seem to appeal to a broader sensibility as they present us to the possibilities of modern life, and the chefs’ multisensuorious performances underlines this – often induced by the sound. It is through the sounds in food programmes that an authentic experience of taste and smell is mediated to the viewer: both through the lustful, approving sounds made by presenters and through the cooks’ handling of raw materials. What looks delicious, also smells and tastes delicious – mediated through sound.

  7. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  8. Families' use of nutritional information on food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Brunsø, Karen

    2009-01-01

    How interested and competent are families in fact when using nutritional information on food labels? By means of ethnographical methodologies 12 families with children aged 9-13 were monitored when shopping for food and in their own home when cooking and eating dinner in order to explore their use...

  9. The Demand for Organic Food in the U.S.: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jinghan; Zepeda, Lydia; Gould, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    This analysis examines the determinants of organic food purchase behavior of a random sample of U.S. food shoppers. We analyze food expenditures conditional upon whether a household purchases organic foods. The results from our econometric modeling effort identify shopping venue, awareness of the organic label, positive beliefs toward organic foods, a positive attitude toward cooking, and a lack of religious affiliation as being important determinants of organic food purchases. Income was not...

  10. HACCP TO DEVELOP SAFE FOOD COOLING, THE SHELF-LIFE LIMITS OF THE CHILLED FOOD FOR A NEW PROCESS IN A RETAIL OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a prevention based food safety system that identifies and monitors specific food safety hazards that can adversely affect the safety of food products. The Critical Control Point in a cooked roast beef plant is to cool the product’s internal temperat...

  11. Extrusion cooking technology: Principal mechanism and effect on direct expanded snacks – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajita Tiwari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The snack industry is one of the fastest growing food sectors and is an important contributor within the global convenience food market. Nowadays snacks and convenience foods are also consumed regularly in India. Properly designed convenience foods can make an important contribution to nutrition in societies where social changes are altering traditional patterns of food preparation. Extrusion cooking as a popular means of preparing snack foods based on cereals and plant protein foodstuff has elicited considerable interest and attention over the past 30 years. Several studies on the extrusion of cereals and pulses, using various proportions, have been conducted because blends of cereals and pulses produce protein enriched products. Special importance is placed on the physicochemical and chemical modifications of protein, starch and dietary fibre. Extruded products can be categorized for a particular application based on their functional properties such as water absorption and water solubility index, expansion ratio, bulk density and viscosity of the dough.Therefore, the literature was reviewed for effect of extrusion processing on product parameters, and nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of extruded products.

  12. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  13. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-09-17

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  14. Human Brain Expansion during Evolution Is Independent of Fire Control and Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélio, Alianda M; de Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben E; de Bittencourt Brum, Ricardo; Queiroz, Claudio M; Costa, Marcos R

    2016-01-01

    What makes humans unique? This question has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries and it is still a matter of intense debate. Nowadays, human brain expansion during evolution has been acknowledged to explain our empowered cognitive capabilities. The drivers for such accelerated expansion remain, however, largely unknown. In this sense, studies have suggested that the cooking of food could be a pre-requisite for the expansion of brain size in early hominins. However, this appealing hypothesis is only supported by a mathematical model suggesting that the increasing number of neurons in the brain would constrain body size among primates due to a limited amount of calories obtained from diets. Here, we show, by using a similar mathematical model, that a tradeoff between body mass and the number of brain neurons imposed by dietary constraints during hominin evolution is unlikely. Instead, the predictable number of neurons in the hominin brain varies much more in function of foraging efficiency than body mass. We also review archeological data to show that the expansion of the brain volume in the hominin lineage is described by a linear function independent of evidence of fire control, and therefore, thermal processing of food does not account for this phenomenon. Finally, we report experiments in mice showing that thermal processing of meat does not increase its caloric availability in mice. Altogether, our data indicate that cooking is neither sufficient nor necessary to explain hominin brain expansion.

  15. Human brain expansion during evolution is independent of fire control and cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alianda Maira Cornélio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What makes humans unique? This question has fascinated scientists and philosophers for centuries and it is still a matter of intense debate. Nowadays, human brain expansion during evolution has been acknowledged to explain our empowered cognitive capabilities. The drivers for such accelerated expansion remain, however, largely unknown. In this sense, studies have suggested that the cooking of food could be a pre-requisite for the expansion of brain size in early hominins. However, this appealing hypothesis is only supported by a mathematical model suggesting that the increasing number of neurons in the brain would constrain body size among primates due to a limited amount of calories obtained from diets. Here, we show, by using a similar mathematical model, that a tradeoff between body mass and the number of brain neurons imposed by dietary constraints during hominin evolution is unlikely. Instead, the predictable number of neurons in the hominin brain varies much more in function of foraging efficiency than body mass. We also review archeological data to show that the expansion of the brain volume in the hominin lineage is described by a linear function independent of evidences of fire control, and therefore, thermal processing of food does not account for this phenomenon. Finally, we report experiments in mice showing that thermal processing of meat does not increase its caloric availability in mice. Altogether, our data indicate that cooking is neither sufficient nor necessary to explain hominin brain expansion.

  16. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Mulmi, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  17. Food science and nutrition: the gulf between rich and poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, J H

    1982-06-18

    The people of economically developed countries benefit greatly from modern food science. They are protected from food contamination, have access to a great variety of food, and need spend little time preparing it. The poor in developing countries enjoy few of the benefits of food science. Their diets are often nutritionally deficient and they spend many hours each day processing their food and searching for wood with which to cook it. In most tropical countries food losses between harvest of slaughter and eventual consumption are inestimable. Efforts to improve post-harvest food systems in developing countries require the attention and ingenuity of many scientific disciplines and the support of all development agencies.

  18. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  19. Food-related life style in Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    . The adventurous food consumers stand for 12% of the population. Food and food products are the most important element in these consumers' lives. The decisive motives are recognition and self-fulfilment. Cooking is a creative and social process for the whole family.......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Great Britain, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The British consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain...... their central life values. We call them the uninvolved, the careless, the uninterested conservative, the interested conservative, and the adventurous food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The interested conservative food consumer stands for 33% of the population...

  20. Impact of the degree of cooking on starch digestibility of rice - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    The impact of cooking degree on the starch digestibility of a non-waxy, cooked rice was examined through a simulated gastro-small intestinal in vitro digestion model. The starch hydrolysis of both non-homogenised and homogenised cooked rice samples during simulated digestion was also compared in order to examine the impact of grain structure on starch digestibility. Polished rice grains were cooked in boiling water for 10min (partially cooked) and 20min (fully cooked) to obtain samples of different cooking degree. No significant differences in the equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) were observed among the partially and fully cooked grains, although significant differences were observed among the uncooked and cooked samples. The equilibrium starch hydrolysis (%) of homogenised rice was higher than its non-homogenised counterpart. These results showed that rice starch digestibility should not be affected by the cooking degrees related to starch gelatinisation, but was influenced by the modification/destruction of the grain structure during mechanical processing.

  1. Polynesian Music, Captain Cook, and the Romantic Movement in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, Adrienne L.

    1978-01-01

    The descriptions of Polynesian music and dance resulting from Cook's voyages influenced the romantic composers of the early nineteenth century, especially in the incorporation of exotic and mystical themes. (Author)

  2. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent...

  3. Polynesian Music, Captain Cook, and the Romantic Movement in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, Adrienne L.

    1978-01-01

    The descriptions of Polynesian music and dance resulting from Cook's voyages influenced the romantic composers of the early nineteenth century, especially in the incorporation of exotic and mystical themes. (Author)

  4. Heart-Healthy Home Cooking: African American Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tablespoons parsley, finely chopped 1. Wash chicken and pat dry. Cut the chicken breast and kielbasa into 1-inch chunks. 2. Spray a medium-sized pan with nonstick cooking spray. Brown the sausage and chicken over medium heat and ...

  5. Pasta cooking water as medium of amylase production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    respectively. The optimum substrate concentration, sea-water concentration, inoculum size and NaCl ... The factors that affect amylase production such as: pasta cooking .... pollution of the aquatic ecosystem. ... microbial life. .... Ocean Univ.

  6. Virginia Tech's Cook Counseling Center receives international counseling accreditation

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center has been accredited by the International Association of Counseling Services, Inc., an organization of United States, Canadian, and Australian counseling agencies based in Alexandria, Va.

  7. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  8. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  9. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  10. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  11. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for razor clams in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  12. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  13. Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frederic; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of th...

  14. STARCH RETROGRADATION AND PRODUCTION OF RESISTANT STARCH IN COOKED RICE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    After rice cooking, retrogradation of starch in a cooked rice progresses quickly at under gelatinization temperature. Cold rice (aging rice) is tasteless, firm and digested slowly. My aim in this report is explained the relationship between cold rice tasteless and indexes of starch retrogradation. Starch gelatinization degree, starch whiteness index and resistant starch content that were indexes of starch retrogradation did not change remarkably of cold and aging rice that were very firm and ...

  15. Minerals Concentration and Textural Properties of Romanian Beef Row and Cooked Meat and Offal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Tudoreanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consumers preferences for solid food are, for the majority of foods groups, influenced by their textural properties. Romanian traditional cuisine is rich in meat foods and therefore this food group has an important contribution to the total mineral intake as well as the ingestion of potentially toxic metals such as Cd and Pb. Although beef liver is an important source of minerals for human consumption, its concentrations in Cd and Pb and heterogeneous textural properties may hinder its acceptability. Aims: The purpose of the work was to estimate raw and cooked beef meat and offal mineral quality including Cd and Pb concentrations and their contribution to a balanced human diet and health  as well as the influenced of thermal preparation on their mineral and textural properties. Materials and methods:  Beef liver, kidney and longissimus dorsi muscle were bought from local markets. Thermal preparation was conducted by microwave and boiling with no water contact. Texture profile analyses was conducted for quantifying textural properties such as  Hardness, Cohesiveness, Springiness, Springiness Index, Chewiness, Adhesiveness and Stiffness. The mineral concentrations of the raw and cooked samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Conclusion: The offal textural parameters variability was very large within the same organ and compared to the muscle textural parameters variability too. Muscle and offal thermal preparation strongly influenced their minerals’ concentrations as well as their textural properties. Thermal preparation significantly decreased beef liver and kidney samples’ total K and Na concentrations. It is suggested that for improving beef liver acceptability, the consumer has to be advised on the influence of the thermal preparation on beef liver parts’ textural properties as well as minerals concentrations.

  16. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  17. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  19. THE FORM OF THE COOKING VESSEL AND THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KRÄMER

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the contribution of the form of the cooking vessel to the heat transfer efficiency of the stove/pot system. A rounded (convex pot bottom increases the surface available for heat transfer and, hence, heat transfer efficiency. We suggest that combustion-efficient stoves combined with rounded-bottom vessels compare favourably to the same stoves in combination with flat-bottom stoves. Clay pots with a rounded bottom correspond to African traditions. Nowadays metal pots with rounded bottoms are locally produced in some areas. Implications of pot forms for the outcome of Water Boiling Tests are also discussed.

  20. Processamento do presunto "cook-in" de cordeiros Processing of cook-in ham of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mattos Monteiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver tecnologia para produto curado (presunto "cook-in", com pernis de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale em associação com tratamentos tecnológicos (massagem em "tumbler" e processo "cook-in". O estudo foi desenvolvido pela EMBRAPA/CPPSUL e Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Após as análises da composição química, a carne foi injetada manualmente com 20 % de salmoura composta por água + gelo 79%, cloreto de sódio 7,52%, condimento para presunto 4,70%, fosfatos 1,97%, sais de cura 1,88%, sacarose 3,38% e glutamato monossódico 0,19 %. Os presuntos foram avaliados quanto à composição química (umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, pigmentos totais e pH, parâmetros sensoriais (cor, aroma, sabor, textura e aceitabilidade e rendimento. Uma das principais características dos presuntos obtidos com pernil de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale foi o baixo conteúdo de gordura associado ao bom rendimento e à excelente aceitabilidade.The aim of this study was to develop technology for the curing lambs (cook-in hams which were manufactured from the legs of crossbred Texel x Corriedale lambs in association with technologic treatment (massaging in tumbler and cook-in process. The experiment was conducted at the EMBRAPA-CPPSUL/ UFSM, RS, Brazil. After the evaluation of the chemical composition, the meat was injected with it manually - 20 % of brine containing water 79%, salt 7.52%, curing salts 1.88%, sucrose 3.38%, ham condiments 4.70%, phosphate 1.97% and sodium glutamate 0.19%. The ham quality was evaluated by analysis of its chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, fat, pH, sensory properties (color, aroma, texture, acceptability and yield. The main characteristics of lamb hams were low fat contents associated with excellent acceptability and good yield.

  1. The Effect of Teaching Cooking Skills to Parents on Health Status of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The present systematic review investigated and analyzed interventions in the field of parental skills in cooking healthy food in order to identify the most effective training methods to create a lasting and positive effect on the implications of health promotion of children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Electronic search of databases was performed using the key words in English and Persian from Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Pub Med, Springer, Biomed Central, Google Scholar, Iran Medex and SID. The inclusion criteria were all educational interventions that included cooking healthy food with the aim to increase knowledge and skills of parents, or to assess the impact of interventions on children and adolescents, and that were published between January 2005 and September 2014. Results: Cooking skills educational interventions for parents were divided into two types 1: based on health education models and theories, and 2: without using health education models and theories. Among the seven articles reviewed, four studies were classified in the first group and three in the second group. The studies were compared based on changes in body mass index as well as the persistence of behavior change in the subsequent follow-ups. Conclusion: Use of multi-component education and follow-up that apply theories and models of health education are effective to reach the expected results. Clinical trials with several long-term strategies are required to create a favorable change in body mass index of children and teens.

  2. An evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Margaret; Chandra, Joya; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Schick, Vanessa; Strong, Larkin L; Durand, Casey; Sharma, Shreela

    2016-12-01

    Eating out of the home has been positively associated with body weight, obesity, and poor diet quality. While cooking at home has declined steadily over the last several decades, the benefits of home cooking have gained attention in recent years and many healthy cooking projects have emerged around the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based conceptual framework of healthy cooking behavior in relation to chronic disease prevention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using broad search terms. Studies analyzing the impact of cooking behaviors across a range of disciplines were included. Experts in the field reviewed the resulting constructs in a small focus group. The model was developed from the extant literature on the subject with 59 studies informing 5 individual constructs (frequency, techniques and methods, minimal usage, flavoring, and ingredient additions/replacements), further defined by a series of individual behaviors. Face validity of these constructs was supported by the focus group. A validated conceptual model is a significant step toward better understanding the relationship between cooking, disease and disease prevention and may serve as a base for future assessment tools and curricula.

  3. Indoor air pollution from gas cooking and infant neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Aguilera, Inma; Bustamante, Mariona; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Mònica; Lertxundi, Nerea; Martinez, M Dolores; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Gas cooking is a main source of indoor air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particles. Because concerns are emerging for neurodevelopmental effects of air pollutants, we examined the relationship between indoor gas cooking during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment. Pregnant mothers were recruited between 2004 and 2008 to a prospective birth cohort study (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) in Spain during the first trimester of pregnancy. Third-trimester questionnaires collected information about the use of gas appliances at home. At age 11 to 22 months, children were assessed for mental development using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression models examined the association of gas cooking and standardized mental development scores (n = 1887 mother-child pairs). Gas cookers were present in 44% of homes. Gas cooking was related to a small decrease in the mental development score compared with use of other cookers (-2.5 points [95% confidence interval = -4.0 to -0.9]) independent of social class, maternal education, and other measured potential confounders. This decrease was strongest in children tested after the age of 14 months (-3.1 points [-5.1 to -1.1]) and when gas cooking was combined with less frequent use of an extractor fan. The negative association with gas cooking was relatively consistent across strata defined by social class, education, and other covariates. This study suggests a small adverse effect of indoor air pollution from gas cookers on the mental development of young children.

  4. Influence of Heating Temperature on Cooking Curve of Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Akutsu, Atsuko; Otake, Ayumi; Moritaka, Hatsue

    The swelling behavior of a rice grain in water and an aqueous NaCl and acetic acid solution was investigated as a function of temperature. We observed that the rice grain in water shows an abrupt change in shape and size at 61 °C. The transition temperature Tv became higher in an order: sodium chloride aqueous solution > water > acetic acid aqueous solution. In order to clarify Tv, we also investigated kinetics on cooking of rice grains by the rheological measurement. The time development of compliance of rice grains in compression (cooking curve) from 5 to 1440 min was measured in the range of cooking temperatures from 61 to 80°C. We found that Tv is the onset temperature to complete the cooking of rice. The cooking curve at the cooking temperature neighborhood Tv was approximated by the first order reaction with the two different rate constants. The faster and slower reactions were explained as indicating the plasticizing effect of water on rice grains, and mainly the gelatinization of the starch in rice grains, respectively.

  5. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  6. Planning waste cooking oil collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tânia Rodrigues Pereira; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana Paula

    2013-08-01

    This research has been motivated by a real-life problem of a waste cooking oil collection system characterized by the existence of multiple depots with an outsourced vehicle fleet, where the collection routes have to be plan. The routing problem addressed allows open routes between depots, i.e., all routes start at one depot but can end at the same or at a different one, depending on what minimizes the objective function considered. Such problem is referred as a Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Closed and Open Inter-Depot Routes and is, in this paper, modeled through a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation where capacity and duration constraints are taken into account. The model developed is applied to the real case study providing, as final results, the vehicle routes planning where a decrease of 13% on mileage and 11% on fleet hiring cost are achieved, when comparing with the current company solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  8. Family decision-making during food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    in difficulties in distinguishing among healthy and unhealthy food. Both parents and children being active in the decision process may lead to conflicts due to gaps in preference such as between healthy and unhealthy food. Families solve these conflicts via open communication patterns and a use of various...... influence techniques. Children have realized that a clever and effective influence technique is to help their parents to make food buying and cooking easier and quicker. Health-related competences seem to be an important determinant of families' healthy food choices, thereby preventive health behaviours...... consist of shared health beliefs, a mutual understanding of individual health motivations and barriers, and health agreements....

  9. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    life values. We call them the uninvolved, the careless, the conservative, the rational and the adventurous food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 21% of the population. These consumers are quite uninterested in most......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  10. Maagiliste momentide mütoloogia : intervjuu Peter Cook'iga / Peter Cook ; interv. Vilen Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cook, Peter

    2002-01-01

    5. Põhja- ja Baltimaade Arhitektuuritriennaalil esinenud inglise arhitekt P. Cook endast, oma loomingust, rühmitusest Archigram, mis pälvis 2002. a. RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) kuldmedali, Tallinnast jm. Kommenteerinud Triin Ojari

  11. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed...

  12. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenic from rice would be much less.

  13. Effects of thermal treatments during cooking, microwave oven and boiling, on the unconjugated microcystin concentration in muscle of fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto, Ana I; Moreno, Isabel; Soria, Ma Eugenia; Cameán, Ana M

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the risk from fish consumption is a relevant public health concern due to potential adverse effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The aim of this work was to study the influence of two usual cooking practices, microwave oven and boiling, on the microcystin (MCs) concentration in fish muscle (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus) spiked with a stock solution (500 μL) containing a mixture of three toxins (MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR) (1.5 μg/mL of each toxin). Two different variables were investigated: time of cooking in the microwaves treatment (1 or 5 min), and way of boiling, "boiled muscle" or "continuously heated muscle". All samples were then lyophilized and MCs were extracted and purified (Oasis HLB cartridge) and quantified by HPLC-MS. Furthermore, the waters in which the samples boiled were also analyzed after their purification. The results suggest a reduction on MC-LR (36%) and MC-YR (24.6%) in samples cooked in the microwave for 5 min. Major changes were found when the fish was cooked by the continuous boiling, with a decrease of 45.0% (MC-RR), 56.4% (MC-YR) and 59.3% (MC-LR). More studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved when aquatic food is submitted to usual cooking practices.

  14. Effect on instrumental texture, expressible moisture and oxidative rancidity when oleogel was employed as fat replacer in cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo, Octavio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of foods with saturated fats has been contributed to overweight in Mexican population. Saturated fat was replaced in 50 and 100% in cooked sausages to determinate differences in texture profile analysis ad shear tests with Warner-Bratzler blade and Meullenet-Owens razor blade. In same manner, expressible moisture and oxidative rancidity were studied. Saturated fat replacement by oleogel resulted in a softer but more cohesive texture. In shear tests, fat replacement resulted in the gradually decrease of the studied parameters, related to a less hard and easy to chew texture. Oleogel as fat replacer improved water retention, probably by the celluloses in oleogel, and decreased lipids oxidative rancidity by the unsaturated lipids present in oleogel vegetable oil. Results demonstrate that fat replacement with oleogel improved textural and nutritional properties of cooked sausages.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  16. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Texture of Frozen Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  18. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  19. DECREASING OF SODIUM NITRITE CONTENT IN COOKED SAUSAGES USING DENITRIFYING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prylypko L. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study reduction of sodium nitrite in cooked sausages by adding of the optimized amount of denitrifying microorganisms to the bacterial preparation maintaining quality characteristics of the product. To develop biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» we selected bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp.utilis. It was used generally accepted and special methods. The content of total pigments and nitrozopigments was determined by a method based on the extraction of meat pigments by aqueous acetone; color stability of final products was evaluated as the difference in optical density of nitroso pigment extracts before and after exposure (40 min of the sample under the light source; analytical processing of the experimental data was carried out using modern software; quantitative evaluation of color characteristics was performed in the RGB using a multifunctional device Epson Stylus TX400. Mathematical modeling was carried out on the basis of full factorial experiment such as 22, the optimization was performed by Box–Wilson. According to the study, using of the bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp. utilis in biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» has a positive effect on the formation of the complex of required color characteristics of final products (for prototypes of sausages the index redness was 1. 61 times higher compared to the control. Degradation of sodium nitrite and formation of nitroso pigments were intensified that improved the stability of color during the storage (the index of color fastness of experimental cooked sausages was higher by 19%. The results of performed investigations illustrate the possibility of production of cooked sausages with a minimized content of synthetic food additives and ingredients.

  20. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of some cooking banana (Musa spp.) for boiling and frying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, M; Workneh, T S; Belew, D

    2014-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to study physicochemical properties of four cooking banana varieties (Cardaba, Nijiru, Matoke and Kitawira) and to determine their suitability for chips processing and boiling quality. A randomized complete block design with three replications was employed. Pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness (before and after), total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, ease of peeling, pulp water absorption, duration of cooking (or boiling) and dry matter are the most important parameters to evaluate the quality of cooking banana including plantain. The different variety affected the fruit physical characteristics significantly (P ≤ 0.05). The Cardaba varieties fruit was found to be the heaviest and the longest. The Kitawira and Nijiru varieties had the smallest, shortest and thinnest fruit. The Cardaba contained 88 % more edible portions per unit fresh weight than the peel. The Nijiru, Matoke and Kitawira contained more pulp weight than peel weight. Most fruit chemical quality parameters were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected by the varieties. Similarly, the boiling and chips qualities were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected by varieties. Among others, the Cardaba variety was found to have high fruit weight, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit volume, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, dry matter and low total titratable acidity. Thus, Cardaba provided the best quality boiled pulp which can serve for diversified culinary purposes. Generally, the Nijiru, Kitawira and Matoke varieties were found to be superior to produce acceptable quality chips. These varieties are recommended for chips development by food processors in Ethiopia.

  1. Inhibitory activity of Asian spices on heterocyclic amines formation in cooked beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Jirapakkul, Wannee; Smith, J Scott

    2011-10-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed when foods are cooked at high temperatures. Numerous reports have shown that natural antioxidants from spices, fruits, chocolate, and tea can inhibit formation. In this study, we evaluated HCA formation in the presence of 5 of Asian spices: galangal (Alpinia galangal), fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata), turmeric (Curcuma longa), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum). HCA levels were compared to patties containing rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), of which the inhibitory effect is well documented. Inhibition of HCA formation by the spices was evaluated in beef patties cooked at 204 °C (400 °F) for 10 min. All spices were mixed into patties at 0.2% before cooking, and HCAs levels were measured in the final product. All patties, including the control, contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl -6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The average HCA content of the control patties was 7 ng/g MeIQx and 6.53 ng/g PhIP. Turmeric (39.2% inhibition), fingerroot (33.5% inhibition), and galangal (18.4% inhibition) significantly decreased HCAs compared with the control. But, only turmeric and fingerroot were as effective as rosemary in preventing HCA formation. The HCA inhibition in patties containing spices was significantly correlated to the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.80) and the scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.84) of the spices as measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results of this study suggest that addition of Asian spices can be an important factor in decreasing the levels of HCAs in fried beef patties.

  2. Survey report about campylobacter in cooked chicken%肉鸡弯曲菌带菌调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国胜; 张正尧; 刘国中

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate situaton of campylobacter carried by cooked chicken, and evalutate risk influence of campylobacter in cooked chicken to food safety, providing scientific basis for assessment of food safety risk. Methods:Chicken, which would be slaughtered for food soon, were randomly selected from June to October, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter laridis in their cloacas were detected. Results; Campylobacter positive rate was 30% , in which 12. 2% was tested positive for campylobacter jejuni, 13.3% for campylobacter coli and 4.4% for campylobacter laridis, dominant species of campylobacter showed a punctuate distribution,detection rate in October was the highest. Conclusion; Campylobacter in cooked chicken showing the highest positive rate, it has serious risk for food safety.%目的:调查肉鸡携带弯曲菌情况,评价肉鸡中弯曲菌对食品安全的风险影响,为食品安全风险评估提供科学依据.方法:在7月-11月份随机抽取5个大型养殖场将出栏食用的肉鸡,检测泄殖腔中空肠弯曲菌、结肠弯曲菌、海鸥弯曲菌.结果:弯曲菌检出率为30%,其中空肠弯曲菌为12.2%,结肠弯曲菌为13.3%、海鸥弯曲菌为4.4%,优势类型弯曲菌呈点状分布,10月份检出率最高.结论:肉鸡中弯曲菌携带率较高,存在较高的食品安全风险.

  3. Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    . A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients...... who professionally handle foods, and should be considered to be a distinct clinical entity. When diagnosing protein contact dermatitis and in other food-related skin prick testing procedures, it is important to include fresh foods....

  4. Implementation Science to Accelerate Clean Cooking for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bruce, Nigel; Chambers, David; Graham, Jay; Jack, Darby; Kline, Lydia; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Mercado, Ilse Ruiz; Neta, Gila; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Puzzolo, Elisa; Petach, Helen; Punturieri, Antonello; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sage, Michael; Sturke, Rachel; Shankar, Anita; Sherr, Kenny; Smith, Kirk; Yadama, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Clean cooking has emerged as a major concern for global health and development because of the enormous burden of disease caused by traditional cookstoves and fires. The World Health Organization has developed new indoor air quality guidelines that few homes will be able to achieve without replacing traditional methods with modern clean cooking technologies, including fuels and stoves. However, decades of experience with improved stove programs indicate that the challenge of modernizing cooking in impoverished communities includes a complex, multi-sectoral set of problems that require implementation research. The National Institutes of Health, in partnership with several government agencies and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, has launched the Clean Cooking Implementation Science Network that aims to address this issue. In this article, our focus is on building a knowledge base to accelerate scale-up and sustained use of the cleanest technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Implementation science provides a variety of analytical and planning tools to enhance effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions. These tools are being integrated with a growing body of knowledge and new research projects to yield new methods, consensus tools, and an evidence base to accelerate improvements in health promised by the renewed agenda of clean cooking. PMID:28055947

  5. The Cook Mountain problem: Stratigraphic reality and semantic confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, T.E. [Frontera Exploration Consultants, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[Venus Oil Co., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Historical inconsistency as to what constitutes the Cook Mountain Formation illustrates the semantic confusion resulting from extending surface-derived stratigraphic names into the subsurface without a full understanding of basin architecture. At the surface, the Cook Mountain Formation consists of fossilerous marine shale, glaucony and marl, and marginal-marine sandstone and shale between the nonmarine Sparta Formation sandstones below and the nonmarine Yegua Formation sandstones and lignitic shales above. Fossils are abundant, including the benthic foraminifer Ceratobulimina eximia. As subsurface exploration began, the first occurrence of Ceratobulimina eximia {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} was used as the top of the marine {open_quotes}Cook Mountain Shale{close_quotes} below the Yegua section. Downdip, the overlying Yegua was found to become a sequence of marine shales and marginal-marine sandstones, the lower part of which yielded {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes}. Because of this, the lower sandstones were called {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes} in many fields. At the Yegua shelf margin, {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} is absent. Different exploration teams have used their own definitions for {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes}, leading to substantial confusion.

  6. Effect of cooking on banana and plantain texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, B; Moore, K G; Orchard, J

    2000-09-01

    The effect of temperature and duration of cooking on plantain and banana fruit texture and cytpoplasmic and cell wall components was investigated. The firmness of both banana and plantain pulp tissues decreased rapidly during the first 10 min of cooking in water above 70 degrees C, although plantain was much firmer than banana. Cooking resulted in pectin solubilzation and middle lamella dissolution leading to cell wall separation (as observed by SEM). Dessert banana showed more advanced and extensive breakdown than plantain. Although dessert banana had a higher total pectin content than plantain, the former had smaller-sized carboxyethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) soluble pectic polymers which are associated with plant tissues that have a propensity to soften. Plantain had higher levels of starch and amylose than banana but this was associated with a firmer fruit texture rather than a softening due to cell swelling during starch gelatinization. Different cooking treatments showed that cooking in 0.5% of CaCl(2) solution and temperatures below 70 degrees C had significant effects on maintenance of pulp firmness.

  7. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bofeng Mao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can have significant impact on pulp strength properties. We have studied cooking homogeneity of two kraft digesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is a one-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phase continuous digester (digester B). They are located in the same mill and use the same softwood chip quality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steaming and cooking facilities and conditions, significant differences in pulp strength properties, reject contents and kappa variations have been found between the pulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has a modem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and air removal, whereas digester B has poor chip pre-steaming conditions. Our strength delivery studies show that although the two digesters produce pulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, the pulp produced in digester A has about 20% higher strength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lower reject content and lower kappa variations based on FTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulp produced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that more homogeneous cooking, i.e., lower lignin/kappa variation in the fibers, leads to improved pulp strength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming is important/essential for achieving homogeneous cooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improving chip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to be carried out.

  8. Degradation of the natural mutagenic compound safrole in spices by cooking and irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, S E; Abo-Zeid, M

    1997-12-01

    Safrole was determined using gas-liquid chromatography in some common spices as star anise, cumin, black pepper and ginger. Safrole concentration in these spices was 9,325, 3,432, 955 and 500 mg.kg-1, respectively. Black pepper was chosen to use in the following experiments. Using Ames-test with Salmonella TA 98 and TA 100 proved high cytotoxic effects due to pure safrole and black pepper volatile oil in both of them. The degradation of safrole was obvious after drying of the washed seeds of black pepper especially at 70 degrees C for 30 min or with sun-drying. Also, high irradiation doses (20 and 30 kGy) caused high degradation of more than 90% of the initial toxic concentration in black pepper. Whereas, microwave caused same effects at 75 s, but unfortunately, the powder was burned due to moisture absence. Boiling whole seeds or powder of black pepper during cooking for few minutes (1-5 min) were more efficient in decreasing safrole content. Finally, these results proved that the mutagenicity of some spices due to presence of safrole can be destructed during drying of the washed seeds or during cooking either with or without any additional treatment as irradiation. But irradiation of these species became more necessary for using in some food industries as milk products to get more safe for human consumption.

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  10. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China)]|[Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang, Jie; Fu, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751). (author)

  11. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang Jie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)], E-mail: changjie@scut.edu.cn; Fu Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv Pengmei; Wang Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0 diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751)

  12. Partial characterization of an effluent produced by cooking of Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Romero, Zaidy G; Ramirez-Suarez, Juan C; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Lugo-Sánchez, Maria E; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; García-Sánchez, Guillermina

    2010-01-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle muscle was cooked simulating industrial procedures (95 degrees C x 25 min, 1.2:5 muscle:water ratio). The effluent produced was analyzed for chemical and biochemical oxygen demands (COD and BOD(5), respectively), proximate analysis, flavor-related compounds (free amino acids, nucleotides and carbohydrates) and SDS-PAGE. The COD and BOD(5) exhibited variation among samplings (N=3) (27.4-118.5 g O(2)/L for COD and 11.3-26.7 g O(2)/L for BOD(5)). The effluent consisted of 1% total solids, 75% of which represented crude protein. Sixty percent of the total free amino acid content, which imparts flavor in squid species, corresponded to glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, leucine and lysine. The nucleotide concentration followed this order, Hx>ADP>AMP>ATP>IMP>HxR. The variation observed in the present work was probably due to physiological maturity differences among the squid specimens (i.e., juvenile versus mature). Solids present in squid cooking effluent could be recovered and potentially used as flavor ingredients in squid-analog production by the food industry.

  13. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-07-04

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  14. A FRACTIONATION STUDY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN RAW AND COOKED LEAF VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANE MIE KAWASHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Five samplings of leaf vegetables widely consumed in Southern Brazil (lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were taken during the period of a year in food markets of the city of Campinas, Brazil. A selective extraction of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc was conducted on the raw vegetables and four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were also cooked briefly under dry heat for three minutes and submitted to the selective extraction. The extraction separated the minerals into fractions containing mineral elements bound to soluble complexes, bound to ligands solubilized by mild acidic oxidizing conditions, and bound to insoluble ligands under mild acidic oxidizing conditions. The minerals concentrations in each fraction were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of K, Na, Ca, and Mg extractable at pH 7.0 (soluble fraction from raw vegetables varied between 22 to 75 % of the total content of the mineral present. The soluble fractions of minor elements such as Mn, Zn, and Fe varied from 0 to 100% in the raw vegetables. The brief cooking used besides causing negligible losses of the minerals also increased the solubility of the minerals by 44% to 200%. KEYWORDS: Leaf vegetables; soluble mineral elements in vegetables.

  15. Used Cooking Oils in the Biogas Chain: A Technical and Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Carnevale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current concerns on global energy security, climate change, and environmental pollution represent some of the major elements of the growing interest on renewable energy. In this framework agro-food energy systems are at the center of a twofold debate: on the one hand they represent a key option for energy production while on the other their sustainability is threatened by the expansion of the bioenergy market that could lead to negative social and environmental consequences. The aim of this work is to evaluate—through a case study—the technical and economic feasibility of the replacement of energy crops (ECs with used cooking oil (UCO in an anaerobic digestion (AD full-scale plant. At this purpose, a full-scale plant performing AD was monitored for two years. Three scenarios were developed and compared to evaluate the impacts and the potential benefits in terms of land saving in case of a substitution of ECs with UCO. Results highlighted a reduction of land use of over 50% if UCO is introduced in co-digestion with ECs. The lack of an appropriate legislative framework limits the utilization of used cooking oils (UCOs in AD with a consequently missed opportunity for biogas owners that could find an important alternative in UCO.

  16. The Cook and the Writer: Maryse Condé's Journey of Self-Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In her 2006 memoir, Victoire, les saveurs et les mots, (translated into English as Victoire: My Mother’s Mother, celebrated Guadeloupean writer Maryse Condé makes an explicit comparison between herself and her maternal grandmother Victoire. A work of literary invention as much as of personal reflection, this book represents an example of Condé’s quest to know herself as a woman and a writer. It also enables her to fill in some of the gaps left by her mother Jeanne who was always reluctant to share details of her childhood with her daughter and died when Condé was only twenty. One of the few facts Jeanne gives to her about Victoire is that she was a cook and that the results of her labour helped open the doors to greater autonomy for her daughter and, consequently, her granddaughter. This paper will examine the way in which food and cooking are linked to Condé’s journey of self-discovery as well as to the historical trajectory of the French Caribbean islands of Marie-Galante and Guadeloupe.

  17. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    criterion influencing choice. 6. The rational food consumers stand for 35% of the population. Food and food products are an important part of these consumers' lives, and are essential for achieving such basic values as self-fulfilment, recognition, social togetherness and security. This gives rise......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central life...... values. We call them the uninvolved, the moderate, the conservative, the rational and the hedonistic food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 18% of the population. These consumers are uninvolved in practically every...

  18. Convenience foods. What, why, and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to assess the academic interest in convenience foods in the past decades in order to introduce this special section on historical dimensions of convenience foods, prepared by FOST, a unit that investigates the history and culture of food (up to today). First, the rise of academic interest is trailed since the appearance of the concept in the 1920s and, next, themes in connection to this interest are considered (e.g., time, health, or gender). Then, definitions of convenience foods are tracked since the 1950s, which leads to suggesting a clear focus (linking convenience foods to home cooking of meals and industrially produced foods). The conclusion stresses the changing definition of the concept, as well as the need to gain historical insight in present-day issues related to convenience foods.

  19. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.