WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooked foods donated

  1. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  2. Ensuring food safety in food donations: Case study of the Belgian donation/acceptation chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, E; Jacxsens, L; Goubert, H; Uyttendaele, M

    2017-10-01

    The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations. Lack of refrigerated transport and insufficient cold/freezing capacity in food banks and charity organizations was identified as a barrier to distribute perishable products. Furthermore, in two cities in Flanders (Belgium), at some food donation centers, donated perishable food samples (n=72) were taken and subjected to microbiological analysis to determine their overall food quality, hygiene and food safety status. Twenty-two of 72 analyzed samples showed marginal microbiological quality based on numbers of yeast, lactic acid bacteria or total viable count. In three samples Listeria monocytogenes was detected per 25g among which one ready-to-eat cooked meat product which showed increased numbers of L. monocytogenes (3.5logCFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (6.7logCFU/g). Overall, in Belgium, most of the donated foods considers nonperishable foods, with more or less half of the food collected by the food banks being purchased with funds from FEAD (Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived) and thus not derived from food losses. Efforts are being made by facilitators to provide a platform for better coordination of donors and acceptors to make more efficient use of food losses. Regulators at the

  3. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  4. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  5. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Donate Food to Free Your Boss | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of

  7. Donate Food to Free Your Boss | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, came up with the idea for a "lock-in" event.

  8. Domestic cooking and food skills: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Laura; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; Spence, Michelle; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2017-07-24

    Domestic cooking skills (CS) and food skills (FS) encompass multiple components, yet there is a lack of consensus on their constituent parts, inter-relatedness, or measurement, leading to limited empirical support for their role in influencing dietary quality. This review assessed the measurement of CS and FS in adults (>16 years); critically examining study designs, psychometric properties of measures, theoretical basis, and associations of CS/FS with diet. Electronic databases (PsychInfo), published reports, and systematic reviews on cooking and home food preparation interventions provided 834 articles of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Multiple CS/FS measures were identified across three study designs-qualitative, cross-sectional, and dietary interventions-conducted from 1998 to 2013. Most measures were not theory-based, limited psychometric data were available, with little consistency of items or scales used for CS/FS measurements. Some positive associations between CS/FS and fruit and vegetables intake were reported, though lasting dietary changes were uncommon. The role of psycho-social (e.g., gender, attitudes) and external factors (e.g., food availability) on CS/FS is discussed. A conceptual framework of CS/FS components is presented for future measurement facilitation, which highlights the role for CS/FS on food-related behavior and dietary quality. This will aid future dietary intervention design.

  9. Food donation : an initiative to mitigate hunger in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia, Gonzalo; Mejia Argueta, Christopher; Rangel, Vivian; García-Díaz, César; Montoya, Carlos; Agudelo, I. (Isabel)

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of food are either lost or wasted while millions of people suffer from malnutrition. A plausible initiative are the food banks in which large retail chains and potentially other organizations can donate food. This food is collected and delivered by food banks to people

  10. Importance of cooking skills for balanced food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A cooking skill scale was developed to measure cooking skills in a European adult population, and the relationship between cooking skills and the frequency of consumption of various food groups were examined. Moreover, it was determined which sociodemographic and psychological variables predict cooking skills. The data used in the present study are based on the first (2010) and second (2011) surveys of a yearly paper-and-pencil questionnaire (Swiss Food Panel). Data from 4436 participants (47.2% males) with a mean age of 55.5 years (SD=14.6, range 21-99) were available for analysis. The cooking skills scale was validated using a test-retest analysis, confirming that this new scale is a reliable and consistent instrument. Cooking enjoyment was the most important predictor for cooking skills, especially for men. Women had higher cooking skills in all age groups. Cooking skills correlated positively with weekly vegetable consumption, but negatively with weekly convenience food consumption frequency, even while holding the effect of health consciousness related to eating constant. In summary, cooking skills may help people to meet nutrition guidelines in their daily nutrition supply. They allow people to make healthier food choices. It is, therefore, important to teach children and teenagers how to cook and to encourage them to develop their cooking skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes...

  12. Mutagenicity of cooked foods. Kuumennuskaesiteltyjen elintarvikkeiden mutageenisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikkanen, L. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Elintarvikelaboratorio)

    1989-09-01

    In this study the mutagenic activity in different kinds of ordinary Finnish foods was determined using mainly the Ames Salmonella bacterial assay. The purpose of this study was also to acquire the technical capability to study cooked food mutagens and to get basic informavtion about the mutagenic activity of foods under different cooking conditions. The samples tested were different kinds of ready-to-eat foods. Products were industrially heat-processed by frying and roasting, sterilization, smoking, deep-frying, spray-drying and UHT-treatment. According to the results, the majority of the fried and roasted food samples containing meat or fish were clearly or strongly mutagenic. Some of the products processed by sterilization and deep-frying were marginally mutagenic. The effect of the frying temperature on the mutagenicity in the Ames test was studied with minced meat. The mutagenic activity of the fried meat clearly correlated with the frying temperature. There were conspicuous differences in mutagenic activity between different fried and roasted products. Charcoal-grilled fish and the surface layers of the grilled meat and chicken were strongly mutagenic. Meat and fish hamburgers were in most cases only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenic activity was stronger in the surface layers of the products than in the inside. Also reheating by frying increased the mutagenicity of meat patties clearly. Differences in mutagenic activity between equivalent products of different manufacturers were evident in many cases. Variation of the mutagenicity was most conspicuous in the grilled products. This variation indicates that the industrial processing of food has a marked effect on the mutagenic activity of the final product, which thus might be reduced by modifying the process. The solvent extraction method used in this study was more effective than the Blue-Cotton method for the isolation of mutagenic compounds.

  13. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  14. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  15. 7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section 250.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS...

  16. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  17. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. The food service management company must meet the...

  18. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  19. Effect of consumer cooking on furan in convenience foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Crews, C; Grundy, H; Mills, C; Matthews, W

    2008-01-01

    The effect of domestic preparation regimes on the level of the heat-formed toxicant furan was studied to provide useful information for exposure assessment and advice for manufacturers and consumers. Foods were cooked in a saucepan on a gas hob or microwaved and furan was determined by headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, furan levels did not decrease as much when foods were cooked in a microwave oven when compared with the same foods cooked in a saucepan. Furan levels decreased in most canned and jarred foods after heating in a saucepan. Low levels of furan in soups in cartons were not changed by any procedure. Furan decreased slightly in foods on standing before consumption, but did so more rapidly on stirring. The levels also decreased slightly when foods were left to stand on plates; this observation is attributed to the volatility of furan.

  20. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  1. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  2. 7 CFR 250.13 - Distribution and control of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Minimum donations. Foods shall be donated only in such quantities as will protect the lower truck load... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution and control of donated foods. 250.13 Section 250.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...

  3. 7 CFR 250.59 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies, and... management system, as defined in this part, unless the distributing agency requires donated foods to be...

  4. 31 CFR 585.521 - Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations of food to relieve human... Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by.... (b) In general, specific licenses will only be granted for donations of food to be provided through...

  5. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel sau...

  6. Neurophysiological responses during cooking food associated with different emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Grootjen, M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Zandstra, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological correlates of affective experience could potentially provide continuous information about a person’s experience when cooking and tasting food, without explicitly verbalizing this. Such measures would be helpful to understand people’s implicit food preferences and choices. This

  7. Investigation on Furan Levels in Pressure-Cooked Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. Arisseto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food processing contaminant classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. As the occurrence of furan has been reported in a variety of foods processed in sealed containers, the objective of this work was to investigate if the contaminant can be found in home-cooked foods prepared in a pressure cooker. For that, several foods including beans, soy beans, whole rice, beef, pork, potato, and cassava were pressure-cooked and analyzed for the furan content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS. Furan was not found above the limit of quantification in the pressure-cooked samples. No furan has either been found in reheated samples after 24 hours under cold storage. Although levels up to 173 μg/kg were already reported for commercial canned/jarred foods, it seems that the cooking in a pressure cooker may not represent a concern in relation to the occurrence of furan in foods.

  8. Influence of a School-Based Cooking Course on Students' Food Preferences, Cooking Skills, and Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Rola; Sibeko, Lindiwe

    2017-03-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the influence of Project CHEF, a hands-on cooking and tasting program offered in Vancouver public schools, on students' food preferences, cooking skills, and confidence. Grade 4 and 5 students in an intervention group (n = 68) and a comparison group (n = 32) completed a survey at baseline and 2 to 3 weeks later. Students who participated in Project CHEF reported an increased familiarity and preference for the foods introduced through the program. This was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for broccoli, swiss chard, carrots, and quinoa. A higher percentage of students exposed to Project CHEF reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in: cutting vegetables and fruit (97% vs 81%), measuring ingredients (67% vs 44%), using a knife (94% vs 82%), and making a balanced meal on their own (69% vs 34%). They also reported a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in confidence making the recipes introduced in the program: fruit salad (85% vs 81%), minestrone soup (25% vs 10%), and vegetable tofu stir fry (39% vs 26%). Involving students in hands-on cooking and tasting programs can increase their preferences for unpopular or unfamiliar foods and provide them with the skills and cooking confidence they need to prepare balanced meals.

  9. Balancing food values : Making sustainable choices within cooking practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at

  10. Community Living Skills Guide: Cooking/Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Cooking/Food Preparation. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  11. Understanding Diffusion Theory and Fick's Law through Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Larissa; Nyberg, Kendra; Rowat, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion is critical to physiological processes ranging from gas exchange across alveoli to transport within individual cells. In the classroom, however, it can be challenging to convey the concept of diffusion on the microscopic scale. In this article, we present a series of three exercises that use food and cooking to illustrate diffusion…

  12. Recipe for success: cooking and food in business metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Oana Nicolae

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article sets out to disclose the range of applications and implications of the business media metaphors that draw on the more familiar cognitive domain related to food and cooking. The conclusions rely on a corpus-based approach, while the theoretical framework is provided by cognitive semantics.

  13. Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, T

    1986-08-01

    Mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium enabled us to detect various types of mutagens in cooked foods. A series of mutagenic heterocyclic amines has been isolated and identified in broiled fish and meat and in pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins. Feeding experiments showed these mutagens to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. The mechanism of formation and pathway of metabolic activation of these heterocyclic amines have been elucidated. Their contents in various cooked foods have been determined. The presence of mutagenic nitropyrenes (some of which were confirmed as carcinogens) in grilled chicken was also established. Roasted coffee beans also yield mutagens such as methylglyoxal. The formation of mutagen precursors, including beta-carboline derivatives and tyramine which become mutagens with nitrite treatment, was found during food processing. Oncogene activation in animal tumors induced by some of these food mutagens/carcinogens has been confirmed. The role of mutagens/carcinogens in cooked foods in human cancer development has not yet been exactly evaluated. In order to do this, more information on their carcinogenic potency, human intake, metabolism in the human body, and the effects of combined administration with other initiators, promoters and other modifying factors in food is required.

  14. Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Cut away visible fat from meat and poultry. Roast food on a rack to let the ... plain yogurt and light mayonnaise if used in dressing, sauces and dips. Why? Fewer calories. Instead of ...

  15. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  16. Compliance With Recommended Food Safety Practices in Television Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nancy L; Olson, Rita Brennan

    Examine compliance with recommended food safety practices in television cooking shows. Using a tool based on the Massachusetts Food Establishment Inspection Report, raters examined 39 episodes from 10 television cooking shows. Chefs demonstrated conformance with good retail practices for proper use and storage of utensils in 78% of episodes; preventing contamination (62%), and fingernail care (82%). However, 50% to 88% of episodes were found to be out of compliance with other personal hygiene practices, proper use of gloves and barriers (85% to 100%), and maintaining proper time and temperature controls (93%). Over 90% failed to conform to recommendations regarding preventing contamination through wiping cloths and washing produce. In only 13% of episodes were food safety practices mentioned. There appears to be little attention to food safety during most cooking shows. Celebrity and competing chefs have the opportunity to model and teach good food safety practices for millions of viewers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  18. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    OpenAIRE

    Farrimond, Samantha J; Leland, Louis S

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin.

  19. Folate content and availability in Malaysian cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S C; Khor, G L; Loh, S P

    2012-12-01

    Data on folate availability of Malaysian cooked foods would be useful for estimation of dietary folate intake; however such information is scarce. A total of 53 samples of frequently consumed foods in Malaysia were selected from the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Foods. Folate content was determined using HPLC method hyphenated with a stainless steel C18 column and ultraviolet detector (lambda = 280 nm). The index of folate availability was defined as the proportion of folate identified as monoglutamyl derivatives from the total folate content. Total folate content of different food samples varied from 30-95 microg/100g fresh weight. Among rice-based dishes, the highest and the lowest total folate was in coconut milk rice (nasi lemak) and ghee rice (nasi minyak), respectively. In noodle dishes, fried rice noodle (kuey teow goreng) and curry noodle (mee kari) had the highest folate contents. The highest index of folate availability was in a flat rice noodle dish (kuey teow bandung) (12.13%), while the lowest was in a festival cake (kuih bakul) (0.13%). Folate content was found to be negatively related to its availability. This study determined folate content and folate availability in commonly consumed cooked foods in Malaysia. The uptake of folate from foods with high folate content may not be necessarily high as folate absorption also depends on the capacity of intestinal deconjugation and the presence of high fibre in the foods.

  20. Cook It Up! A community-based cooking program for at-risk youth: overview of a food literacy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heather MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are limited occasions for youth, and especially at-risk youth, to participate in cooking programs. The paucity of these programs creates an opportunity for youth-focused cooking programs to be developed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of providing invaluable life skills and food literacy to this potentially vulnerable group. Thus, an 18-month community-based cooking program for at-risk youth was planned and implemented to improve the development and progression of cooking skills and food literacy. Findings This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of a cooking skills intervention for at-risk youth. The manuscript provides information about the process of planning and implementing the intervention as well as the evaluation plan. Results of the intervention will be presented elsewhere. Objectives of the intervention included the provision of applied food literacy and cooking skills education taught by local chefs and a Registered Dietitian, and augmented with fieldtrips to community farms to foster an appreciation and understanding of food, from 'gate to plate'. Eight at-risk youth (five girls and three boys, mean age = 14.6 completed the intervention as of November 2010. Pre-test cooking skills assessments were completed for all participants and post-test cooking skills assessments were completed for five of eight participants. Post intervention, five of eight participants completed in-depth interviews about their experience. Discussion The Cook It Up! program can provide an effective template for other agencies and researchers to utilize for enhancing existing programs or to create new applied cooking programs for relevant vulnerable populations. There is also a continued need for applied research in this area to reverse the erosion of cooking skills in Canadian society.

  1. 7 CFR 250.14 - Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (iv) All initial data regarding the cost of the current warehousing and distribution system and the... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods... General Operating Provisions § 250.14 Warehousing, distribution and storage of donated foods. (a...

  2. Scientific Literacy in Food Education: Gardening and Cooking in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Carrie A.

    Recent attention to socio-scientific issues such as sustainable agriculture, environmental responsibility and nutritional health has spurred a resurgence of public interest in gardening and cooking. Seen as contexts for fostering scientific literacy---the knowledge domains, methodological approaches, habits of mind and discourse practices that reflect one's understanding of the role of science in society, gardening and cooking are under-examined fields in science education, in part, because they are under-utilized pedagogies in school settings. Although learning gardens were used historically to foster many aspects of scientific literacy (e.g., cognitive knowledge, norms and methods of science, attitudes toward science and discourse of science), analysis of contemporary studies suggests that science learning in gardens focuses mainly on science knowledge alone. Using multiple conceptions of scientific literacy, I analyzed qualitative data to demonstrate how exploration, talk and text fostered scientific literacy in a school garden. Exploration prompted students to engage in scientific practices such as making observations and constructing explanations from evidence. Talk and text provided background knowledge and accurate information about agricultural, environmental and nutritional topics under study. Using a similar qualitative approach, I present a case study of a third grade teacher who explicitly taught food literacy through culinary arts instruction. Drawing on numerous contextual resources, this teacher created a classroom community of food practice through hands-on cooking lessons, guest chef demonstrations, and school-wide tasting events. As a result, she promoted six different types of knowledge (conceptual, procedural, dispositional, sensory, social, and communal) through leveraging contextual resources. This case study highlights how food literacy is largely contingent on often-overlooked mediators of food literacy: the relationships between

  3. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ηp 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723

  4. [Validity of an instrument for assessing food consumption, food habits and cooking skills in 8-11 years old students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, Lydia; Fretes, Gabriela; González, Carmen Gloria; Salinas, Judith; Vio del Rio, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    An instrument to measure food knowledge, food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses at school is necessary to assess changes in food practices. To validate an instrument to measure changes in food knowledge, food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses in Chilean school children 8 - 11 years from third to fifth grade. A validation of a questionnaire with 42 questions was conducted in two stages: the first to assess temporal stability, concordance and internal consistency in 45 children. The second one to apply the survey, modified with the results of the first stage, in 90 children assessing internal consistency. The first survey with 42 questions showed a reasonable temporal stability, concordance and internal consistency for cooking skills, habits and food expenditure at school. Internal consistency was good for food consumption, but not so good for food knowledge. In the final validation with 90 children, there was good consistency for food consumption but bad for food knowledge. Besides, children with cooking skills ate more healthy food and those who expended more money at school, consumed less healthy food. Food knowledge questions were eliminated from the instrument, which was elaborated with 28 questions about food consumption, cooking skills, food habits and food expenses at school. This instrument is useful to assess changes in food and nutrition education interventions in 8 -11 years children, in particular to measure cooking skills and food expenses at school. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. [Food prices in Brazil: prefer cooking to ultra-processed foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Diniz, Danielle Pereira

    2016-08-29

    This study aims to describe the prices of food groups consumed in Brazil considering the nature, extent, and purpose of their processing. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008-2009. The mean prices of the groups (natural, cooking ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed) and their respective food subgroups were estimated for Brazil according to income, region, and area. Natural products and cooking ingredients showed lower prices per calorie when compared to the other groups, suggesting an economic advantage to preparing meals at home when compared to replacing them with ultra-processed foods. Families with the highest income paid the highest prices for their food, while families in the Northeast and North regions and rural areas paid the lowest. While fresh foods (meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables) tend to cost more than ultra-processed foods, dry grains (like rice and beans) are a more economical alternative for adopting healthy eating practices.

  6. Impact of food pantry donations on diet of a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Freeland-Graves, Jean H

    2018-04-27

    This cross-sectional study assessed the effect of food donations on total nutrient intake of clients of a food pantry in Central Texas. Nutrient intakes of total, base and food donation diets were estimated for 112 food pantry recipients using specific questionnaires; and then compared to the dietary reference intakes (DRI) and 2015-2020 US Dietary Guidelines. Food donations accounted for more than half of the client's daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, vitamin B 6 , phosphorus, copper and selenium. Yet, daily total intake remained less than their DRIs for carbohydrates, poly-unsaturated fats, dietary fiber, fat soluble vitamins and vitamin C, and was even lower for calcium, magnesium and potassium. Total food intake of clients almost met the US Dietary Guidelines for refined grains, fruits, vegetables, and meat; however, the amount of whole grains and dairy was inadequate. Supplemental foods offered at food pantries are an important resource for improving nutrient intake of low-income populations.

  7. Science of Food and Cooking: A Non-Science Majors Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Bachman, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the science of food and cooking has been observed in our popular literature and media. As a result of this, a new non-science majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, is being taught at our institution. We cover basic scientific concepts, which would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the…

  8. Involving children in cooking activities: A potential strategy for directing food choices toward novel foods containing vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; da Quinta, Noelia; Chokupermal, Krithika; Urdaneta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Discussion map and cooking classes: testing the effectiveness of teaching food safety to immigrants and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Abby; Yu, Nan; Buro, Brandy; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety map as an educational method with English language learners. English language learner community members (n = 73) were assigned randomly to participate in 1 of 3 experimental conditions: food safety map, cooking class, and control. Participants in the food safety map and cooking class conditions completed a pre-education demographic and cooking history questionnaire, a post-education knowledge and intention questionnaire, and a 2-week post-cooking and food safety habits assessment. Participants in the control group received no educational training but completed the pre- and 2-week post-education assessments. The cooking class and the map class were both effective in increasing food safety knowledge. Specifically, by comparing with the control group, they significantly increased participants' knowledge of safely cooking large meat (χ² [df = 2, n = 66] = 40.87; P effects on boosting food safety behavioral intention (measured right after the class). The data collected 2 weeks after the classes suggested that individuals who took the classes followed the suggested food behaviors more closely than those in the control group (P < .01). The food safety map is simple to use and prepare, beneficial for oral and visual learners, and inexpensive. Compared with a food safety cooking class, the map produces similar learning and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Cooking Recipe Recommendation System with Visual Recognition of Food Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Yanai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a cooking recipe recommendation system which runs on a consumer smartphone as an interactive mobile application. The proposed system employs real-time visual object recognition of food ingredients, and recommends cooking recipes related to the recognized food ingredients. Because of visual recognition, by only pointing a built-in camera on a smartphone to food ingredients, a user can get to know a related cooking recipes instantly. The objective of the proposed system is to assist people who cook to decide a cooking recipe at grocery stores or at a kitchen. In the current implementation, the system can recognize 30 kinds of food ingredient in 0.15 seconds, and it has achieved the 83.93% recognition rate within the top six candidates. By the user study, we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  11. Domestic food and sustainable design : a study of university student cooking and its impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Clear, Adrian; Hazas, Michael; Morley, Janine; Friday, Adrian; Bates, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In four university student kitchens over twenty-one days, we captured participants' food preparation activity, quantified the greenhouse gas emissions and direct energy connected to the food and cooking, and talked to participants about their food practices. Grounded in this uniquely detailed micro-account, our findings inform sustainable design for cooking and eating at home and quantify the potential impacts. We outline the relation of the impacts to our participants' approaches to everyday...

  12. Culinary Education in Food and Cooking Research Societies Organized by Professional Cooks and Cookery Lovers in the Mid-Meiji Era, Report 1

    OpenAIRE

    今井, 美樹; Miki, IMAI; 昭和女子大学初等教育学科

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the magazine Hocho-Ambai(Wielding Your Kitchen Knives, all 37 issues published from 1886 to 1891)to explore the activities of societies of culinary education for food and cooking in the mid-Meiji era. The author, from the viewpoint of gender, reviewed, selected and analyzed articles describing the activities of the Society of Art of Cooking Research and the Society of Food Research organized by professional cooks and cookery lovers in the period. The following results were...

  13. Vitamin profile of cooked foods: how healthy is the practice of ready-to-eat foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali; Tarwadi, Kirtan; Mengale, Sangeeta; Hinge, Ashwini; Chiplonkar, Shashi

    2002-05-01

    During recent years importance of B complex vitamins, beta-carotene and vitamin C has been realised in terms of their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. Fruits and vegetables are the rich sources of these vitamins. However, there are considerable cooking losses of vitamins, and information on vitamin contents of cooked foods is essential for assessing the adequacy of vitamin intakes. Secondly, there is a growing trend to consume ready-to-eat foods such as stuffed pancakes (samosa, patties), pastries, French fries; replacing traditional foods for lunch or dinner like roti, vegetable curry, bread, non-vegetarian items. Ready-to-eat foods are considered to give empty calories rather than a balanced diet. A study was undertaken to estimate ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and beta-carotene of 263 cooked food samples and 260 meals representing dietary patterns of Asia, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America by spectrophotometry and photoflurometry. A broad range of beta-carotene (84-2038 mcg%), riboflavin (0.01-0.48 mg%), thiamine (0.04-0.36 mg%), vitamin C (1-28 mg%) and folate (26-111 mcg%) was observed in individual foods. Bakery products and sweets were found to be poor sources and green leafy vegetables and fruits were good sources of these five vitamins. The differences between ready-to-eat foods and meals consumed during lunch or dinner were prominent for beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and folic acid (P < 0.05). The cooking losses were 34.6, 30, 52.2, 45.9 and 32.2% in case of ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, beta-carotene and folic acid respectively. Irrespective of whether it is ready-to-eat or a lunch/dinner food item, the contribution of vegetables in the preparations was found to make a marked impact on the vitamin profile. While results justify the concept of a food pyramid, emphasis needs to be given to types of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins; preferably in their uncooked form, rather than considering their

  14. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    for a given product and process and to compare different cooling fluids and methods. Chilling of hot products in professional cooking kettles immediately after cooking is achieved best by using Binary Ice. The paper gives an equation, which describes the cooling velocity for such kettles and other products...

  15. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution. PMID:26659967

  16. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  17. Chimpanzee food preferences, associative learning, and the origins of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  18. 7 CFR 250.51 - Crediting for, and use of, donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for use in the recipient agency's meal service in a school year or fiscal year (including both... donated food value in processed end products on to the recipient agency. (b) Method and frequency of... included in the established fixed price per meal. However, the recipient agency must ensure that the food...

  19. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  20. Empowered to cook: The crucial role of 'food agency' in making meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubek, Amy B; Carabello, Maria; Morgan, Caitlin; Lahne, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    What makes an individual, on any given occasion, able and willing to prepare a meal for themselves: that is, to cook? As home cooking has increasingly become the focus of public-health, nutrition, and policy interventions and campaigns, the need for a better understanding has become apparent. It is clear that cooking is not merely a matter of mechanical skill or rote training; beyond this, it is difficult to explain why similar individuals have such different capacities for setting and achieving food-related goals. This paper proposes a new paradigm for cooking and food provisioning - termed "food agency" - that attempts to describe how an individual's desires form and are enacted in correspondence with social environments: broadly, agency emerges from the complex interplay of individual technical skills and cognitive capacities with social and cultural supports and barriers. Drawing on a close reading of anthropological and sociological research into cooking, the authors propose that an individual's ability to integrate such complexity in regard to provisioning - to possess 'food agency' - is crucial. This argument is supplemented by empirical case studies from a large body of ethnographic observations and interviews with home cooks from the United States, conducted over the last decade. Overall, more food agency means the cook is more empowered to act. Adopting the paradigm of food agency into the consideration of everyday cooking practices has the potential to support transdisciplinary food scholarship integrating individual actions within a food system and thus inform nutrition and public health interventions related to meal preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds...... like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration...... in cooked liquid foods...

  2. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Fouzia; Kamrunnahar,; Afroz, Hafsa; Jahan, Afroz; Fakruddin, Md.; Datta, Suvamoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 sample...

  3. Awaken to the World of Food Service; Commercial Cooking and Baking--Basic: 9193.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production, and services. It provides basic experiences in the field of commercial food service, the hotel and restaurant industry and types of food service establishments. The course consists of 90 clock hours, covered…

  4. Iron contents of Malawian foods when prepared in iron cooking pots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen Geerligs, P. D.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, D. J.; Fairweather-Tait, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the iron content of Malawian foods prepared in iron pots and to examine the effects of continuous cooking time and added oil on the iron content of the food prepared. Foods prepared, which included a staple (Nsima), relish vegetables, and beans, had an

  5. Laboratory Development and Lecture Renovation for a Science of Food and Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Borchardt, Adrienne C.

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, a new nonscience majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, was developed at our institution. The course covered basic scientific concepts that would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the context of food and food preparation. Recently, the course has been revamped in three major ways: (1)…

  6. Integrity of nuclear genomic deoxyribonucleic acid in cooked meat: Implications for food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, O; Hamill, R M; Sweeney, T; Reardon, W; Mullen, A M

    2009-01-01

    It is essential to isolate high-quality DNA from muscle tissue for PCR-based applications in traceability of animal origin. We wished to examine the impact of cooking meat to a range of core temperatures on the quality and quantity of subsequently isolated genomic (specifically, nuclear) DNA. Triplicate steak samples were cooked in a water bath (100 degrees C) until their final internal temperature was 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 100 degrees C, and DNA was extracted. Deoxyribonucleic acid quantity was significantly reduced in cooked meat samples compared with raw (6.5 vs. 56.6 ng/microL; P 800 bp) were observed only when using DNA from raw meat and steak cooked to lower core temperatures. Small amplicons (food authentication, it is less abundant, and results suggest that analyses should be designed to use small amplicon sizes for meat cooked to high core temperatures.

  7. Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-12-01

    Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Iodine content in commonly consumed food in Hong Kong and its changes due to cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen; Chan, Andy; Xiao, Ying; Lin, Violette; Ho, Y Y

    2013-01-01

    Levels of iodine of foods found in Hong Kong were analysed in 271 samples from 11 groups, including (i) cereals and grain products, (ii) legumes and vegetables, (iii) meat and poultry, (iv) egg and egg products, (v) milk and milk products, (vi) fish, (vii) crustaceans and mollusks, (viii) non-alcoholic beverages, (ix) condiments and sauces, (x) sashimi and (xi) seaweeds. All food samples were analysed individually as purchased. The iodine in all samples ranged from undetectable to 2.9 g kg(-1). Seaweeds, iodised salt, seafood, milk and milk products as well as egg and egg products were rich sources of iodine. To estimate the influence of cooking on iodine levels in foods, a total of 15 individual samples were analysed as raw and respective cooked food. The influence of cooking on the iodine level was minimal, except for boiling, as iodine dissolved into the soup.

  9. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Bolwig, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may...... be a holistic approach to solving these issues. We study four approaches to providing food and fuel for cooking in a small-scale farming community. Present practice (PP) of synthetic fertilizer based food production and provision of wood fuel from outside the farming area is compared to three modeled...

  10. Fungal Contamination of Ready-to-Eat Cooked foods in Catering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi are ubiquitous and are found in a variety of habitats, either as transient or permanent dwellers. They grow in a wide range of substrates which may serve as vehicles for their spread to various other environments, including the human body. Ready-to-eat foods are those foods that are eaten without washing, cooking or ...

  11. The development and validation of measures to assess cooking skills and food skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Hollywood, Lynsey; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2017-09-02

    With the increase use of convenience food and eating outside the home environment being linked to the obesity epidemic, the need to assess and monitor individuals cooking and food skills is key to help intervene where necessary to promote the usage of these skills. Therefore, this research aimed to develop and validate a measure for cooking skills and one for food skills, that are clearly described, relatable, user-friendly, suitable for different types of studies, and applicable across all sociodemographic levels. Two measures were developed in light of the literature and expert opinion and piloted for clarity and ease of use. Following this, four studies were undertaken across different cohorts (including a sample of students, both 'Food preparation novices' and 'Experienced food preparers', and a nationally representative sample) to assess temporal stability, psychometrics, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of both measures. Analysis included T-tests, Pearson's correlations, factor analysis, and Cronbach's alphas, with a significance level of 0.05. Both measures were found to have a significant level of temporal stability (P cooking skills confidence measure ranged from 0.78 to 0.93 across all cohorts. The food skills confidence measure's Cronbach's alpha's ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. The two measures also showed a high discriminate validity as there were significant differences (P cooking skills confidence and P cooking skills confidence measure and the food skills confidence measure have been shown to have a very satisfactory reliability, validity and are consistent over time. Their user-friendly applicability make both measures highly suitable for large scale cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies to assess or monitor cooking and food skills levels and confidence.

  12. 75 FR 41795 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  13. 76 FR 43256 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  14. 77 FR 43231 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2012 Through June 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  15. 78 FR 45178 - Food Distribution Program: Value of Donated Foods From July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National Average Minimum Value of.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...

  16. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -IH and Vacuum cooking -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Murasaki, Masahiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. This study was aimed at making balance space foods menu for the healthy space-life. The kitchen utensil has a limit in the space environment. And a method to warm is only heater without fire. Therefore purpose of this study, we make the space foods which make by using vacuum cooking device and the IH heater We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores.. We could make the space foods which we devised with vacuum cooking and IH deliciously. As a result of sensuality examination, the eight points in ten points of perfect scores was appeared. This result showed, our space food menu is delicious. We can store these space foods with a refrigerator for 20 days by making vacuum cooking. This thing is at all important result so that a save is enabled when surplus food was done in future by performing vacuum cooking. We want to make delicious space foods menu with vacuum cooking and IH heater more in future.

  17. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Purity of food cooked in stainless steel utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, G N; Packirisamy, S

    1997-01-01

    An extensive programme of cooking operations, using household recipes, has shown that, apart from aberrant values associated with new pans on first use, the contribution made by 19% Cr/9% Ni stainless steel cooking utensils to chromium and nickel in the diet is negligible. New pans, if first used with acid fruits, showed a greater pick-up of chromium and nickel, ranging from approximately 1/20 to 1/3 and 1/20 to 1/2 of the normal daily intake of chromium and nickel respectively. This situation did not recur in subsequent usage, even after the pan had been cleaned by abrasion. A higher rate of chromium and nickel release in new pans on first use was observed on products from four manufactures and appears to be related to surface finish, since treatment of the surface of a new pan was partly, and in the case of electropolishing, wholly effective in eliminating their initial high release.

  19. Tolerance Testing for Cooked Porridge made from a Sorghum Based Fortified Blended Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Chambers, Edgar Iv; Alavi, Sajid

    2016-05-01

    Products that will be prepared by consumers must be tolerant to various cooking procedures that those consumers may use. Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are used as a source of nutrition for disaster or famine relief in developing countries. Many FBFs are served as porridge and may have a wide of solids content, cooking times and variations in added ingredients. Sorghum is being examined as a potential alternative to wheat and corn based FBF products. This study was intended to evaluate the tolerance to preparation variations for porridge made as a FBF intended for food aid. Whole Sorghum Soy Blend (WSSB), a fortified, extruded, ground cooked cereal was selected as the FBF for this study. Descriptive sensory analysis and Bostwick flow rate measurements were performed to evaluate the tolerance of porridge products made from variations in ingredients and cooking procedures. The results showed that most sensory properties were only marginally affected although some expected large differences in a few sensory properties were found when solids content varied (that is, thickness, adhesiveness) or fruit (banana flavor) was added. Moreover, Bostwick flow rate was a reasonable indicator of thickness characteristics of porridges in some cases, but not in others. Tolerance testing showed that the sensory properties of WSSB had high tolerance to variations in cooking procedures, which means that the product can be modified during preparation by consumers without having a major impact on most sensory properties other than ones they intended to change such as thickness, sweetness, or fruit flavor. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Online Chemical Characterization of Food-Cooking Organic Aerosols: Implications for Source Apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villegas, Ernesto; Bannan, Thomas; Le Breton, Michael; Mehra, Archit; Priestley, Michael; Percival, Carl; Coe, Hugh; Allan, James D

    2018-04-11

    Food-cooking organic aerosols (COA) are one of the primary sources of submicron particulate matter in urban environments. However, there are still many questions surrounding source apportionment related to instrumentation as well as semivolatile partitioning because COA evolve rapidly in the ambient air, making source apportionment more complex. Online measurements of emissions from cooking different types of food were performed in a laboratory to characterize particles and gases. Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements showed that the relative ionization efficiency for OA was higher (1.56-3.06) relative to a typical value of 1.4, concluding that AMS is over-estimating COA and suggesting that previous studies likely over-estimated COA concentrations. Food-cooking mass spectra were generated using AMS, and gas and particle food markers were identified with filter inlets for gases and aerosols-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) measurements to be used in future food cooking-source apportionment studies. However, there is a considerable variability in both gas and particle markers, and dilution plays an important role in the particle mass budget, showing the importance of using these markers with caution during receptor modeling. These findings can be used to better understand the chemical composition of COA, and they provides useful information to be used in future source-apportionment studies.

  1. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  2. [Convenience foods -- a simple way of healthy cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, N; Mühlemann, P; Baumgartner-Perren, S; Exl-Preysch, B M

    2001-09-01

    Convenience foods stand for a culinary revolution that commenced just over 100 years ago. The food industry came into being parallel to industrialization and urbanization. Nicolas Appert invented the can at that time and Julius Maggi invented dehydrated soup. Today convenience foods--from powdered spices to ready-to-eat dishes--are prepared using state-of-the-art technology and offer a ubiquitous range of healthy, easy-to-serve foods.

  3. Charity Starts … at Work? Conceptual Foundations for Research with Businesses that Donate to Food Redistribution Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Vlaholias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As global concern about sustainability, food waste, and poverty increases, there is an urgent need to understand what motivates businesses to adopt pro-social and pro-environmental behaviours. This paper suggests that food redistribution organisations hold both pro-social and pro-environmental aims, due to their concern with reducing food surplus and food insecurity. To achieve this, they must motivate food businesses to donate their surplus food. However, little is known about the values, attitudes, and motives of food industry donors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical and conceptual overview to set out principles from which empirical data on food redistribution will be analysed or critiqued. Specifically, it explores pro-social and pro-environmental literature, as these fields have examined the motivations behind donations and reducing environmental impact. This review highlights that charitable giving of food is different to other inorganic material, such as money. Thus, future research is needed to capture the unique temporal, emotional, social, and environmental factors that motivate food donations. This information may contribute to the development of strategies that target and motivate people from the food industry to become food donors. Alternatively, it may reveal concerns about food donations, and highlight the need for other approaches to food waste and food insecurity.

  4. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  5. A Culinary Cornucopia at the Second Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagine traveling the globe, sampling cuisines from countries as disparate as Russia, Switzerland, India, and Ethiopia. Sounds like a dream vacation, doesn’t it? Thanks to the Employee Diversity Team (EDT) and its group of gastronomic volunteers, the NCI at Frederick community was taken on this culinary journey, gratis, at the second annual Ethnic Food Cook-off. Read more...

  6. Application of induction heating in food processing and cooking: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction heating is an electromagnetic heating technology that has several advantages such as high safety, scalability, and high energy efficiency. It has been applied for a long time in metal processing, medical applications, and cooking. However, the application of this technology in the food pro...

  7. Modelling extrudate expansion in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extruder operation parameters in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process. Buckingham's pi dimensional analysis method is applied to establish the model. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. pump efficiency, water content...

  8. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N

    2014-01-01

    Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however, an extensive review has not examined their overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Literature review and descriptive summative method. Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Articles evaluating the effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January, 1980 through December, 2011) were identified via Ovid MEDLINE, Agricola, and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with 6 as nonrandomized and 6 as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done postintervention for 5 studies, pre- and postintervention for 23, and beyond postintervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, nonrigorous study designs, varying study populations, and the use of nonvalidated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C.; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however an extensive review has not examined overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Design Literature review and descriptive summative method. Main outcome measures Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Analysis Articles evaluating effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January 1980 through December 2011) were identified via OVID MEDLINE, Agricola and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Results Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with six as non-randomized and six as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done post-intervention for five studies, pre- and post-intervention for 23 and beyond post-intervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, non-rigorous study designs, varying study populations, and use of non-validated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Conclusions and Implications Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:24703245

  10. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  11. Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ángela; Achón, María; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2018-02-15

    This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men). A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks ( p < 0.05) at all ages. A significantly higher proportion of people under 50 years self-reported that they were "able to cook" in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3%) or from a family member (42.2%). Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention.

  12. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  13. First Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off Offers Tastes from Around the World | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Employee Diversity Team (EDT), with the support of the R&W Club Frederick, hosted its first Annual Ethnic Food Cook-off on March 27, in the lobby of Building 549, at NCI at Frederick. The event drew chefs of all nationalities from around the NCI at Frederick community. The goal of the cook-off was to encourage members of the community to embrace various ethnic cultures and backgrounds, according to Andrea Frydl, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, and EDT chairperson.

  14. Identifying Factors Related to Food Agency: Cooking Habits in the Spanish Adult Population—A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ángela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men). A total of 90.5% of participants stated that they had cooking skills. Women were mainly responsible for cooking tasks (p cook” in comparison with groups over 50 years. Regardless of age, most participants learned to cook either by practice (43.3%) or from a family member (42.2%). Men tended to be more autodidactic, whereas women reported learning from family. No relation was found between weight status and the evaluated factors investigated. In conclusion, women bear the responsibility for the entire cooking process in families, indicating a gender gap in the involvement of men in cooking responsibilities and competence. More research is needed to assess the influence of cooking knowledge on obesity prevention. PMID:29462887

  15. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  16. Application to Food of Lentinus edodes Flour with Extrusion Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    岡村, 徳光; 上杉, 誓子; 星野, 由紀子; 奥田, 展子; 大杉, 匡弘; Tokumitsu, Okamura; Seiko, Uesugi; Yukiko, Hoshino; Nobuko, Okuda; Masahiro, Ohsugi

    1997-01-01

    We report the application to food using Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) flour, which is a good vegetable for health, rich in protein, fiber and vitamins (B_1, B_2, niacin). The wheat flour contained Lentinus edodes flour was expansed and textured by a twin screw extruder. The snack contained 1% Lentinus edodes flour was most prefered in the points of taste, flavor, color and appearance.

  17. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  18. 5. Food and Cooking in Revolutionary and Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Steila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tsarist Russia, with both indigenous and foreign cuisine being very popular, since the middle of the 19th century the figure of the revolutionary took ascetic features. The 1917 revolution saw a prevalence of the scientific aspects of nutrition and its collective organization over any ‘culinary’ consideration. Nevertheless, during the 1920s, some cookbooks adapted pre-revolutionary culinary traditions to post- revolutionary conditions. But again and again the country would meet dramatic situations as far as food production and distribution were concerned. At the end of the Twenties, the system of communal dining faced a serious crisis, when local governement was forced to help starving people rather than organize collective canteens. Alongside with industrialization of food production (in which A. Mikojan had a crucial role, nutrition was again considered as a pleasure in the 1930s, when Stalinism started to present the Soviet society as accomplished. Often disregarded in Russian revolutionary movements, food became an important element in the propaganda of the Soviet way of life.

  19. Sterilization of ready-to-cook Bibimbap by combined treatment with gamma irradiation for space food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Han, In-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Bibimbap, Korean traditional cooked rice mixed with various kinds of vegetables, together with mushrooms and a ground meat, and seasoned with red pepper paste, was developed as a ready-to-cook food by combined treatment with irradiation for the use in space. By gamma irradiation of 25 kGy, the total aerobic bacteria of Bibimbap that was initial by 6.3 log CFU/g decreased to below detection limit, but its sensory qualities were drastically decreased. To enhance the sensory quality, the effects of antioxidant in Bibimbap were evaluated. A treatment with 0.1% of vitamin C, vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiated at 25 kGy and -70 °C showed higher sensory scores than only the irradiation process. This result indicates that the radiation technology may be useful to produce a variety of space foods with high quality of taste and flavor, when combined with other methods.

  20. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during food cooking: Implications for the interpretation of the fossil human record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Aurélien; Daux, Valérie; Fourel, François; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope data provide insight into the reconstruction of ancient human diet. However, cooking may alter the original stable isotope compositions of food due to losses and modifications of biochemical and water components. To address this issue, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on meat aliquots sampled from various animals such as pork, beef, duck and chicken, and also from the flesh of fishes such as salmon, European seabass, European pilchard, sole, gilt-head bream, and tuna. For each specimen, three pieces were cooked according to the three most commonly-known cooking practices: boiling, frying and roasting on a barbecue. Our data show that cooking produced isotopic shifts up to 1.8‰, 3.5‰, and 5.2‰ for δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and δ 18 O values, respectively. Such variations between raw and cooked food are much greater than previously estimated in the literature; they are more sensitive to the type of food rather than to the cooking process itself, except in the case of boiling. Reconstructions of paleodietary may thus suffer slight bias in cases of populations with undiversified diets that are restrained toward a specific raw or cooked product, or using a specific cooking mode. In cases of oxygen isotope compositions from skeletal remains (bones, teeth), they not only constitute a valuable proxy for reconstructing past climatic conditions, but they could also be used to improve our knowledge of past human diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cooking and disgust sensitivity influence preference for attending insect-based food events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerman, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Insects are energy-efficient and sustainable sources of animal protein in a world with insufficient food resources to feed an ever-increasing population. However, much of the western world refuses to eat insects because they perceive them as disgusting. This research finds that both animal reminder disgust and core disgust reduced people's willingness to attend a program called "Bug Appétit" in which insects were served as food. Additionally, people who were low in sensitivity to animal reminder disgust were more willing to attend this program after having been primed to think about cooking. Cooking is a process by which raw ingredients are transformed into finished products, reducing the "animalness" of meat products that renders them disgusting. Sensitivity to core disgust did not interact with cooking to influence willingness to attend the program. While prior research has emphasized that direct education campaigns about the benefits of entomophagy (the consumption of insects) can increase willingness to attend events at which insect-based food is served, this is the first demonstration that indirect priming can have a similar effect among a subset of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of cooking and delivery modes of thymol and carvacrol on retention and bioaccessibility in starchy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Gabriela; García, Olga; Muñoz, Ociel; Pérez-Correa, José R; Parada, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Oregano and thyme possess beneficial properties for human health, mainly attributable to monoterpenes such as thymol and carvacrol. The main objective of this research was to assess, on starchy food, the impact of cooking (boiling and baking) and delivery (ground leaves and essential oil) modes on retention and bioaccessibility of thymol and carvacrol. Retention was assessed after cooking, while bioaccessibility was estimated in cooked samples using an in vitro digestion model. Our results indicate that bioaccessibility was weakly dependent on cooking and delivery modes (27-33%). Boil cooking presented 20% more retention than baking for both compounds. When essential oil was added to the food matrix, thymol was retained almost 25% more when compared with ground leaves' addition. Conversely, carvacrol was retained 39% more when ground leaves were added. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy-efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis aims at identifying the opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system (i.e., at, or in relation to, the points of consumption). Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterized by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens (and their associated dining facilities) tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens, but to a lesser extent because the cooks there usually pay (or contribute towards) the fuel bills. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. Furthermore most people have insufficient knowledge of the nutritional suitabilities and the primary-energy costs of their diets. Thus a major educational need exists, which must be satisfied if industrialized food systems are to become more energy efficient.

  4. Cooking Methods for a Soft Diet Using Chicken Based on Food Texture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Emi; Maeno, Masami; Kayashita, Jun; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Kogirima, Miho

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition caused by difficulties in masticating is of growing concern among the elderly. Soft diets are often served at nursing homes; however, the styles differ with nursing homes. Improperly modified food texture and consistency may lead to further loss of nutritive value. Therefore, we developed a method to produce a soft diet using chicken. The texture-modified chicken was prepared by boiling a mixture of minced chicken and additive foodstuff that softened the meat. The best food additive was determined through testing cooking process, size after modification and texture. The optimum proportions of each component in the mixture were determined measuring food texture using a creep meter. Teriyaki chicken was cooked using the texture-modified chicken, and provided to a nursing home. The amount of food intake by elderly residents was subsequently surveyed. This study involved 22 residents (1 man and 21 women; mean age 91.4±5.3 y). Consequently, yakifu, which was made from wheat gluten, was the most suitable additive foodstuff. The hardness of the texture-modified chicken, with proportions of minced chicken, yakifu, and water being 50%, 10%, and 40% respectively, was under 40,000 N/m 2 . The intake amount of the texture-modified chicken of subjects whose intake amount of conventional chicken using chicken thigh was not 100% was significantly higher. These findings suggest that properly modified food textures could contribute to improve the quality of meals by preventing undernutrition among the elderly with mastication difficulties.

  5. Microbiological quality of take-away cooked rice and chicken sandwiches: effectiveness of food hygiene training of the management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2002-12-01

    During August 2001 a microbiological study of ready-to-eat cooked rice from take-aways and of chicken sandwiches made on the premises from sandwich bars was undertaken. The intention was to identify risk factors in the production, storage and handling of cooked rice and sandwiches, and to establish their effect on microbiological quality. Examination of cooked rice revealed that the majority of samples (87%; 442 of 508) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality; 50 (10%) were unsatisfactory, and 16 (3%) were of unacceptable quality due to Bacillus cereus and/or other Bacillus spp in excess of 10(5) cfu/g. The microbiological quality of cooked rice was associated with cuisine type (p management food hygiene training (p manager of the premises had received some form of food hygiene training, food safety procedures such as the hazard analysis system were more likely to be in place (p < 0.0001).

  6. Energy efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-07-01

    The opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system, i.e. at, or in relation to, the points of consumption are identified. Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterised by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. (author).

  7. Rural food insecurity: When cooking skills, homegrown food, and perseverance aren't enough to feed a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck-McFadyen, Ellen V

    2015-03-12

    More than 1 in 10 Canadians experience food insecurity, and a growing number of families rely on food banks each month. This ethnographic study aimed to give voice to rural families about their experiences with food insecurity while situating the findings within the broader social, political and economic context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who had children living at home, and interviewer observations within the food bank were recorded as field notes. Content analysis was combined with the constant comparison method of data analysis to identify common themes regarding the experience of living with food insecurity and the influence of public policy. Seven female participants described the emotional toll that food insecurity had on their well-being and relationships, with stress and depression common to many women. Strategies used to stretch resources included cooking from scratch, growing produce, stocking up on sale items, hunting and fishing, and paying half-bills. Many participants described going without food so that their children could eat first, and three participants went without prescription medications. Rurality and social programs were identified as both supports and barriers to overcoming food insecurity. Participants in this study were highly skilled in attempting to feed their families with limited resources, although this proved inadequate to overcome their food insecurity. This highlights the need for policy initiatives to address the root causes of food insecurity and health inequities, including access to rural employment and high-quality child care, drug benefits and guaranteed annual income programs.

  8. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  9. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Morris, M.M.; Felton, J.S.; Healy, S.; Stuermer, D.; Berry, P.; Timourian, H.; Hatch, F.T.

    1982-01-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling at 100-475/sup 0/C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham, pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs andd egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperature above 225/sup 0/C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  10. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling of 100-475 degrees C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs and egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperatures above 225 degrees C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  11. Is scratch-cooking a cost-effective way to prepare healthy school meals with US Department of Agriculture foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kiesel, Kristin; Lewis Miller, Markell; Boyle, Maria; Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Crawford, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Despite the resurgence of interest in scratch-cooking as a way to increase the quality and appeal of school meals, many school districts are concerned about the cost implications of switching to scratch-cooking. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foods are the single largest source of ingredients for school meals, and about half of USDA Foods are diverted for processing before being sent to the school district. We aimed to determine whether school lunch entrées made in a district from basic or raw USDA Foods ingredients can be healthier and less expensive to prepare than those sent to external processors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the extent of scratch-cooking and the nutritional content and cost to prepare entrées. Information was gathered by interview with school foodservice personnel and from school foodservice records from a convenience sample of 10 school districts in California that employed varying degrees of scratch-cooking and is diverse in terms of geographic location and the sociodemographics of the student body. The sample included all elementary school lunch entrées that contain USDA Foods offered during October 2010 for a total sample of 146 entrées. Ordinary least squares regressions were used to test for statistically significant differences in cost and nutrient content of entrées according to the level of scratch-cooking. There was no significant relationship between total costs and level of scratch-cooking. Entrées with the highest scratch-cooking scores had significantly lower food costs, higher labor costs, and not significantly different total costs compared with entrées with no scratch-cooking. Nutrient content was not consistently associated with scratch-cooking, but scratch-cooked entrées did include a larger variety of non-fast-food-type entrées. The findings suggest that scratch-cooking can be a cost-effective way to expand the variety of healthy school lunches prepared with USDA Foods

  12. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L F [Univ. of California, Berkeley; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-01-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100 g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock cod and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the food that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  13. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling and boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the foods that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  14. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  15. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  16. Freshwater reservoir offsets and food crusts: Isotope, AMS, and lipid analyses of experimental cooking residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taché, Karine; Lovis, William A.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater reservoir offsets (FROs) occur when AMS dates on charred, encrusted food residues on pottery predate a pot’s chronological context because of the presence of ancient carbon from aquatic resources such as fish. Research over the past two decades has demonstrated that FROs vary widely within and between water bodies and between fish in those water bodies. Lipid analyses have identified aquatic biomarkers that can be extracted from cooking residues as potential evidence for FROs. However, lacking has been efforts to determine empirically how much fish with FROs needs to be cooked in a pot with other resources to result in significant FRO on encrusted cooking residue and what percentage of fish C in a residue is needed to result in the recovery of aquatic biomarkers. Here we provide preliminary assessments of both issues. Our results indicate that in historically-contingent, high alkalinity environments fish may result in a statistically significant FRO, but that biomarkers for aquatic resources may be present in the absence of a significant FRO. PMID:29694436

  17. Genetically modified CHO cells for studying the genotoxicity of heterocyclic amines from cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Wu, R.W.; Felton, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed metabolically competent CHO cells to evaluate the genotoxicity associated with heterocyclic amines, such as those that are present in cooked foods. Into repair-deficient UV5 cells we introduced cDNAs for expressing cytochrome P450IA2 and acetyltransferases. We then genetically reverted these transformed lines to obtain matched metabolically competent repair-deficient/proficient lines. For a high mutagenic response, we find a requirement for acetyltransferase with IQ but not with PhIP. This system allows for both quantifying mutagenesis and analyzing the mutational spectra produced by heterocyclic amines

  18. Evaluation of the LiveWell@School Food Initiative Shows Increases in Scratch Cooking and Improvement in Nutritional Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Carpenter, Leah; Currie, Venita; Yaroch, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the effects of the LiveWell@School Food Initiative (LW@SFI), a Colorado-based childhood obesity prevention program that partners with school districts to enable them to serve more scratch cooked foods through culinary training, action planning, and equipment grants. Methods: This evaluation…

  19. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  20. Temporality in British young women's magazines: food, cooking and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rosemary J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-10-01

    The present study examines seasonal and temporal patterns in food-related content of two UK magazines for young women focusing on food types, cooking and weight loss. Content analysis of magazines from three time blocks between 1999 and 2011. Desk-based study. Ninety-seven magazines yielding 590 advertisements and 148 articles. Cluster analysis of type of food advertising produced three clusters of magazines, which reflected recognised food behaviours of young women: vegetarianism, convenience eating and weight control. The first cluster of magazines was associated with Christmas and Millennium time periods, with advertising of alcohol, coffee, cheese, vegetarian meat substitutes and weight-loss pills. Recipes were prominent in article content and tended to be for cakes/desserts, luxury meals and party food. The second cluster was associated with summer months and 2010 issues. There was little advertising for conventional foods in cluster 2, but strong representation of diet plans and foods for weight loss. Weight-loss messages in articles focused on short-term aesthetic goals, emphasising speedy weight loss without giving up nice foods or exercising. Cluster 3 magazines were associated with post-New Year and 2005 periods. Food advertising was for everyday foods and convenience products, with fewer weight-loss products than other clusters; conversely, article content had a greater prevalence of weight-loss messages. The cyclical nature of magazine content - indulgence and excess encouraged at Christmas, restraint recommended post-New Year and severe dieting advocated in the summer months - endorses yo-yo dieting behaviour and may not be conducive to public health.

  1. Effect of cooking or handling conditions on the furan levels of processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, Y S; Lee, K-G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cooking or handling conditions on the concentration of furan in processed foods. The analytical method used to analyse furan levels in foods was optimized based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In baby soups, the concentration of furan decreased by up to 22% after opening a lid for 10 min. In the baby food in retort packaging, the level of furan was reduced by 15-33% after heating the foods at 50 degrees C without a lid. Furan in rice seasonings was evaporated completely after heating the foods at 60 degrees C. Regarding powered milk, the levels of furan were too low to be compared under various conditions. The levels of furan decreased to 58% in beverage products for babies, after storing them at 4 degrees C for 1 day without a lid. The levels of furan in canned foods such as cereal and vegetable were reduced by zero to 52% when they were stored without stirring in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 1 day. When we boiled canned fish, the furan present was almost completely evaporated. It is recommended that canned meats be heated up to 50-70 degrees C for the reduction (26-46%) of furan levels. The levels of furan in instant and brewed coffee samples were significantly reduced after storing for 11 to 20 min at room temperature without a lid (p < 0.05).

  2. Occupational injury among cooks and food service workers in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Swinkels, Helena; Yu, Shicheng; Yassi, Annalee

    2007-07-01

    Incidence of occupational injury is anticipated to be high among cooks and food service workers (CFSWs) because of the nature of their work and the types of raw and finished materials that they handle. Incidents of occupational injury, resulting in lost time or medical care over a period of 1 year in two health regions were extracted from a standardized operational database and with person years obtained from payroll data, detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modeling. Among the CFSWs the annual injury rate was 38.1 per 100 person years. The risk of contusions [RR, 95% CI 9.66 (1.04, 89.72)], burns [1.79 (1.39, 2.31)], and irritations or allergies [3.84 (2.05, 7.18)] was found to be significantly higher in acute care facilities compared to long-term care facilities. Lower risk was found among older workers for irritations or allergies. Female CFSWs, compared to their male counterparts, were respectively 8 and 20 times more likely to report irritations or allergies and contusions. In respect to outcome, almost all irritations or allergies required medical visits. For MSI incidents, about 67.4% resulted in time-loss from work. Prevention policies should be developed to reduce the hazards present in the workplace to promote safer work practices for cooks and food service workers.

  3. Critical review of behaviour change techniques applied in intervention studies to improve cooking skills and food skills among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywood, Lynsey; Surgenor, Dawn; Reicks, Marla; McGowan, Laura; Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Raats, Monique; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Dean, Moira

    2017-08-21

    Cooking and food skills interventions have grown in popularity; however, there is a lack of transparency as to how these interventions were designed, highlighting a need to identify and understand the mechanisms of behavior change so that effective components may be introduced in future work. This study critiques cooking and food skills interventions in relation to their design, behavior change techniques (BCTs), theoretical underpinnings, and outcomes. A 40-item CALO-RE taxonomy was used to examine the components of 59 cooking and food skills interventions identified by two systematic reviews. Studies were coded by three independent coders. The three most frequently occurring BCTs identified were #1 Provide information on consequences of behavior in general; #21 Provide instruction on how to perform the behavior; and #26 Prompt Practice. Fifty-six interventions reported positive short-term outcomes. Only 14 interventions reported long-term outcomes containing BCTs relating to information provision. This study reviewed cooking and food skills interventions highlighting the most commonly used BCTs, and those associated with long-term positive outcomes for cooking skills and diet. This study indicates the potential for using the BCT CALO-RE taxonomy to inform the design, planning, delivery and evaluation of future interventions.

  4. Cooking up the Culinary Nation or Savoring its Regions? Teaching Food Studies in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Annear

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available “In food, as in death, we feel the essential brotherhood of man.” Vietnamese Proverb This paper explores whether or not there is an identifiably Vietnamese national cuisine, one in which the ingredients, recipes, and/or dishes socially, culturally, and politically unite Vietnamese people. It contends that Vietnam, with its long history of foreign invaders, its own appropriation of the middle and southern regions, and its varied regional geographies, provides a critical example for Food Studies of the need to interrogate the idea of a national cuisine and to differentiate it from regional and local cuisines. The paper examines how cookbook authors and cooking schools have more generally sought to represent Vietnamese dishes as national, but that there is a strong argument against the claim of a Vietnamese national cuisine. We advocate a Food Studies methodology that creates an effective pedagogy that explores whether or not national populations are unified as single gastro-states or atomized by a plurality of regional cuisines. Through experiential assignments and student work we illustrate how Food Studies presents the pedagogical opportunity for students to study and learn at the intersection of national politics and the everyday lives of people, providing a framework for understanding connections of labor, gender, class, and, essentially, taste, among many other values. In the case of Vietnamese food, the critical details of ingredients, preparation, and consumption both reveal and conceal truths about the Vietnamese people.

  5. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1 to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion, meat inclusion (0 or 20%, and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2 to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15, and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15, whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  6. Soft matter food physics—the physics of food and cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from ‘hard matter systems’, such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to ‘soft matter’ in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.

  7. Soft matter food physics--the physics of food and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from 'hard matter systems', such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to 'soft matter' in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.

  8. Soft matter food physics—the physics of food and cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from ‘hard matter systems’, such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to ‘soft matter’ in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales. (report on progress)

  9. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooking crisis: What crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking has long been a topic of discussion and concern among those arguing for a healthy diet. Chadwick, the great public health reformer, in 1842 called for cooking education.\\ud \\ud The Obama administration has heartedly endorsed cooking, mainly through the First Lady and a program called Cooking Matters, to address the obesity problem in the United States (http://cookingmatters.org/). \\ud \\ud Changing practices in cooking and food preparation and the way we eat some argue are driven by a ...

  11. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  12. Jamie's Ministry of Food: quasi-experimental evaluation of immediate and sustained impacts of a cooking skills program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flego, Anna; Herbert, Jessica; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Swinburn, Boyd; Reynolds, John; Moodie, Marj

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the immediate and sustained effectiveness of the first Jamie's Ministry of Food Program in Australia on individuals' cooking confidence and positive cooking/eating behaviours. A quasi- experimental repeated measures design was used incorporating a wait-list control group. A questionnaire was developed and administered at baseline (T1), immediately post program (T2) and 6 months post completion (T3) for participants allocated to the intervention group, while wait -list controls completed it 10 weeks prior to program commencement (T1) and just before program commencement (T2). The questionnaire measured: participants' confidence to cook, the frequency of cooking from basic ingredients, and consumption of vegetables, vegetables with the main meal, fruit, ready-made meals and takeaway. Analysis used a linear mixed model approach for repeated measures using all available data to determine mean differences within and between groups over time. All adult participants (≥18 years) who registered and subsequently participated in the program in Ipswich, Queensland, between late November 2011- December 2013, were invited to participate. In the intervention group: 694 completed T1, 383 completed T1 and T2 and 214 completed T1, T2 and T3 assessments. In the wait-list group: 237 completed T1 and 149 completed T1 and T2 assessments. Statistically significant increases within the intervention group (Pcooking confidence measures between T1 and T2 as well as cooking from basic ingredients, frequency of eating vegetables with the main meal and daily vegetable intake (0.52 serves/day increase). Statistically significant increases at T2 were sustained at 6 months post program in the intervention group. Jamie's Ministry of Food Program, Australia improved individuals' cooking confidence and cooking/eating behaviours contributing to a healthier diet and is a promising community-based strategy to influence diet quality.

  13. Food prepared in iron cooking pots as an intervention for reducing iron deficiency anaemia in developing countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, P. D. Prinsen; Brabin, B. J.; Omari, A. A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To complete a systematic review of the effect of preparing food cooked in iron pots on haemoglobin concentrations and to assess compliance with pot use. Design and Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness,

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF FOOD DYES OF NATURAL ORIGIN ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF COOKED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kozlova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Presented technology for nutrient food dyes model samples of cooked meat products with the introduction of extracts from currants, grapes and cherries; investigated the biochemical composition of the model samples, determined the content of trace elements and vitamins, and presents the results of the organoleptic analysis of the meat products.

  15. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; van Asselt, Esther D; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-01-01

    cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function...

  16. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Changing How We Think About Our Resources for a Better Tomorrow: How to Donate Surplus Food from K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Changing How We Think About Our Resources for a Better Tomorrow: How to Donate Surplus Food from K-12 Schools

  17. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  18. Food-cooking processes modulate allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Bai-Sui; Kong, Xiaoli; Xu, Hong; Li, Xiumin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the allergenicity of food allergens can suppress the clinical symptoms of food allergy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing on the allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins. Eggs were processed by traditional Chinese cooking, including steaming, water boiling, frying, spicing and tea boiling. The contents of processed egg protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; the allergenicity was evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme allergosorbent test inhibition. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis of four major egg allergens from various egg products was performed as well. A mouse model of food allergy was developed to test the allergenicity of processed egg protein in vivo. Protein degradation was significant following tea boiling and spiced-tea boiling. The total allergenic potential of water-boiled egg and fried egg was relatively higher than that of steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg. Challenge with proteins from raw egg, water-boiled egg and fried egg induced skewed T-helper 2 pattern responses (Th2 responses) in the intestine of mice sensitized to egg proteins; however, when the mice sensitized to egg proteins were challenged with proteins from steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg, respectively, only weak Th2 responses were induced in their intestine. Processing by steaming, spicing, or tea boiling can weaken the allergenicity of egg proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Detection of lead (pb and aluminum (Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala in Kosti City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala.The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 19-26

  20. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (cooking only or with other activities such as shopping, table-setting, clean up, and dishwashing), non-food-related activities (table-setting and/or clean up), and no (helping) activities. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine involvement in at-home meal preparation associations. The sample consisted of 1,207 fifth-grade children. Vegetable intake was lower in the no (helping) activities group than the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.2, 5.1, girls: 2.0, 8.9). Fewer children in the non-food-related activities group reported they were able to make a portion of their meals compared with the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.6, 3.5; girls: 1.5, 3.2). Children in the food-related activities group showed more favorable food intake and cooking skills than children in the no (helping) activities or non-food-related activities group.

  1. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarieke E.I. de Jong

    2012-01-01

    The surface temperature reached 70∘C within 30 sec and 85∘C within one minute. Extremely high decimal reduction times of 1.90, 1.97, and 2.20 min were obtained for C. jejuni, E. coli, and S. typhimurium, respectively. Chicken meat and refrigerated storage before cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function of cooking time. The data revealed that cooking time may be far more critical than previously assumed.

  2. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    induced a higher percentage of medium or large sized aberrant crypt foci than PhIP or IQ, The interpretation of the aberrant crypt foci as precursor lesions for colon cancer in the PhIP and IQ mice is difficult because PhIP and IQ have not been reported to be colonic carcinogens, If cooked food mutagens......The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2......-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were used, To simulate the human exposure further, we chose a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ- and PhIP-doses, Throughout the study female mice were given diets with or without 0.03% IQ or 0.03% PhIP, Two additional groups were given...

  3. Digital Materials Related to Food Science and Cooking Methods for Preparing Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    沼田, 貴美子; 渡邉, 美奈; ヌマタ, キミコ; ワタナベ, ミナ; Numata, Kimiko; Watanabe, Mina

    2009-01-01

    We studied methods that were effective for teaching cooking to elementary school pupils using home economics materials. The subject was "Iritamago (scrambled eggs)". We researched the relationship between cookery science and experimental methods of making Iritamago. The various differences in condition and texture of Iritamago were compared among the different cooking utensils, conditions, and preparations of eggs. We created digital materials related to cookery science and the cooking method...

  4. Cooking methods employing natural anti-oxidant food additives effectively reduced concentration of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in contaminated food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Wong, Yee-Lam; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Ho Wai; Chan, Wan

    2018-10-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that aristolochic acids (AA) produced naturally by a common weed Aristolochia clematitis in the cultivation fields is contaminating the food products in Balkan Peninsula and acting as the etiological agent in the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the combined use of natural anti-oxidative "food additives" and different cooking methods to find a solution for the widespread contamination of AA in food products. The results indicated that the addition of healthy dietary supplements (such as cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, citric acid and magnesium) during cooking, is a highly efficient method in lowering the concentration of AA in the final food products. Because previous observation indicated one of the toxicological mechanisms by which AA exert its toxicity is to induce oxidative stress in internal organs, it is anticipated that these added anti-oxidants will also help to attenuate the nephrotoxicity of AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Jamie's Ministry of Food: quasi-experimental evaluation of immediate and sustained impacts of a cooking skills program in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flego

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immediate and sustained effectiveness of the first Jamie's Ministry of Food Program in Australia on individuals' cooking confidence and positive cooking/eating behaviours.A quasi- experimental repeated measures design was used incorporating a wait-list control group. A questionnaire was developed and administered at baseline (T1, immediately post program (T2 and 6 months post completion (T3 for participants allocated to the intervention group, while wait -list controls completed it 10 weeks prior to program commencement (T1 and just before program commencement (T2. The questionnaire measured: participants' confidence to cook, the frequency of cooking from basic ingredients, and consumption of vegetables, vegetables with the main meal, fruit, ready-made meals and takeaway. Analysis used a linear mixed model approach for repeated measures using all available data to determine mean differences within and between groups over time.All adult participants (≥18 years who registered and subsequently participated in the program in Ipswich, Queensland, between late November 2011- December 2013, were invited to participate.In the intervention group: 694 completed T1, 383 completed T1 and T2 and 214 completed T1, T2 and T3 assessments. In the wait-list group: 237 completed T1 and 149 completed T1 and T2 assessments. Statistically significant increases within the intervention group (P<0.001 and significant group*time interaction effects (P<0.001 were found in all cooking confidence measures between T1 and T2 as well as cooking from basic ingredients, frequency of eating vegetables with the main meal and daily vegetable intake (0.52 serves/day increase. Statistically significant increases at T2 were sustained at 6 months post program in the intervention group.Jamie's Ministry of Food Program, Australia improved individuals' cooking confidence and cooking/eating behaviours contributing to a healthier diet and is a promising community

  6. Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Buckley, Stephen; Collins, Matthew J.; Estalrrich, Almudena; Brothwell, Don; Copeland, Les; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Huguet, Rosa; Bastir, Markus; Santamaría, David; Madella, Marco; Wilson, Julie; Cortés, Ángel Fernández; Rosas, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Neanderthals disappeared sometime between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago. Until recently, Neanderthals were understood to have been predominantly meat-eaters; however, a growing body of evidence suggests their diet also included plants. We present the results of a study, in which sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were combined with morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify material entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for inhalation of wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale and ingestion of a range of cooked plant foods. We also offer the first evidence for the use of medicinal plants by a Neanderthal individual. The varied use of plants that we have identified suggests that the Neanderthal occupants of El Sidrón had a sophisticated knowledge of their natural surroundings which included the ability to select and use certain plants.

  7. Cooked Food Waste-An Efficient and Less Expensive Precursor for the Generation of Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithiga, Thangavelu; Sabina, Xavier Janet; Rajesh, Baskaran; Ilbeygi, Hamid; Shetty, Adka Nityananda; Reddy, Ramanjaneya; Karthikeyan, Jayabalan

    2018-06-01

    Activated carbon was synthesized from cooked food waste, especially dehydrated rice kernels, by chemical activation method using NaOH and KOH as activating agents. It was then characterized by ultimate and proximate analysis, BET surface analysis, XRD, FTIR, Raman and SEM. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared activated carbons. Ultimate analysis showed an increase in the carbon content after activation of the raw carbon samples. Upon activation with NaOH and KOH, the surface area of the carbon sample was found to have increased from 0.3424 to 539.78 and 306.83 m2g-1 respectively. The SEM images revealed the formation of heterogeneous pores on the surface of the activated samples. The samples were then tested for their adsorption activity using acetic acid and methylene blue. Based on the regression coefficients, the adsorption kinetics of methylene blue dye were fitted with pseudo-second order model for both samples. Similarly, the Freundlich isotherm was found to be a better fit than Langmuir isotherm for both samples. The activity of thus prepared activated carbons was found to be comparable with the commercial carbon.

  8. The impact of cooking classes on food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children: a systematic review of the evidence, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Derek; Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L

    2014-11-06

    Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is needed to fill knowledge gaps on ideal program

  9. The Impact of Cooking Classes on Food-Related Preferences, Attitudes, and Behaviors of School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, 2003–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Conclusions Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is

  10. Presence of heterocyclic amine carcinogens in home-cooked and fast-food camel meat burgers commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan Khan, Mohammad; Naushad, Mu; Abdullah Alothman, Zeid

    2017-05-10

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed by cooking protein-rich foods, for instance, meat and fish, and are listed as possible human carcinogens. In the present study, the presence of five potential HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) in cooked camel meat burgers was analyzed for the first time. The analysis was performed in home-cooked and fast-food burger samples containing food additives. The applied cooking technique for the home-cooked samples was pan frying for a controlled cooking time and temperature. In the control cooked meat samples (samples that contained no food additives), the concentrations of MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP ranged from 2.47 ng/g to 4.89 ng/g, whereas IQ and MeIQ were found to be below the limit of quantification. The concentrations contents of MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP in the home-cooked and fast-food samples ranged from 1.52 ng/g to 2.13 ng/g and 1.85 ng/g to 3.46 ng/g, respectively. IQ and MeIQ were not detected in either type of sample. In comparison to the control samples, the home-cooked and fast-food samples produced lower levels of HCAs. Such observations could result from the existence of antioxidants in incorporated food additives, which induce pro-oxidative effects with the successive formation and/or scavenging of free radicals.

  11. Cooking Matters for Adults Improves Food Resource Management Skills and Self-confidence Among Low-Income Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, Jennifer A; Morgan, Ruth E; Wong, Karen; Wilkin, Margaret K; Blitstein, Jonathan L

    Determine the impact of Cooking Matters for Adults (CM) on food resource management (FRM) skills and self-confidence 6 months after course completion. Quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent comparison group and 6-month follow-up. Cooking Matters for Adults programs in CA, CO, ME, MA, MI, and OR. Participants in CM attending classes in April to July, 2016 (n = 332); comparison group (n = 336). Cooking Matters for Adults educated low-income adults to shop for and prepare healthy meals economically using hands-on meal preparation, facilitated discussion, and an interactive grocery store tour. Classes met for 2 hours, once a week for 6 weeks. Food resource management practices; FRM self-confidence (ie, in shopping for and preparing healthy foods on a budget); worrying that food might run out. Pearson's chi-square test and t tests identified measures associated with outcomes of interest and between-group differences. Repeated-measures linear mixed models with fixed and random effects were used to examine differences in outcomes between participants in CM and nonequivalent comparison group and to estimate the treatment effect of the program at 3 and 6 months after course completion. Six months after course completion, CM participants demonstrated improvements in all outcome measures of interest: Use of FRM practices improved (P = .002) as did FRM confidence (P < .001). Participants also worried less that food would run out before they had money to buy more (P = .03). This study demonstrated a positive impact of including FRM skills and confidence building in a nutrition education program, the effects of which could be seen for 6 months after participation in the program. Equipping low-income families with FRM skills allowed them to access healthier foods even during times of hardship. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. SUBJECTS/METHODS We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (...

  13. Can schools save kids' palates? Cooking from scratch in schools--the greatest food service challenge of our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Beth

    2012-08-01

    School District Food Service Departments are faced with the enormous task of feeding children in the United States up to two thirds of the meals that they consume during the week at school. The shift in food production since the 1970s produced a trend away from scratch-cooked foods and resulted in more meals created from processed foods. The United States has reached a tipping point where the health of the current generation is compromised by increasing health risks of diet-related disease. Schools have been identified as a critical environment in which there is an opportunity to effect change in what children eat. As a result, in the last 10 years, there has been a resurgence of interest in freshly prepared meals in schools. This article explores one chef’s transition from the private sector to the public sector and the experiences of working with school districts to successfully transform their school food service operations into a scratch cooking model.

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption and food values: National patterns in the United States by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility and cooking frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-07-01

    More frequent cooking at home may help improve diet quality and be associated with food values, particularly for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). To examine patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption and food values among adults (aged 20 and older) in the United States, by SNAP participation and household cooking frequency. Analysis of cross-sectional 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9560). A lower percentage of SNAP participants consumed fruit (total: 35% vs. 46%, p=0.001; fresh: 30% vs. 41%, pcooking >6times/week was associated with greater vegetable consumption compared to cooking cooked ≥2times/week were more to report price (medium cookers: 47% vs. 33%, p=0.001; high cookers: 52% vs. 40%, pcooking frequency. Efforts to improve diet quality should consider values on which food purchases are based. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of feed/inoculum ratios and waste cooking oil content on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Jin, Yiying; Borrion, Aiduan; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    Information on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) with different waste cooking oil contents is limited in terms of the effect of the initial substrate concentrations. In this work, batch tests were performed to evaluate the combined effects of waste cooking oil content (33-53%) and feed/inoculum (F/I) ratios (0.5-1.2) on biogas/methane yield, process stability parameters and organics reduction during the FW AD. Both waste cooking oil and the inoculation ratios were found to affect digestion parameters during the AD process start-up and the F/I ratio was the predominant factor affecting AD after the start-up phase. The possible inhibition due to acidification caused by volatile fatty acids accumulation, low pH values and long-chain fatty acids was reversible. The characteristics of the final digestate indicated a stable anaerobic system, whereas samples with F/I ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 display higher propionic and valeric acid contents and high amounts of total ammonia nitrogen and free ammonia nitrogen. Overall, F/I ratios higher than 0.70 caused inhibition and resulted in low biogas/methane yields from the FW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Cooking and Home Food Preparation Interventions Among Adults: A Systematic Review (2011-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Kocher, Megan; Reeder, Julie

    2018-02-01

    To update a review of the impact of interventions for adults that included a cooking component on diet, health, and psychosocial outcomes. A total of 3,047 records were identified by searching MEDLINE, Agricola, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January, 2011 to March, 2016). A total of 34 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria for analysis. Study description and outcomes were extracted and synthesized to generate conclusions regarding impact. Less than half of the studies included a control group. The most common intended outcomes were improvements in fruit and/or vegetable intake and weight. The majority of studies showed positive dietary behavior changes and improvements in cooking confidence and knowledge. Limitations included the lack of a control group, no follow-up past after intervention, the use of nonvalidated assessment instruments, and small convenience samples. Findings were similar to a previous review regarding positive impact on dietary and cooking confidence outcomes. Clinical and weight outcomes were addressed in more studies included in the current review than in the previous 1; however, limitations were similar. Intervention design and assessment tools need to be strengthened in intervention studies with cooking components. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Gastronomy: A Food Fad or an Interface for Science-based Cooking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.; McClements, D.J.; Ubbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    A review is given over the field of molecular gastronomy and its relation to science and cooking. We begin with a brief history of the field of molecular gastronomy, the definition of the term itself, and the current controversy surrounding this term. We then highlight the distinction between

  18. Diabetes Cooking Schools Improve Knowledge and Skills in Making Healthful Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Wells, Linda; Bock, Margaret Ann

    2012-01-01

    Rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing nationally and in New Mexico, particularly in ethnic minorities. A key self-care area with challenging barriers is healthy eating. The New Mexico Cooperative Extension Service conducts diabetes cooking schools statewide together with community health providers. The study reported here determined if this…

  19. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.; Knol, D.; Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Blom, W.A.M.; Matthee, J.; Janssen, H.G.; Trautwein, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  20. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  1. Meat species identification and Halal authentication using PCR analysis of raw and cooked traditional Turkish foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Çağın, Ilknur; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-07-01

    The method performance characteristics of commercially available PCR kits for animal species identification were established. Comminuted meat products containing different levels of pork were prepared from authentic beef, chicken, and turkey. These meat products were analysed in the raw state and after cooking for 20 min at 200 °C. For both raw and cooked meats, the PCR kit could correctly identify the animal species and could reliably detect the addition of pork at a level below 0.1%. A survey of 42 Turkish processed meat products such as soudjouk, salami, sausage, meatball, cured spiced beef and doner kebap was conducted. Thirty-six samples were negative for the presence of pork (meatball sample labelled as 100% beef was found to contain chicken. Another turkey meatball sample was predominantly chicken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food-Bridging: A New Network Construction to Unveil the Principles of Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Simas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we propose, analyze, and discuss a possible new principle behind traditional cuisine: the Food-bridging hypothesis and its comparison with the food-pairing hypothesis using the same dataset and graphical models employed in the food-pairing study by Ahn et al. (2011. The Food-bridging hypothesis assumes that if two ingredients do not share a strong molecular or empirical affinity, they may become affine through a chain of pairwise affinities. That is, in a graphical model as employed by Ahn et al., a chain represents a path that joints the two ingredients, the shortest path represents the strongest pairwise chain of affinities between the two ingredients. Food-pairing and Food-bridging are different hypotheses that may describe possible mechanisms behind the recipes of traditional cuisines. Food-pairing intensifies flavor by mixing ingredients in a recipe with similar chemical compounds, and food-bridging smoothes contrast between ingredients. Both food-pairing and food-bridging are observed in traditional cuisines, as shown in this work. We observed four classes of cuisines according to food-pairing and food-bridging: (1 East Asian cuisines, at one extreme, tend to avoid food-pairing as well as food-bridging; and (4 Latin American cuisines, at the other extreme, follow both principles. For the two middle classes: (2 Southeastern Asian cuisines, avoid food-pairing and follow food-bridging; and (3 Western cuisines, follow food-pairing and avoid food-bridging.

  3. What does cooking mean to you?: Perceptions of cooking and factors related to cooking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in American life and evidence suggesting that meals cooked at home are healthier, little is known about perceptions of what it means to cook in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe perceptions of cooking and factors important to how cooking is perceived and practiced among American adults. Seven focus groups (N = 53; 39 female; 35 Black, 16 White, 2 Asian) were conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in Baltimore City, Maryland. Participants were recruited from two neighborhoods; one with higher median income and access to healthy food and the other with lower income and low access to healthy food. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants' perceptions of cooking varied considerably, regardless of neighborhood income or food access, and spanned a continuum from all scratch cooking to anything made at home. Perceptions of cooking incorporated considerations of whether or how food was heated and the degree of time, effort and love involved if convenience foods were used. Key barriers to cooking included affordability, lack of time, and lack of enjoyment. Key facilitators of frequent cooking included extensive organization and time management to enable participants to incorporate cooking into their daily lives. Cooking is a complex concept and not uniformly understood. Efforts to encourage healthy cooking at home should consider the broad spectrum of activities Americans recognize as cooking as well as the barriers and facilitators to preparing food at home. Public health messages to encourage more frequent cooking should account for the heterogeneity in perspectives about cooking. More research should explore differences in perceptions about cooking in other diverse populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Starch Hydrolysis, Polyphenol Contents, and In Vitro Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Properties of Some Nigerian Foods As Affected by Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Saidu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooking on starch hydrolysis, polyphenol contents, and in vitro α-amylase inhibitory properties of mushrooms (two varieties Russula virescens and Auricularia auricula-judae, sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, and potato (Solanum tuberosum was investigated. The total, resistant, and digestible starch contents of the raw and cooked food samples (FS ranged from 6.4 to 64.9; 0 to 10.1; and 6.4 to 62.7 g/100 g, respectively, while their percentages of starch digestibility (DS values expressed as percentages of total starch hydrolyzed ranged from 45.99 to 100. Raw and boiled unpeeled potato, raw and boiled peeled potato, raw A. auricula-judae, and sweet potato showed mild to high α-amylase inhibition (over a range of concentration of 10–50 mg/mL, which was lower than that of acarbose (that had 69% inhibition of α-amylase over a range of concentration of 2–10 mg/mL, unlike raw R. virescens, boiled A. auricula-judae, and boiled sweet potatoes that activated α-amylase and boiled R. virescens that gave 0% inhibition. The FS contained flavonoids and phenols in addition. The significant negative correlation (r = −0.55; P = 0.05 between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their SD indicates that the α-amylase inhibitors in these FS also influenced the digestibility of their starches. In addition, the significant positive correlation between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their resistant starch (RS (r = 0.59; P = 0.01 contents indicates that the RS constituents of these FS contributed to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. The study showed the usefulness of boiled unpeeled potato, boiled potato peeled, and raw sweet potato as functional foods for people with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  6. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During your donation you can relax, watch a movie, listen to music…in a few hours you’ ... requirements may become eligible to donate platelets. Please review our eligibility requirements as some states require parental ...

  7. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  8. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  9. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  10. Home cooking trends and dietary illness: nutritional compliance of recipes in a Swedish food magazine 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharemovic, Kanita; Taboul, Nicole; Håkansson, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the trends in nutritional compliance of recipes from a Swedish food magazine to offer a perspective on the effects of home cooking on public health. The nutritional content of 654 recipes from magazine issues published in 1970, 1980, 2000, and 2010 were collected. The recipes were analyzed for macronutrient energy contribution, sodium content, and composition. The recipes were in poor agreement with nutritional recommendations (excessive fat, protein, and sodium and insufficient carbohydrate and fiber content). Significant changes between 1970 and 2010 were the increased calorific contribution of fat (from 38 to 46%) and the reduced contribution of proteins (from 27 to 21%). The calorific contribution from spreads, cheese, bread, and fruit and vegetables have increased significantly, whereas the contribution from meat has decreased significantly. The poor nutritional compliance identified in this work indicates that consumers using the recipes as norms for home cooking risk following an unhealthy diet. This might have adverse effects on public health. However, the recipes have not become less compliant over time and therefore the data do not show an adverse trend in these norms. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Stable isotope dilution quantification of mutagens in cooked foods by combined liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaizumi, Ziro; Kasai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Susumu; Edmonds, C.G.; McCloskey, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of general applicability for the detection and quantification of mutagens in cooked foods at the ppb level is presented. A minimal sample prefractionation is employed and [Me- 2 H 3 ]-labeled analogs of the compounds of interest are added for identification and quantification of mutagens by accurate measurement of chromatographic retention (K') in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and by measurement of the ratio of response of the protonated molecular ions of analyte and internal standard by directly coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Initial application is demonstrated in the analysis of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MelQ) in broiled salmon. (Auth.)

  12. Investigation of aluminium state in some popular food, which are cooked in aluminium vessels, using spectroscopic analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahneh, M.; Saheune, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium and lead elements were determined in drinking water and salt solution from chick-pea and faba-bean cooked in aluminium vessels and others from teflon for comparison using atomic absorption spectroscopy by graphite furnace. The relationship between heating time and aluminium quantities transferred to these food solutions was investigated. The lead element was determined taking into consideration the fact that this element may enter in these vessels somehow during the manufacturing process. Results show that the highest value of aluminium quantities was recorded in salt solution ( 17.022 μg/ml) without heating , followed by chick-pea solution (9.95 μg/ml), then faba-bean solution (2.81 μg/ml) when the heated period was 120 minutes. (author)

  13. Who's cooking? Trends in US home food preparation by gender, education, and race/ethnicity from 2003 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2018-04-02

    While US home cooking declined in the late twentieth century, it is unclear whether the trend has continued. This study examines home cooking from 2003 to 2016 by gender, educational attainment, and race/ethnicity. Nationally representative data from the American Time Use Study from 2003 to 2016 and linear regression models were used to examine changes in the percent of adults aged 18-65 years who cook and their time spent cooking, with interactions to test for differential changes by demographic variables of gender, education, and race/ethnicity. Cooking increased overall from 2003 to 2016. The percent of college-educated men cooking increased from 37.9% in 2003 to 51.9% in 2016, but men with less than high school education who cook did not change (33.2% in 2016) (p educated women who cook increased from 64.7% in 2003 to 68.7% in 2016, while women with less than high school education had no change (72.3% in 2016) (p education spent more time cooking per day than high-educated women, but the reverse was true for men. Among men, the percent who cook increased for all race/ethnic groups except non-Hispanic blacks. Among women, only non-Hispanic whites increased in percent who cook. Among both men and women, non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest percentage who cooked, and non-Hispanic others spent the greatest amount of time cooking. Home cooking in the United States is increasing, especially among men, though women still cook much more than men. Further research is needed to understand whether the heterogeneity in home cooking by educational attainment and race/ethnicity observed here contributes to diet-related disparities in the United States.

  14. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality and labeling standards imposed by Federal, State, and local laws and regulations even though the... the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and (2) Exempt from tax under section 501(a) of that Code. (b) In... tier, who will perform, under this contract, the provision, service, or sale of food in the United...

  15. Qualitative Investigation of the "Cooking with Kids" Program: Focus Group Interviews with Fourth-Grade Students, Teachers, and Food Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…

  16. The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices - an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Anderson, Annie S; Longbottom, Pat J; Valentine, Karen; Stead, Martine; Caraher, Martin; Lang, Tim; Gray, Bill; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a food skills intervention study in areas of social deprivation aimed at altering cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices. A standardised skills programme was implemented in community-based settings. Pre- (T1) and post-intervention (T2) and 6-month follow-up (T3) measures (7-day diaries and self-administered questionnaires) were undertaken in intervention and comparison groups. Eight urban communities in Scotland. One hundred and thirteen adults living in areas of social deprivation. It was clear that many subjects led fragmented lives and found commitment to intervention classes problematic. Sixty-three subjects completed the final (T3) assessments. The response to each component varied due to inability to attend sessions, illness, study requirements, employment, moving out of the area, change in circumstances, loss of interest and loss of postal questionnaires. At baseline, reported consumption of fruit and vegetables was low (mean frequency 8.1 +/- 4.78 times per week). Fruit intake increased significantly (P food skills intervention is likely to have a small but positive effect on food choice and confidence in food preparation. A full-scale randomised controlled trial in this hard-to-reach group would require a range of flexible approaches rather than a fully defined intervention, and presents challenges for trial design.

  17. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  18. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) communicate need, which elicits donation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Reciprocal cooperation has been observed in a wide range of taxa, but the proximate mechanisms underlying the exchange of help are yet unclear. Norway rats reciprocate help received from partners in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. For donors, this involves accepting own costs to the benefit of a partner, without obtaining immediate benefits in return. We studied whether such altruistic acts are conditional on the communication of the recipient's need. Our results show that in a 2-player mutual food-provisioning task, prospective recipients show a behavioral cascade reflecting increasing intensity. First, prospective receivers reach out for the food themselves, then they emit ultrasonic calls toward their partner, before finally showing noisy attention-grabbing behaviors. Food-deprived individuals communicate need more intensively than satiated ones. In return, donors provide help corresponding to the intensity of the recipients' communication. This indicates that rats communicate their need, which changes the helping propensity of potential donors. Communication of need and corresponding adjustment of cooperation may be a widespread proximate mechanism explaining the mutual exchange of services between animals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Food matrix and cooking process affect mineral bioaccessibility of enteral nutrition formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2014-02-01

    When enteral formulas (EF) are administered orally as a supplement to the normal diet, they are often mixed with conventional foods or included in recipes in order to seek new flavors and textures and avoid monotony. The aims of this work were to study the bioaccessibility of Fe, Zn and Ca from commercial EF and the impact upon their incorporation into sweet preparations. Twenty commercial EF, before and after inclusion in sweet food (rice pudding, RP; banana smoothie, BS; tea, T; chocolate dessert, CD) were evaluated regarding Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability (%DFe , %DZn , %DCa ) as an estimator of mineral bioaccessibility. Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability from EF was variable and generally low. Heating during EF-sweet food preparation (T and CD) lowered values to 44.1 %DFe , possibly due to degradation of vitamin C, and 52.7 %DZn and 25.3 %DCa , due to the interaction with food components. EF and EF-sweet foods did not represent a good supply of Fe, Zn and Ca as recommended. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of these minerals is affected by the food matrix in which EF is included as well as heating during food preparation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  1. Who Has Time To Cook? How Family Resources Influence Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Households participating in the Food Stamp Program are increasingly headed by a single parent or two working parents. As this trend continues, more low-income households may find it difficult to allocate the time needed to prepare meals that fit within a limited budget and meet dietary requirements. Using Tobit analysis of the 2003-04 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study finds that household time resources significantly affect how much time is allocated to preparing food. In fact, work...

  2. Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephen; Usai, Donatella; Jakob, Tina; Radini, Anita; Hardy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting) and wet (heating in water) cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.

  3. Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Buckley

    Full Text Available Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting and wet (heating in water cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.

  4. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, María; Knol, Diny; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2016-01-08

    Chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodologies for the analysis of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extraction were evaluated to allow the GC-MS analysis of large numbers of prepared vegetable, fish and meat products, egg and bakery items in a practically feasible manner. The optimized methods resulted in a good sensitivity and allowed the analysis of both PS and POPs in the broad selection of foods at a wide range of concentrations. Calibration curves for both PS and POPs showed correlation coefficients (R(2)) better than 0.99. Detection limits were below 0.24mgkg(-1) for PS and 0.02mgkg(-1) for POPs, respectively. Average recovery data were between 81% and 105.1% for PS and between 65.5 and 121.8% for POPs. Good results were obtained for within- and between-day repeatability, with most values being below 10%. Entire sample servings were analyzed, avoiding problems with inhomogeneity and making the method an exact representation of the typical use of the food by the consumer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Tan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route, inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions (I-consistency and I I -consistency are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I-consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results.

  6. Selecting Cooking Methods to Decrease Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in Food of Animal Origin Using a Consensus Decision-Making Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Gong, Zaiwu; Huang, Minji; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-02-14

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pose serious threats to human health. Increasing attention has been paid to POPs to protect the environment and prevent disease. Humans are exposed to POPs through diet (the major route), inhaling air and dust and skin contact. POPs are very lipophilic and hydrophobic, meaning that they accumulate in fatty tissues in animals and can biomagnify. Humans can therefore be exposed to relatively high POP concentrations in food of animal origin. Cooking animal products can decrease the POP contents, and different cooking methods achieve different reduction rates. Here, a consensus decision-making model with interval preference relations is used to prioritize cooking methods for specific animal products in terms of reducing POP concentrations. Two consistency mathematical expressions ( I -consistency and I I -consistency) are defined, then the ideal interval preference relations are determined for the cooking methods with respect to different social choice principles. The objective is to minimize disparities between individual judgments and the ideal consensus judgment. Consistency is used as a constraint to determine the rationality of the consistency definitions. A numerical example indicated that baking is the best cooking method for decreasing POP concentrations in grass carp. The I -consistency results were more acceptable than the I I -consistency results.

  7. Platelet Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time’ to unwind from the daily stresses of life while helping save lives. What are the benefits to donating platelets? Knowing you’re helping cancer ... of your arm. That pinch is similar to what you will feel when the needle is ... compared to a traditional whole blood donation so some donors find it to ...

  8. AIDS Review 2005 : What's Cooking? AIDS and the Politics of Food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will critically examine how HIV/AIDS is affecting rural small-scale food production, ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  9. The kitchen as laboratory : reflections on the science of food and cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, C.; Ubbink, J.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    In this global collaboration of essays, chefs and scientists advance culinary knowledge by testing hypotheses rooted in the physical and chemical properties of food. Using traditional and cutting-edge tools, ingredients, and techniques, these pioneers create, and sometimes revamp, dishes that

  10. Whole eggs enhance antioxidant activity when combined with energy dense, cooked breakfast foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute metabolic changes following the consumption of energy dense foods high in saturated fat (SFA) and glycemic load (GL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Eggs provide highly digestible protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds tha...

  11. Public perceptions of cooking and the implications for cooking behaviour in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in modern life, public perceptions about what it means to cook are unknown. We aimed to examine perceptions of cooking and their association with cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours in the USA. We designed and fielded a nationally representative survey among US adults (n 1112) in April 2015. We used factor analysis to identify perceptions about cooking and multivariate ordered logit and Poisson models to explore associations between those perceptions and cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours. Nationally representative web-based survey of US adults. US adults aged ≥18 years. Americans conceptualized cooking in three ways: the use of scratch ingredients, convenience foods and not using heat. Respondents who perceived cooking as including convenience foods were less confident in their ability to cook from scratch (OR=0·52, Pcooking (OR=0·68, P=0·01) than those who did not. Although individuals who perceived cooking as including only scratch ingredients reported cooking dinner (4·31 times/week) and using packaged/boxed products (0·95 times/week) the least frequently, few notable differences in the frequency of cooking meals were observed. Cooking frequency is similar among US adults regardless of how they perceive cooking, but cooking confidence and enjoyment are lowest among Americans who perceive cooking as including the use of convenience foods. These insights should inform the development of more specific measures of cooking behaviour as well as meaningful and targeted public health messages to encourage healthier cooking.

  12. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products.

  13. Cooking Bolshevik: Anastas Mikoian and the making of the "Book about Delicious and Healthy Food".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Both one of the most iconic cookbooks of all time and one of the strangest, the "Kniga o vkusnoi i zdorovoi pishche" became the culinary bible of the Soviet household during the mid-twentieth century. The logical culmination of a decade of Soviet culinary evolution under the leadership of Anastas Mikoian, the original "Book about Delicious and Healthy Food" is a microcosm of Stalinist civilization that exemplifies the contradictory trends making up Soviet politics and culture in the late 1930s. Drawing on previously unexamined documents from the State Archive of the Russian Federation, Anastas Mikoian's personal papers retained in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as published primary sources, this article seeks to contextualize the complex tale of the cookbook's origins in a broader narrative of the construction of the Soviet Union's official food culture under Mikoian's leadership during the 1930s.

  14. Food Functionality of Pisum sαtivum L.(pea)and the Development Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    谷口 (山田), 亜樹子

    2017-01-01

    The author measured the main ingredients of Pisum sativum L.(pea), including the antioxidant. The water, protein, lipids, carbohydrate, and ash contents were approximately 13.6%, 21.5%, 2.2%, 60.2%, and 2.5%, respectively. Pea had abundant minerals and high nutritive value. Pea is also known for its antioxidants and high food functionality. The author describes simple dishes containing pea.

  15. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in sampled cooked food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm Naa-Dedei, L.M.

    2010-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the following traditionally prepared food: smoked and grilled Scomba japonicus, grilled meat (khebab) and bread sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation of traditional food, some food comes into direct contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon generation. Levels of 20 individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 11 smoked and 5 grilled fish, 4 grilled pieces of meat and 3 loaves of baked bread using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(a)pyrene, which is one of the few PAH for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices and other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogenic have been detected in high concentrations in most samples. Bread samples gave mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 20.39 μg/kg while khebab samples gave mean polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 67.61 μg/kg. There was positive correlation of 0.987 between levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in khebab samples from locations Osu and Atomic down. There was a positive correlation in the concentrations of the high molecular weight PAHs in all smoked fishes from four locations with values between 0.954 and 0.999 for the correlation between any two groups. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration determined in smoked fish samples deceased in terms of location according to the order Winneba > Madina > Chorkor > Ada.

  16. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG... Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified...

  17. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  18. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  19. The associations among family meal frequency, food preparation frequency, self-efficacy for cooking, and food preparation techniques in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Kirby, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P < .05). Approximately 59% reported family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiological quality of cooked foods and drinks sold in higher educational institutions around Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat Provinces, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Abdullah D.; Sali, Khosiya; Hayeeyusoh, Nurainee; Hayeewangoh, Zubaidah; Thadah, Amporn

    2017-08-01

    Quality of cooked foods and drinks water sold within the vicinity of higher institutions located in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces were randomly sampled and microbiologically evaluated. As to Thai National Food Safety Standard, various food menu and drinks were subjected to conventionally determining the bacterial index; Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform and fecal coliform as well as the detection of indicator organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. As for bacterial index, results showed that curry-type likes PSU-stir-fried liver (7.5x106 CFU/g), and and the lowest was PSU-Koleh chicken Roast (1.72x103 CFU/g). The highest and lowest counts of soup-type items were observed in YPH-KaengSom soup (1.9x107 CFU/g), and PSU-Palo soup (0.4x103 CFU/g), respectively. Higher bacterial counts were also found in YPH-spicy stir-fried chicken (7.5 x 106 CFU/g), and YPH-squid salad (2.2x107 CFU/g). For drinks, bacterial count ranged 2.0 x 103 to 8.3 x 103 CFU/g, and NRU-iced grape juice having the highest bacterial count (2.0x106 CFU/g). Overall, foods not complying to the Thai National Food Safety Standard of 1 x 103 CFU/g from higher to lower were those of soup, stir-fried, salad, fried, and curry categories with as much as 4:17 (23.53%), 4:21 (19.05%), 2:11 (18.18%), 2:16 (12.5%) and 1:12 (8.33%), respectively. As for Coliform and fecal coliform, the highest (>1100 MPN/g) and the lowest (0.34 MPN/g),were not much found in all food categories with percentages of 23.53, 24.00, 13.79, 9.10, and 47.37 for curry (4:17), soup (6:15), stir-fried (4:29), fried (2:22), and salad (9:19), respectively. However, indicator organisms were not detected in almost all food samples except PSU-chicken yellowish curry, NRU-chicken TongYam soup, NRU-Long-tail tuna soup, NRU-KaengSom soup, YPE-watery soup, NRU-stir-fried liver, NRU-omelets, NRU-fried chicken, YPE-crispy fish salad, and NRU-salted eggs salad, which showed the presence of E. coli, but not

  1. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pablo Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  2. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  3. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Enterotoxin Production and Cross-Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus between Food Processing Materials and Ready-To-Eat Cooked Fish Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Hong, Sung-Sam; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent staphylococcal enterotoxin A production in tryptone soy broth and on ready-to-eat cooked fish paste at 12 to 37 °C, as well as cross-contamination between stainless steel, polyethylene, and latex glove at room temperature. A model was developed using Barany and Roberts's growth model, which satisfactorily described the suitable growth of S. aureus with R(2)-adj from 0.94 to 0.99. Except at 12 °C, S. aureus cells in TSB presented a lag time lower (14.64 to 1.65 h), grew faster (0.08 to 0.31 log CFU/h) and produced SEA at lower cell density levels (5.65 to 6.44 log CFU/mL) compare to those inoculated on cooked fish paste with data of 16.920 to 1.985 h, 0.02 to 0.23 log CFU/h, and 6.19 to 7.11 log CFU/g, respectively. Staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) visual immunoassay test showed that primary SEA detection varied considerably among different storage temperature degrees and media. For example, it occurred only during exponential phase at 30 and 37 °C in TSB, but in cooked fish paste it took place at late exponential phase of S. aureus growth at 20 and 25 °C. The SEA detection test was negative on presence of S. aureus on cooked fish paste stored at 12 and 15 °C, although cell density reached level of 6.12 log CFU/g at 15 °C. Cross-contamination expressed as transfer rate of S. aureus from polyethylene surface to cooked fish paste surface was slower than that observed with steel surface to cooked fish paste under same conditions. These results provide helpful information for controlling S. aureus growth, SEA production and cross-contamination during processing of cooked fish paste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  6. Microbial Evaluation of Cooked Foods Served in the Central Restaurant of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Winter and Summer 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are the most important thing cause of illness and death in developing countries. Food safety is essential for central university kitchens because of the high number of meals served every day. These central university kitchen systems are of special interest as students are at relatively high-risk of developing serious complications from exposure to food bacterial contamination hazards. A total of 144 samples of cooked foods, collected in winter and summer 2015 from the restaurants of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were studied to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Results were analyzed through SPSS 22.0 and t-test. According to coliform count, the highest rate of contamination was in Kebab (1.17×102 CFU/g and lowest was in fish (0.8×102 CFU/g and also the highest rate of contamination of Escherichia coli (E.coli was in Kebab (6 samples, and the lowest contamination level was in fish and in this regard no sample was reported to be positive. According to staphylococcus aureus, the highest contamination rate was in rice (0.97×102 CFU/g and lowest was in fish (0.63×102 CFU/g. Kebab had the highest contamination of ‎coliforms and staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus in summer. None of the tested samples was confirmed with respect to salmonella, clostridium perfringens and staphylococcus aureus. Among the foods served in the university restaurants, Kebab had the highest bacterial contamination and fishes the lowest. Improved methods of cooking and food processing, prevention of secondary bacterial contamination, continuous monitoring and surveillance of food processing are the most important measures to prevent food contamination.

  7. Influence of food condiments on the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked chicken and determination by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are known to be suspected human carcinogens produced by high-temperature cooking of protein-rich foods such as meat and fish. In the present study, the influence of numerous food condiments on the formation of HCAs in cooked chicken was investigated. Chicken samples were subjected to pan-frying under controlled temperature. The levels of HCAs DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman and norharman were found to be between 0.93 and 27.52 ng g(-1), whereas IQ, MeIQ, AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were found either below the limit of quantification or not detected in the control sample. Nevertheless, for samples cooked using food condiments, the amounts of HCAs (DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP) were between 0.14 and 19.57 ng g(-1); harman and norharman were detected at higher concentrations up to 17.77 ng g(-1) while IQ and MeIQ were at levels below the limit of quantification; and AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were not detected in any of the samples. The outcomes revealed that the formation of HCAs (except harman and norharman) diminished after the addition of food condiments. Edible oil contributed to the highest levels of HCA formation, followed by garlic, paprika, pepper and tomato.

  8. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  9. Cooking in prison – from crook to cook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    thinking about, purchasing, and preparing food. Overall, prisoners reported being very pleased with self-catering systems. Prisoners also stressed the importance of making healthy food although some prisoners felt they lacked cooking skills. In addition, study data describe and explores prisoner food...... groups, which are formed for economic and social reasons. The food-groups are understood as arenas for group solidarity, and opportunities to measure access, or lack thereof, to capital and resources. Self-catering supports prisoners’ responsibility, need for autonomy and improves prisoners’ cooking...... abilities and personal resources. During incarceration few roles are available for prisoner. The self-catering system offers the role as a cook which offers an opportunity for identity realignment from crook to cook....

  10. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  11. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  12. Analyzing the Cooking Behavior of Sophomore Female Students : In relation to the ability for preparation of cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Imakawa, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the Dandori-ryoku (the ability for preparation in cooking) by analyzing the practical cooking behavior of sophomore female students. Ten sophomore female students were participated in the experiment to cook three kinds of food (cooking rice, making miso soup and fried vegetables). The behavior of the participants during cooking were videotaped and analyzed in detail later especially in relation to Dandori-ryoku. Such behaviors as “starting from cooking ric...

  13. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer...

  14. Development and validation of methodologies for the quantification of phytosterols and phytosterol oxidation products in cooked and baked food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Knol, D.; Janssen, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatography-​mass spectrometry (GC-​MS) methodologies for the anal. of the main phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol oxidn. products (POPs) present in 19 different foodstuffs cooked or baked using margarines with or without added plant sterols are presented. Various methods for fat extn. were

  15. Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural Rangpur, Bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (ppreparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (pcooking vegetables than the control group (pfood preparation and increases their hygiene through hand-washing in every-day life.

  16. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J [Richland, WA; Diaz, Aaron A [W. Richland, WA; Judd, Kayte M [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA; Cliff, William C [Richland, WA; Pfund, David M [Richland, WA; Morgen, Gerald P [Kennewick, WA

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  18. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Aarieke E. I.; van Asselt, Esther D.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Nauta, Maarten J.; de Jonge, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the decimal reduction times of bacteria present on chicken fillet in boiling water. The experiments were conducted with Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. Whole chicken breast fillets were inoculated with the pathogens, stored overnight (4∘C), and subsequently cooked. The surface temperature reached 70∘C within 30 sec and 85∘C within one minute. Extremely high decimal reduction times of 1.90, 1.97, and 2.20 min were obtained fo...

  19. Combustion stability and thermal efficiency in a porous media burner for LPG cooking in the food industry using Al_2O_3 particles coming from grinding wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Bernardo; Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cooking is one of the most thermal-energy consuming processes in the food industry and development of devices that contribute to decrease the consumption of fossil fuel is a matter of great importance. This decreasing in consumption can both enlarge competitiveness in the enterprises of this sector and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other toxic combustion by products such as, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. A porous burner made of a bed of Al_2O_3 particles coming from grinding residues and combined with ceramic foam of SiSiC has been evaluated respect to Liquefied Petroleum Gas combustion stability and thermal efficiency for cooking in food industry. The results showed that for specific heat input rate lower than 154 kW/m"2, the upper and lower equivalence ratio on the stability limit follow approximately a linear trend, as well as the wide of the range of stability remains constant. But this trend is broken when higher heat input rate is applied. Also, every equivalence ratio for stable combustion was in the lean ratio and stoichiometric combustion values were not feasible because flashback occurred. Emissions of CO were in acceptable values lower than 25 ppm for specific heat input rate lower than 154 kW/m"2 but an important rising in the CO emissions could be seen when the burner worked at higher heat input rate due to a moderate lift-off and quenching on the surface of the burner. Thermal efficiency was calculated in two different working ways: the “radiation–convection” and “conduction”. Thermal efficiency in the “radiation–convection” was between 15.7% and 23.6%, which are lower than the average thermal efficiency of the conventional free-flame burner. But the “conduction” mode showed a significant advantage respect to free flame conventional burners, since it could improve the thermal efficiency between 7% and 14%. The improvement in efficiency and the possibility of interrupting the flow of fuel in a cyclical operation

  20. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of foods.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTION BOOK ABOUT ARCHIPELAGO CAKE MAKING IN STUDY OF COOK AND FOOD PREPARATION FOR STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dienda Nurmaisitha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop instruction book of archipelago cake making for students with hearing impairment. The research adapted the Sugiyono (2011 model which consists of 7 stages: (1 potential problems, (2 data collection, (3 product design, (4 validation of the design, (5 design revisions, (6 product testing, and (7 the revision of the product. The results of matter experts was 97%, media experts was 92%, and practitioners (teachers was 98%. The individual experimental result was 90% for student I, 95% for student II, and 80% for student III. The result of field experimental from the evaluation to the students were 82,66 in average scoring. The research result showed that the instruction book about archipelago cake making in study of cook and food preparation for students with hearing impairment in state SMPLB was proper and effective.

  3. Who is cooking dinner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Hach, Sara

    2015-01-01

    on almost identical questionnaires centering on the previous day’s eating as reported by the individuals: this included foods eaten, the social context of its consumption and details of who had prepared the food. We make use of a sub-sample encompassing respondents from two-adult households who ate dinner...... developments in the gendering of cooking dinners in multi-person households. The analysis is based on two surveys from a project investigating changes in meal patterns in the Nordic countries. Individuals from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were interviewed in 1997 (n = 4823) and 2012 (n = 8242) based...

  4. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  5. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  6. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  7. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  8. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heat-induced formation of mepiquat by decarboxylation of pipecolic acid and its betaine derivative. Part 2: Natural formation in cooked vegetables and selected food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Stadler, Richard H; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    Mepiquat (N,N-dimethylpiperidinium) is a plant growth regulator registered for use as its chloride salt in many countries on cereals and other crops. Recent model system studies have shown that natural chemicals present in crop plants, such as pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine, may furnish mepiquat through different chemical pathways, when subjected to temperatures in the range of 200°C. In this study, we cooked raw vegetables that did not contain mepiquat to a palatable state using different traditional cooking methods, and detected mepiquat in 9 out of 11 oven-cooked vegetables, reaching up to 189μg/kg dry wt in oven-cooked broccoli. Commercial oven potato fries generated mepiquat during cooking, typically in the range of 20-60μg/kg. Only traces of mepiquat (cooked vegetables, including potatoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DETERMINANTS OF UNSAFE HAMBURGER COOKING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Katherine L.; Starke, Yolanda; Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan

    1998-01-01

    We used a national hamburger preparation survey to estimate a simultaneous equation model of food safety knowledge, attitudes, and hamburger cooking behavior. The results suggest that food safety risk perceptions, palatability attributes, and food safety knowledge play important roles in determining food preparation behavior.

  11. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  12. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5 Donation...

  13. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  14. Cooking in Crisis: Lessons from the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The concern with low levels of cooking skills among the British population can be traced back to the 1780s coinciding with the start of urbanisation of the English rural classes. Modern concerns with the lack of cooking skills, since the 1980s, have focused on the links to healthy food choice and preparation. This has resulted in a number of initiatives but little policy development to support cooking in any structured way. Cooking was de-facto removed from the educational experience in schoo...

  15. What's technology cooking up? A systematic review of the use of technology in adolescent food literacy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Catherine A; Carbone, Elena T

    2018-06-01

    Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies. Titles and abstracts of 545 articles were collected and reviewed from 13 electronic databases. Studies were selected if they were peer-reviewed, included adolescents 12-19 years-old, incorporated concepts related to FL, and employed technology as part of the intervention. Eight studies, six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and two interventions without controls were included. Seven of the interventions used Internet or web-based platforms to access program components and all RCTs incorporated game elements. Studies included between two and four constructs of FL. All reported positive changes in food intake with five reporting significant positive pre- and post-intervention changes. Few technology-driven FL-related studies exist within the literature. Although all studies reported improvements in dietary intake, due to variation in program design, delivery, and evaluation it is difficult to tease out the effect of the technology component. Continued research is needed to: 1) determine the degree to which FL should be included in interventions to effect a positive change on dietary intake; 2) develop adolescent-specific FL measures to more appropriately evaluate changes in knowledge, food-related skills, and dietary intake; and 3) design technology-driven interventions so that technology components can be analyzed separately from other program elements. Copyright © 2018

  16. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  17. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  18. Evaluation of some energy options for the replacement of wood in cooking food in the Region Alto Patia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacruz, Carlos A; Macia, Andres F

    2006-01-01

    In the present article an environmental evaluation appears financier and social of the different power solutions for the substitution from the wood in the food baking. First begins to describe the region of the Alto Patia, soon the objective population defines, this is village the San Juanito, in addition and they define the evaluation criteria the propose technologies that are: Solar, Electric, coal, gas and finally it is selected most suitable for this region.

  19. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safely and comfortably returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...

  20. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...

  1. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wright

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  2. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  3. Optimization of the Quality and Safety of Cooked Seafood Products

    OpenAIRE

    Brookmire, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Seafood products are a common consumer choice and a variety of cooking methods are used in seafood preparation. Although often cooked, products such as shrimp and salmon remain some of the most common carriers of foodborne disease. Cooking these products at elevated temperatures efficiently reduces foodborne disease causing pathogens to a safe level, but applying too much heat to seafood products can produce an overcooked, low quality food. It is necessary to investigate the cooking proces...

  4. Novel fiber-rich lentil flours as snack-type functional foods: an extrusion cooking effect on bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P; Berrios, J De J; Varela, A; Burbano, C; Cuadrado, C; Muzquiz, M; Pedrosa, M M

    2015-09-01

    Novel snack-type functional foods based on extruded lentil flours could convey the related health benefit of their bioactive compounds, provide a gluten-free alternative to consumers, and potentially increase the consumption of pulses. Extrusion treatment promoted an increase in galactopinitol, ciceritol, raffinose, stachyose and total α-galactoside content, in most lentil flours. As α-galactosides may act as prebiotics, they could convey beneficial effects to human and monogastric animals. Conversely, extrusion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the inositol hexaphosphate content to less phosphorylated phytates (inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate), which provide health effects. The gluten-free formulation (control formulation #3) presented the highest significant (p < 0.05) drop in the inositol hexaphosphate of 14.7-fold decrease, but had a large increase in inositol pentaphosphate, due to extrusion processing. These two results are desirable in the finished product. Extrusion also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the trypsin content and completely inactivated lectin, in all processed samples.

  5. Observations on procedures for thawing and spit-roasting frozen dressed chickens, and post-cooking care and storage: with particular reference to food-poisoning bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Diane

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made of four methods of thawing frozen chickens and an average thaw time for each method was determined. Fully and partially thawed chickens, inoculated with salmonellas, Clostridium welchii and Staphylococcus aureus were cooked in a spit-roasting oven at different temperatures for different lengths of time. The chickens were examined freshly cooked and after storage under various conditions. Spit roasting fully thawed chickens until the outer skin was golden brown was sufficient heat-treatment to kill salmonellas and Staph. aureus but Cl. welchii could survive. Salmonellas could also survive if the chickens were not fully thawed before cooking. Incorrect storage after cooking was shown to encourage the growth of pathogens. The incidence of intestinal pathogens in frozen dressed chickens and environmental hazards in spit-roasting establishments were also studied. Of raw chickens examined 35% contained salmonellas (9 serotypes), 63% contained Cl. welchii and 63% Staph. aureus. PMID:4342001

  6. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  7. The curiously long absence of cooking in evolutionary thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, R

    2016-06-01

    Beran et al. (2015, p. 1) characterized the idea that "cooked food was integral in human evolution" as a "long-held hypothesis" favored by Darwin and Engels. In fact, however, although Darwin and Engels considered the use of cooked food to be an important influence on behavior and society, neither of them suggested that its effects were evolutionary in the sense of affecting biology. Explicit discussion of the possible evolutionary impacts of cooking did not begin until the twentieth century.

  8. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    . The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs......Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-time sous-vide-cooking of meat. This method is increasingly used, especially in high-end restaurants, where it receives much praise from leading chefs worldwide. Sous-vide-cooking uses vacuum-packaging of the meat and preparation in thermostated water-baths at temperatures between 54°C and 65°C for periods...

  9. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-Il; Oh, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies.

  10. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  11. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  13. 21 CFR 203.39 - Donation of drug samples to charitable institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donation of drug samples to charitable... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Samples § 203.39 Donation of drug samples... donation record accurately describes the drug sample delivered and that no drug sample is adulterated or...

  14. A Cooking Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wynn D., Ed.

    This cooking curriculum, issued by the Washington District Early Childhood Council, details specific ways in which language arts, math, science, and social studies may be taught through cooking specific recipes. Cooking activities and recipes are presented for the fall, winter, and spring months, and guidelines are provided for preparing…

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and CYP1A induction by cooked food-derived carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in human HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Masashi; Sumi, Haruna; Hosaka, Takuomi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2016-11-01

    The ability of nine cooked food-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), such as 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-6-methylpyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), 2-amino-pyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole hydrochloride (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), to activate human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR) was examined using a HepG2-A10 cell line, which has previously established from human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells for use in hAhR-based luciferase reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, AαC, MeAαC, IQ and MeIQx showed a definite ability to induce not only luciferase (hAhR activation) in HepG2-A10 cells but also cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1/1A2 mRNAs in HepG2 cells, while such the ability of Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, and PhIP was very low. In addition, all the HCAs examined, especially MeAαC and MeIQx, had a definite capacity for inhibiting the activity of ethoxyresorfin O-deethylase (CYP1As, especially CYP1A1). The present findings demonstrate that all the HCAs examined have the ability to activate hAhR and its target genes, and further confirm that these HCAs become good substrates for human CYP1A subfamily enzyme(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simplification of Home Cooking and Its Periphery

    OpenAIRE

    小住, フミ子; 北崎, 康子; Fumiko, OZUMI; Yasuko, KITAZAKI

    1997-01-01

    Sence of home cooking has been changing with the times. Various topics, which make us conscious of health and dietary habits, such as delicatessen, half-ready-made foods, eating out, and utilization of home delivery service and food imports are involved in those of simplification of cooking. We requested 64 students to fill in a questionnaire in three parts. The recovery was 96.4%. The results are as follows : The main reason for purchasing delicatessen or half-ready-made foods was that "they...

  17. Cooking Can Be Profitable; Commercial Cooking and Baking 1:9193.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is prepared as a guide for the 10th grade student in Commercial Cooking and Baking or Food Management Production and Service. The course introduces the student to effective production of high quality foods and develops an understanding of high standards in quality food service. Totaling 90 hours of instruction, nine blocks of…

  18. Cooking behaviour of different ethnic groups residing in and around lowland rainforests of Sumatra, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Wahyudi; Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Ardiansyah

    2017-01-01

    Cooking behaviour can reflect how natural resources have been converted into human nutrition. Cooking is activity from collecting to preparing food. Cooking competencies reflect the ability of people to provide for their food-based needs. Harapan Rainforest is a restoration forest with limited fo...

  19. Corporate Donations and Shareholder Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, H.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Do corporate donations enhance shareholder wealth or reflect agency problems? We address this question for a global sample of firms whereby we distinguish between charitable and political donations, as well as between donations in cash and in kind. We find that charitable donations are positively

  20. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  1. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  2. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  3. Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun-dried sweet potato leaves. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study aimed to determine nutrient (iron, calcium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid) and anti-nutrient (oxalates and polyphenols) contents in raw, cooked and dried ...

  4. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Pellegrini, N.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed

  5. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  6. [HTLV and "donating" milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigourd, V; Meyer, V; Kieffer, F; Aubry, S; Magny, J-F

    2011-08-01

    In France, the screening for human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) during the donation of human milk has been carried out from 1992 with the application of the circular DGS 24 November 1992. The screening for antibodies against these viruses is regulated and done systematically during every donation of milk. Breast feeding being the main mode of transmission of the HTLV-1, the last ministerial decree of 25 August 2010 has made the screening test compulsory for the anonymous donation and for the personalized donation (of a mother for her own child) from all women including those affected by the infection. The milk delivered by milk banks is pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 minutes) before freezing at -18 °C, which inactivates the pathogens. This double means of prevention of the transmission of the HTLV-1 paradoxically seems disproportionate in the absence of any precautionary measure in the case of direct breast-feeding and the use of mother's raw milk. Indeed, in most neonatal intensive care units in maternity hospitals, unpasteurized milk is administered to the neonates without any systematic preliminary testing of the serological HTLV-1 status of the mother. An increased sensitization of the community of the obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists by the Association of the Milk Banks of France (ADLF) and the Société de pathologie exotique could address the issue of screening for HTLV-1 in "donated" milk and breast-feeding.

  7. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- Donate Towards Research - donate- ...

  9. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooking birch pollen-related food: divergent consequences for IgE- and T cell-mediated reactivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohle, Barbara; Zwölfer, Bettina; Heratizadeh, Annice; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Antonia, Yuliya Dall; Alter, Mareike; Keller, Walter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Werfel, Thomas; Ebner, Christof

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 cross-reacts with homologous food allergens, resulting in IgE-mediated oral allergy syndromes (OASs). To avoid this food, allergy allergologists and guidebooks advise patients to consume birch pollen-related foods after heating. OBJECTIVE: We

  11. physico-chemical and grain cooking characteristics of selected rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology,. P.O. Box 3006 ... improve the cooking quality parameters, improve production of the local rice cultivars and increase the ... Sample collection and preparation.

  12. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for Cooked Fish ER17AU06.009 [71 FR 47439, Aug. 17, 2006] ...

  13. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Fish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the market forms of fish, how to clean and portion them, and how to cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  14. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13c. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the various market forms of shellfish and how to clean, prepare, and cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  15. Using Cooking, Baking, and Cutting Terms. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.1a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with some of the terms used in recipes. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided on important cooking, baking, and cutting terms. The…

  16. Defaults and Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul

    We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...

  17. Transfer of 137Cs from cooking water to some green-stuffs samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The radionuclide in contaminated freshwater may directly gain access to the human body by drinking fresh water and cooking food with such water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked food. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the individual ingredients to the concentration in the cooking water can be designated as the Transfer factor in cooking (TFC). The TFC's of 137 Cs in some green-stuffs have been determined and reported in this paper. (author)

  18. First Zika-positive donations in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Stanek, Danielle; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Lu, Kai; Jones, Scott; Rossmann, Susan N; Pate, Lisa Lee

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in the Americas, including parts of the southern United States, and infection can be associated with serious complications, including congenital brain abnormalities. Probable transfusion transmission of ZIKV has been documented in Brazil. Preemptive testing of blood donations for ZIKV RNA was implemented in southern US states at risk of local transmission using a test approved under a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational new drug application, cobas Zika. Screening was expanded after issuance of an updated FDA guidance. Donations reactive on initial screening were further tested by nucleic acid and antibody tests to determine the donor status. Of 358,786 donations from US states screened by individual donation testing, 23 were initially reactive on cobas Zika. Fourteen of these represented probable ZIKV infection based on reactivity on additional nucleic acid testing or anti-Zika immunoglobulin M. Ten of the 14 donors reported travel to an identified ZIKV-active area within 90 days before donation (median time from end of travel to donation, 25 days; range, 6-71 days). Three donors with travel history also had a potential sexual exposure. Only seven of the 14 donations with probable ZIKV infection were detectable upon 1:6 dilution to simulate minipool testing. The estimated specificity of the cobas Zika test was 99.997%. Screening of donations for ZIKV RNA can interdict ZIKV-infected donors. Donor risk factors include travel more than 4 weeks before donation and sexual exposure. Minipool screening would have detected only 50% of the RNA-positive donations. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  19. Determinação da dissolução de alumínio durante cozimento de alimentos em panelas de alumínio Determining aluminum dissolution when cooking food in aluminium cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Tondella Dantas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora os estudos mais recentes não confirmem a correlação entre a presença do alumínio no organismo humano e o Mal de Alzheimer, com freqüência esse assunto é trazido à tona. O presente trabalho foi realizado de forma a avaliar a ocorrência de migração significativa de alumínio proveniente de utensílios domésticos, durante o preparo de alimentos. Foram estudados sete tipos de alimentos com preparos diferenciados e três tipos de panela (caçarola, de pressão e frigideira, nas versões sem e com revestimento (Teflon. A análise do metal foi realizada em espectrômetro de emissão atômica com plasma indutivamente acoplado. Os resultados demonstraram transferência desprezível do Al para alguns alimentos, sendo que a maior transferência ocorreu no preparo de molho de tomate (baixo valor de pH, na panela sem revestimento. Um cardápio preparado com todos esses alimentos para as duas refeições diárias, mostrou que a massa de Al incorporada pelo alimento corresponde a 2% do limite de ingestão diária de Al (1 mg.kg -1 de peso corporal/dia, considerando-se um indivíduo de 60 kg. Assim, conclui-se que o uso de panelas de alumínio no preparo de alimentos praticamente não interfere na ingestão total do elemento para o ser humano.Aluminum is associated with neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer by some authors. Although this has never been confirmed, there is evidence of an accumulation in kidneys of people with renal problems. This present work was carried out to address this subject by evaluating the occurrence of significant aluminum migration from cooking utensils during food preparation. Eight types of food cooked in different ways and three distinct types of pans (a saucepan, pressure cooker and frying pan, with and without teflon coating, were evaluated. The metal analysis was conducted in an Optical Emission Spectrometer with Inductively Coupled Plasma. The results showed insignificant transference of aluminum in some

  20. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  1. Food Production & Service Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide deals with planning and implementing a course in food production and service. Addressed in the course are the following topics: using basic food service processes; performing the tasks of a kitchen helper, stock clerk, baker's helper, pastry helper, cook's helper, pantry goods maker, short order cook, cook, dining room…

  2. γ-ray irradiation of cooked dishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Cheng Wei; Wen Shengli; Xiong Guangquan; Ye Lixiu; Chen Yuxia; Zhang Jinmu; He Jianjun; Lin Yong; Zhan Hanping

    2005-01-01

    Ready-to-eat cooked dishes, including stir-fried dishes, steamed dishes, roast meat, deep dried dishes, shrimps and seashells, and dishes of local flavor, etc were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays, and the decontamination effects were studied. The results showed that most of the cooked dishes are suitable for irradiation. The effective dose is 4 kGy to 8 kGy. Index of microbe of the irradiated dishes was conformed to the National Food-Health standards, and no significant sensory changes was observed with the irradiated dishes. The quality guarantee period (0-5 degree C) is 60 days. (authors)

  3. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Recipe Substitutions Substitutions for Milk Substitutions for Egg Substitutions for Wheat and Gluten Substitutions for Soy Substitutions for Peanuts and Tree Nuts Substitutions for Corn Menu Planning for the Food Allergy Cook Food & Cooking Support Forum Allergy-Friendly Foods Allergy ...

  4. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or aluminum foil to keep the food from drying out. Eat any leftovers within 3 to 4 days or freeze them. Don't freeze any dishes that contain uncooked fruit or veggies, hard-cooked eggs, or mayonnaise. If ...

  5. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  6. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and surfaces thoroughly, raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs can still spread germs to ready-to-eat foods—unless you keep them separate. Watch the SEPARATE video! COOK Cook to the right temperature . Use a food ...

  7. Kitchen Magic: A Nutrition and Cooking Activities Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Mary Jo; And Others

    This handbook on nutrition and cooking is one of a series written especially for parents and other caregivers. Contents include: (1) the importance of nutrition, (2) the four basic food groups in terms of serving size, menu planning, and major nutrients, (3) ways to build healthy attitudes toward food, (4) unsafe foods which have the potential to…

  8. Donation return time at fixed and mobile donation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Patricia M.; High, Patrick M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Johnson, Bryce R.; Mast, Alan E.; Rios, Jorge A.; Simon, Toby L.; Wilkinson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of blood donation environment, fixed or mobile with differing sponsor types, on donation return time. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 2006 through 2009 at six US blood centers participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) were used for analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by whole blood (WB), plateletpheresis (PP), and double red blood cell (R2) donations were obtained for fixed and mobile locations, including median number of donations and median interdonation interval. A survival analysis estimated median return time at fixed and mobile sites, while controlling for censored return times, demographics, blood center, and mandatory recovery times. RESULTS Two-thirds (67.9%) of WB donations were made at mobile sites, 97.4% of PP donations were made at fixed sites, and R2 donations were equally distributed between fixed and mobile locations. For donations at fixed sites only or alternating between fixed and mobile sites, the highest median numbers of donations were nine and eight, respectively, and the shortest model-adjusted median return times (controlling for mandatory eligibility times of 56 and 112 days) were 36 and 30 days for WB and R2 donations, respectively. For PP donations, the shortest model-adjusted median return time was 23 days at a fixed location and the longest was 693 days at community locations. CONCLUSION WB, PP, and R2 donors with the shortest time between donations were associated with fixed locations and those alternating between fixed and mobile locations, even after controlling for differing mandatory recovery times for the different blood donation procedures. PMID:21745215

  9. Crowdfunding as 'Donations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    For a wide class of crowdfunding approaches, we argue that the reward structure (for funders) is closer to that of charitable donations to public goods than it is to traditional entrepreneurial finance. Many features of the design of crowdfunding platforms can therefore be understood as attempts...... to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...... theorize that intangible sources of motivation — (i) direct psychological rewards, (ii) reciprocity and (iii) social interactions — can play a role in entrepreneurial crowdfunding. In our detailed empirical analysis of a representative project we find abundant evidence consistent with this characterization...

  10. TEXTURE OF COOKED SPELT WHEAT NOODLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  11. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  12. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  13. THE IMPACT OF THE COOKED SAUSAGE ENRICHED WITH LACTULOSE AND FOOD FIBERS ON THE MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE LARGE INTESTINE AND MICROBIOTA (MICROBIOCENOSIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Kudryashov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches on the development of medical and medical-preventive food products for people with violation of normal intestinal microflora are presented in the article. It was found that,  the introduction into the formulation of cooked sausage food beet  fibers based on sugar beet, hydrated in a ratio 1:5, in amount 10 %  to weight of mince and lactulose, synthesized from lactose, in  amount 640 mg/kg mince retains the traditional organoleptic  properties of the product. There were carried out comparative  morphometric, histochemical and bacterioscopic studies of boiled  sausage effect without additives and sausage enriched with food  fibers and lactulose on the morphofunctional condition of the mucous membrance of the colon (MMC of rats. Was shown a significant  height  increase of epithelial surface of epithelium, an increase of frequency mitoses in the epithelium crypts of intestinal glands (from 0.6 ± 0.08 % to 1.1 ± 0.04 %, there is a tendency of increasing  content of goblet ekzokrinnye (from 21.3 ± 5.5 % to 32.4 ± 18.7  %, while the mucosal were intensively produced allopathically  mucus, which indicates the stimulation of sausage, enriched with  lactulose on the functional status of the surface epithelium and intestinal glands of the mucous membrane of the colon. Based on the studies results of the effect of food beet fibers and lactulose,  contained in the ration of rats in large and small intestine were fixed  on order greater amount of bifido- and lactobacteries in comparison  with the animals control group. Same time, it was found that in the  large intestine the number of lactobacilli were much higher in  animals receiving experimental sausage.

  14. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a cooking skills programme in parents of young children--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ada L; Vargas, Elisa; Lam, Po S; Shennan, David B; Smith, Fiona; Parrett, Alison

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate longitudinally the effectiveness of a cooking programme on self-reported confidence about cooking skills and food consumption patterns in parents of young children. An evaluation of cooking programmes delivered by National Health Service (NHS) community food workers using a single group pre-test/post-test repeated measures design. A shortened version of a validated questionnaire at baseline, post intervention and 1-year follow-up determined confidence in cooking using basic ingredients, following a simple recipe, tasting new foods, preparing and cooking new foods on consumption of ready meals, vegetables and fruit. Deprived communities in Ayrshire and Arran, Scotland. Parents of nursery age children, 97 % were female and cooking increased significantly from baseline to post intervention (P recipe and preparing and cooking new foods. Improved food consumption patterns were reported from baseline to post intervention (ready-meal consumption reduced from 2-4 times/week to 1 time/week, P cooking programmes appeared to improve cooking confidence and food consumption patterns in the target group and some of these changes were retained after 1 year.

  16. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  17. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  18. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal....... An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... point has been reached. Most cooks tend to continue using a high heat supply even though it is not necessary. This process is often carried out without lid on the pot even though the use of lid will reduce the energy loss considerably. It is also concluded that the average fuelwood consumption in Abodom...

  19. Study On The Effect Of Cooking Of Some Food Proteins By Short-Term Radiation (Microwave) On The Functions Of The Liver And Kidney In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Marzooq, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group

  20. Religious perspectives on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, J

    1999-11-01

    A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.

  1. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  2. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families.......BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...

  3. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritious Meal Planning; Commercial Cooking and Baking I: 9193.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This 90 clock hour course has been prepared as a guide for the tenth grade student in commercial cooking and baking or food management, production and services. It has been divided into six blocks of instruction (menu planning, recipes, condiments and their uses, introduction to cooking, food cost and accounting), and a Quinmester post-test. As a…

  5. Mix, Stir, Blend...A Pantry of Cooking Activities and Ideas for Elementary K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Contained in this multi-curriculum guide are recipes, activities, and ideas for teaching elementary students about nutrition, foods, cooking, utensils, table setting, and cooking safety. The recipes involve the basic four food groups and may be reproduced to provide students with their own cookbooks. Recipes are divided between primary and…

  6. A quantitative performance assessment of improved cooking stoves and traditional three-stone-fire stoves using a two-pot test design in Chamwino, Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, J.; Uckert, G.; Graef, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Kimaro, A. A.; Sererya, O.; Sieber, S.

    2018-02-01

    In Tanzania, a majority of rural residents cook using firewood-based three-stone-fire stoves. In this study, quantitative performance differences between technologically advanced improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves are analysed. We test the performance of improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves using local cooks, foods, and fuels, in the semi-arid region of Dodoma in Tanzania. We used the cooking protocol of the Controlled Cooking Test following a two-pot test design. The findings of the study suggest that improved cooking stoves use less firewood and less time than three-stone-fire stoves to conduct a predefined cooking task. In total, 40 households were assessed and ask to complete two different cooking tasks: (1) a fast cooking meal (rice and vegetables) and (2) a slow cooking meal (beans and rice). For cooking task 1, the results show a significant reduction in firewood consumption of 37.1% by improved cooking stoves compared to traditional three-stone-fire stoves; for cooking task 2 a reduction of 15.6% is found. In addition, it was found that the time needed to conduct cooking tasks 1 and 2 was significantly reduced by 26.8% and 22.8% respectively, when improved cooking stoves were used instead of three-stone-fire-stoves. We observed that the villagers altered the initial improved cooking stove design, resulting in the so-called modified improved cooking stove. In an additional Controlled Cooking Test, we conducted cooking task 3: a very fast cooking meal (maize flour and vegetables) within 32 households. Significant changes between the initial and modified improved cooking stoves regarding firewood and time consumption were not detected. However, analyses show that both firewood and time consumption during cooking was reduced when large amounts (for 6-7 household members) of food were prepared instead of small amounts (for 2-3 household members).

  7. Development and Performance Evaluation of Charcoal-Fired Cooking Stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirika, V. I. O.

    2002-01-01

    Three different sizes of cooking stoves which utilizes charcoal as source of fuel with fuel capacities 15.7 kg, 10.6 kg and 3.5 kg for the large, medium and small stoves respectively were designed and fabricated for domestic cooking of food by the rural communities. The stoves were evaluated for performance in terms of fuel efficiency, fuel consumption rate, cooking efficiency and boiling time during testing operation with water. From the result it was revealed that the rate of fuel consumption for the large, medium and small cooking stove were 7.2 kg/h, 5.9 kg/h and 2.3 kg/h respectively, and their fuel efficiencies were 88%, 86% and 82% respectively. Also the cooking efficiencies of these stoves were 94%, 83% and 72% respectively. A comparative evaluation of the cooking efficiencies, fuel efficiencies, fuel consumption rate and cooking time between the three types of stoves and the traditional three stone open fire system, reveals that the cooking efficiencies and fuel efficiencies obtained were greater than the values obtained with the traditional three stone open fire system. But the values of the fuel consumption rate and boiling time obtained for the three stoves were lower than the values obtained with the traditional system. And the difference between their means was statistically significant at 5 % level of significance

  8. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  9. [Guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.; Olthuis, G.J.; Siebelink, M.; Gerritsen, R; Heurn, E. van

    2017-01-01

    - The multidisciplinary guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia' was published in March 2017 at request of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.- This guideline provides recommendations for the organisation and implementation of a request to donate organs expressed by a patient who asks

  10. Attitude toward living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was

  11. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  12. Cooking with Quadratics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Luajean N.

    2010-01-01

    A project that mixes algebra with data collection, uses technology, extends into data analysis, and cooks marshmallows can excite both teachers and students. This article describes a project that intends to pique students' interest in higher mathematics, incorporate their knowledge of parabolas, and offer a meaningful mathematics experience. Using…

  13. Haptic Routes and digestive destinations in cooking series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jørgensen, Ulla Angkjær

    2010-01-01

    and the media in which aesthetical, cultural and symbolic values are related to the way food is mediatised. The main argument is that cooking television series produce haptic images of place and food that include a specific sensuous and emotional relation between screen and viewer. The haptic imagery...

  14. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  15. Stability of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in oil, fish and mushrooms after household cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ložnjak, Petra; Jakobsen, Jette

    2018-01-01

    Information on the retention of vitamin D in food following household cooking is scarce. So far the retention of its metabolites vitamin D3, vitamin D2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 has shown that the type of food and the cooking method are the essential determinants, and there is no significant...... difference between the metabolites. We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in sunflower oil, vitamin D3 in rainbow trout, and vitamin D2 in button mushrooms. The investigated cooking methods were boiling at different pH, steam cooking, microwave cooking, pan-frying, and oven baking...

  16. Effect of Pre-cooking and Addition of Phosphate on the Quality of Catfish Fillets Cooked in Pouch in Boiling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking or reheating food in a vacuum sealed bag has been a common method of preparing vegetables, meat and poultry products. There are very few examples of vacuum sealed bags designed for cooking or reheating catfish fillets. The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of raw f...

  17. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... precautions should be taken at every stage a food takes — from preparation to cooking to storing leftovers. A lot of this responsibility falls on grown-ups, but kids can help fight germs, too. One of the best ways is to ... to prepare foods. When should you wash? Before you start helping — ...

  18. Dietary intake, food processing, and cooking methods among Amish and non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia: relevance to nutritional risk factors for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyun Carter, Gebra B; Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Clinton, Steven K; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Paskett, Electra D; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2011-11-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the source, storage, preparation, and intake of food among Amish and non-Amish adults to understand dietary practices as a potential contributing factor to lower cancer incidence rates. Interviews were conducted with a random sample of 134 Amish and 154 non-Amish adults including questions about dietary practices and a 24-h dietary recall. Amish compared to non-Amish adults reported (1) less refrigeration in homes (85% vs. 100%, P alcohol (P < .01); (4) consuming fewer daily servings of vegetables (males: 1.2 vs. 1.9 servings/day, P < .01; females: 1.0 vs. 2.1 servings/day, P < .01); and (5) a greater percentage of energy from saturated fat (males: 16.7% vs. 12.6%, P < .01; females: 16.3% vs. 12.0%, P < .01). Amish males reported greater amount of energy intake (2780 kcal vs. 2298 kcal, P = .03) compared to non-Amish males. Amish and non-Amish dietary patterns show some differences that may impact cancer although neither group achieves current diet and cancer prevention guidelines. Lifestyle factors, screening, and healthcare access may be contributing to the lower cancer incidence rates among the Amish and these results suggest areas of intervention to reduce the cancer burden.

  19. 32 CFR 553.6 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by the...

  20. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contaminate. For example, after cutting meat, wash the knife before using it to cut vegetables. COOK: Cook ... Adults Men and Women Moms/ Moms-to-Be Making Healthy Choices in Each Food Group MyPlate Plan ...

  1. Going to School with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & ... inclusive for your child. If there will be cooking going on, provide recipes, and possibly ingredients, to make safe foods. Consider ...

  2. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    OpenAIRE

    A Pourkhalili; M Mirlohi; E Rahimi; M Hojatoleslami

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying a...

  3. More than preparing a meal? Concerning the meanings of home cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter

    2012-06-01

    Cooking is one of the basic activities in our lives. However, people frequently feel they fall short of time to cook when facing problems with the temporal organization of daily life. How people think about home cooking is considered to be important for the time they spend on preparing meals. It is assumed that the meaning of cooking differs for different people, depending on the temporal and social context. This contribution allows us to clarify how the meaning of cooking varies according to individual and household characteristics and the cooking occasion. By using the pooled time-diary data from the Flemish time-use surveys from 1999 and 2004 we can examine people's views on cooking in order to understand how people use time for food preparation. Although the results suggest that people consider cooking primarily as a household chore, preparing food can also be a way to please others, as well as themselves. It seems that feelings of time pressure and the family situation are clearly related to men's and women's cooking experiences. Furthermore, the meaning of cooking also tends to be clearly influenced by the meal situation and (the moment of) the day. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... database. Most whole blood donations are spun in centrifuges to separate it into transfusable components: red cells, ... 2, your test tubes arrive at a testing laboratory. A dozen tests are performed, to establish the ...

  5. Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 121,678 people waiting for ... org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx Facts and statistics provided by the United States Renal Data System , ...

  6. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  7. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  8. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Traag

    Full Text Available Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  9. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  10. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  11. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  12. Effect of Dry Heat Pre-Treatment (Toasting) on the Cooking Time of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cooking time for IAR48 and IT89KD-288 cowpea varieties increased from 104.67 to 106.00 and 88.00 to 88.67 min, respectively. The results indicate that the cooking time of cowpea seeds can be reduced significantly on toasting, while maintaining their potential as functional agents in the food industry for nutrition and ...

  13. Cooking Up U.S. History: Recipes and Research To Share with Children. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Marden, Patricia C.

    Focusing on the rich heritage of North American cooking, this resource encourages teachers of elementary and middle school students to use cooking experiences when teaching about U.S. history. More than 100 recipes are grouped by historical periods, by the cultural groups, or regional areas which influenced food preferences at that time. Recipes…

  14. The concept of cooking skills: A review with contributions to the scientific debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Mika JOMORI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aimed to conduct a literature review about the concept of cooking skills to contribute to the scientific debate about the subject. A systematic search was performed in the Scopus, PubMed/MedLine and Web of Science databases as well as the periodicals of the Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education in Brazil Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior website, using the following Portuguese and English keywords: cooking skills, cooking and food/meal preparation. We also consulted references cited by these papers, electronic dictionaries (in Portuguese, English and French, technical documents found on public and private institutional websites, as well as books. Basic, etymological/vernacular and systematic definitions for cooking were identified, including historical global and national contexts. To conceptualize cooking skills, categories related to food and individuals were established, purposing a conceptual model. The category related to food referred to the use of unprocessed/minimal processed foods (which require procedures prior to their preparation, and/or processed/ultra-processed foods (which need a little or no preparation, such as re-heating. The category related to individuals involved dimensions such as confidence, attitudes, behavior, and individual knowledge used to prepare foods. The historical definitions of cooking allowed us to clarify the concept of cooking skills. Considering the global context of valuing and recovering cooking for the promotion of healthy eating, this review can contribute to the scientific discussion about the concept of cooking skills. The purposed conceptual model enables parameters to be established for further investigations, allowing cooking interventions to be directed toward promoting healthy eating.

  15. Barriers and facilitators to cooking from 'scratch' using basic or raw ingredients: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique M; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has highlighted an ambiguity in understanding cooking related terminology and a number of barriers and facilitators to home meal preparation. However, meals prepared in the home still include convenience products (typically high in sugars, fats and sodium) which can have negative effects on health. Therefore, this study aimed to qualitatively explore: (1) how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and (2) their barriers and facilitators to cooking with basic ingredients. 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants (aged 18-58 years) living on the island of Ireland, eliciting definitions of 'cooking from scratch' and exploring the reasons participants cook in a particular way. The interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim and Nvivo 10 was used for an inductive thematic analysis. Our results highlighted that although cooking from 'scratch' lacks a single definition, participants viewed it as optimal cooking. Barriers to cooking with raw ingredients included: 1) time pressures; (2) desire to save money; (3) desire for effortless meals; (4) family food preferences; and (5) effect of kitchen disasters. Facilitators included: 1) desire to eat for health and well-being; (2) creative inspiration; (3) ability to plan and prepare meals ahead of time; and (4) greater self-efficacy in one's cooking ability. Our findings contribute to understanding how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and barriers and facilitators to cooking with raw ingredients. Interventions should focus on practical sessions to increase cooking self-efficacy; highlight the importance of planning ahead and teach methods such as batch cooking and freezing to facilitate cooking from scratch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  17. Seeing is doing. The implicit effect of TV cooking shows on children's use of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, Evy; Smits, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Prior research has established that TV viewing and food marketing influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential impact of popular TV cooking shows has received far less attention. TV cooking shows may equally affect children's food selection and consumption by distributing both food cues and portion-size cues. In an experimental study, elementary school children were randomly exposed to a cooking show, that either did or did not display a portion-size cue, or a non-food TV show. Results showed that children used significantly more sugar on their pancakes, and consumed significantly more of the pancakes after watching a TV cooking show compared to a non-food TV show. However, observing a portion-size cue in a TV cooking show only influenced sugar selection in older children (5th grade), but not in younger children (1st grade). The findings suggest that food cues in TV cooking shows stimulate consumption by inducing food cravings in children. Actual portion-size cues only appeared to affect older children's food selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Cooking up a Culinary Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongshem, Lars

    1993-01-01

    A program to introduce inner-city students to the fundamentals of French cooking has spread to more than 100 schools in 6 cities. The program awarded $400,000 in scholarships nationwide this year. Highlights a cooking competition of 10 juniors and seniors from the District of Columbia public schools. (MLF)

  20. Food poisoning prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wash your hands before preparing or serving food. Cook eggs until they are solid, not runny. DO NOT eat raw ground beef, chicken, eggs, or fish. Heat all casseroles to ... Use a thermometer when cooking beef to at least 160°F (71.1° ...

  1. Cooking frequency may enhance survival in Taiwanese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the association between cooking behaviour and long-term survival among elderly Taiwanese. Cohort study. The duration of follow-up was the interval between the date of interview and the date of death or 31 December 2008, when censored for survivors. Information used included demographics, socio-economic status, health behaviours, cooking frequencies, physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness, eating out habits and food and nutrient intakes. These data were linked to death records. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate cooking frequency on death from 1999 to 2008 with related covariate adjustments. Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, 1999-2000. Nationally representative free-living elderly people aged ≥65 years (n 1888). During a 10-year follow-up, 695 participants died. Those who cooked most frequently were younger, women, unmarried, less educated, non-drinkers of alcohol, non-smokers, without chewing difficulty, had spouse as dinner companion, normal cognition, who walked or shopped more than twice weekly, who ate less meat and more vegetables. Highly frequent cooking (>5 times/week, compared with never) predicted survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 0·47; 95 % CI, 0·36, 0·61); with adjustment for physical function, cognitive function, nutrition knowledge awareness and other covariates, HR was 0·59 (95 % CI, 0·41, 0·86). Women benefited more from cooking more frequently than did men, with decreased HR, 51 % v. 24 %, when most was compared with least. A 2-year delay in the assessment of survivorship led to similar findings. Cooking behaviour favourably predicts survivorship. Highly frequent cooking may favour women more than men.

  2. Effect of cooking methods on available and unavailable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... treatment. Key words: Legume grains, available and unavailable carbohydrates, cooking, autoclaving. INTRODUCTION. Grain legumes are foodstuffs of great nutritional signifi- cance to .... amount of disaccharide sucrose, accounting for 3.76 g/100 .... organoleptic properties of food (Tharanathan and.

  3. 7 CFR 250.62 - Summer Food Service Program (SFSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.62 Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). (a... eligible for donated food support, in accordance with 7 CFR part 225. (c) Distribution of donated foods to...

  4. Proposal for the Donation of Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN has been requested by the Japanese High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) to donate the UA1 Magnet for use within the T2K Experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve this donation.

  5. Integration of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a same vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooked vegetables are commonly used in the preparation of ready-to-eat foods. The integration of cooking and cooling of carrots and vacuum cooling in a single vessel is described in this paper. The combination of different methods of cooking and vacuum cooling was investigated. Integrated processes of cooking and vacuum cooling in a same vessel enabled obtaining cooked and cooled carrots at the final temperature of 10 ºC, which is adequate for preparing ready-to-eat foods safely. When cooking and cooling steps were performed with the samples immersed in boiling water, the effective weight loss was approximately 3.6%. When the cooking step was performed with the samples in boiling water or steamed, and the vacuum cooling was applied after draining the boiling water, water loss ranged between 15 and 20%, which caused changes in the product texture. This problem can be solved with rehydration using a small amount of sterile cold water. The instrumental textural properties of carrots samples rehydrated at both vacuum and atmospheric conditions were very similar. Therefore, the integrated process of cooking and vacuum cooling of carrots in a single vessel is a feasible alternative for processing such kind of foods.

  6. 137Cs absorption factors (AFs) from contaminated cooking water to some vegetable and protein samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclide in contaminated freshwater may directly gain access to the human body through two major routes: drinking and cooking food with fresh water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked food. The degree of contamination of food during cooking depends both on absorption power of the individual ingredients and the level of radionuclide present in the water. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the individual ingredients to the concentration in the cooking water can be designated as 'Absorption factor' (AF). AF can be used to predict the radionuclide absorbed by the ingredients cooked with contaminated water, to assess the internal radiation dose to the consumer and radionuclide transfer from the cooking water to the ingredients. A better understanding of the variables that affect the AF in various ingredients during cooking is central to deriving the contamination level of the ingredients. 10 kinds of greens and vegetable and 3 kinds of animal protein were boiled with 37 Cs contaminated freshwater and corresponding AFs were determined in both hot and cooled condition

  7. Cadaveric organ donation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered. PMID:29517702

  8. Cooking Up Creative Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-05-31

    There comes a time in every scientist’s career when one's mind seems to hit a wall. You can’t think of a new experiment that hasn’t been done before or figure out how to crack a problem that is blocking your progress. The easy questions have been answered. You go back to the wellspring of your creativity and find it dry. What to do? Collaborating with investigators who are investigating problems from a different data or analytical perspective is the best way I know to kick-start research creativity. They not only can provide new data, but they can also bring an expertise on how to get the most “flavor” out of the ingredient that they bring to your problem. As the complexity of the important biological problems continues to grow, too many cooks will never spoil the broth, but become a hallmark of the most creative research.

  9. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Dam, Ruth E.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Berendsen, Elsbeth C. M.; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J. A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Evers, Andrea W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This

  10. Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Spence, Michelle; Hollywood, Lynsey; McGowan, Laura; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2016-11-14

    Cooking skills are increasingly included in strategies to prevent and reduce chronic diet-related diseases and obesity. While cooking interventions target all age groups (Child, Teen and Adult), the optimal age for learning these skills on: 1) skills retention, 2) cooking practices, 3) cooking attitudes, 4) diet quality and 5) health is unknown. Similarly, although the source of learning cooking skills has been previously studied, the differences in learning from these different sources has not been considered. This research investigated the associations of the age and source of learning with the aforementioned five factors. A nationally representative (Northern/Republic of Ireland) cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 1049 adults aged between 20-60 years. The survey included both measures developed and tested by the researchers as well as validated measures of cooking (e.g. chopping) and food skills (e.g. budgeting), cooking practices (e.g. food safety), cooking attitudes, diet quality and health. Respondents also stated when they learnt the majority of their skills and their sources of learning. The data was analysed using ANOVAs with post-hoc analysis and Chi 2 crosstabs with a significance level of 0.05. Results showed that child (skills, cooking practices, cooking attitudes, diet quality (with the exception of fibre intake where adult learners were higher) and health. Mother was the primary source of learning and those who learnt only from this source had significantly better outcomes on 12 of the 23 measures. This research highlights the importance of learning cooking skills at an early age for skill retention, confidence, cooking practices, cooking attitude and diet quality. Mother remained the primary source of learning, however, as there is a reported deskilling of domestic cooks, mothers may no longer have the ability to teach cooking skills to the next generation. A focus on alternative sources including practical cooking skills education starting

  11. Increasing intention to cook from basic ingredients: A randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; Hollywood, Lynsey; Caraher, Martin; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2017-09-01

    The promotion of home cooking is a strategy used to improve diet quality and health. However, modern home cooking typically includes the use of processed food which can lead to negative outcomes including weight gain. In addition, interventions to improve cooking skills do not always explain how theory informed their design and implementation. The Behaviour Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy successfully employed in other areas has identified essential elements for interventions. This study investigated the effectiveness of different instructional modes for learning to cook a meal, designed using an accumulating number of BCTs, on participant's perceived difficulty, enjoyment, confidence and intention to cook from basic ingredients. 141 mothers aged between 20 and 39 years from the island of Ireland were randomised to one of four conditions based on BCTs (1) recipe card only [control condition]; (2) recipe card plus video modelling; (3) recipe card plus video prompting; (4) recipe card plus video elements. Participants rated their enjoyment, perceived difficulty, confidence and intention to cook again pre, mid and post experiment. Repeated one-way factorial ANOVAs, correlations and a hierarchical regression model were conducted. Despite no significant differences between the different conditions, there was a significant increase in enjoyment (P cook from basics again (P cook from basics pre-experiment, and confidence and enjoyment (both pre and post experiment) significantly contributed to the final regression model explaining 42% of the variance in intention to cook from basics again. Cooking interventions should focus on practical cooking and increasing participants' enjoyment and confidence during cooking to increase intention to cook from basic ingredients at home. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and... Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Medicines and Supplies (c) Clothes and Household Goods Bedding Clothes Cooking Utensils Fabric Personal...

  13. 9 CFR 318.17 - Requirements for the production of cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY... OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.17 Requirements for the... must include a cooking step. Controlled intermediate step(s) applied to raw product may form part of...

  14. Solar cooking and baking in Central Europe; Kochen mit der Sonne. Solar kochen und backen in Mitteleuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behringer, Rolf; Goetz, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Even in the Western and Central European climate, solar cookers can enable environment-friendly cooking and baking on about 100 to 150 days of the year. Some foods taste better when cooked more carefully, and vitamins and nutrients will be better preserved than in conventionally cooked food. After a short historical outline, the authors present some commercial solar cookers suited for our climate. This is followed by a detailed guide on how to construct a simple wooden solar cooker box from commercially available materials. Examples of solar cooking initiatives illustrate the many applications of solar cookers and parabolic trough cookers. The text is supplemented by practical hints and recipes.

  15. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or charitable...

  16. 78 FR 57539 - Charitable Donation Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 703 and 721 RIN 3133-AE17 Charitable Donation... authorized to fund a charitable donation account (CDA), a hybrid charitable and investment vehicle described... making charitable contributions and donations is among an FCU's incidental powers.\\2\\ \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. 1757...

  17. 48 CFR 245.609 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 245.609 Section 245.609 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.609 Donations. Agencies may donate, with GSA approval and without expense to the United States...

  18. 17 CFR 256.426.1 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donations. 256.426.1 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare purposes. ...

  19. What’s cooking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    When Charles Eames was asked about the boundaries of design, he replied, “What are the boundaries of problems” (Burns et. al, 2006). This quote pinpoints the wide aspect of design, and as the complexity of society is increasing it becomes important to discuss how design can deal with complex...... and wicked problems (Rittel, 1973; Kolko, 2012) in the process of creating desirable solutions (Fallman, D., 2003) to change food-related behaviour (Abdussalam, Foster and Käferstein, 1989). Food and meals in our environment are embedded in complex physical, social and cultural contexts and there is a need...... to understand how people, spaces and food interact and how this interaction influences food behaviour (Mikkelsen, 2011). This requires transdisciplinarity and holistic approach (Rasmussen and Smidt, 2001), which leads to discussing the possibilities within the combination of the two fields, food and design...

  20. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7... HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...) Garbage shall be agitated during cooking, except in steam cooking equipment, to ensure that the prescribed...

  1. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to prevent...

  2. Frequency of inadequate chicken cross-contamination prevention and cooking practices in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Brown, Laura; Khargonekar, Shivangi; Bushnell, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The purpose was to examine restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and kitchen managers' food safety knowledge concerning chicken. EHS-Net members interviewed managers about chicken preparation practices in 448 restaurants. The study revealed that many restaurants were not following U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code guidance concerning cross-contamination prevention and proper cooking and that managers lacked basic food safety knowledge about chicken. Forty percent of managers said that they never, rarely, or only sometimes designated certain cutting boards for raw meat (including chicken). One-third of managers said that they did not wash and rinse surfaces before sanitizing them. Over half of managers said that thermometers were not used to determine the final cook temperature of chicken. Only 43% of managers knew the temperature to which raw chicken needed to be cooked for it to be safe to eat. These findings indicate that restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and manager food safety knowledge need improvement. Findings from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts to improve chicken preparation and cooking practices and knowledge concerning safe chicken preparation.

  3. Finger Foods for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... banana, well-cooked pasta, and small pieces of chicken are other good choices. Before presenting your child ... depending on the food's texture. A piece of chicken, for instance, needs to be smaller than a ...

  4. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  5. RESIZING AND AUTOMATION OF COOKING OF COLD CUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício da Cunha Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooking using steam, at an industrial level, should be a reliable and safe process regarding operational repeatability of pre-set parameters. This work aims to implement an automatic system for direct steam injection , for cooking salamis at an industry of Rio Grande do Sul. Costs of losses of cold cuts have been measured before and after the implementation of the project and also calculations of transfer of heat and mass have been performed - application of letters of Heisler - to obtain the correct time and temperatures for this kind of food, resulting in a project of a vapor distributor with temperature and time controls, guaranteeing a product with uniform cooking and, therefore, quality. The realignment of the project proposed in this study resulted in the reduction of direct losses of discarded products at 98 % , with consequent reduction in operational and energy costs.

  6. Molecular gastronomy, a scientific look at cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2009-05-19

    Food preparation is such a routine activity that we often do not question the process. For example, why do we cook as we do? Why do we eat certain foods and avoid other perfectly edible ingredients? To help answer these questions, it is extremely important to study the chemical changes that food undergoes during preparation; even simply cutting a vegetable can lead to enzymatic reactions. For many years, these molecular transformations were neglected by the food science field. In 1988, the scientific discipline called "molecular gastronomy" was created, and the field is now developing in many countries. Its many applications fall into two categories. First, there are technology applications for restaurants, for homes, or even for the food industry. In particular, molecular gastronomy has led to "molecular cooking", a way of food preparation that uses "new" tools, ingredients, and methods. According to a British culinary magazine, the three "top chefs" of the world employ elements of molecular cooking. Second, there are educational applications of molecular gastronomy: new insights into the culinary processes have led to new culinary curricula for chefs in many countries such as France, Canada, Italy, and Finland, as well as educational programs in schools. In this Account, we focus on science, explain why molecular gastronomy had to be created, and consider its tools, concepts, and results. Within the field, conceptual tools have been developed in order to make the necessary studies. The emphasis is on two important parts of recipes: culinary definitions (describing the objective of recipes) and culinary "precisions" (information that includes old wives' tales, methods, tips, and proverbs, for example). As for any science, the main objective of molecular gastronomy is, of course, the discovery of new phenomena and new mechanisms. This explains why culinary precisions are so important: cooks of the past could see, but not interpret, phenomena that awaited scientific

  7. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  8. Cooking decreases observed perfluorinated compound concentrations in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gobbo, Liana; Tittlemier, Sheryl; Diamond, Miriam; Pepper, Karen; Tague, Brett; Yeudall, Fiona; Vanderlinden, Loren

    2008-08-27

    Dietary intake is a major route of exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Although fish and seafood contribute significantly to total dietary exposure to these compounds, there is uncertainty with respect to the effect of cooking on PFC concentrations in these foods. Eighteen fish species purchased from markets in Toronto, Mississauga, and Ottawa, Canada were analyzed for perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSAs)-based fluorochemicals and perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in raw and cooked (baked, boiled, fried) samples. Of 17 analytes, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was detected most frequently; concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 1.68 ng/g ww in raw and cooked samples. PFOSAs were detected only in scallops at concentrations ranging from 0.20 ng/g ww to 0.76 ng/g ww. Total concentrations of PFAs in samples were 0.21 to 9.20 ng/g ww, respectively, consistent with previous studies. All cooking methods reduced PFA concentrations. Baking appeared to be the most effective cooking method; after baking samples for 15 min at 163 C (325 degrees F), PFAs were not detected in any of the samples. The margin of exposures (MOE) between the toxicological points of reference and the dietary intake of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and PFOS in fish and seafood muscle tissue were greater than 4 orders of magnitude. This indicates that reducing consumption of fish muscle tissue is not warranted on the basis of PFC exposure concerns at the reported levels of contamination, even for high fish consuming populations.

  9. Genetic Evidence of Human Adaptation to a Cooked Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Dannemann, Michael; Briggs, Adrian W; Nickel, Birgit; Groopman, Emily E; Wrangham, Richard W; Kelso, Janet

    2016-04-13

    Humans have been argued to be biologically adapted to a cooked diet, but this hypothesis has not been tested at the molecular level. Here, we combine controlled feeding experiments in mice with comparative primate genomics to show that consumption of a cooked diet influences gene expression and that affected genes bear signals of positive selection in the human lineage. Liver gene expression profiles in mice fed standardized diets of meat or tuber were affected by food type and cooking, but not by caloric intake or consumer energy balance. Genes affected by cooking were highly correlated with genes known to be differentially expressed in liver between humans and other primates, and more genes in this overlap set show signals of positive selection in humans than would be expected by chance. Sequence changes in the genes under selection appear before the split between modern humans and two archaic human groups, Neandertals and Denisovans, supporting the idea that human adaptation to a cooked diet had begun by at least 275,000 years ago. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Indoor acrolein emission and decay rates resulting from domestic cooking events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Vincent Y.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Cahill, Thomas M.

    2009-12-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a common constituent of both indoor and outdoor air, can exacerbate asthma in children, and may contribute to other chronic lung diseases. Recent studies have found high indoor levels of acrolein and other carbonyls compared to outdoor ambient concentrations. Heated cooking oils produce considerable amounts of acrolein, thus cooking is likely an important source of indoor acrolein. A series of cooking experiments were conducted to determine the emission rates of acrolein and other volatile carbonyls for different types of cooking oils (canola, soybean, corn and olive oils) and deep-frying different food items. Similar concentrations and emission rates of carbonyls were found when different vegetable oils were used to deep-fry the same food product. The food item being deep-fried was generally not a significant source of carbonyls compared to the cooking oil. The oil cooking events resulted in high concentrations of acrolein that were in the range of 26.4-64.5 μg m -3. These concentrations exceed all the chronic regulatory exposure limits and many of the acute exposure limits. The air exchange rate and the decay rate of the carbonyls were monitored to estimate the half-life of the carbonyls. The half-life for acrolein was 14.4 ± 2.6 h, which indicates that indoor acrolein concentrations can persist for considerable time after cooking in poorly-ventilated homes.

  11. Nutrient retention values and cooking yield factors for three South African lamb and mutton cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Salomina M; Strydom, Phillip E

    2017-11-01

    Nutrient content of raw and cooked foods is important for formulation of healthy diets. The retention of nutrients during cooking can be influenced by various factors, including animal age, carcass characteristics and cooking method, and these factors are often unique to specific countries. Here the effects of animal age (lamb and mutton) and carcass cut (shoulder, loin and leg) combined with cooking method (moist heat and dry heat) on yield and nutrient retention of selected nutrients of South African sheep carcasses were studied. Cooking yields and moisture retention were lower for lamb loin but higher for lamb leg. Energy and fat retention were higher for all cuts of mutton compared with lamb, while higher retention values for cholesterol were recorded for lamb. Mutton retained more iron (P = 0.10) and zinc and also more vitamin B 2 , B 6 and B 12 than lamb. Shoulder cooked according to moist heat cooking method retained more magnesium, potassium and sodium. Incorporating these retention and yield values into the South African Medical Research Council's Food Composition Tables provides a reliable reference to all concerned with nutrient content of food. It will also guide practitioners and primary industry to adjust animal production aimed at optimum nutrient content to specific diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  13. Lipaemic donations: truth and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    The problem of using material of unsuitable quality, including "nontransparent turbid milky plasma" or more simply "turbid plasma", for producing blood components is not trivial for several epidemiological, technical, analytical, clinical and economical reasons. With some exception, most national and international guidelines mandate that blood components should preferably not be produced from lipaemic donations. The origin of lipaemic blood is variegated, and includes physiological or paraphysiological causes and metabolic disorders, whereas a broad range of common diseases and drugs can also be associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Overall, the frequency of lipaemic donations ranges between 0.31% and 0.35%, although sporadic reports have highlighted that the frequency might be much higher, up to 13%. Lipaemic donations pose two leading problems in transfusion medicine, that are interference during laboratory testing, and safety of producing blood components from hypertriglyceridaemic materials. While the former issue can be overcome by using chemical or mechanical methods, the clinical use of lipaemic blood for producing components remains an unresolved question. Transfusion medicine should thereby embark on a landmark effort to find a universal agreement of behaviours and harmonization of policies worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Misguided U.S. Food Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bubia, Donald

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the United Nations' World Food Program published an urgent plea for nations to donate food and medicines to relieve a complex food emergency in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea...

  15. What's Cooking For Kids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Valley Authority (Land Between the Lakes), Golden Pond, KY.

    This booklet on nutrition for grades 4-6 contains classroom activities as well as recipes for easily prepared nutritious dishes, e.g., applesauce, cookies, bread. Information is provided on the nutritional values of items in the basic food groups, and activity sheets are included. (JD)

  16. Cooking Up a Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafts, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Minuteman Vocational Technical School in Lexington, Massachusetts leases school space to McDonald's for a restaurant which also serves as a food service laboratory for students in the culinary arts hospitality management program. The school has also benefited from the renovation of its facilities by McDonald's. (SK)

  17. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational Curricula. Food Service. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Larry; Shin, Masako

    This document, one of eight in a multi-cultural competency-based vocational/technical curricula series, is on food service. This program is designed to run 24 weeks and cover 15 instructional areas: orientation, sanitation, management/planning, preparing food for cooking, preparing beverages, cooking eggs, cooking meat, cooking vegetables,…

  18. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Yeoun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment.

  19. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon; Lee, Ju Yeoun

    2010-01-01

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment

  20. Drivers of Discretionary Firm Donations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira-de-Mello

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.

  1. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexachlorobenzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various foodstuffs before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Castell, Victoria; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2009-04-01

    The cooking-induced changes in the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various foodstuffs were investigated. Foods included fish (sardine, hake and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, boiled) samples were analyzed. There were some variations in the concentrations of PBDEs before and after cooking. However, they depended not only on the cooking process, but mainly on the specific food item. The highest HCB concentrations were found in sardine, being lower in cooked samples. All cooking processes enhanced HCB levels in hake, while very scarce differences could be noted in tuna (raw and cooked). In general terms, the highest PAH concentrations were found after frying by being the values especially notable in fish, excepting hake, where the highest total PAH levels corresponded to roasted samples. The results of this study show that, in general, cooking processes are only of a limited value as a means of reducing PBDE, HCB and PAH concentrations in food.

  2. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  3. Ruoanvalmistuspaperi Cook and chill prosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjohalme, Sirkka; Helin, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö lähti liikkeelle opinnäytetyön tilaajan, Metsä Tissuen, toiveesta tutkia Cook and chill -ruoanvalmistuspaperin soveltuvuutta Cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ammattikeittiöissä. Uudet toimintamenetelmät eroavat perinteisistä menetelmistä käytännössä näkyvimmin siinä, että ruoanvalmistus ei ole sidottu tarjoilupaikkaan ja ruoan tarjoilun ei tarvitse välttämättä tapahtua valmistuspäivänä. Tähän perustuu myös Cook and chill -tuotantotapa. Tutkimusyhteistyötä tehtiin Pirkkalan tuotanto...

  4. Onsite LLW storage at Cook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant has gained much experience through the onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste. Owned and operated by the Indiana Michigan Power Company, which is owned by American Electric Power, the plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan, on the southeast side of Lake Michigan, about 50 miles from Chicago. In November 1990, waste generators in the state of Michigan were denied access to licensed low-level waste disposal sites because of a lack of progress by the state in developing its own disposal site. Because of this lack, wastes from the Cook plant have been stored onsite for three years. This article covers four issues related to the Cook nuclear plant's experience in the low-level waste storage: storage capacity and waste generation rates, waste form and packages, regulatory issues, and the monitoring of the waste

  5. Bone Tissue Donation: Tendency and Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, S; Dos Santos, M J; de Moraes, E L; de Barros E Silva, L B

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the percentage of bone tissue donation in a brain death situation and the tendency of donation rate of this tissue in an organ procurement organization in the county of Sao Paulo from 2001 to 2016. It is a retrospective and quantitative study, based on the Organ and Tissue Donation Term of donors who died of brain death between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied, and the odds of donation were identified throughout the years, regarding the odds ratio different from zero. Finally, it was measured the accuracy of the odds ratio through the confidence interval. The analysis has shown a significant change on the trend of bone donation (P 1, indicating that the donation rate has increased. However, the percentage of growth is still considered low. The study evidences a growth trend regarding the donation of bone tissue, but the percentage is still too low to adequately meet the demand of patients who need this modality of therapeutic intervention. It is believed that educational campaigns of donation are not emphasizing the donation of tissues for transplantation, which may be directly impacting their consent rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes toward organ donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P <0.05).In all,85.7% of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media

  7. Experiences obtaining insurance after live kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L

    2014-09-01

    The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Blood detection in the spinal column of whole cooked chicken using an optical fibre based sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, C.; O'Farrell, M.; Lyons, W. B.; Lewis, E.; Flanagan, C.; Jackman, N.

    2005-01-01

    An optical fibre based sensor has been developed to aid the quality assurance of food cooked in industrial ovens by monitoring the product in situ as it cooks. The sensor measures the product colour as it cooks by examining the reflected visible light from the surface as well as the core of the product. This paper examines the use of the sensor for the detection of blood in the spinal area of cooked whole chickens. The results presented here show that the sensor can be successfully used for this purpose.

  9. Captain Cook Chased a Chook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Schlunke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we write the contemporary 'histories' of Captain Cook when they include such textual and material diversity? When that diversity ranges from children's rhymes to convenience stores as well as journals now claimed as iconic documents of the enlightenment? How might the insights of Bruno Latour into how the 'experimental' is produced in the laboratory be helpful in showing how Cook is produced in a settler culture? How does revealing the 'experimental' (the material and textual ethnography of history show us new ways of 'doing' history that engages with its textual as well as its material diversity.

  10. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  11. Outcome of pancreas transplantation from donation after circulatory death compared to donation after brain death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Ellen S.; Krikke, Christina; Hofker, Hendrik S.; Berger, Stefan P.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Pol, Robert A.

    Introduction: To overcome the gap of organ shortage grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be used. This review evaluates the outcomes after DCD pancreas donation compared to donation after brain death (DBD). Materials and methods: A literature search was performed using Medline,

  12. Health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking: A systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Brown, Heather; Wrieden, Wendy; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Halligan, Joel; Robalino, Shannon; Adams, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Many dietary interventions assume a positive influence of home cooking on diet, health and social outcomes, but evidence remains inconsistent. We aimed to systematically review health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking. Given the absence of a widely accepted, established definition, we defined home cooking as the actions required for preparing hot or cold foods at home, including combining, mixing and often heating ingredients. Nineteen electronic databases were searched for relevant literature. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if they focussed mainly on home cooking, and presented post 19 th century observational or qualitative data on participants from high/very high human development index countries. Interventional study designs, which have previously been reviewed, were excluded. Themes were summarised using narrative synthesis. From 13,341 unique records, 38 studies - primarily cross-sectional in design - met the inclusion criteria. A conceptual model was developed, mapping determinants of home cooking to layers of influence including non-modifiable, individual, community and cultural factors. Key determinants included female gender, greater time availability and employment, close personal relationships, and culture and ethnic background. Putative outcomes were mostly at an individual level and focused on potential dietary benefits. Findings show that determinants of home cooking are more complex than simply possessing cooking skills, and that potential positive associations between cooking, diet and health require further confirmation. Current evidence is limited by reliance on cross-sectional studies and authors' conceptualisation of determinants and outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of mercury bioaccessibility on exposure assessment associated with consumption of cooked predatory fish in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia; Ruiz, Antonio; Barrios, Laura; Vélez, Dinoraz; Montoro, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Predatory fish tend to accumulate high levels of mercury (Hg). Food safety assessment of these fish has been carried out on the raw product. However, the evaluation of the risk from Hg concentrations in raw fish might be modified if cooking and bioaccessibility (the contaminant fraction that solubilises from its matrix during gastrointestinal digestion and becomes available for intestinal absorption) were taken into account. Data on Hg bioaccessibility in raw predatory fish sold in Spain are scarce and no research on Hg bioaccessibility in cooked fish is available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hg bioaccessibility in various kinds of cooked predatory fish sold in Spain to estimate their health risk. Both Hg and bioaccessible Hg concentrations were analysed in raw and cooked fish (swordfish, tope shark, bonito and tuna). There were no changes in Hg concentrations during cooking. However, Hg bioaccessibility decreased significantly after cooking (42 ± 26% in raw fish and 26 ± 16% in cooked fish), thus reducing in swordfish and tope shark the Hg concentration to which the human organism would be exposed. In future, cooking and bioaccessibility should be considered in risk assessment of Hg concentrations in predatory fish. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. “It Is Good for My Family’s Health and Cooks Food in a Way That My Heart Loves”: Qualitative Findings and Implications for Scaling Up an Improved Cookstove Project in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Cohen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of indoor, three-stone fire pits in resource–poor countries is a substantial burden on human health and the environment. We conducted a pilot intervention promoting the purchase and use of an improved cookstove in rural Kenya. The goals of this qualitative inquiry were to understand the motivation to purchase and use; perceived benefits and challenges of cookstove use; and the most influential promotion activities for scaling up future cookstove promotion. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 cookstove promoters and 30 cookstove purchasers in the Luo community. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis conducted. Women reported the need for less firewood, fuel cost savings, reduced smoke, improved cooking efficiency, reduced eye irritation, lung congestion and coughing as major benefits of the cookstove. Cost appeared to be a barrier to wider adoption. The most persuasive promotion strategies were interpersonal communication through social networks and cooking demonstrations. Despite this cost barrier, many women still considered the improved cookstove to be a great asset within their household. This inquiry provided important guidance for future cookstove implementation projects.

  15. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-01-01

    Background Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Ph...

  16. Improving patients' home cooking - A case series of participation in a remote culinary coaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rani; Pober, David M; Budd, Maggi A; Silver, Julie K; Phillips, Edward M; Abrahamson, Martin J

    2017-08-01

    This case series describes and examines the outcomes of a remote culinary coaching program aimed at improving nutrition through home cooking. Participants (n = 4) improved attitudes about the perceived ease of home cooking (p culinary skills (p = 0.02); and also improved in confidence to continue online learning of culinary skills and consume healthier food. We believe this program might be a viable response to the need for effective and scalable health-related culinary interventions.

  17. Meal patterns and cooking practices in Southern France and Central England

    OpenAIRE

    Pettinger, C.; Holdsworth, Michelle; Gerber, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether meal patterns and cooking practices in Central England and Mediterranean France conform to popular stereotypes, eating together as a household, preparation of meals, food purchasing patterns, cooking practices and eating out were investigated. Design: Cross-sectional studies conducted simultaneously in April 2001 using self-administered postal questionnaires. Setting: England (Nottingham, East Midlands) and France (Montpellier, Languedoc-Roussillon). Subjects: A...

  18. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh) as compared with some con...

  19. Blood donation history and eligibility assessment in a community-based sample of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Brian; Murcia, Karla; Robinson, William T; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Henry Fisher

    2018-04-01

    In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration changed the regulation from a permanent deferral from donation for men who have sex with men (MSM) to a 1-year deferral since last sexual contact. It is unknown what proportions of MSM try to donate and if they would be willing to answer individual risk-based questions to assess their current eligibility. The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance surveys periodically measure human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and risk behaviors among MSM using a venue-based, time-location sampling method. In the 2014 cycle, that is, before the policy change, investigators in San Francisco and New Orleans added questions about blood donation. Questions inquired into three domains: donation history, policy awareness, and knowledge about HIV testing of donations. There were 404 and 557 respondents in San Francisco and New Orleans, respectively. Nearly one in three MSM in San Francisco (27.4%) and New Orleans (31.4%) tried to donate after their first MSM contact. A majority (63.1% in San Francisco, 58.8% in New Orleans) somewhat or strongly agreed that they would be willing to be asked detailed questions for donation eligibility assessment. The proportion of MSM who reported trying to donate was similar in the two cities. However, a substantial proportion did not agree to be asked more detailed risk behavior questions to assess eligibility. In these two geographic locations, prominent regional differences were not evident. © 2018 AABB.

  20. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  1. Cook's Carteaux: Trends in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The following Nuclear News interview, conducted by associate editor Gregg M. Taylor, is with Paul F. Carteaux, training superintendent at Indiana/Michigan Power Company's Cook nuclear power plant. The site has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors. Cook-1, rated 1020-MWe (net), started commercial operation in August 1975, and the 1060-MWe Cook-2 began operation in July 1978

  2. What’s Cooking, Man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    : 1) rechefisation, 2) the TV chef as a moral entrepreneur, 3) the TV chef and the revitalisation of the national myth and 4) cooking as masculine escapism. The article concludes that the innovation of the masculine identity that was launched in The Naked Chef has not continued; rather, the genre has...

  3. A semi-automatic annotation tool for cooking video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Napoletano, Paolo; Schettini, Raimondo; Margherita, Roberto; Marini, Gianluca; Gianforme, Giorgio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In order to create a cooking assistant application to guide the users in the preparation of the dishes relevant to their profile diets and food preferences, it is necessary to accurately annotate the video recipes, identifying and tracking the foods of the cook. These videos present particular annotation challenges such as frequent occlusions, food appearance changes, etc. Manually annotate the videos is a time-consuming, tedious and error-prone task. Fully automatic tools that integrate computer vision algorithms to extract and identify the elements of interest are not error free, and false positive and false negative detections need to be corrected in a post-processing stage. We present an interactive, semi-automatic tool for the annotation of cooking videos that integrates computer vision techniques under the supervision of the user. The annotation accuracy is increased with respect to completely automatic tools and the human effort is reduced with respect to completely manual ones. The performance and usability of the proposed tool are evaluated on the basis of the time and effort required to annotate the same video sequences.

  4. The 'donations for decreased ALT (D4D)' prosocial behavior incentive scheme for NAFLD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Saiyu; Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Tekeshi; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Minami, Masahito; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2014-12-01

    Physicians often experience difficulties in motivating patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to undergo lifestyle changes. The aim of this study is to examine whether 'Donations for Decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT)' (D4D) prosocial behavior incentive can serve as an effective intrinsic motivational factor in comparison with conventional dietary and exercise intervention alone for NAFLD patients. Twenty-five NAFLD patients with elevated ALT were randomly assigned to a control group that received conventional dietary and exercise intervention alone, or a donation group whereby, as an incentive, we would make a monetary donation to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) based on the decrease in their ALT levels achieved over 12 weeks, in addition to receiving control intervention. In a donation group, we would donate US$1 to the WFP for every 1 IU/l of decrease in their ALT levels. There were no differences of pre-treatment clinical characteristics between the two groups. Significant reductions of ALT levels were achieved only in a donation group, although post-treatment ALT levels were not different between the two groups. These patients raised a total of $316 for the WFP. Promoting patients' intrinsic motivation by incorporating 'D4D' prosocial behavior incentive into conventional dietary and exercise intervention may provide a means to improve NAFLD. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cooking Matters at the Store: A Case Study of Three Missouri Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Cooking Matters at the Store is a grocery store tour where participants learned about healthy eating and tips for saving money on food purchases. Participants learned how to read food labels, compare unit prices, find whole grains, and three ways to purchase produce. Evaluations revealed that participants planned to use the information they…

  6. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  7. 49 CFR 24.108 - Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 24.108 Section 24.108 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.108 Donations. An owner whose real...

  8. Ethanol potentiates the genotoxicity of the food-derived mammary carcinogen PhIP in human estrogen receptor-positive mammary cells: mechanistic support for lifestyle factors (cooked red meat and ethanol) associated with mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Durr-E-Shahwar; David, Rhiannon M; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of cooked/processed meat and ethanol are lifestyle risk factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. Cooking meat generates heterocyclic amines such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Epidemiology, mechanistic and animal studies indicate that PhIP is a mammary carcinogen that could be causally linked to breast cancer incidence; PhIP is DNA damaging, mutagenic and oestrogenic. PhIP toxicity involves cytochrome P450 (CYP1 family)-mediated metabolic activation to DNA-damaging species, and transcriptional responses through Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen-receptor-α (ER-α). Ethanol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor strongly associated with breast cancer risk. Ethanol toxicity involves alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism to reactive acetaldehyde, and is also a substrate for CYP2E1, which when uncoupled generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage. Here, using human mammary cells that differ in estrogen-receptor status, we explore genotoxicity of PhIP and ethanol and mechanisms behind this toxicity. Treatment with PhIP (10 -7 -10 -4 M) significantly induced genotoxicity (micronuclei formation) preferentially in ER-α positive human mammary cell lines (MCF-7, ER-α+) compared to MDA-MB-231 (ER-α-) cells. PhIP-induced CYP1A2 in both cell lines but CYP1B1 was selectively induced in ER-α(+) cells. ER-α inhibition in MCF-7 cells attenuated PhIP-mediated micronuclei formation and CYP1B1 induction. PhIP-induced CYP2E1 and ROS via ER-α-STAT-3 pathway, but only in ER-α (+) MCF-7 cells. Importantly, simultaneous treatments of physiological concentrations ethanol (10 -3 -10 -1 M) with PhIP (10 -7 -10 -4 M) increased oxidative stress and genotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, compared to the individual chemicals. Collectively, these data offer a mechanistic basis for the increased risk of breast cancer associated with dietary cooked meat and ethanol lifestyle choices.

  9. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  10. Radiotreatment of dishes cooked : Royal cutlets of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousselmi, Mehrez

    2006-01-01

    The cooked dishes often present themselves as the complex products of microbiological, biochemival view point and organoleptic.However, the demand of the local and international market stops showing a tendency toward use increased of these cooked dishes of which problems to get round are very delicate. The ionization can be an alternative of conservation since it is characterized bye one fashion of action fundamentally different of the classic techniques: it is about exposing during a determined length, of the wrapped food commodities or in a jumble to doses of ionising radiance carefully controlled in order to get the sought-after effect. The irradiation showed a big efficiency therefore on the plan microbiology.Indeed the dose 1 KGy destroyed all present microorganisms in dishes cooked pasteurized. whereas, for dishes cooked non pasteurized, a dose of 2 KGy destroyed completely the flora of contamination. Besides, the irradiation entails a light reduction of the biochemical composition, while keeping qualities intact organoleptic for all analyzed samples. As a conclusion, the irradiation increases the length of conservation, what confirms the reliability of such a process, in addition of his/her/its weak energizing cost. (author)

  11. Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in Western ... localities helped to identify the recipes used for preparation of complementary foods. ... foods given to them, the cooking methods and the frequency of consumption.

  12. Soup Cooking by Thermal Insulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 辰江; 根本, 勢子; サトウ, タツエ; ネモト, セイコ; TATSUE, SATO; SEIKO, NEMOTO

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the thermal insulation method of soup cooking, we cooked two kinds of soup. The soup cooked by thermal insulation method was compared with the soup cooked by standard boiling method. ln sensory test, it was more aromatic and palatable than the soup by boiling, and some panels commented that it was rather mild. The measured values of pH, specific gravity, acidity and amount of dry weight of souble solids, total-N, formal-N of the soup cooked by the two methods mentioned abo...

  13. Meat cooking habits and risk of colorectal cancer in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Alicia; Muñoz, Sonia E; Lantieri, María J; del Pilar Diaz, María; Cristaldo, Patricia E; de Fabro, Sofía P; Eynard, Aldo R

    2004-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third cause of death among women and the fifth among men in Córdoba, Argentina. We previously reported colorectal cancer to be associated with a high intake of fatty meats and bovine viscera and inversely associated with dietary fiber intake. In this study, we investigated the role of method of cooking meat and preferences in browned surfaces in the risk of colorectal cancer. A case-control retrospective study was carried out by interviewing 296 patients and 597 control subjects with a food-frequency questionnaire. Meat consumption and preferred cooking procedures (boiled, roasted, barbecued, cooked in a flat iron-pan without fat, and fried) were investigated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by unconditional logistic regression analysis. Barbecuing was the cooking method preferred by men, whereas iron-pan cooking was favored by women; frying was the least favored method. Fatty beef, sausages, and bovine viscera were preferentially barbecued or boiled, whereas lean beef was mainly roasted, iron-pan cooked, or fried. Chicken was barbecued or roasted. The multivariate relative risks (adjusted by age, sex, social stratum, and total energy intake) for preferring darkly browned surfaces were significantly associated with an increased risk for all cooking procedures (odds ratio, 4.57; 95% confidence interval, 3.10 to 6.73). No associations were found for red roasted or for boiled meats. Increased risk seems to be related to cooking temperature and close contact of the food to the heating source, because higher risks were observed for heavily browned surfaces when meats were barbecued or iron-pan cooked.

  14. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far were...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  15. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  16. Reasons to Do Food Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, and lab testing results. Contamination of a food by other allergens is one way the history may lead to inaccurate conclusions. For example, a child having reacted to a french fry cooked in peanut oil might be suspected ...

  17. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Turp, Gulen; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-donors' attitudes towards sperm donation and their willingness to donate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provoost, Veerle; Van Rompuy, Florence; Pennings, Guido

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study attitudes about sperm donation and willingness to donate sperm in students who have never shown an interest in sperm donation. The method used in this study is an electronic survey of 1012 male students. Only one third of the respondents (34.3%) would consider donating sperm. Overall, 85.7% indicated a positive attitude towards sperm donation while 14.3% indicated a neutral or negative attitude. The highest scored barriers to donating were the lack of practical information and the fear that the partner would not agree. Almost 40% of the respondents feared that the donation might have a negative impact on their current or future relationship. The majority (83.6%) of those who considered donating thought donors should receive a financial compensation. Money was also one of the main motivators. About 85% of the students thought positively about sperm donation but several factors such as perceived negative views by the social environment, especially the partner, may deter students from donating. This study indicates that the effect of strong incentives, for instance in monetary terms, on a donor pool consisting of students could be limited and that relational factors and donor's perceptions of the views of the wider social network should be taken into account when recruiting donors.

  19. Achievements and barriers in the organ donation process: a critical analysis of donation coordinators' discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Díaz-Medina, Blanca A; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Donation coordinators play an important role in the success or failure of organ donation and transplant programs. Nevertheless, these professionals' perspectives and practices have hardly been explored, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To examine donation coordinators' discourse on the organ donation process and the barriers they perceive. A critical qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. Twelve donation coordinators from public and private hospitals participated. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS: Data were gathered by using semistructured interviews and critical discourse analysis. Participants indicated that partial results have been achieved in deceased organ donation. Concomitantly, multiple obstacles have adversely affected the process and outcomes: at the structural level, the fragmentation of the health system and the scarcity of financial and material resources; at the relational level, nonegalitarian relationships between coordinators and hospital personnel; at the ideational level, the transplant domain and its specialists overshadow the donation domain and its coordinators. Negative images are associated with donation coordinators. Organ donation faces structural, relational, and ideational barriers; hence, complex interventions should be undertaken. Donation coordinators also should be recognized by the health system.

  20. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Just love in live organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2009-08-01

    Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or, in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit of the concept of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The concept of just love is helpful in the analysis of these live organ donations even if no statistical gender-imbalance prevails. It is particularly helpful, however, in the analysis of the gender-imbalance in live kidney donations if these donations are seen as a specific kind of care-work, if care-work is experienced as a labour one should perform out of love and if women still experience stronger pressures to engage in care-work than do men. The aim of the article is to present arguments for the need of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The aim is also to elaborate two criteria that need to be met in order for love to qualify as just and to highlight certain clinical implications.

  2. Breast milk donation: women's donor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez de; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury

    2009-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3% of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.

  3. Effect of conventional cooking methods on lipid oxidation indices in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pourkhalili

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation is one of the most deteriorative reactions occurred in foodstuff which has harmful impacts on the both food quality and consumer's health. This study was designed to speculate the influence of three conventional cooking methods including boiling, frying and grilling on lipid oxidation parameters in cooked lamb meat. Sections of lamb meat from longissimus dorsi muscle, taken from native Lori-Bakhtiary sheep species were cut into uniform pieces and cooked using boiling, frying and roasting methods according to the cooking routine and tradition in Iranian society, in terms of temperature and time. Proximate compositions (moisture, lipid, ash and protein in the raw and cooked meat were determined using the standard methods of analysis. Moreover, weight loss was measured after each treatment. Lipid oxidation parameters such as peroxide value, conjugated diene and TBARS indices were measured in the raw and cooked samples. Evaluation of lipid oxidation parameters showed that peroxide value was significantly decreased in all cooked samples. In contrast, conjugated diene value was significantly increased in the fried and grilled samples (p

  4. Stress influences environmental donation behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage

  6. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation. ...

  7. Psychological and hormonal stress reactions during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Maurits; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Merz, E.M.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  8. 78 FR 3023 - Draft Policy on Donations, Fundraising, and Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... procedures for reviewing and evaluating potential donors and donations. It lists delegations of authority for... employees authorized to accept donations. It provides guidance on soliciting donations, where appropriate... ``ETHICS AND CONDUCT, Employee Responsibilities and Conduct, Donations'' (374 DM 6), in 2007. This guidance...

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is some evidence to suggest that the greater one's knowledge in the blood donation process and the need to donate blood, the more likely one would donate blood. Generally, the lack of knowledge among participants in most studies on blood donation issues seems to be a major concern. There is a ...

  10. 41 CFR 109-44.702 - Donations to public bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations to public... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies. ...

  11. 39 CFR 777.51 - Acceptance of donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of donations. 777.51 Section 777.51... ACQUISITION POLICIES Donations § 777.51 Acceptance of donations. Nothing in these regulations shall prevent a person from making a gift or donation of real property or any part thereof, or any interest therein, or...

  12. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property donations. 710.505 Section 710.505...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. (a) Donations..., whichever is greater. All donations of property received prior to the approval of the NEPA document must...

  13. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal

  14. 75 FR 17843 - National Donate Life Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... need for donors and to find resources on how to donate. Together, we can save lives and give hope to... Donate Life Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we..., tissue, stem cell, and blood donation. During National Donate Life Month, we honor donors who provide...

  15. Potential Health Implications of the Consumption of Thermally-Oxidized Cooking Oils – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falade Ayodeji Osmund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oils are an integral part of a human diet as they are used in almost all types of culinary practices. They serve as sources of lipids with a significant nutritive value and health benefits which can be attributed to their fatty acid compositions and biological antioxidants. However, cooking oils are usually subjected to thermal oxidation which occurs when fresh cooking oil is heated at high temperatures during various food preparations. Repeated use of cooking oils in the commercial food industry is also common to maximize profit. Thermal oxidation of edible oils had since attracted great attention of nutritionist and researchers given the deteriorative effect such as generation of very cytotoxic compounds, loss of carotenoid, phenolics and vitamins thus reducing the overall antioxidant properties of the oils. Furthermore, several in vivo studies had suggested that consumption of thermally-oxidized cooking oils might not be healthy as it might negatively influence the lipid profile (increased low density lipoprotein (LDL, decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL and elevated cholesterol level, haematological system (alteration in concentration of heamoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, kidney function, and induce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress which have been associated with the pathogenesis of various degenerative diseases. Therefore, thermal oxidation seems not to provide any health benefit, as it deteriorates cooking oils and the consumption of the oils may predispose consumers to various disease conditions that may ensue from free radical generation, thereby having deleterious effect on human health.

  16. Study on the changes in phyicochemical properties of seafood cooking drips by gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Woon; Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ju Yeoun

    2010-01-01

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lots of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. But, the seafood cooking drips are easily contaminated because of its rich nutrients, and their color are very dark. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of seafood cooking drips including Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini, and Thunnus thynnus. The Hunter's color values (L, Brightness) of H. fusiformis, and T.thynnus, were increased with increasing irradiation doses, showing becoming bright. The crude protein content and crude lipid content were increased by gamma irradiation. These results indicated that gamma irradiation increased extraction efficiency of available compounds in cooking drips

  17. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  18. The significance of cooking for early hominin scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alex R; Carmody, Rachel N; Dutton, Rachel J; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    Meat scavenged by early Homo could have contributed importantly to a higher-quality diet. However, it has been suggested that because carrion would normally have been contaminated by bacteria it would have been dangerous and therefore eaten rarely prior to the advent of cooking. In this study, we quantified bacterial loads on two tissues apparently eaten by hominins, meat and bone marrow. We tested the following three hypotheses: (1) the bacterial loads on exposed surfaces of raw meat increase within 24 h to potentially dangerous levels, (2) simple roasting of meat on hot coals kills most bacteria, and (3) fewer bacteria grow on marrow than on meat, making marrow a relatively safe food. Our results supported all three hypotheses. Our experimental data imply that early hominins would have found it difficult to scavenge safely without focusing on marrow, employing strategies of carrion selection to minimize pathogen load, or cooking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  20. Frequency of Inadequate Chicken Cross-Contamination Prevention and Cooking Practices in Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Laura Green; Khargonekar, Shivangi; Bushnell, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The purpose was to examine restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and kitchen managers’ food safety knowledge concerning chicken. EHS-Net members interviewed managers about chicken preparation practices in 448 restaurants. The study revealed that many restaurants were not following U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code guidance concerning cr...

  1. A qualitative, cross cultural examination of attitudes and behaviour in relation to cooking habits in France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley, Andy; Caraher, Martin; Lang, Tim

    2014-04-01

    Food campaigners, policy makers, journalists and academics continue to debate an alleged decline in home cooking, a corresponding increase in individualised eating habits and the impact of such trends upon public health. The focus of this research was to examine and compare current domestic food practices in Britain with those of another country, namely France. In-depth interviews with 27 members of the public drawn from both countries enabled the researchers to explore people's actual cooking practices in the home. Analysis of the data revealed that respondents from both countries often lacked time to cook and increasingly relied on a mix of both raw and convenience-type foods to varying degrees. A range of cooking skills was employed in the home, although confidence in relation to cooking was more varied with the French respondents who demonstrated a greater willingness to 'cook from scratch'. There was some evidence of men on both sides of The Channel engaging with cooking in the home although this often formed part of a leisure activity undertaken at weekends and for special occasions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.

  3. Intra-Family Gamete Donation: A Solution to Concerns Regarding Gamete Donation in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien

    2016-09-01

    Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.

  4. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  5. Blood donation on posters: a worldwide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Originally pasted on walls and on locations reserved specially for that purpose, the poster is a medium for advertising and promotion to be seen on the streets and in public places. More recently, it has spread, in a smaller format, on dedicated indoor sites: billboards, columns, street furniture, and so forth. For transfusion, it appeared early on that the poster constitutes an important medium to promote blood donation. Thousands of posters supporting regional, national, or international blood donation campaigns have been created all over the planet, with a great variability of images, symbols, and slogans, which are particularly revealing about the image and the reality of blood donation. The topic is rich in information, particularly sociologic, on the variety of ways in which transfusion organizations promote blood donation. The authors present in this article the results of a study based on a total of 283 posters from nations on every continent, divided into 24 different themes. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Tailor-Made Live Kidney Donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.J. Klop (Karel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes several aspects of live kidney donation, such as surgical techniques, cost-effectivity, cosmetics en quality of life. Kidney transplantation offer several benefits when compared to dialysis. These benefits include better recipient and graft

  7. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics is affiliated with organ, eye and tissue procurement agencies throughout the U.S. They typically ... Visit DonateLife.net and learn how your gift of tissue can give bring new life to ...

  8. Donation of CERN computing equipment to Pakistan

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March.     From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT).   On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...

  9. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  10. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  11. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Guerrero Nuñez, Karla V.; Ferland, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exam...

  12. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Annick N. Tanguay; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; K. Vanessa eGuerrero Nuñez; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exa...

  13. Cooking Appliances Using High-Frequency Heating

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 秀行; Hideyuki, KIMURA; (株)日立製作所機械研究所

    2007-01-01

    We have produced a guide suitable for people with no technical knowledge of cooking appliances that use high-frequency heating. In general, cooking appliances that use an electric heat source are popular since, they are simple to use because the offer easy heat control, are safe because they do not have naked flames, and do not make kitchens dirty because there is no exhaust. In recent years, high-efficiency cooking appliances using high-frequency heating technology have surged in popularity....

  14. Role of lipids in the extrusion cooking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghofe, E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a versatile and very efficient technology that is widely used in food and feed processing. The cooking extruders have found many applications, which include: breakfast cereals, snack foods, other cereal based products, pet food and aquatic foods, texturized vegetable proteins, confectionery products, chemical and biochemical reactions, and oil extraction. Lipids are components that play an important role in most of the extrusion cooking processes. They can act as plastificizers or emulsifiers, and affect more significantly texture and stickiness of the extrudate. This paper reviews effect of oils and other lipids reactions during extrusion cooking as well as the effects of amylase-lipid complexation on extrudate quality.La extrusión es, en general, una tecnología versátil y muy eficiente, que se aplica ampliamente en la elaboración de alimentos y piensos. Los equipos de cocción-extrusión tienen numerosas aplicaciones, entre las que pueden incluirse: los cereales de desayuno listos para comer, los aperitivos, diferentes productos basados en cereales, los piensos para animales domésticos y peces, proteínas vegetales texturizadas, productos de pastelería, reacciones químicas y bioquímicas, y la extracción de aceites. Los lípidos son componentes que juegan un papel importante en la mayoría de los procesos de cocción-extrusión. Pueden actuar como plastificantes o como emulsionantes, suministrando lubricación. En este artículo se revisan con detalle los efectos de las reacciones de los aceites y otros lípidos durante el proceso de cocción-extrucción así como el efecto de la formación de complejos amilasa-lípidos sobre la calidad de los extrudados.

  15. Usability analysis of industrial cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Alexana Vilar Soares; Soares, Marcelo Márcio

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the comparative study of the equipment used for cooking in commercial of kitchens restaurants that use the system of traditional cooking and those ones which use the system called smart cooking (combination oven). The study investigates the usability issues concerning to the two systems, analyzing comparatively the aspects related to anthropometry, dimensional variables, the use of the product and also the product safety, as well as issues of information related to operation of the new concepts of cooking in intelligent systems.

  16. Experiences of Women Who Donated Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Laura M; Spatz, Diane L; Giordano, Noreen

    2018-03-01

    To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). Qualitative, phenomenological design. The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU. Edmund Husserl's design of interpretive phenomenology and Colaizzi's method of data analysis were used for this study. Participants were interviewed using a face-to-face, semistructured interview format. Four themes represented the experience of donating breast milk: Ripple of Hope and Help, Dynamic Interplay of Nurturance, Standing on the Shoulders of Others, and Sharing Their Stories. Donors felt proud and accomplished to provide hope for other infants and families. Nurses were crucial in facilitating and motivating donors and making donation achievable in a supportive environment. Donors felt compelled to share their experiences to teach and motivate others to donate. For our participants, donation of human milk was a positive, valuable, and nurturing experience. Donors reported feelings of increased self-esteem during donation that motivated them to "give back" and continue. The support of a well-trained nursing staff is essential for donors to meet their personal goals. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of cooking process on the changes of concentration and total amount of radioactive caesium in beef, wild plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain information about effects of the cooking process on the changes of concentration and amount of radioactive materials in foods, we determined the concentration of radioactive caesium in several foods such as beef, edible wild plants, blueberries and mushrooms, before and after cooking. Our results showed that drying after soaking in liquid seasoning and the removal of astringent taste were effective in removing radioactive caesium from foods. More than 80% of radioactive caesium could be removed by these cooking methods. These results suggest that cooking processes such as boiling and soaking in liquid seasoning or water are effective to remove radioactive caesium from foods. Moreover, appropriate food additives such as baking soda were useful to promote the removal of radioactive caesium from foods. On the other hand, simple drying, jam making, grilling and tempura cooking could not remove radioactive caesium from foods. In addition, we showed that the concentration of radioactive caesium in foods was raised after simple drying, although the amount of radioactive caesium was unchanged. It would be necessary to monitor radioactive caesium concentration in processed foods because they might have undergone dehydration by cooking, which could result in concentrations exceeding regulatory levels. (author)

  18. Prediction and experimental verification of performance of box type solar cooker. Part II: Cooking vessel with depressed lid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Avala Raji; Rao, A.V. Narasimha

    2008-01-01

    Our previous article (Part I) discussed the theoretical and experimental study of the performance boost obtained by a cooking vessel with central cylindrical cavity on lugs when compared to that of a conventional cylindrical vessel on floor/lugs. This article compares the performance of the cooking vessel with depressed lid on lugs with that of the conventional vessel on lugs. A mathematical model is presented to understand the heat flow process to the cooking vessel and, thereby, to the food material. It is found from the experiments that the cooking vessel with depressed lid results in higher temperature of the thermic fluid loaded in the cooking vessel compared to that of the thermic fluid kept in the conventional vessel when both are placed on lugs. Similar results were obtained by modeling the process mathematically. The average improvement of performance of the vessel with depressed lid is found to be 8.4% better than the conventional cylindrical vessel

  19. Quality of charcoal produced using micro gasification and how the new cook stove works in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njenga, Mary; Mahmoud, Yahia; Mendum, Ruth; Iiyama, Muyiki; Jamnadass, Ramni; Roing de Nowina, Kristina; Sundberg, Cecilia

    2016-09-01

    Wood based energy is the main source of cooking and heating fuel in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its use rises as the population increases. Inefficient cook stoves result in fuel wastage and health issues associated with smoke in the kitchen. As users are poor women, they tend not to be consulted on cook stove development, hence the need for participatory development of efficient woodfuel cooking systems. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Embu, Kenya to assess energy use efficiency and concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter from charcoal produced using gasifier cook stoves, compared to conventional wood charcoal. Charcoal made from Grevillea robusta prunings, Zea mays cob (maize cob) and Cocos nucifera (coconut shells) had calorific values of 26.5 kJ g-1, 28.7 kJ g-1 and 31.7 kJ g-1 respectively, which are comparable to conventional wood charcoal with calorific values of 33.1 kJ g-1. Cooking with firewood in a gasifier cook stove and use of the resultant charcoal as by-product to cook another meal in a conventional charcoal stove saved 41% of the amount of fuel compared to cooking with firewood in the traditional three stone open fire. Cooking with firewood based on G. robusta prunings in the traditional open fire resulted in a concentration of fine particulate matter of 2600 μg m-3, which is more than 100 times greater than from cooking with charcoal made from G. robusta prunings in a gasifier. Thirty five percent of households used the gasifier for cooking dinner and lunch, and cooks preferred using it for food that took a short time to prepare. Although the gasifier cook stove is energy and emission efficient there is a need for it to be developed further to better suit local cooking preferences. The energy transition in Africa will have to include cleaner and more sustainable wood based cooking systems.

  20. CERN servers donated to Ghana

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Cutting-edge research requires a constantly high performance of the computing equipment. At the CERN Computing Centre, computers typically need to be replaced after about four years of use. However, while servers may be withdrawn from cutting-edge use, they are still good for other uses elsewhere. This week, 220 servers and 30 routers were donated to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana.   “KNUST will provide a good home for these computers. The university has also developed a plan for using them to develop scientific collaboration with CERN,” said John Ellis, a professor at King’s College London and a visiting professor in CERN’s Theory Group.  John Ellis was heavily involved in building the relationship with Ghana, which started in 2006 when a Ghanaian participated in the CERN openlab student programme. Since 2007 CERN has hosted Ghanaians especially from KNUST in the framework of the CERN Summer Student Progr...

  1. Free blood donation mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali; Pozo, José Rivera

    2015-05-01

    Blood donation (BD) is a noble act and mobile applications (apps) can help increase awareness about it. This paper analyzes and assesses the characteristics of free apps for BD as regards features and functionality. A search in Google Play, Apple Apps store, Blackberry App World and Windows Mobile App store was carried out to select 169 free BD apps from the 188 apps identified. The results presented in this paper show that the majority of the apps selected have been developed for the Android operating system. Moreover, most of the apps selected are available to help users search for donors. Few of the apps could not be installed and/or accessed. Of those that could be installed: half of them do not require any kind of authentication; a few of them are available in more than one language; half of them have a geographical restriction; around 60 % of them do not notify the user of BD events and requests; one, which is available for Android and iOS, can connect with a laboratory; around 45 % of them allow users to share information via social networks, and the majority of them do not provide BD recommendations. These results are used as a basis to provide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for better BD apps with more features in order to increase the number of volunteer donors.

  2. Food Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  3. Food Follies: Food Safety for College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This project involves the production and dissemination of a basic food storage and safety course geared toward college students. The course covers basic preparation, sanitation, proper cooking temperatures, chilling and storage, as well as common pathogens to be aware of. MALS

  4. Attitudes to Organ Donation and Knowledge of Donation and Transplantation among University of Auckland Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Harbour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims • To explore organ donation and transplantation knowledge and attitudes among medical students at the University of Auckland. • To understand students' perception of the extent of training received prior to and during the medical program. Method A validated web-based questionnaire consisting of 42 questions in five categories was anonymously administered to all enrolled medical students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, in September 2012. Results In all, 419 out of 989 (42% Year 2–6 students responded. A total of 99.3% of medical students supported organ donation, but knowledge was limited (mean score 7.54/15±2.26. A total of 38% of students reported having participated in organ donation learning. A total of 96% of students believed that organ donation information should be available in primary care settings. A total of 69% of students reported that if a patient asked a question about organ donation that they did not know the answer to, they also would not know where to source the correct information from. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although medical students support organ donation, they lack the knowledge required to facilitate informative discussions with patients. Enhanced organ donation education in medical programs may enable students to develop skills and knowledge allowing them to better discuss donation with patients.

  5. Organ donation, policy and legislation: with special reference to the Dutch organ donation act.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Next of kin decisive on organ donation Changing the donor registration systems is not expected to result in more donor organs. We better try to solve the bottlenecks in the donation process within hospitals and to reduce the number of refusals by next of kin, as NIVEL research shows, based on which

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills in UK adults: cross-sectional analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Adamson, Ashley J; Halligan, Joel; O'Brien, Nicola; Purves, Richard; Stead, Martine; Stocken, Deborah; White, Martin

    2015-08-05

    Poor cooking skills may be a barrier to healthy eating and a contributor to overweight and obesity. Little population-representative data on adult cooking skills has been published. We explored prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills among adult respondents to wave 1 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-9). Socio-demographic variables of interest were sex, age group, occupational socio-economic group and whether or not respondents had the main responsibility for food in their households. Cooking skills were assessed as self-reported confidence in using eight cooking techniques, confidence in cooking ten foods, and ability to prepare four types of dish (convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredients, a main meal from basic ingredients, and cake or biscuits from basic ingredients). Frequency of preparation of main meals was also reported. Of 509 respondents, almost two-thirds reported cooking a main meal at least five times per week. Around 90 % reported being able to cook convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredient, and a main dish from basic ingredients without help. Socio-demographic differences in all markers of cooking skills were scattered and inconsistent. Where these were found, women and main food providers were most likely to report confidence with foods, techniques or dishes, and respondents in the youngest age (19-34 years) and lowest socio-economic group least likely. This is the only exploration of the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of adult cooking skills using recent and population-representative UK data and adds to the international literature on cooking skills in developed countries. Reported confidence with using most cooking techniques and preparing most foods was high. There were few socio-demographic differences in reported cooking skills. Adult cooking skills interventions are unlikely to have a large population impact, but may have important individual effects

  7. Does Confucianism allow for body donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao

    2018-01-16

    Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. [Organ donation after death in Moroccan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqalli, Imane; Knidiri, Hafssa; Mahoungou, Gael; Aitlahcen, Zineb; Fadili, Wafaa; Laouad, Inass

    2015-07-01

    Morocco stays far behind other countries in the domain of organ donation and transplantation. Improving the knowledge of Moroccan students, about organ donation and transplantation, can be a key factor in the development of transplant activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students concerning organ donation and transplantation. The opinion survey was conducted in Marrakech city, with four high education structures with a pre-established questionnaire. The survey questions answered four main themes, which are: the evaluation of knowledge, the opinion and attitude of citizen, the explanation of refusal and the propositions to encourage organ donation in Morocco. Hundred percent of surveyed subjects answered the questionnaire. Among them, 40.3% were men. The middle age was 21.5 years. Out of 503 surveyed students, 89.4% were aware of organ transplant in Morocco. A quarter of students believed that removal and transplant acts were realized just in public health establishments, which have the authorization. Two persons out of 3 were able to identify transplantable organs and tissues. More than half accepted to donate their organs after death. The religious reason was in the head list of refusal determinants of organ donation after death, with a prevalence of 39.7%. Young Moroccans have limited knowledge relating to organ donation. The development of this therapy needs to establish an adequate project of information and motivation of general population. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Variable effect of steam injection level on beef muscles: semitendinosus and biceps femoris cooked in convection-steam oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kącik, Sławomir; Palka, Krystyna; Widurek, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Combi ovens are used very often in restaurants to heat up food. According to the producers the equipment allows to cook meat portions which are more tender and flavoursome comparing to conventional cooking techniques. Beef steaks from muscles semitendinosus and biceps femoris were cooked in convection-steam oven at three humidity levels: 10, 60 and 100%. Chemical composition, including total and insoluble collagen content and cook losses were analysed along with the texture and colour parameters. M. biceps femoris was the hardest and the most chewy at 100% steam saturation level and hardness measured for m. semitendinosus was the lowest at 10% of vapour injection. Changing the steam conditions in the oven chamber did not affect the detectable colour differences of m. biceps femoris, but it was significant for m. semitendinosus. Applying 100% steam saturation caused higher cook losses and the increase of insoluble collagen fractions in both analysed muscles. The results are beneficial for caterers using steam-convection ovens in terms of providing evidence that the heating conditions should be applied individually depending on the muscle used. The tenderness of m. semitendinosus muscle cooked at 10% steam saturation level was comparable to the tenderness obtained for the same muscle aged for 10 days and cooked with 100% steam saturation. Steaks from m. biceps femoris muscle should be cooked with maximum 60% saturation level to obtain higher tenderness.

  10. Effect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Poelaert, Christine; Ernens, Marjorie; Liotta, Marisa; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Tyteca, Eva; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Bindelle, Jérôme; Francis, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Cooking on Speciation and In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Hg and As from Rice, Using Ordinary and Pressure Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Wang, Guang; Li, Kaiming; Zhao, Wenbo; Wu, Ye

    2018-05-03

    Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, and owing to environmental pollution, it is a major source of human exposure to mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As). We evaluated the impact of cooking on the speciation and bioaccessibility of Hg and As from rice in this study. Results show that the dominant Hg and As species in rice from Guangzhou market in China were their inorganic forms (iHg and iAs), respectively. The cooking process modified the levels of Hg and As. Average Hg and As bioaccessibility in raw rice was 69.74 and 80.32%, respectively. Hg bioaccessibility decreased to 46.22 and 42.37% for pressure- and ordinary-cooked rice, respectively. In contrast, As bioaccessibility remained unchanged except after cooking with a large amount of water. Protein denaturation and the amount of soluble and volatile forms determine the bioaccessibility of Hg and As in cooked rice by being released into the cooking water or into the air. From the bioaccessibility data, the average established daily intake (EDI) values of Hg and As from pressure-cooked rice for children and adults were 0.034 and 0.025 μg kg -1  day -1 (Hg), and 0.735 and 0.559 μg kg -1  day -1 (As), respectively. This study provides novel insights into Hg and As exposure due to rice cooking.

  12. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in biochemical components of non-traditional spaghetti during cooking were reflected in the quality of the cooked product. Spaghetti samples were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations including semolina 100%, whole wheat flour 100%, semolina-whole wheat flour (49:51), semol...

  14. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  15. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bockki; Lee, Seung Mi; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Inglett, George E; Lee, Suyong

    2010-10-01

    With rising consumer awareness of obesity, the food industry has a market-driven impetus to develop low-fat or fat-free foods with acceptable taste and texture. Fancy buckwheat flour was thus subjected to steam jet-cooking and the performance of the resulting product in cake-baking was evaluated as a fat replacer. Steam jet-cooking caused structural breakdown and starch gelatinization of buckwheat flour, thus increasing its water hydration properties. In the pasting measurements, steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited high initial viscosity, while no peak viscosity was observed. Also, the suspensions of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited shear-thinning behaviors, which were well characterized by the power law model. When shortening in cakes was replaced with steam jet-cooked buckwheat gels, the specific gravity of cake batters significantly increased, consequently affecting cake volume after baking. However, shortening replacement with steam jet-cooked buckwheat up to 20% by weight appeared to be effective in producing cakes as soft as the control without volume loss. When buckwheat flour was thermomechanically modified by steam jet-cooking, it was successfully incorporated into cake formulations for shortening up to 20% by weight, producing low-fat cakes with comparable volume and textural properties to the control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF COMMON BEAN FLOUR ON THE COOKING QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAGHETTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is a nutritionally unbalanced food, due to its low fat and fiber and low value of its protein. It is considered an adequate vehicle for food supplementation with minerals, proteins and other healthy components such as bioactive compounds present in common beans. The effect of composite pasta (wheat – common bean; 30 % w/w on the cooking quality (optimal cooking time, cooking loss, weight loss, firmness, color, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays and phenolic acid profile was investigated. According to the quality parameters, pasta added with bean flour was less hard with respect to the pasta made from durum wheat. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays were higher in the pasta with common bean flour than in the pasta control. Also, more phenolic acids were identified in cooked pasta containing common bean flour as analyzed by HPLC.

  18. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  19. Variations in Cooking time with Some physico-chemical properties of stored pea dry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H. S.

    2006-01-01

    Cooking time is one of the most important aspects of food quality. Correlation of cooking time with certain quality attributes of stored pea dry seeds were investigated to verify previous findings in faba bean concerning the relationship between cooking time and these characters. Moreover, the study aimed at finding out indices for selection of early cooking pea types. Accordingly, the time when 50% of pea dry seeds considered cooked was determined for six pea genotypes grown at shambat in the season 1999/2000. This parameter revealed significant variance and wide range of variability (84.33-115.33 min) indicating various degrees of seed hardness. Similarly, marked differences in 100-seed weight, test a, cotyledon, moisture, ash and potassium content were recorded due to genotypes. Cooking time showed significant positive correlations (r = 0.892,<0.0001 and r = 0.504, P< 0.0310) with seed weight and cotyledon percentage, respectively, and significant negative correlations (r = - 0.907, P< 0.0001 and r = - 0.505, P=0.0313) with ash and test a percentages, respectively. (Author)

  20. Methods for estimating heterocyclic amine concentrations in cooked meats in the US diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G A; Bogen, K T

    2001-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed in numerous cooked foods commonly consumed in the diet. A method was developed to estimate dietary HA levels using HA concentrations in experimentally cooked meats reported in the literature and meat consumption data obtained from a national dietary survey. Cooking variables (meat internal temperature and weight loss, surface temperature and time) were used to develop relationships for estimating total HA concentrations in six meat types. Concentrations of five individual HAs were estimated for specific meat type/cooking method combinations based on linear regression of total and individual HA values obtained from the literature. Using these relationships, total and individual HA concentrations were estimated for 21 meat type/cooking method combinations at four meat doneness levels. Reported consumption of the 21 meat type/cooking method combinations was obtained from a national dietary survey and the age-specific daily HA intake calculated using the estimated HA concentrations (ng/g) and reported meat intakes. Estimated mean daily total HA intakes for children (to age 15 years) and adults (30+ years) were 11 and 7.0 ng/kg/day, respectively, with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) estimated to comprise approximately 65% of each intake. Pan-fried meats were the largest source of HA in the diet and chicken the largest source of HAs among the different meat types.

  1. Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

  2. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-02-17

    Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand. The standard questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council was used to collect data on chronic respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, dyspnea, severe dyspnea, stuffy nose in the participating workers. Data on their health symptoms experienced in the past 30 days was also asked. A constructed questionnaire was used to collect exposure data, including type of job, time in the kitchen, the frequency of frying food, tears while cooking (TWC), the type of restaurant, fuel used for cooking, the size and location of the kitchen, and the exhaust system and ventilation. The prevalence of the symptoms was compared with those obtained from 395 controls, who were neighbors of the participants who do not work in a restaurant. In comparison to the control group, the restaurant workers had twice or more the prevalence on most of the chronic health symptoms. Men had a higher risk for "dyspnea", "stuffy nose" and "wheeze" while women had higher risk of "cough". A Rate Ratio (RR) of susceptibility was established, which ranged from 1.4 up to 9.9. The minimum RR was for women with "severe dyspnea" (RR of 1.4, 95%CI 0.8, 2.5) while the men showed the maximum RR of 9.9 (95%CI 4.5-22.0) for "wheeze". Possible risk factors identified were job description, job period, size of restaurant, kitchen location, type of cooking oil, hours of stay in the kitchen area, number of fry dishes prepared, frequency of occurrence of TWC, and additional cooking at

  3. Reduction of Fumonisin Toxicity by Extrusion and Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth; Ryu, Dojin; Jackson, Lauren; Riley, Ronald; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee

    2017-08-23

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn. They are toxic to animals and cause cancer in rodents and neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction products that are unknown or unextractable from food matrices, thus potentially underestimating in vivo toxicity. The effectiveness of two common cooking methods, extrusion and nixtamalization (alkaline cooking), to reduce the toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits (extrusion) and whole kernel corn (nixtamalization) was shown by means of rat feeding bioassays using fumonisin-specific kidney effects as indicators of potential toxicity. A third bioassay showed that in contrast to fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ), hydrolyzed fumonisin B 1 (HFB 1 ; formed from FB 1 during nixtamalization) did not cause neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. The findings indicate that extrusion and nixtamalization reduce the potential toxicity of FB 1 -contaminated corn.

  4. Class Cuisine: Food in the Foreign Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Gretchen S.

    1984-01-01

    Food can both interest students in a foreign culture and motivate them to broaden their interests. Cooking with students can take many forms. The students can cook in class if adequate preparations are made and permission is granted. Students can contribute toward the purchase of food for snacks and meals, and the cost can be kept to the price of…

  5. Thermal performance evaluation of a latent heat storage unit for late evening cooking in a solar cooker having three reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddhi, D.; Sharma, A. [Devi Ahilya University, Indore (India). School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Thermal Energy Storage Laboratory; Sharma, S.D. [Mie University, Tsu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a phase change material (PCM) storage unit for a solar cooker was designed and developed to store energy during sunshine hours. The stored energy was utilised to cook food in the late evening. Commercial grade acetanilide (melting point 118.9 {sup o}C, latent heat of fusion 222 kJ/kg) was used as a latent heat storage material. Evening cooking experiments were conducted with different loads and loading times during the winter season. The experimental results showed that late evening cooking is possible in a solar cooker having three reflectors to enhance the incident solar radiation with the PCM storage unit. (author)

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy ... Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - ...

  8. Donations After Circulatory Death in Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Emre A; Latchana, Nicholas; Beal, Eliza; Hayes, Don; Whitson, Bryan; Black, Sylvester M

    2016-10-01

    The supply of liver grafts for treatment of end-stage liver disease continues to fall short of ongoing demands. Currently, most liver transplants originate from donations after brain death. Enhanced utilization of the present resources is prudent to address the needs of the population. Donation after circulatory or cardiac death is a mechanism whereby the availability of organs can be expanded. Donations after circulatory death pose unique challenges given their exposure to warm ischemia. Technical principles of donations after circulatory death procurement and pertinent studies investigating patient outcomes, graft outcomes, and complications are highlighted in this review. We also review associated risk factors to suggest potential avenues to achieve improved outcomes and reduced complications. Future considerations and alternative techniques of organ preservation are discussed, which may suggest novel strategies to enhance preservation and donor expansion through the use of marginal donors. Ultimately, without effective measures to bolster organ supply, donations after circulatory death should remain a consideration; however, an understanding of inherent risks and limitations is necessary.

  9. Socioeconomic factors as predictors of organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay B; Vilchez, Valery; Goble, Adam; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan C; Gedaly, Roberto; DuBay, Derek A

    2018-01-01

    Despite numerous initiatives to increase solid organs for transplant, the gap between donors and recipients widens. There is little in the literature identifying socioeconomic predictors for donation. We evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic factors and familial authorization for donation. A retrospective analysis of adult potential donor referrals between 2007 and 2012 to our organ procurement organization (OPO) was performed. Potential donor information was obtained from the OPO database, death certificates, and the US Census Report. Data on demographics, education, residence, income, registry status, cause and manner of death, as well as OPO assessments and approach for donation were collected. End point was familial authorization for donation. A total of 1059 potential donors were included, with an overall authorization rate of 47%. The majority was not on the donor registry (73%). Younger donors (18-39 y: odds ratio [OR] = 4.9, P donation first mentioned by the local health care provider (OR = 1.8, P = 0.01) were also independently associated with higher authorization rates. Donor registration correlated most strongly with the highest authorization rates. These results indicate that public educational efforts in populations with unfavorable socioeconomic considerations may be beneficial in improving donor registration. Collaborations with local providers as well as OPO in-hospital assessments and approach techniques can help with improving authorization rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The blood donation experience: self-reported motives and obstacles for donating blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, B Nilsson; Sojka, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate motives for donating blood as well as difficulties and obstacles associated with blood donation as perceived by the donors themselves. Six hundred consecutive blood donors (i.e. all blood donors with a history of at least one previous whole blood donation attending, during nine working days, the Blood Centre of Umeå University Hospital) received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions aimed at elucidating motives for donating blood (general motives for donating blood, specific motives for the first donation and motives for continuing to be an active blood donor). Questions concerning difficulties and obstacles that had to be overcome in order to continue being a blood donor were also included in the questionnaire. Altogether 531 whole blood donors filled in the questionnaire (88.5%; 322 men and 209 women). No statistically significant differences were found between male and female blood donors concerning general reasons and motives related to donating blood. The most frequently reported reasons for giving blood the first time were 'influence from a friend' (47.2% of donors) and 'request via media' (23.5% of donors). Among general reasons/motives with highest ranking of importance, the most commonly reported motive for donating blood were 'general altruism' (40.3%), 'social responsibility/obligation' (19.7%) and 'influence from friends' (17.9%). General altruism' and 'social responsibility/obligation' were also the most frequent reasons for continuing to donate blood (68.4 and 16.0%, respectively). The most commonly reported obstacle to becoming a regular blood donor was 'laziness' (19.1%) followed by 'fear of needles' (10.5%). Altruism was the most common general motive for donating blood and also for continuing to be an active blood donor. Yet, for the first blood donation, direct 'influence from friends/relatives', 'media appeal' and other types of recruitment were more commonly reported as reasons or

  11. Fuelwood savings and carbon emission reductions by the use of improved cooking stoves in an Afromontane forest, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dresen, E.; DeVries, B.R.; Herold, M.; Verchot, L.; Müller, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many Sub-Saharan African countries, fuelwood collection is among the most important drivers of deforestation and particularly forest degradation. In a detailed field study in the Kafa region of southern Ethiopia, we assessed the potential of efficient cooking stoves to mitigate the negative impacts of fuelwood harvesting on forests. Eleven thousand improved cooking stoves (ICS), specifically designed for baking Ethiopia’s staple food injera , referred to locally as “ Mirt ” stoves, have be...

  12. Effects of cooking temperatures on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of chicken stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Bunch, Tucker; Shoemaker, Charles; Loss, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    As a base for sauces, soups, and cooking liquids for meats, grains, and vegetables, stocks can be integral to the overall quality of restaurant menu items, however, science-based studies on the effects of cooking methods on the physiochemical and sensory properties of stock are lacking. The effects of starting (22 °C, 85 °C, and 99 °C) and cooking temperatures (85 °C and 99 °C) of chicken stock on clarity, color, viscosity, protein content, amino acid content, mineral content, and overall liking were measured. Protein content and viscosity were significantly higher for stocks cooked at 99 °C, but no effect on amino acid content, color, or clarity was observed. Calcium concentration in stocks cooked at 99 °C was significantly (P cooked at 85 °C (16.6 and 17.5 mg/mL for stocks started at temperatures of 22 and 85 °C, respectively). Stocks prepared at 99 °C scored higher on overall liking compared to commercial samples and those cooked at 85 °C (P= 0.0101). These data can be used by culinary scientists and professionals to develop more efficient techniques in the kitchen, and by product developers to optimize the overall quality and acceptance of stock. This work documents the effects of preparation method on the physical and chemical properties, and consumer acceptance of chicken stock. This information can be used by product developers, culinary scientists, and professional chefs to optimize stock-based products. Culinary educators can use this information to provide students with objective evidence-based rationale for the techniques underlying a celebrated culinary tradition. This is also an example of how research can facilitate collaboration between culinary and food science professionals. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a

  14. Community Living Skills Guide: Additional Activities for Nutrition, Cooking, Homemaking, and Family Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    These activities are intended to supplement materials for three courses available in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series: Cooking/Food Preparation (CE 024 475), Homemaking and Family Living (CE 024 477), and Nutrition (CE 024 484). These courses for developmentally disabled adults are intended to supplement…

  15. Validity and reliability of a short questionnaire for assessing the impact of cooking skills interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Anderson, A S

    2011-12-01

    Food skills programmes are widely used as a means to improve confidence in food preparation, the use of basic food skills and food selections amongst low income communities. However, the impact of such interventions are rarely evaluated as a result of a lack of validated assessment tools appropriate for use within this target group. A two-page questionnaire utilising a closed-question format was designed based on key domains known to be influenced by cooking skills programmes. Content validity was assessed by a panel of public health experts and face validity by individuals, typical of those who may attend cooking skills classes. Internal and repeat reliability were assessed with groups of adults attending community-based classes. The feasibility of using the tool in community settings was also assessed. The draft questionnaire was amended as appropriate subsequent to content and face validity testing. Cronbach's alpha for confidence and knowledge sections was 0.86 and 0.84, respectively, indicating good internal consistency. Spearman correlation coefficients for repeat reliability testing between time 1 and time 2 for each item were in the range 0.46-0.91 (all significant at P cooking skills interventions that could be utilised in the development and evaluation of multicentre cooking skills interventions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. A bioassay approach for determining the effect of cooking on fumonisin toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisins are considered potential risk factors for cancer and congenital malformations known as neural tube defects (NTD) in populations that consume maize as a diet staple. Cooking variably reduces fumonisin concentrations. However, fumonisin concentrations and potential toxicity of foods might b...

  17. Cooking and the human commitment to a high-quality diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, R N; Wrangham, R W

    2009-01-01

    For our body size, humans exhibit higher energy use yet reduced structures for mastication and digestion of food compared to chimpanzees, our closest living relatives. This suite of features suggests that humans are adapted to a high-quality diet. Although increased consumption of meat during human evolution certainly contributed to dietary quality, meat-eating alone appears to be insufficient to support the evolution of these traits, because modern humans fare poorly on raw diets that include meat. Here, we suggest that cooking confers physical and chemical benefits to food that are consistent with observed human dietary adaptations. We review evidence showing that cooking facilitates mastication, increases digestibility, and otherwise improves the net energy value of plant and animal foods regularly consumed by humans. We also address the likelihood that cooking was adopted more than 250,000 years ago (kya), a period that we believe is sufficient in length for the proposed adaptations to have occurred. Additional experimental work is needed to help discriminate the relative contributions of cooking, meat eating, and other innovations such as nonthermal food processing in supporting the human transition toward dietary quality.

  18. COLLECTIVE CATERING AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL: RESULT OF SURVEYINGS AT COOKING CENTRES DURING YEAR 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Bertollo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article was made up statistics on food samples collected in 2010 at cooking centers and analyzed for the presence of pathogenic or non-patogenic microorganisms. The results shows that most of the samples respects the limits imposed by reg. 2073/2005, due to the good manufacturing practices and application of HACCP.

  19. COLLECTIVE CATERING AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL: RESULT OF SURVEYINGS AT COOKING CENTRES DURING YEAR 2010

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Bertollo; E. Dragoni; V. Giani; L. Gradassi; S. Pancioni

    2012-01-01

    In this article was made up statistics on food samples collected in 2010 at cooking centers and analyzed for the presence of pathogenic or non-patogenic microorganisms. The results shows that most of the samples respects the limits imposed by reg. 2073/2005, due to the good manufacturing practices and application of HACCP.

  20. Elimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in artificially contaminated eggs through correct cooking and frying procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Dagostim Savi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a serious foodborne disease associated with the presence of bacteria in eggs or foods containing raw eggs. However, the use of appropriate procedures of cooking and frying can eliminate this contamination. There are few studies on the elimination of contamination of Salmonella in hens' eggs through typical frying procedures, especially for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (or S. typhimurium. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate conditions for cooking and frying hens' eggs artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium, making them free of bacterial contamination. Hens' eggs were artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium and subjected to various processes of cooking, frying and food preparation. It was observed that the minimum time necessary to eliminate contamination through cooking procedures is 5 minutes after the water starts boiling, and also that, cooking in the microwave oven complete eliminates the bacterial contamination. When the eggs were fried on both sides, keeping the yolk hard, a complete bacterial elimination was observed. Mayonnaise prepared with vinegar presented a decrease in bacterial colonies when compared mayonese prepared with lemon.