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Sample records for cooked dry beans

  1. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  2. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  3. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  4. A Study on the Relationship between Cooking Properties of Adzuki Bean and Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Isao; Breene, William M.; 早川, 功

    1982-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) has been used for many cooking purposes in Japan. The basic method for adzuki bean cooking is heating in the presence of moisture, it seems that the differences of moisture content between the beans before cooking and between cooking methods have influence on the qualities of cooking products. But there is a general complaint about the poor cooking properties of these beans. Since the cooking properties depend, both on the moisture contents of bean before coo...

  5. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  6. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... This work determined the optimum conditions of cooking and drying processes. ... Key words: Forest galeries, Pentadesma butyraceae, cosmetic industry, ..... butyracea kernels can lead to the production of butter of.

  7. [Effects of traditional cooking on antinutritional factors of the black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, A R; Calzada, C; Cooke, R

    1991-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors, alfa amylase inhibitors and hemagglutinins were determined in black beans (P. vulgaris) produced in Costa Rica. The effect of the traditional cooking on such antinutritional factors was also studied. The antinutritional factors were analyzed spectrophotometrically in the raw beans, as well as after several cooking periods of time. The results showed that alfa-amylase inhibitors were the most thermoresistant. After 30 min of cooking time there was a 33% of activity left from the initial activity of the raw beans. Approximately 80% of the antitryptic activity was destroyed at 9 min of cooking time. After 10 min of cooking time, only 1% of hemagglutinin activity was present.

  8. Extrusion-cooking to improve the animal feed quality of broad beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicki, L.; Wojcik, S.; Plaur, K.; Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extrusion-cooking of broad beans with a single-screw extruder has been investigated. Attention was focused on process requirements as well as on the nutritional effects of extrusion-cooked broad beans in a chicken feed formulation. The optimal thermal process conditions required for a product of

  9. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  10. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  11. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  12. Effect of cooking on14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cooking on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos in stored vicia faba beans was studied. The results indicated that over 50% of the dose originally present inside the grains (37 ppm), could be recovered in the aqueous extract of the cooked grains. Considerable portion of radioactivity (About 22%) was associated with the grains in a non-extractable from. Residues in cooked beans included, in addition to a small amount of the parent insecticide, desmethyl tetrachlorvinphos, mono methyl phosphate and dimethyl phosphate. The results obtained indicate that tetrachlorvinphos residues are not appreciably affected by cooking. 1 tab

  13. Cooking processes increase bioactive compounds in organic and conventional green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Costa, Sergio Marques; Monaco, Kamila de Almeida; Uliana, Maira Rodrigues; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Correa, Camila Renata; Vianello, Fabio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Minatel, Igor Otavio

    2017-12-01

    The influence of cooking methods on chlorophyl, carotenoids, polyamines, polyphenols contents and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in organic and conventional green beans. The initial raw material had a higher content of chlorophyl and total phenolics in conventional green beans, whereas organic cultive favored flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Polyamines and carotenoids were similar for the two crop systems. After the cooking process, carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) increased. Microwave heating favored the enhancement of some polar compounds, whereas pressure cooking favored carotenoids. When we used the estimation of the radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, a reduction of the DPPH radical signal in the presence of green bean extracts was observed, regardless of the mode of cultivation. The highest reduction of the ESR signal ocurred for microwave cooking in organic and conventional green beans, indicating a higher availability of antioxidants with this type of heat treatment.

  14. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  15. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  16. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  17. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  18. Mechanistic insight into softening of Canadian wonder common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigwedere, Claire Maria; Olaoye, Taye Foyeke; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Pallares Pallares, Andrea; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-04-01

    The relative contributions of cotyledons and seed coats towards hardening of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated and the rate-limiting process which controls bean softening during cooking was determined. Fresh or aged whole beans and cotyledons were soaked and cooked in demineralised water or 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution, and texture evolution, microstructure changes and thermal properties were studied. Fresh and aged whole beans cooked in demineralised water had significantly different softening rate constants and so did fresh and aged cotyledons. The comparable softening rate constants of aged whole beans and cotyledons indicated an insignificant role of the seed coat in hardening during storage. All samples cooked faster in 0.1 M NaHCO 3 solution. Disintegration of cooked tissues followed by microscopic examination revealed a transition from cell breakage through a phase of cell breakage and separation to complete cell separation with increased cooking time wherefore texture decayed. Therefore, progressive solubilization of pectin in the middle lamella greatly promoted texture decay. While residual birefringence even after substantial cooking time suggested some molecular order of the starch, calorimetric analyses revealed complete starch gelatinisation before complete cell separation occurred. This implies an insignificant role of starch in texture decay during cooking but its hindered uncoiling into a viscous gel after gelatinisation due to the restricting cell wall could promote its retrogradation. Therefore, we suggest that the rate-determining process in bean softening relates to cell wall/middle lamella changes influencing pectin solubilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations in Cooking time with Some physico-chemical properties of stored pea dry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H. S.

    2006-01-01

    Cooking time is one of the most important aspects of food quality. Correlation of cooking time with certain quality attributes of stored pea dry seeds were investigated to verify previous findings in faba bean concerning the relationship between cooking time and these characters. Moreover, the study aimed at finding out indices for selection of early cooking pea types. Accordingly, the time when 50% of pea dry seeds considered cooked was determined for six pea genotypes grown at shambat in the season 1999/2000. This parameter revealed significant variance and wide range of variability (84.33-115.33 min) indicating various degrees of seed hardness. Similarly, marked differences in 100-seed weight, test a, cotyledon, moisture, ash and potassium content were recorded due to genotypes. Cooking time showed significant positive correlations (r = 0.892,<0.0001 and r = 0.504, P< 0.0310) with seed weight and cotyledon percentage, respectively, and significant negative correlations (r = - 0.907, P< 0.0001 and r = - 0.505, P=0.0313) with ash and test a percentages, respectively. (Author)

  20. THE EFFECT OF REPLACING SOYA BEAN MEAL WITH COOKED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... performance, carcass characteristics and blood indices of finisher broilers. Mucuna sloanei seeds were ... that is rich in protein and used for both human and ... The over dependence on soya bean as major protein source for ...

  1. Effects of graded levels of dehulled and cooked caster oil bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anak strain) were used in an experiment to investigate the effects of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal supplemented with L-lysine on growth performance and certain blood parameters of broiler finishers. The birds ...

  2. Dynamic predictive model for growth of Bacillus cereus from spores in cooked beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic growth data of Bacillus cereus from spores in cooked beans at several isothermal conditions (between 10 to 49C) were collected. Samples were inoculated with approximately 2 log CFU/g of heat-shocked (80C/10 min) spores and stored at isothermal temperatures. B. cereus populations were deter...

  3. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF COMMON BEAN FLOUR ON THE COOKING QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAGHETTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasta is a nutritionally unbalanced food, due to its low fat and fiber and low value of its protein. It is considered an adequate vehicle for food supplementation with minerals, proteins and other healthy components such as bioactive compounds present in common beans. The effect of composite pasta (wheat – common bean; 30 % w/w on the cooking quality (optimal cooking time, cooking loss, weight loss, firmness, color, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays and phenolic acid profile was investigated. According to the quality parameters, pasta added with bean flour was less hard with respect to the pasta made from durum wheat. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays were higher in the pasta with common bean flour than in the pasta control. Also, more phenolic acids were identified in cooked pasta containing common bean flour as analyzed by HPLC.

  4. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  5. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  6. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  7. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the United States as being... area to the extent feasible. We may obtain prices from any buyer of our choice. If we obtain prices... additional costs required to deliver the dry beans to those buyers. Discounts used to establish the net price...

  8. Performance of Northwest Washington Heirloom Dry Bean Varieties in Organic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Miles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This two-year study compared nine northwest Washington dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. heirloom (H varieties with 11 standard (S commercial varieties in matching market classes using organic, non-irrigated production practices. Heirloom and standard varieties differed in days to harvest (DTH (110 DTH and 113 DTH, respectively, while both days to harvest (113 DTH and 110 DTH and yield (2268 kg∙ha−1 and 1625 kg∙ha−1 were greater in 2013 than in 2014. Varieties with the shortest DTH both years were “Bale” (H, “Coco” (H, “Decker” (H, “Ireland Creek Annie” (H and S, “Kring” (H and “Rockwell” (H. Varieties that had the highest yield both years were “Eclipse” (S, “Lariat” (S and “Youngquist Brown” (H. Only “Eclipse” (S had the shortest cooking time both years, while “Rockwell” (H, “Silver Cloud” (S and “Soldier” (S had short cooking times in 2013, and “Orca” (S and “Youngquist Brown” (H had short cooking time in 2014. Varieties with the highest protein content both years were “Calypso” (S, “Coco” (S and “Silver Cloud” (S. Further research should investigate yield of early maturing standard varieties, with a focus on color-patterned beans that are attractive for local markets.

  9. Cooked navy and black bean diets improve biomarkers of colon health and reduce inflammation during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Claire; Monk, Jennifer M; Lu, Jenifer T; Zarepoor, Leila; Wu, Wendy; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay; Tsao, Rong; Power, Krista A

    2014-05-01

    Common beans contain non-digestible fermentable components (SCFA precursors) and phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins) with demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vivo effect of cooked whole-bean flours, with differing phenolic compound levels and profiles, in a mouse model of acute colitis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a 20 % navy bean or black bean flour-containing diet or an isoenergetic basal diet (BD) for 2 weeks before the induction of experimental colitis via 7 d dextran sodium sulphate (DSS, 2 % (w/v) in the drinking-water) exposure. Compared with the BD, both bean diets increased caecal SCFA and faecal phenolic compound concentrations (Pdiets reduced mRNA expression of colonic inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-9, IFN-γ and IL-17A) and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 (Pdiets enhanced DSS-induced colonic damage as indicated by an increased histological injury score and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and FasL mRNA expression) (Pdiets exerted both beneficial and adverse effects during experimental colitis by reducing inflammatory biomarkers both locally and systemically while aggravating colonic mucosal damage. Further research is required to understand the mechanisms through which beans exert their effects on colonic inflammation and the impact on colitis severity in human subjects.

  10. Antioxidant activity of raw, cooked and Rhizopus oligosporus fermented beans of Canavalia of coastal sand dunes of Southwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveditha, Vedavyas R; Sridhar, Kandikere R

    2014-11-01

    The raw and processed (cooked and cooked + solid-state fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus) split beans of two landraces of coastal sand dune wild legumes (Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima) of the southwest coast of India were examined for bioactive compounds (total phenolics, tannins and vitamin C) and antioxidant potential (total antioxidant activity, ferrous-ion chelating capacity, DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and reducing activity). One-way ANOVA revealed significant elevation of bioactive compounds as well as antioxidant activities in fermented beans compared to raw and cooked beans in both legumes (p beans of both legumes were significantly lowest compared to raw and cooked beans (p beans of C. cathartica, while total antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of fermented beans of C. maritima were clustered. The present study demonstrated that split beans of coastal sand dune Canavalia fermented by R. oligosporus endowed with high bioactive principles as well as antioxidant potential and thus serve as future nutraceutical source.

  11. Quality evaluation of tortilla chips made with corn meal dough and cooked bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Ochoa-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of cornmeal dough and cooked bean flour (BF was prepared at different ratios (50/50, 60/40, and 70/30 w/w, and processed to chips. Viscosity profile, temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy, texture, protein content, and in vitro digestibility were measured. Pasting temperature tended to be lower when the flour bean concentration was lower. Maximum viscosity increased significantly in both samples (dough mixture and chips when the BF concentration was lower. In general, gelatinization temperature remains constant, while the heating enthalpy was higher with lower BF concentration. The addition of BF was correlated with greater crispiness, suggesting improved chip texture at higher BF concentrations. The final protein content in the corn-bean chips was very similar, despite the concentration of BF used. Protein digestibility in the chips was affected by the proportion of BF added, being higher when the amount of the BF was lower.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  13. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF COCOA BEANS DURING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. HII

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were conducted using air-ventilated oven and sun dryer to simulate the artificial and natural drying processes of cocoa beans. The drying data were fitted with several published thin layer drying models. A new model was introduced which is a combination of the Page and two-term drying model. Selection of the best model was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the experimental and predicted values. The results showed that the new model was found best described the artificial and natural drying kinetics of cocoa under the conditions tested.

  14. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  15. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (palcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic Predictive Model for Growth of Bacillus cereus from Spores in Cooked Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Mishra, Abhinav; Pradhan, Abani K

    2018-02-01

    Kinetic growth data for Bacillus cereus grown from spores were collected in cooked beans under several isothermal conditions (10 to 49°C). Samples were inoculated with approximately 2 log CFU/g heat-shocked (80°C for 10 min) spores and stored at isothermal temperatures. B. cereus populations were determined at appropriate intervals by plating on mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin agar and incubating at 30°C for 24 h. Data were fitted into Baranyi, Huang, modified Gompertz, and three-phase linear primary growth models. All four models were fitted to the experimental growth data collected at 13 to 46°C. Performances of these models were evaluated based on accuracy and bias factors, the coefficient of determination ( R 2 ), and the root mean square error. Based on these criteria, the Baranyi model best described the growth data, followed by the Huang, modified Gompertz, and three-phase linear models. The maximum growth rates of each primary model were fitted as a function of temperature using the modified Ratkowsky model. The high R 2 values (0.95 to 0.98) indicate that the modified Ratkowsky model can be used to describe the effect of temperature on the growth rates for all four primary models. The acceptable prediction zone (APZ) approach also was used for validation of the model with observed data collected during single and two-step dynamic cooling temperature protocols. When the predictions using the Baranyi model were compared with the observed data using the APZ analysis, all 24 observations for the exponential single rate cooling were within the APZ, which was set between -0.5 and 1 log CFU/g; 26 of 28 predictions for the two-step cooling profiles also were within the APZ limits. The developed dynamic model can be used to predict potential B. cereus growth from spores in beans under various temperature conditions or during extended chilling of cooked beans.

  17. Influence of insecticidal plant materials used during storage on sensory attributes and instrumental hardness of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, F V; Serugendo, A; Breene, W M; Sriharan, S

    1995-07-01

    Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation and/or cooking on nutritional quality of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Asha Mohamed Ali; Babiker, Elfadil E.; Hassan, Amro B.; Osman, Gammaa A.M.; Mohammed, Nagat; Diab, Eiman E.; Rushdi, Mohamed A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 1.0 kGy) and/or cooking on the proximate composition, mineral content, tannin content, phytic acid content and the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of two Sudanese faba bean cultivars (BB7-S1 and SH-S2) was investigated in the present study. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation and/or cooking treatments have slight effect in chemical composition and mineral content, while they caused significant (P≤0.05) reduction on tannin content for both cultivars. Cooking of faba bean seeds also insignificantly (P≤0.05) reduced phytic acid content for both cultivars, while irradiation process and/or cooking had fluctuated effect. For both cultivars, irradiation of seeds and/or cooking increased the invitro protein digestibility (IVPD), with maximum value of IVPD (79.97%) obtained for cultivar BB7-S1. The results indicate that the treatments used in this study might improve the nutritive quality of faba bean seed due to reduction in anti-nutritional factors with a concomitant increase in IVPD.(author)

  19. Physical and cooking characteristics of some Indian kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ahmed Wani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulses are an essential component of our diet especially in developing world, information on their physical properties is needed for designing the machines, while cooking quality is important for consumer acceptance. Four kidney bean cultivars were evaluated for their composition, physical, cooking and textural properties. Protein, ash and carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 in the range of 22.3–26.7%, 3.5–3.8% and 62.1–65.9%, respectively. Physical properties determined at 10.0% moisture revealed that the length, breadth, thickness and equivalent diameter of seeds varied significantly in the range of 11.45–16.45 mm, 6.65–7.00 mm, 4.70–6.13 mm and 7.31–9.24 mm, respectively. Bulk density varied from 0.78 to 0.81 g/mL and angle of repose from 15.20° to 18.67°. Hydration capacity and swelling capacity of the seeds varied significantly in the range of 0.12–0.42 g/seed and 0.09–0.28 mL/seed, respectively. Cooking time of unsoaked seeds differed significantly from 68.67 to 86.67 min. Soaking of seeds reduced cooking time by 15.33–30.67 min.

  20. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  1. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  2. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  4. A modified laboratory canning protocol for quality evaluation of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Parthiba; Slinkard, Alfred; Tyler, Robert; Vandenberg, Albert

    2000-05-01

    The effects of calcium (Ca 2+ ) level in the soak water, blanch water and brine, blanching temperature, and total seed solids on dry bean canning quality were investigated to optimise a laboratory canning protocol. A linear increase in the Ca 2+ level of soak water, blanch water and brine resulted in a linear decrease in hydration coefficient and percent washed drained weight but a linear increase in texture. Low Ca 2+ level (10 mg kg -1 ) reduced the hydration time for dry bean seed from 14 to 1 h. Blanching temperatures of 50, 70 and 88 °C had non-significant effects on canning quality traits. Blanching for 30 min at 70 °C for black bean or at 88 °C for navy bean and pinto bean resulted in percent washed drained weight ≥ 60, as required by the Canada Agricultural Products Standards Act. Seed solids levels of 95-97 g per 300 × 407 (14 fl oz) can were sufficient to attain a percent washed drained weight of 60. It was confirmed that the thermal processing conditions (115.6 °C retort temperature, 45 min) used in this study were sufficient to achieve commercial sterility. The optimised lab protocol for evaluation of the canning quality of dry bean breeding lines is as follows. Seed containing 95 g of solids for pinto bean, 96 g for navy bean and 97 g for black bean is soaked in water for 30 min at 20 °C and blanched for 30 min at 70 °C for black bean and 88 °C for navy bean and pinto bean in water containing 10 mg kg -1 of Ca 2+ . The seed is then transferred to a 300 × 407 can, filled with brine containing 10 mg kg -1 of Ca 2+ , 1.3% (w/v) of NaCl and 1.6% (w/v) of sugar. The can is then sealed, processed in steam at 115.6 °C for 45 min and cooled at 20 °C for 20 min. Cans are stored for at least 2 weeks prior to quality evaluation of the canned product. Canning of dry bean seed according to this protocol results in precise estimation of canning quality traits, particularly percent

  5. Genetic Variability of Macrophomina phaseolina Isolates from Dry Beans in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Yeşil; Kubilay Kurtuluş Baştaş

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal rot is a soil and seed borne, economically important fungal disease on dry bean in Turkey. Twenty bean isolates of M. phaseolina collected from different locations in Turkey during 2008 and 2012 years were studied for genetic variability using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay, chlorate sensitivity on medium supplemented with 120mM of potassium, phenotype of colony, and pathogenicity. Isolates were identified as M. phaseolina based on morhological features and PCR assays ...

  6. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  7. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) causes bacterial brown spot (BBS) of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with yield losses of up to 55% in South Africa. Pss has a wide host range and for many of these, the pathogen has been biochemically and genetically characterised. However, few studies have been conducted on ...

  8. Foodborne botulinum type E intoxication associated with dried bean curd: first case report in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lung-Shiang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Lin, Chin-Hsien

    2011-06-01

    Botulism type E intoxication is a rare condition among human botulism. We aim to describe a first case of botulism type E intoxication in Taiwan. We report a 36-year-old young man with foodborne botulism type E associated with commercially vacuum packaged dried bean curd. He developed bilateral ptosis, diplopia and dysphagia 4 days after taking the dried bean curd. Electrophysiologic findings demonstrated waxing responses to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and decreased compound muscle action potentials on peripheral nerve conduction study. A bioassay for botulism in mice demonstrated that the patient had botulism caused by type E botulinum toxin. Antibodeis to C. botulinum type E were identified from his serum, confirming the diagnosis. This is the first known case of foodborne type E botulism in Taiwan. The potential source of this foodborne botulism should consider contaminated food made of soy beans.

  9. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  10. Shape and size of jatropha beans (Jatropha curcas L. during drying at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Cambuy Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the physical properties of the jatropha beans over the drying under six air conditions, based on measurements of roundness, sphericity, volume, superficial area, projected area and surface/volume ratio. Jatropha beans with moisture content around 0.61 (decimal d.b. were subjected to thin-layer drying in oven with forced-air circulation under six temperature conditions (36, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 °C and relative humidity of 31.7; 19.6; 9.4; 4.8; 2.6 and 1.5% respectively, until reaching the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d. b.. The results showed that the necessary time for jatropha beans to reach the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d.b. were 1.5; 2.25; 3.0; 4.75; 6.75 and 12.0 h for the drying temperatures of 105, 90, 75, 60, 45 and 36 °C, respectively; and the reduction in the moisture content as well as the drying conditions promoted changes in the shape and reduced the size of the jatropha beans.

  11. Preservation of Yangzhou flavor of dried bean cured products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yunsheng; Lu Maolin; Dong Jie; Guo Dongfen; Chen Xiulan; Cao Hong

    2008-01-01

    White dried tofu as raw materials of Yangzhou dishes bean curd shreds, its shelf life was shorter for the traditional craft-making. This paper through improved its production technology and products for vacuum packaging with radiation durability, the shelf life at 4 degree C for 3 months was achieved. This technology may also apply to other related products. (authors)

  12. “Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: A food-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: A food-based dietary guideline. ... Legumes are rich and economical sources of good-quality protein, slow-release carbohydrates, dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides), various vitamins and minerals and non-nutritive components which may have several beneficial ...

  13. Biogenic amine profile in unripe Arabica coffee beans processed according to dry and wet methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo C; Pereira, Rosemary G F A; Borém, Flávio M; Mendes, Eulália; de Lima, Renato R; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana

    2012-04-25

    Immature coffee fruit processing contributes to a high amount of defective beans, which determines a significant amount of low-quality coffee sold in the Brazilian internal market. Unripe bean processing was tested, taking the levels of bioactive amines as criteria for evaluating the extent of fermentation and establishing the differences between processing methods. The beans were processed by the dry method after being mechanically depulped immediately after harvest or after a 12 h resting period in a dry pile or immersed in water. Seven bioactive amines were quantified: putrescine, spermine, spermidine, serotonin, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine, with global amounts ranging from 71.8 to 80.3 mg/kg. The levels of spermine and spermidine were lower in the unripe depulped coffee than in the natural coffee. The specific conditions of dry and wet processing also influenced cadaverine levels, and histamine was reduced in unripe depulped coffee. A resting period of 12 h does not induce significant alteration on the beans and can be improved if performed in water. These results confirm that peeling immature coffee can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality.

  14. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  15. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  16. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P cooking, and fibril shrinkage was noticeable in OC meat (P cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Influence of cooling rate on growth of Bacillus cereus from spore inocula in cooked rice, beans, pasta, and combination products containing meat or poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of B. cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice/chicken (4:1), rice/chicken/vegetables (3:1:1), rice/beef (4:1), and rice/beef/vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculate...

  18. Dry heat and radiation combination effects on Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Meier, H.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of heat and radiation combination treatments on the control of microbial spoilage of cocoa beans caused by toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link. The heat and radiation sources were from dry air oven heat and 60 Co gammacell 220 irradiator, respectively. The radiation doses used were either 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 krad, with combined heat temperatures of 30, 60 or 90 0 C. At each temperature level three different exposure time intervals of either 15 min, 30 min or 60 min respectively, were used. Two reversible sequential heat/radiation combination effects were evaluated. The first sequence involved cocoa beans inoculated with A. flavus spores exposed first to dry heat at pre-determined temperature heat exposure time, followed by radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a constant humidity environmental chamber set at 80% for daily observation up to forty days post-treatment. The second sequence involved exposure of the inoculated beans first to radiation, then to heat before retention under fixed RH for observation. From their results, the authors arrive at four conclusions: first, that there is a critical radiation/heat combination range (200, 150 and 100 krad/90 0 C for 15 min) that significantly decontaminates (less than 5% mouldiness) A. flavus infected cocoa beans even under high relative humidity (80% RH) environment; second, that a temperature level of 90 0 C combined with 200, 150 or 100 krad maximizes such effect but the heat exposure time is a major factor; third, that low heat temperature ranges of 30 or 60 0 C, combined with low radiation dosages of 150 krad or below, enhance the rate of A. flavus spoilage effects of cocoa beans; and, lastly, that the sequence of exposure of the inoculated cocoa beans to heat/radiation combination influenced the spore germination; exposure to heat before radiation would sensitize the spores (200 krad/90 0 C) but results in an increased radioresistance. (author)

  19. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.; Costa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M 2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 20 0 C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  20. Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin CHEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.

  1. The Effect of Inclusion Rate of Cooked and Sun-dried Fish Offal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding cooked and sun-dried fish offal meal (fishmeal) on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of RIR chicks were assessed at Wolayta Soddo, southern Ethiopia. Unsexed day-old RIR chicks (300) were brooded uniformly for 14 days and then vaccinated against Gumboro and Newcastle ...

  2. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas for chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with day-old broiler type chicks to study the effect of a cobalt-60 source of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas was also studied. Total protein (N x 6.25) was not changed appreciably by gamma irradiation (21 Mrad cobalt-60) and autoclaving but solubility in water was decreased. In vitro enzymic digestibility of irradiated bean protein was increased by pepsin alone and with a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiated treatment of beans increased nitrogen retention by chicks and decreased uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake

  4. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  5. Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Vindas, Allan Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m 2 . The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney

  6. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  7. Growth and subsequent egg production performance of shika-brown pullets fed graded levels of cooked Lablab purpureus beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeke, F O; Ogundipe, S O; Sekoni, A A; Dafwvang, I I; Adeyinka, I A; Oni, O O; Abeke, A

    2007-04-01

    The lablab seeds were cooked for 30 min, sundried for three days and thereafter milled and incorporated into chickens' diets. Six treatments, comprising of six dietary levels of lablab at 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, 30.0 and 37.5%, respectively was fed during the grower's phase. Results obtained for the growers phase indicate that final weight (g/bird), weight gain (g/bird) and feed cost (N kg(-1)) decreased significantly (p cooked lablab beans to pullets. Results obtained during the laying phase indicates that feeding lablab seed meal up to 22.5% in the diets at the growers stage had no significant adverse effect (p egg production, percent production at peak, kilogramme feed per twelve eggs, feed cost per twelve eggs, Haugh Unit and yolk index. However, age of birds at first egg, age at 50% production and age at peak egg production were increased significantly (p > 0.05) with increase in the level of lablab seed meal in the growers diets.

  8. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nganhou, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, B P 8390, ENSP Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2004-07-01

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model. (orig.)

  9. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  10. Use of the solar and eolic energy in the drying of bean seed at rural level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grajales Avila, W.; Racines Sanchez, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The drying is a camera through which is made pass air heated in a solar collector, by means of a rotational fan impelled by the wind. The dryer is wooden and the zinc consists of five levels where the trays are deposited that contain the product. In the end of the chimney placed above the drying camera this the fan that is a rotor of corrugate fins; when rotating under the action of the wind it extracts air of the ventilation chimney; in the periods that the wind doesn't blow the drying it happens for natural convention. In the collector the badge absorbent is zinc colored corrugate of black; the mark is wooden, isolated in its inferior part with icopor and the cover a sheet of plastic. To evaluate the dryer they were carried out four drying rehearsals with seed of bean variety Calima. One observes that the bean drying with this dryer type is feasible even with cloudy or partially cloudy sky. The drying was satisfactory with the two loads of 200 and 400 kg. With the flow of air through the trays and for the load of 210 kg with flow around them; being the drying uniform for this it finishes. The quality of the seeds was not affected in the drying coke superior temperatures they were presented to 43-centigrade degrees. The dryer can adapt to individual necessities and conditions you specify of operation. It is recommended to carry out rehearsals for other agricultural products that allow knowing the capacity and functionality from the dryer to property level

  11. Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Djédjé Dano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg, fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg, drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg, and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg. No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed.

  12. Industrial processing of canned beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Schoeninger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Beans are popular as a protein-filled legume of high nutritional value, being one of the most planted species in the world. However, recent years have seen a decrease in the consumption of beans, owing to the time necessary to cook it domestically. Thus, it is being replaced in people’s diets by other foods. An alternative preparation that supplies modern consumers’ demands is industrially processed beans. This article aimed to provide a literature review on the processing of canned beans. Few recent studies have been performed in Brazil on this subject, as most studies have focused instead on the technological quality of dry bean grains processing. In this article industrial processing concepts and features, production unit operations, and canned beans quality standards will be discussed. These efforts are expected to contribute to the Brazilian beans production chain, and consequently to increase consumption of canned beans and the demand for industrial processing of beans in both the domestic market and future product exports.

  13. Genetic Variability of Macrophomina phaseolina Isolates from Dry Beans in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Yeşil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal rot is a soil and seed borne, economically important fungal disease on dry bean in Turkey. Twenty bean isolates of M. phaseolina collected from different locations in Turkey during 2008 and 2012 years were studied for genetic variability using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay, chlorate sensitivity on medium supplemented with 120mM of potassium, phenotype of colony, and pathogenicity. Isolates were identified as M. phaseolina based on morhological features and PCR assays using species-specific primers (MPKF1and MPKR1. Isolates of M. phaseolina were analysed for their aggressiveness on the susceptible bean cv. Akman 98, by soil inoculation method. Isolates exhibiting a dense chlorate phenotype were chlorate-resistant, while those possessing feathery and restricted chlorate phenotypes were chlorate-sensitive. More than half of the isolates (55% were resistant to chlorate and produced dense phenotype, while 35% isolates showed feathery and two isolates (10% showed restricted growth. DNA from 20 isolates was subjected to genetic diversity analysis by the RAPD method using 14 randomly chosen 10-base random primers, and low genetic diversity (33.3% was observed among the tested isolates.

  14. Effects of banana peel-ash-extract on cooking time and acceptability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana peel ash-extract, widely used in indigenous processing of dry beans, was evaluated for chemical composition and potential in reducing cooking time of beans with HTC defect. The peel ash-extract was found to contain substantial amounts of sodium (0.36 g/ml), chloride (0.07 g/ml) and magnesium (0.04g/ml) ions.

  15. Effect of domestic cooking on the starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices, polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedum, E; Sanni, S; Theressa, N; Ebere, A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of processing on starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices (pGI), polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana) was studied. Total starch ranged from 4.3 to 68.3g/100g, digestible starch ranged from 4.3 to 59.2 to 65.7g/100g for the raw and processed legumes; Resistance starch was not detected in most of the legumes except in fried breadfruit and the starches in both the raw and processed breadfruit were more rapidly digested than those from raw and cooked beans. Raw and processed breadfruit had higher hydrolysis curves than raw and processed beans with the amylolysis level in raw breadfruit close to that of white bread. Raw beans had a low glycemic index (GI); boiled beans and breadfruit had intermediate glycemic indices respectively while raw and fried breadfruit had high glycemic indices. Aqueous extracts of the food samples had weak α-amylase inhibition compared to acarbose. The raw and processed legumes contained considerable amounts of dietary phenols and flavonoids. The significant correlation (r=0.626) between α-amylase inhibitory actions of the legumes versus their total phenolic contents suggests the contribution of the phenolic compounds in these legumes to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  17. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  18. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties

  19. The use of ionising radiation from 60CO gamma source in controlling mouldiness in dried cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Mouldiness in stored cocoa beans in Ghana and the production of aflatoxin have been studied. Based on actual weight of discarded beans, mouldy beans have been estimated to constitute 0.13 % and 0.00002 % of marketable beans at the farmers' level and the buying agents' depots respectively in the Tafo District. This is contrasted with an estimated value of 0.16 % obtained in a questionnaire type study involving farmers. Estimated mouldy beans at the Tema port was 0.69 % per year (based on the cut test) representing a financial loss of $1,688,637.19 per year at $989/T should the mouldy beans be discarded. Fifty-eight (58) internally- and externally- borne fungal species were isolated from dried cocoa beans. Of these, forty-eight (48) were internally- borne and ten (10) were superficial. Twenty-nine (29) of the internally occurring fungi have been recorded for the first time on cocoa beans in Ghana. Twenty-six (26) of the fungi isolated belong to Aspergillus group. They included A. parasiticus and A. flavus, which can produce aflatoxins. Five (5) belong to Penicillium, eight (8) to Fusarium and nineteen (19) to other species. Ionising radiation effectively controlled fungi associated with mouldiness in cocoa beans in a dose - dependent manner. A radiation dose of 6 kGy completely inactivated the moulds. A. flavus and A. tamarii were the most radiation - resistant moulds encountered. The moisture content of the beans before, during and after irradiation influenced the effect of radiation. The relative humidity during storage and the type of packaging also influenced the radiation effect. Conidia of A. flavus subjected to moist heat at temperatures 20 0 C to 60 0 C for 2.5, 5 and 10 min respectively were not significantly affected by heating up to 50 0 C. Heating an aqueous conidial suspension at 60 0 C for at least 2.5 min reduced the number of fungal colonies by at least 5 log cycles when the suspension was assayed on agar plate media. Heating at 59 0 C for 10 min

  20. Phenotypic diversity for seed mineral concentration in North American dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm of Middle American ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a major protein, carbohydrate, and mineral source for human diets in multiple regions of the world. Seed mineral biofortification is an going objective to improve this important food source. The objective of this research was to assess the seed mineral co...

  1. Cassava varietal screening for cooking quality: relationship between dry matter, starch content, mealiness and certain microscopic observations of the raw and cooked tuber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.; Owusu-Nipah, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    Full Text Available Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p’-DDE to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p’-DDT were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p’-DDT. The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Keywords: Pesticides, Organochlorine, Cocoa beans, Ondo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  3. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked non-waxy long-grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlao, Natthawuddhi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    Wet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e. hot-air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated. Cooked rice obtained from hot-air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun-drying. Among samples from hot-air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature, except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot-air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI. The results indicated that cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Propriedades físicas e químicas de feijão comum preto, cultivar Iapar 44, após envelhecimento acelerado Physical and chemical properties of aged dry black common beans, Iapar 44 cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horaci Jaqueline Silva de Souza Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Feijão armazenado por período longo em temperatura e umidade relativa elevadas torna-se endurecido e resistente ao cozimento devido ao desenvolvimento do defeito "difícil de cozinhar". Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar algumas propriedades físicas e químicas de feijão comum preto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Iapar 44, envelhecido. O envelhecimento do feijão foi acelerado a 41ºC e 75% de UR, por 30 e 60 dias, e feijão novo mantido a 5ºC e 60% de UR foi considerado controle. Foram avaliados o tempo de cozimento, por meio do equipamento de Mattson adaptado; a composição química e o pH dos grãos; a solubilidade em água e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de comparação de médias de Tukey (pBeans stored for long periods at high temperature and humidity become hardened and resistant to cook. This happens due to the development of the hard-to-cook defect. The objective of this work was evaluate some physical and chemical properties of the aged dry black common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Iapar 44 cultivar. The aging of beans was accelerated at 41ºC and 75% RH, for 30 e 60 days; and new beans, kept at 5ºC and 60% RH was used as the control. The cooking time, determined by a Mattson-type cooker; the chemical composition and the pH of the grains; the water solubility and protein eletrophorectic profile were evaluated. The results were submitted to analyses of variance and mean comparison Tukey test (p<0.05. It was observed that the two storage periods, caused: increased time of cooking; decreased percentage of humidity, increased percentage of ash and maintained the percentages of protein, lipids and carbohydrates; decreased pH and decreased solubility and changed the protein eletrophorectic profile. These results are in accordance with the literature, which demonstrated that during aging of beans at high temperature and humidity there is acid formation

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  7. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: Traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  8. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  9. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  10. Influence of Cooling Rate on Growth of Bacillus cereus from Spore Inocula in Cooked Rice, Beans, Pasta, and Combination Products Containing Meat or Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Mohr, Tim B; Silverman, Meryl; Snyder, O Peter

    2018-02-23

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of Bacillus cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice-chicken (4:1), rice-chicken-vegetables (3:1:1), rice-beef (4:1), and rice-beef-vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four strains of heat-shocked (80°C for 10 min) B. cereus spores (NCTC 11143, 935A/74, Brad 1, and Mac 1) to obtain a final spore concentration of approximately 2 log CFU/g. Thereafter, samples were exponentially cooled through the temperature range of 54.5 to 7.2°C in 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 h. At the end of the cooling period, samples were removed and plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h. The net B. cereus growth from spores in beans was beans, pasta, rice-chicken, rice-chicken-vegetables, rice-beef, and rice-beef-vegetables to guard against the hazards associated with B. cereus.

  11. 'Fagiolo a Formella', an Italian lima bean ecotype: biochemical and nutritional characterisation of dry and processed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Angela R; Sparvoli, Francesca; Zaccardelli, Massimo

    2012-08-30

    An ecotype of the lima bean, named 'fagiolo a Formella', which, to the best of our knowledge, is the only example of an Italian lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) ecotype, is cultivated in the Campania region of southern Italy. Physical, nutritional and processing traits of dry seeds were evaluated for two consecutive growing seasons (2009 and 2010). The canning quality was also investigated, but only for the harvest of 2010. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total seed proteins allowed the attribution of 'fagiolo a Formella' to the Mesoamerican gene pool and Sieva morphotype. Seeds have a trapezoid shape, white coat and 100-seed weight greater than 42 g. Yield, protein, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid values were found comparable with those reported for lima bean varieties cultivated in sub-tropical areas. Moreover, we found that this ecotype is devoid of lectin. The good adaptation to growing environment is indicated by the fact that 'fagiolo a Formella' seed quality is comparable to that of lima beans grown in America. Overall the canning quality was found satisfactory and canning significantly destroys the main anti-nutritional compounds present in dry seeds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Redox agents and N-ethylmaleimide affect protein polymerization during laboratory scale dry pasta production and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Charlotte; Buggenhout, Joke; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-04-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) semolina gluten proteins consist of monomeric gliadin and polymeric glutenin and determine the quality of pasta products made therefrom. During pasta drying, glutenin starts polymerizing already below 60 °C (65% relative humidity (RH)), whereas gliadin only is incorporated in the protein network at temperatures exceeding 68 °C (68% RH) through thiol (SH)/disulfide (SS) exchange reactions. Removal of free SH groups in glutenin by adding 2.3 μmol KBrO3 or KIO3 per g dry matter semolina protein (g protein) or 13.8 μmol N-ethylmaleimide/g protein reduces gliadin-glutenin cross-linking during pasta drying and/or cooking and yields cooked pasta of high quality. Introducing free SH groups by adding 13.8 μmol glutathione/g protein increases gliadin-glutenin cross-linking during pasta processing, resulting in cooked pasta of lower quality. We hypothesize that too much gliadin incorporation in the glutenin network during pasta processing tightens the protein network and results in lower cooking quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dry Bean Morpho-Physiological Responses to Gradual Weed Biomass Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field study was carried out in 2011 in west of Iran to assess responses of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. morpho-physiological traits to gradual weed biomass accumulation. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, which weeds either infested the plots or removed for an increasing duration of time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after crop emergence. Relative dominance and relative importance of weed species fluctuated over the crop cycle. As the duration of weed interference was increased, a declining trend of crop growth rate (CGR was observed. When weeds were allowed to compete with crop throughout the crop cycle, maximum value of CGR was decreased from 25.57 g m-2 days in full season weed free treatment to 16.78 g m-2 days in full season weed infested treatment. Effect of treatments on leaf area index (LAI was significant. Weed removal increased LAI but it could not significantly affect this trait, at the early of growing season. Weed interference caused a significant reduction on number of branches. The minimum number of branches was registered in full season weed infested treatment (2.58 branches per plant, while the maximum one was observed in the full season weed free treatment (4.25 branches per plant. Weed competition severely reduced crop yield. At 10 and 20 days after crop emergence, weed infestation could not significantly affect the yield. A negative relationship between weeds’ dry matter accumulation and LAI as well as number of branches was observed which signify the vulnerability of these morpho-physiological traits to weed competition.

  14. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, S. K

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  15. Effect of Dry Heat Pre-Treatment (Toasting) on the Cooking Time of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cooking time for IAR48 and IT89KD-288 cowpea varieties increased from 104.67 to 106.00 and 88.00 to 88.67 min, respectively. The results indicate that the cooking time of cowpea seeds can be reduced significantly on toasting, while maintaining their potential as functional agents in the food industry for nutrition and ...

  16. PRESENCE OF BCMV AND BCMNV IN FIVE DRY BEAN-PRODUCING STATES IN MEXICO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepe-Soltero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to assess the frequency of BCMV and BCMNV in five of the main dry bean producing states in Mexico during the spring-summer 2009 and fall-winter growing seasons 2009-2010. States included in the survey were Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora in the pacific west coast, Veracruz in the gulf coast and Guanajuato in central Mexico. A total of 338 samples were collected and analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primers for each viral species. Forty-four samples (13% gave positive reaction for BCMV, 70 (21% for BCMNV and 30 (9% were positive for both viral species, 164 (48% were negative for both viruses and 30 (9% could not be defined as of yet. As for cultivars, Azufrado Higuera (Nueva Granada race grown at Sinaloa showed the highest frequency (33% of BCMV, whereas Negro Jamapa (Mesoamerica race from Nayarit displayed highest frequency (50% of BCMNV. In these two states the percentage of positive samples for either viral species was 80%. In addition, in cultivar Negro Jamapa mixed infections of both viruses were detected. Results point out a high risk of viral infection with seed movement across states, particularly since both viral species are seed transmitted and in the states at the pacific west coast, large seed lots are produced during the fall-winter season. Key words: BCMV, BCMNV, bean plants viruses RESUMEN Se llevó a cabo un muestreo en campo para estimar la frecuencia de la ocurrencia de BCMV y BCMNV en cinco estados productores de frijol en México durante los periodos de cultivo primavera-verano y otoño-invierno en el 2009 y 2009/2010. Los estados incluidos en el estudio fueron Nayarit, Sinaloa y Sonora en la costa del pacifico, Veracruz en la costa del golfo y Guanajuato en el centro de México. Se colectó un total de 338 muestras que se analizaron por RT-PCR con iniciadores específicos para cada una de las dos especies virales. Cuarenta y cuatro muestras (13% resultaron positivas para el BCMV, 70 (20% para el

  17. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Renan; Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Yoshida, Fernanda; Silva-Abud, Lidianne Lemes; Lobo, Murillo

    2017-01-01

    Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%). Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070) was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  18. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Macedo

    Full Text Available Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%. Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070 was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  19. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  20. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

    2011-09-14

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  1. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  2. Impact of soils and cropping systems on composition of mineral elements of dry cacao beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    In view of its high economic value, cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) researchers are seeking technological innovations that increase production and improve the quality of cacao beans. The objective of this study was to characterize the mineral (P, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ba) composition of caca...

  3. Genetic Architecture of Flooding Tolerance in the Dry Bean Middle-American Diversity Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a devastating abiotic stress that endangers crop production in the twenty-first century. Because of the severe susceptibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to flooding, an understanding of the genetic architecture and physiological responses of this crop will set the stage for further improvement. However, challenging phenotyping methods hinder a large-scale genetic study of flooding tolerance in common bean and other economically important crops. A greenhouse phenotyping protocol was developed to evaluate the flooding conditions at early stages. The Middle-American diversity panel (n = 272 of common bean was developed to capture most of the diversity exits in North American germplasm. This panel was evaluated for seven traits under both flooded and non-flooded conditions at two early developmental stages. A subset of contrasting genotypes was further evaluated in the field to assess the relationship between greenhouse and field data under flooding condition. A genome-wide association study using ~150 K SNPs was performed to discover genomic regions associated with multiple physiological responses. The results indicate a significant strong correlation (r > 0.77 between greenhouse and field data, highlighting the reliability of greenhouse phenotyping method. Black and small red beans were the least affected by excess water at germination stage. At the seedling stage, pinto and great northern genotypes were the most tolerant. Root weight reduction due to flooding was greatest in pink and small red cultivars. Flooding reduced the chlorophyll content to the greatest extent in the navy bean cultivars compared with other market classes. Races of Durango/Jalisco and Mesoamerica were separated by both genotypic and phenotypic data indicating the potential effect of eco-geographical variations. Furthermore, several loci were identified that potentially represent the antagonistic pleiotropy. The GWAS analysis revealed peaks at Pv08

  4. grain size and heat source effect on the drying profile of cocoa bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    for SME and also sun dependent, oven drying though secure is expensive ... drying models as reported by Sahay and Singh [7] have been ..... Mathlab software depicts zero residue for each .... functional performance, product quality, and.

  5. Effect of dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum fertilizer on soil microbial community composition, enzyme activities and snap bean growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Cai, Chen; Thabit, Mohamed; Wang, Pu; Li, Guomin; Duan, Ziheng

    2016-10-01

    The dry mycelium fertilizer (DMF) was produced from penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM) following an acid-heating pretreatment to degrade the residual penicillin. In this study, it was applied into soil as fertilizer to investigate its effects on soil properties, phytotoxicity, microbial community composition, enzyme activities, and growth of snap bean in greenhouse. As the results show, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and organic matter of soil with DMF treatments were generally higher than CON treatment. In addition, the applied DMF did not cause heavy metal and residual drug pollution of the modified soil. The lowest GI values (<0.3) were recorded at DMF8 (36 kg DMF/plat) on the first days after applying the fertilizer, indicating that severe phytotoxicity appeared in the DMF8-modified soil. Results of microbial population and enzyme activities illustrated that DMF was rapidly decomposed and the decomposition process significantly affected microbial growth and enzyme activities. The DMF-modified soil phytotoxicity decreased at the late fertilization time. DMF1 was considered as the optimum amount of DMF dose based on principal component analysis scores. Plant height and plant yield of snap bean were remarkably enhanced with the optimum DMF dose.

  6. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-12-03

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability.

  7. Chemical composition of protein concentrate prepared from Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares roe by cook-dried process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Roe is the term used to describe fish eggs (oocytes gathered in skeins and is one of the most valuable food products from fishery sources. Thus, means of processing are required to convert the underutilized yellowfin tuna roes (YTR into more marketable and acceptable forms as protein concentrate. Roe protein concentrates (RPCs were prepared by cooking condition (boil-dried concentrate, BDC and steam-dried concentrate, SDC, respectively and un-cooking condition (freeze-dried concentrate, FDC from yellowfin tuna roe. The yield of RPCs was in the range from 22.2 to 25.3 g/100 g of roe. RPCs contained protein (72.3–77.3 %, moisture (4.3–5.6 %, lipid (10.6–11.3 % and ash (4.3–5.7 % as the major constituents. The prominent amino acids of RPCs were aspartic acid, 8.7–9.2, glutamic acid, 13.1–13.2, and leucine, 8.5–8.6 g/100 g of protein. Major differences were not observed in each of the amino acid. K, S, Na, and P as minerals were the major elements in RPCs. No difference noted in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein band (15–100 K possibly representing partial hydrolysis of myosin. Therefore, RPCs from YTR could be use potential protein ingredient for human food and animal feeds.

  8. Grinding and cooking dry-mill germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil. This report describes an aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method to separate oil from dry-mill corn germ (DMG). The method is an extension of AEE previously developed for wet...

  9. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P≤0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbevi, M. K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly ( P⩽0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp.

  13. Natural selection and family X location interaction in the common (dry bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Pirola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection takes place while advancing generations of segregant populations of self pollinating species by the population (bulk method. There is evidence that it maintains the individuals with greater grain yield. The question arises whether natural selection preserves the individuals which are more adapted only to the environment where the generation advance occurred, that is, if it contributes to increasing the genotype x environment interaction in the family assessment. This study was carried out to check this hypothesis in the common bean plant using families derived from a segregating population from a cross between the Carioca MG x ESAL 686 cultivars. The segregating populations increase in homozygosity was obtained by the population (bulk method until the F14 generation, in three distinct locations in Minas Gerais state: Lavras, Lambari and Patos de Minas. Forty-seven F14:15 families were randomly taken from the population in each location and later multiplied to obtain F14:16 families. These families were jointly assessed with three controls using a triple 12 x 12 lattice design in the three locations of generation advance in the wet season of 1998/1999. All the estimated parameters showed that while advancing segregant populations by the population (bulk method, natural selection acted to preserve the individuals which are more adapted to the environment in which they were advanced.

  14. Prediction of canned black bean texture (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from intact dry seeds using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernando A; Cichy, Karen A; Sprague, Christy; Goffnett, Amanda; Lu, Renfu; Kelly, James D

    2018-01-01

    Texture is a major quality parameter for the acceptability of canned whole beans. Prior knowledge of this quality trait before processing would be useful to guide variety development by bean breeders and optimize handling protocols by processors. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the predictive power of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (visible/NIRS, 400-2498 nm) and hyperspectral imaging (HYPERS, 400-1000 nm) techniques for predicting texture of canned black beans from intact dry seeds. Black beans were grown in Michigan (USA) over three field seasons. The samples exhibited phenotypic variability for canned bean texture due to genetic variability and processing practice. Spectral preprocessing methods (i.e. smoothing, first and second derivatives, continuous wavelet transform, and two-band ratios), coupled with a feature selection method, were tested for optimizing the prediction accuracy in both techniques based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Visible/NIRS and HYPERS were effective in predicting texture of canned beans using intact dry seeds, as indicated by their correlation coefficients for prediction (R pred ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP). Visible/NIRS was superior (R pred = 0.546-0.923, SEP = 7.5-1.9 kg 100 g -1 ) to HYPERS (R pred = 0.401-0.883, SEP = 7.6-2.4 kg 100 g -1 ), which is likely due to the wider wavelength range collected in visible/NIRS. However, a significant improvement was reached in both techniques when the two-band ratios preprocessing method was applied to the data, reducing SEP by at least 10.4% and 16.2% for visible/NIRS and HYPERS, respectively. Moreover, results from using the combination of the three-season data sets based on the two-band ratios showed that visible/NIRS (R pred = 0.886, SEP = 4.0 kg 100 g -1 ) and HYPERS (R pred = 0.844, SEP = 4.6 kg 100 g -1 ) models were consistently successful in predicting texture over a wide range of measurements. Visible

  15. Survival and Diversity of Human Homologous Dietary MicroRNAs in Conventionally Cooked Top Sirloin and Dried Bovine Tissue Extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Dever

    Full Text Available Dietary microRNAs (miRNAs, notably those found in milk, are currently being investigated for their potential to elicit biological effects via canonical binding to human messenger RNA targets once ingested. Besides milk, beef and other bovine tissue-derived ingredients could also be a relevant source of potentially bioactive dietary miRNAs. In this study, we characterized the human homologous miRNA profiles in food-grade, bovine-sourced sirloin, heart and adrenal tissue (raw, cooked, and pasteurized, freeze-dried extracts via deep-sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR. A total of 198 human homologous miRNAs were detected at 10 or more normalized reads in all replicates (n = 3 of at least one preparation method. Tissue origin rather than preparation method was the major differentiating factor of miRNA profiles, and adrenal-based miRNA profiles were the most distinct. The ten most prevalent miRNAs in each tissue represented 71-93% of the total normalized counts for all annotated miRNAs. In cooked sirloin, the most abundant miRNAs were miR-10b-5p, (48.8% of total annotated miRNA reads along with the muscle-specific miR-1 (24.1% and miR-206 (4.8%. In dried heart extracts, miR-1 (17.0%, miR-100-5p (16.1% and miR-99a-5p (11.0% gave the highest normalized read counts. In dried adrenal extracts, miR-10b-5p (71.2% was the most prominent followed by miR-143-3p (7.1% and 146b-5p (3.7%. Sequencing results for five detected and two undetected miRNAs were successfully validated by RT-qPCR. We conclude that edible, bovine tissues contain unique profiles of human homologous dietary miRNAs that survive heat-based preparation methods.

  16. Linhagem isogênica no feijoeiro para resistência ao fungo da antracnose An isogenic dry bean line for resistance to the anthracnose fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available An isogenic dry bean line (Phaseolus vulgaris was developed using Rosinha 1454-10 as recurrent parent susceptible to Colletotrichum lindemuthiamun and Cornell 49-242 as the donor one. Ten backcrosses to the recurrent parent were made. Seedlings in the F1 generation of each backcross and in the F2 and F3 of the 10th backcross were inoculated using a spore suspension containing about 10(5 spores/ml, through a De Vilbiss atomizer, under greenhouse or laboratory conditions. The isogenic lines Rosinha 1454-10 and Rosinha 1454-10 Are Are will be used to estimate the losses of dry bean yield due to the anthracnose agent.

  17. Culinary and nutritional quality of common bean lines with Carioca grain type and interaction with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this work were to study the genetic variability and the interaction between genotypes and environments for cooking time and protein content of bean grains as well as to identify elite lines of Carioca grain type with short cooking time, high protein content and high adaptability and stability for these two traits. Sixteen experiments were conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications during the rainy, dry and winter seasons, in Goiás, Distrito Federal, Pernambuco, Sergipe, Bahia and Paraná States, in 2009 and 2010. Each trial was composed by 16 elite lines of Carioca grain type and the data of cooking time and protein content were obtained. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and to stability and adaptability analysis, according to the methodology proposed by Annichiarico. Genetic variability was found for cooking time and for protein content among Carioca common bean elite lines; however, for protein content this variability is lower. The environmental effect is important for the expression of these traits and is larger than the genetic effect. The interaction between genotypes and environments is important for cooking time and for protein content of common beans. The lines CNFC 11951 and CNFC 11962 presents short cooking time, high protein content and high stability and adaptability for both traits.

  18. Chemical, Physicochemical, Nutritional, Microbiological, Sensory and Rehydration Characteristics of Instant Whole Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, José Armando; Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela

    2015-03-01

    Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas a w and L* , a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, -0.28 and -1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were 0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food.

  19. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  20. Microbiology of cooked and dried edible Mediterranean field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) submitted to four different heating treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2017-01-01

    To increase the shelf life of edible insects, modern techniques (e.g. freeze-drying) add to the traditional methods (degutting, boiling, sun-drying or roasting). However, microorganisms become inactivated rather than being killed, and when rehydrated, many return to vegetative stadia. Crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) were submitted to four different drying techniques (T1 = 10' cooking, 24 h drying at 60℃; T2 = 10' cooking, 24 h drying at 80℃; T3 = 30' cooking, 12 h drying at 80℃, and 12 h drying at 100℃; T4 = boiling T3-treated insects after five days) and analysed for total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, bacilli, yeasts and moulds counts, E. coli, salmonellae, and Listeria monocytogenes (the latter three being negative throughout). The microbial counts varied strongly displaying species- and treatment-specific patterns. T3 was the most effective of the drying treatments tested to decrease all counts but bacilli, for which T2 was more efficient. Still, total bacteria counts remained high (G. bimaculatus > Z. atratus). Other opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus thuringiensis, B. licheniformis, B. pumilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Cryptococcus neoformans) were also encountered. The tyndallisation-like T4 reduced all counts to below detection limit, but nutrients leakage should be considered regarding food quality. In conclusion, species-specific drying procedures should be devised to ensure food safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Numerical characterisation of one-step and three-step solar air heating collectors used for cocoa bean solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel; La Madrid, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions. The constructed computational fluid dynamics model was firstly validated through comparison with the data measurements of a one-step solar air heating collector. We then simulated two further three-step solar air heating collectors in order to identify which demonstrated the best thermal performance in terms of outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency. The numerical results show that under the same solar irradiation area of exposition and operating conditions, the three-step solar air heating collector with the collector plate mounted between the second and third channels was 67% more thermally efficient compared to the one-step solar air heating collector. This is because the air exposition with the surface of the collector plate for the three-step solar air heating collector former device was twice than the one-step solar air heating collector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  3. Genetic Analysis of Flooding Tolerance in an Andean Diversity Panel of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change models predict temporal and spatial shifts in precipitation resulting in more frequent incidents of flooding, particularly in regions with poor soil drainage. In these flooding conditions, crop losses are inevitable due to exposure of plants to hypoxia and the spread of root rot diseases. Improving the tolerance of bean cultivars to flooding is crucial to minimize crop losses. In this experiment, we evaluated the phenotypic responses of 277 genotypes from the Andean Diversity Panel to flooding at germination and seedling stages. A randomized complete block design, with a split plot arrangement, was employed for phenotyping germination rate, total weight, shoot weight, root weight, hypocotyl length, SPAD index, adventitious root rate, and survival score. A subset of genotypes (n = 20 were further evaluated under field conditions to assess correlations between field and greenhouse data and to identify the most tolerant genotypes. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed using ~203 K SNP markers to understand the genetic architecture of flooding tolerance in this panel. Survival scores between field and greenhouse data were significantly correlated (r = 0.55, P = 0.01. Subsequently, a subset of the most tolerant and susceptible genotypes were evaluated under pathogenic Pythium spp. pressure. This experiment revealed a potential link between flooding tolerance and Pythium spp. resistance. Several tolerant genotypes were identified that could be used as donor parents in breeding pipelines, especially ADP-429 and ADP-604. Based on the population structure analysis, a subpopulation consisting of 20 genotypes from the Middle American gene pool was detected that also possessed the highest root weight, hypocotyl length, and adventitious root development under flooding conditions. Genomic regions associated with flooding tolerance were identified including a region on Pv08/3.2 Mb, which is associated with germination rate and

  4. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25–10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5–10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property. - Highlights: • Nutritional and sensory aspects of kidney beans are not altered up to 10 kGy dose of gamma radiation. • Radiation processing at 10 kGy improves cooking quality of kidney bean seeds. • Radiation processing at 10 kGy increases antioxidant activity of kidney bean seeds.

  5. The Effect of Processing Method of Dolichos Bean (Lablob Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four diets were formulated to contain the control diet with 0.09 soybean meal or ... nutrient availability and overall utilisation of dolichos bean meal for pigs. ..... quick-cooking moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.). The Indian Journal of Nu-.

  6. Healthy food trends - beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a side dish at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Mash them up for dips and spreads. Use bean flour to bake them. To reduce the gas caused by eating beans: Always soak dried beans. If you do not eat a lot of beans, gradually add them to ...

  7. Technological quality of common bean grains obtained in different growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Francischinelli Perina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traits that provide technological quality to common bean grains exhibit genetic and environmental variation and variation in the genotype x environment interaction. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different periods of the growing season on the technological quality of common bean grains. The experiment was conducted with 25 bean genotypes (carioca [beige with brown stripes] and black commercial group that are part of the Value for Cultivation and Use (Valor de Cultivo e Uso - VCU trials in three growing seasons, namely, the 2009/2010 rainy season, the 2010/2011 dry season and the 2010/2011 winter season, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications in which the following items were assessed: cooking time (CT, water absorption capacity before cooking (Peanc and after cooking (Peapc, percentage of whole grains (PWG, total soluble solids in the broth (TSSb, volume expansion before cooking (EXPVbc and after cooking (EXPVac, and dry grain density (DD, grain density after maceration (SD and grain density after cooking (CD. Assessments showed that the different growing seasons for obtaining grains for the purpose of analysis of technological quality have an effect on the results and on differentiation among genotypes, indicating genotype x environment interaction. They also showed that the genotypes C2-1-6-1, C4-8-1-1, LP04-03, IAC-Imperador, P5-4-4-1 and Pr11-6-4-1-2 had the best results in relation to cooking time in the mean values of the three growing seasons. The use of early selection based on phenotypic correlations that exist among the technological features is not expressive, due to the variation of magnitude among the different growing seasons.

  8. Concentrações salinas combinadas com tempos de hidratação: efeito no tempo de cocção em feijão Salts concentrations in combination with soaking time: effect in bean cooking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garcia Bertoldo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o efeito da adição de diferentes doses de NaCl na água de hidratação, durante diferentes tempos, buscando uma redução no tempo de cocção. O Brasil, embora seja considerado um grande produtor e um dos maiores consumidores de feijão, está reduzindo gradativamente o consumo. Sendo assim, é necessário dispor de técnicas que facilitem o preparo do feijão, podendo dessa forma reverter a tendência de consumo e como consequência incentivar a produção. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Instituto de Melhoramento e Genética Molecular da UDESC - IMEGEM, em Lages - SC. Foram avaliados os efeitos de três concentrações de NaCL (0, 50 e 125 g.L-1 em dois genótipos de feijão (Pérola e IPR Uirapuru hidratados durante três tempos (0,5, 9 e 18 horas. Os resultados revelaram um efeito significativo das doses de NaCl na redução do tempo de cocção. A adição de 56,50 g.L-1 de NaCl foi suficiente para reduzir significativamente o tempo de cocção. A hidratação dos grãos de feijão propiciou a redução no tempo de cocção, sendo necessárias 12,5 horas para a máxima hidratação, independente dos genótipos avaliados.This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding different doses of NaCl in hydration water, during different times, in order to reduce cooking time. Although considered a major producer and one of the largest bean consumers, Brazil has been experiencing a gradual decrease in consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to facilitate the preparation of beans to increase its consumption and production. This study was conducted at the experimental area of the Institute of Molecular Genetics and Plant Breeding at UDESC - IMEGEM, in the city of Lages, SC-Brazil. We evaluated the effect of three doses of NaCL (0, 50 e 125 g L-1 in two genotypes of beans (Pérola and IPR Uirapuru, hydrated at three different times (0.5, 9, and 18 hours. The results revealed a

  9. FORMULASI MI KERING SAGU DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG KACANG HIJAU (Formulation of Dry Sago Noodles with Mung Bean Flour Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilka Yuliani

    2015-11-01

    dilakukan menggunakan Mixture Design (DX7 dengan variabel berupa persentase pati sagu (80-100% dan tepung kacang hijau (0-20%. Substitusi tepung kacang hijau dapat menurunkan kekerasan, kelengketan, dan elongasi mi sagu, namun meningkatkan cooking loss. Produk optimum mi sagu diperoleh dengan substitusi tepung kacang hijau 4,7%. Pada kondisi ini mi sagu memiliki karakteristik kekerasan 1996,03 gf, skor kelengketan -19,2 gf, skor elongasi 214,35% dan skor cooking loss 10,82%. Uji sensori terhadap mi sagu formula optimum menunjukkan bahwa mi sagu yang dibuat secara keseluruhan tidak berbeda nyata dengan mi kering terigu komersial. Kata kunci: Cooking loss, elongasi, mi pati, sagu, tepung kacang hijau

  10. Common bean genotypes for agronomic and market-related traits in VCU trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernando Chiorato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU trials are undertaken when evaluating improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. lines, and knowledge of agronomic and market-related traits and disease reaction is instrumental in making cultivar recommendations. This study evaluates the yield, cooking time, grain color and reaction to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and Curtobacterium wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens of 25 common bean genotypes derived from the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Seventeen VCU trials were carried out in the rainy season, dry season and winter season from 2009 to 2011 in the state of São Paulo. Analyses of grain color and cooking time were initiated 60 days after harvest, and disease reaction analyses were performed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In terms of yield, no genotype superior to the controls was observed for any of the seasons under consideration. Grains from the dry season exhibited better color, while the rainy season led to the shortest cooking times. The following genotypes BRS Esteio, BRS Esplendor and IAC Imperador were resistant to anthracnose, Fusarium wilt and Curtobacterium wilt and, in general, genotypes with lighter-colored grains were more susceptible to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt.

  11. Seleção de linhagens de feijão rosinha de boa cocção, resistentes à antracnose e mancha angular Selection of pink grain common bean lines with good cooking ability, resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Velásquez Faleiro e Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares de feijoeiro com grão rosinha foram de grande importância, no passado, e ainda hoje, mesmo com a preferência pelo grão carioca, há nichos de mercado para feijões do grupo Rosinha. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi selecionar linhagens de feijoeiro comum com grão rosinha, alta produção de grãos, rápido cozimento e resistentes à antracnose e à mancha angular. A partir de cinco famílias F8 superiores, provenientes do cruzamento entre os genitores Rosinha Maria da Fé e ESAL 693, foram extraídas 143 linhagens as quais foram avaliadas na safra das águas de 2005/2006 em Lavras (MG. Dessas, manteve-se 99 linhagens que foram avaliadas em Lavras e Lambari (MG, na safra da seca de 2006. As 24 linhagens selecionadas foram novamente avaliadas nos dois locais, no inverno de 2006. Os caracteres avaliados foram produção e tipo de grão, tempo de cocção, reação à mancha angular e também, foi realizado o teste de resistência ao patótipo 65 de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Nas linhagens, observaram-se variabilidade genética para todos os caracteres avaliados, altas estimativas dos coeficientes de herdabilidade, assegurando elevados ganhos com a seleção. Foram selecionadas quatro linhagens com alta produção, tipo de grão ideal, com rápido tempo de cocção e resistência à mancha angular e à antracnose.Common bean cultivars with pink grain type used to be very important, although there is still some market spot for them. The objective of the research was to select common bean lines with pink grain, high grain yield with good cooking ability, and resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot. One hundred and forty three lines were selected from five F8 segregant families derived from the cross Rosinha Maria da Fé x ESAL 693. Those lines were evaluated in the rainy season of 2005/2006 at Lavras county, MG State. Ninety nine lines were kept and tested in the dry season of 2006 at Lavras and Lambari. The 24

  12. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yantika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens. The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine hydrocloride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with orthogonal contrast. The observed variables included feed consumption, average daily body weight gain (ADG, feed efficiency (FE, income over feed cost (IOFC, hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, meat pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC. The result revealed that the addition of 12% velvet bean flour into the rations increased dry matter consumption (P<0.05, but did not affect ADG, FE, IOFC, carcass production, and meat quality. The addition of 12% velvet bean flour produced the lowest cooking loss (P<0.05. The addition of 16% velvet bean tempeh into the rations significantly increased (P<0.05 dry matter consumption, however reduced (P<0.05 ADG, FE, and IOFC compared to control treatment. It is concluded that velvet bean flour at the level of 12% can be used as an alternative feed supplement in the ration of Sumba Ongole cattle and can replace the use of synthetic ß-agonist.

  13. Catu, Aeté-3, Aroana 80, Moruna 80, Carioca 80 e Aysó: novos cultivares de feijoeiro Catu, Aeté-3, Aroana 80, Moruna 80, Carioca 80 and Aysó, new dry bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin, morphological characteristics of plant, pod, seed, and seed coat colors of the new dry hean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars Catu, Aeté-3, Aroana 80, Moruna 80, Carioca 80 and Aysó, as well as their reaction to the anthracnose, common mosaic and rust pathogens, are described. Due to their high yield capacity and adaptation 'Catu' and 'Aeté-3' were pointed out for cultivation in the all growing dry bean areas in the State of São Paulo. 'Aroana 80', 'Moruna 80', 'Carioca 80' and 'Aysó' were released to the growers of Campinas region, although they can be grown in other dry bean producing areas due to their disease reaction.

  14. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  15. Magnitude of [14C] DDT residues in stored dried fish and pre-cooking processing effect on their removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khatoon, J.; Matin, M.A.; Main, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Residues of 14 C-DDT in stored dried fish was determined under ambient conditions for a 6 month period. Immediately after treatment, about 40% of the applied DDT was eliminated from surface of the dried fish with water washing. However, such removal was reduced to about 26% on storage for 6 months. Boiling of dried fish in water resulted in further removal of about 16% residues. In boiled dried fish, about 14% residues might remain and this could be removed by Soxhlet extraction. Surface extraction with hexane yielded about 80% of the residues immediately after treatment and the extractable residues decreased to about half the initial value of 6 months' storage. Dried fish residues, on surface extraction with water or hexane, when subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction with methanol was found to result in further recovery of about 39-49% and 17-32%, respectively. Bound DDT residues were found to be about 5% in water washed dried fish samples and about 1.5% in case of hexane-extracted samples. Degradation of parent DDT to DDE and DDD was found. Maximum values of 16.58% DDE and 21.6% DDD were found in dried fish stored for 6 months. (author)

  16. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... vegetables; dry bean grains are used in various food preparations, and both are used as relish or side dishes together ... Eastern Africa and Latin America. Zinc content of beans is one of the ... Kidney bean leaves and fresh bean grains, which are prepared as relish and consumed by a number of families in ...

  17. Simultaneous Detection of Both RNA and DNA Viruses Infecting Dry Bean and Occurrence of Mixed Infections by BGYMV, BCMV and BCMNV in the Central-West Region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Chiquito-Almanza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay was developed to simultaneously detect bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, bean common mosaic necrotic virus (BCMNV, and bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV from common bean leaves dried with silica gel using a single total nucleic acid extraction cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method. A mixture of five specific primers was used to amplify three distinct fragments corresponding to 272 bp from the AC1 gene of BGYMV as well as 469 bp and 746 bp from the CP gene of BCMV and BCMNV, respectively. The three viruses were detected in a single plant or in a bulk of five plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was successfully applied to detect these three viruses from 187 field samples collected from 23 municipalities from the states of Guanajuato, Nayarit and Jalisco, Mexico. Rates of single infections were 14/187 (7.5%, 41/187 (21.9%, and 35/187 (18.7%, for BGYMV, BCMV, and BCMNV, respectively; 29/187 (15.5% samples were co-infected with two of these viruses and 10/187 (5.3% with the three viruses. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting these viruses in the common bean and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies.

  18. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster drying process was observed at a higher drying temperature resulting in higher drying rates which is advantageous when evaluating costs. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to predict effective diffusivity using experimental data assuming that the variation of diffusivity with temperature can be expressed by an Arrhenius type function, and the values of diffusivity obtained ranged from 6.137 x 10-10 to 2.1855 x 10-9 m2 s-1 for the temperature used. The Arrhenius constant (D is predicted at 8.64 x 10-4 m2 s-1 while the activation energy was predicted at 39.94 kJ mol-1.El cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es ampliamente producido en el Oeste de África y Sudamérica y es un cultivo de gran importancia económica, con muchos usos industriales. En este trabajo se investigó la cinética del secado experimental de especies foráneas, y se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones isotérmicas, usando un secador discontinuo en caliente a 55, 70 y 81 °C. Los datos de relación de humedad obtenidos desde el cambio de contenido de humedad con el tiempo de secado se ajustaron a un modelo de secado de dos capas delgadas con buenos resultados. Se observó un proceso de secado más rápido a una temperatura de secado mayor resultando en mayores tasas de secado, lo que es ventajoso al evaluar costos. La segunda ley de difusión de Fick se usó para predecir difusividad efectiva usando datos experimentales, asumiendo que la variación de difusividad con la temperatura puede ser

  19. RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO A DOSES DE BORO EM CULTIVO DE INVERNO E DE PRIMAVERA DRY BEAN RESPONSE TO DOSES OF BORON IN WINTER AND SPRING PLANTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIPÓLITO ASSUNÇÃO ANTONIO MASCARENHAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em vasos foi instalado em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de estudar a resposta do feijoeiro à aplicação de boro (B em solo com baixa disponibilidade desse nutriente. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de doses correspondentes a 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 kg.ha-1 de B, na forma de bórax. Dois ensaios foram desenvolvidos, sendo o primeiro no inverno (junho a julho e o outro na primavera (setembro a outubro. No ensaio do inverno, foi observada a deficiência de B, apenas na testemunha, fato comprovado pela análise de tecidos. Nos demais tratamentos não apareceram sintomas de deficiência e os teores do elemento na parte aérea das plantas foram considerados adequados. No ensaio de primavera, não foi observada deficiência visual de B, mesmo na testemunha. Em ambos os ensaios, aplicações superiores a 2 kg.ha-1 de B proporcionaram teores muito elevados do elemento nas plantas (138 a 710 mg.kg-1. Os dados sugerem que a deficiência é mais relevante no inverno e que o excesso é prejudicial, em qualquer época, ocasionando toxicidade.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of boron in dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in pots. The treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kg.ha-1 of boron in the form of borax. Two identical experiments were carried out during the winter (June/July and the spring (September/October seasons. In the winter experiment, the boron deficiency symptoms were shown only by the control plants. In those conditions, the high concentrations of Ca and Mg and the low temperatures affected the boron absorption of the plants. The application of 1 kg.ha-1 of boron was sufficient to reduce the visible symptoms of B deficiency, and increased the dry weight of the shoots. At the rate of the 2 kg.ha-1 B or above there was excess of boron in the dry matter of the shoots. In the spring experiment there was no deficiency symptoms in the plants and the boron concentration was adequate

  20. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  1. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  2. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions Qualidade de sementes de feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis submetidas a diversas condições de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.Objetivou-se no presente trabalho analisar o processo de secagem do feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis, bem como avaliar a qualidade das sementes, submetidas à secagem em diversas condições de ar. Foram utilizados grãos de feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis, colhidos com teor de água de 1,14 (decimal base seca e secos até o teor de 0,11 (decimal base seca. A secagem do feijão adzuki foi realizada em secador experimental mantido nas temperaturas controladas de 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC e umidades relativas de 52,0; 28,0; 19,1; 13,1 e 6,8%, respectivamente. Para analisar a qualidade fisiológica e tecnológica das sementes realizou-se o teste de germinação, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, condutividade elétrica e absorção de água, respectivamente. Nas condições em que foi desenvolvido o presente trabalho,conclui-se que o tempo de secagem do feijão adzuki diminui para as temperaturas mais elevadas do ar de 60 e 70 ºC e afetam as qualidades fisiológica e tecnológica das sementes. Assim, para

  4. [Food prices in Brazil: prefer cooking to ultra-processed foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Diniz, Danielle Pereira

    2016-08-29

    This study aims to describe the prices of food groups consumed in Brazil considering the nature, extent, and purpose of their processing. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008-2009. The mean prices of the groups (natural, cooking ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed) and their respective food subgroups were estimated for Brazil according to income, region, and area. Natural products and cooking ingredients showed lower prices per calorie when compared to the other groups, suggesting an economic advantage to preparing meals at home when compared to replacing them with ultra-processed foods. Families with the highest income paid the highest prices for their food, while families in the Northeast and North regions and rural areas paid the lowest. While fresh foods (meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables) tend to cost more than ultra-processed foods, dry grains (like rice and beans) are a more economical alternative for adopting healthy eating practices.

  5. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  6. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  7. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  8. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  9. Soup Cooking by Thermal Insulation Method

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 辰江; 根本, 勢子; サトウ, タツエ; ネモト, セイコ; TATSUE, SATO; SEIKO, NEMOTO

    1992-01-01

    In order to examine the thermal insulation method of soup cooking, we cooked two kinds of soup. The soup cooked by thermal insulation method was compared with the soup cooked by standard boiling method. ln sensory test, it was more aromatic and palatable than the soup by boiling, and some panels commented that it was rather mild. The measured values of pH, specific gravity, acidity and amount of dry weight of souble solids, total-N, formal-N of the soup cooked by the two methods mentioned abo...

  10. Avaliação química e nutricional do feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cozido por diferentes métodos Chemical and nutritional evaluation of Carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cooked by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Carolina Franqueira de Toledo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar alguns métodos de cocção em grãos de feijão (panela aberta, panela de pressão e microondas, utilizando ou não a maceração prévia dos grãos. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que a ausência de maceração promoveu aumento no tempo de cocção das amostras, levando maior perda de nutrientes, aumento na digestibilidade in vitro da proteína e também inativação mais efetiva de taninos. A utilização de cocção em microondas preservou a disponibilidade dos aminoácidos lisina e metionina e apresentou valores maiores de fibras insolúveis. Maior teor de fibras solúveis foi obtido nas amostras que foram maceradas e quando a água de maceração foi utilizada.The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods to cook Carioca beans (open pan, domestic pressure cooker and microwave oven, with or without previous soaking of the beans. The results demonstrated that the absence of the soaking step promoted an increase in the cooking time of the samples, with a higher loss of nutrients, an increase of the in vitro protein digestibility and also a more effective inactivation of tannins. The use of the microwave oven preserved the availability of the amino acids lysine and methionine and presented higher values for insoluble fiber. Higher soluble fiber contents were found in the soaked samples when the soaking water was used.

  11. A solar oven for intertropical zones: Evaluation of the cooking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Luna, G.; Huelsz, G.

    2008-01-01

    The construction and the evaluation of the cooking process of a solar oven prototype are presented, the optogeometrical design of this oven was optimized for the intertropical zone. The cooking tests demonstrated that the oven prototype, which needs only four simple movements throughout the year, is suitable to cook three basic Mexican meals: beans, nixtamal, and corncobs. The potential quantity of wood savings per year if this oven would be used to cook meals in a rural zone of Mexico is estimated

  12. Effect of bioprocessing and fractionation on the structural, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free faba bean pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Heiniö, Raija-Liisa; Cassan, Denis; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Micard, Valerie; Lantto, Raija; Sozer, Nesli

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the effects of processing faba bean flour on textural, structural and sensory properties of gluten-free pasta. Pasta was prepared using faba bean flour, starch-rich fraction of faba bean flour or faba bean flour fermented with lactic acid bacteria. The impact of cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase (TG) on the quality of faba pasta was also studied. The structure, cooking quality, starch digestibility, textural and sensory characteristics of faba pasta samples were evalua...

  13. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  14. Resposta de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em solo de cerrado Response of upland rice, dry bean, corn and soybean to base saturation in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand K. Fageria

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento de campo, quatro anos consecutivos (1995/96 a 1998/99 para avaliar a resposta das culturas de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico (LEd (Oxissolo cultivados em sistema de sucessão. Os valores de saturação por base criados pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56 e 66%. Ocorreu aumento significativo na produção de grãos de feijão, milho e soja com a saturação por base; entretanto, a produção de arroz não foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos. Mas, com base de equação de regressão, as saturações por base adequadas para a produção dos três, foram estabelecidas em 53, 60 e 63% respectivamente, e, para a cultura de arroz, o nível adequado de saturação por base encontrado foi de 40%. A acumulação de nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos e pela idade da planta nas quatro culturas estudadas. Os níveis adequados das propriedades químicas do solo, como pH, teor de Ca, teor de Mg, relações Ca/Mg, Ca/K, Mg/K, saturações por Ca, Mg e K, foram estabelecidos para as culturas de arroz, feijão, milho e soja, cultivados em solo de cerrado.A field experiments was conducted during four consecutive years (1995/96 to 1998/99 to evaluate responses of upland rice, dry bean, corn, and soybean grown in sequence to base saturation on a Dark Red Latosol (Oxisol. Mean base saturation levels determined after harvest of each crop were: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56, and 66%. Grain yield of dry bean, corn, and soybean were significantly affected with base saturation. Upland rice yield, however, was not influenced with base saturation treatments. Based on the quadratic response, optimum base saturation for maximum grain yield of dry bean was 53%, for corn 60% and for soybean 63%. For upland rice the base saturation under no lime treatment was 40%, which is considered

  15. Fermented non-digestible fraction from combined nixtamalized corn (Zea mays L.)/cooked common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chips modulate anti-inflammatory markers on RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Cuellar-Nuñez, M L; Vázquez-Landaverde, P A; Mojica, L; Acosta-Gallegos, J A; Loarca-Piña, G

    2018-09-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are low-level inflammation processes affected by several factors including diet. It has been reported that mixed whole grain and legume consumption, e.g. corn and common bean, might be a beneficial combination due to its content of bioactive compounds. A considerable amount would be retained in the non-digestible fraction (NDF), reaching the colon, where microbiota produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and phenolic compounds (PC) with known anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to estimate the anti-inflammatory potential of fermented-NDF of corn-bean chips (FNDFC) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. After 24 h, FNDFC produced SCFAs (0.156-0.222 mmol/l), inhibited nitric oxide production > 80% and H 2 O 2  > 30%, up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines (I-TAC, TIMP-1) > 2-fold, and produced angiostatic and protective factors against vascular/tissue damage, and amelioration of tumor necrosis factor signalling and inflammatory bowel disease. These results confirm the anti-inflammatory potential derived from healthy corn-bean chips. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  17. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  18. Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de Monique; Top, van den Hester; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on

  19. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Desenvolvimento da cultura do feijoeiro submetida a dois sistemas de manejo de irrigação e de cultivo = Growth of dry bean crop submitted to two water management and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pavani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do feijoeiro apresenta elevada importância no contexto agrícola nacional. Além de ser uma cultura que atende às características da agricultura familiar, também é cultivada em áreas extensivas com alta tecnologia. Pesquisas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento do feijoeiro frente às variantes edafoclimáticas regionais vêm assumindo papel de destaque, principalmentepor se tratar de uma planta sensível tanto ao déficit quanto ao excesso hídrico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a cultura do feijoeiro de ‘inverno’ submetida a dois métodos de manejo deirrigação, em pivô central, um via solo por meio de tensiômetros, outro via clima por meio do tanque Classe ‘A’, em dois sistemas de plantio, convencional e direto, no primeiro ano. Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar (IAF, massa seca total (MS de plantas e a variação do potencial mátrico de água no solo. Concluiu-se que os manejos de irrigação e os sistemas de plantio não resultaram em diferenças no IAF e nem no acúmulo de matéria seca total ao longo do ciclo da cultura; o manejo da irrigação por tensiometria acarretou maior variação no potencial mátrico de água no solo do que o método via clima por meio do tanque Classe ‘A’.The dry bean has great importance to Brazilian agriculture. In addition to being a crop that meets the characteristics of family agriculture, it is also cultivated in extensive areas using high technology. Research related to the behavior and development ofthe bean crop in relation to regional soil and climatic variants have assumed a prominent role, especially because it is a plant that is sensitive both to the lack and excess of water in the soil. The objective of this research was to compare two methods of management ofcenter pivot irrigation: a soil sensor (tensiometry and b simplified climatological water balance – Class A pan; in conventional and no-tillage systems of soil cultivate (first year, onthe irrigated

  1. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  2. Contração volumétrica e forma dos frutos de mamona durante a secagem = Shape and shrinkage of the castor bean fruit during the drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Duarte Goneli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variação do teor de água na contração volumétrica, dimensões características e forma dos frutos de mamona durante a secagem. Foram utilizados frutos colhidos com teor de água de 2,50 (b.s., secos à temperatura de 40ºC até o teor final de 0,11 (b.s.. O tamanho dos frutos foi determinadopor meio da variação do volume e a forma foi analisada pela esfericidade e circularidade. A contração volumétrica dos frutos foi determinada pela relação entre o volume em cada teor de água e o volume inicial. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que a forma dos frutos de mamona é influenciada pela redução do teor de água, promovendo redução da esfericidade e circularidade. As dimensões características (comprimento, largura e espessura e o diâmetrogeométrico médio dos frutos sofrem redução de suas magnitudes com a redução do teor de água. A redução do teor de água influencia a contração volumétrica unitária e da massa dos frutos de mamona, provocando redução de seus valores em 46,0 e 63,0%, respectivamente.O modelo polinomial, dentre aqueles testados, foi o que melhor representou o fenômeno da contração volumétrica da massa e unitária dos frutos de mamona.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of moisture content on castor bean fruit shrinkage, dimensional characteristics and shape during drying. Castor bean fruits were harvested with 2.50 (d.b. moisture content and dried at 40°C up to final moisturecontent of 0.11 (d.b.. The size of the fruits was determined according to the shrinkage rate and the shape analyzed through the sphericity and circularity method. Castor fruit shrinkage was determined by the ratio between its volume with respective moisture content and its initial volume. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the shape castor bean fruits is influenced by reduction in moisture content promoting the sphericity and

  3. Evaluation of Soybean–Navy Bean Emulsions Using Different Processing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean X. Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an innovative emulsion made from soybean and navy bean blends of different proportionalities was developed. In addition, two processing methods were used: traditional cooking and jet-cooking. The physical attributes and storage stability were measured and compared. This study found that the high content of starch and fiber in navy bean flour contributes to the increase in viscosity of the emulsions, at both room and refrigeration temperatures, as the proportion of navy bean flour in the blends increased. The steam jet-cooked emulsions with higher soybean content has better shelf life stability, smaller particle size, higher fat, lower starch, and lower viscosity, whereas the traditional kettle cooking method is better in reducing anti-nutritional components. No significant difference was found between the two cooking methods in terms of nutritional contents in the emulsions, such as protein, crude fat, and total starch. The traditional kettle cooking, with its longer cooking time, seems to reduce more trypsin inhibitor in the emulsions than those prepared with the steam jet-cooking. This exploratory study is the first to report soybean–navy bean beverage prototypes having desirable nutritional value and the potential for functional beverage market.

  4. Comportamento de linhagens e cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. no Vale do Paraíba, SP Behavior of dry bean lines and cultivars in the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Pompeu

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar cultivares mais adequados para plantio nas condições do Vale do Paraíba, no Estado de São Paulo, foram instalados experimentos de competição de linhagens e cultivares em três locais no município de Pindamonhangaba. Durante o período de 1973 a 1976, notou-se a ocorrência de granizo em 1974, prejudicando um dos ensaios, e de geada em 1975, a qual destruiu dois dos três ensaios plantados. Entre as moléstias que ocorrem no feijoeiro, observaram-se a antracnose e a ferrugem. As melhores produções médias foram obtidas pelas linhagens H38C1727 (Mulatinho, H38C1723 (Bico-de-ouro, H40C1722 (Chumbinho e H40C1725 (Preto, e pelos cultivares piratã-2 e piratã-1, com 2.475, 2.308, 2.218, 2.195, 2.177 e 2.164 kg/ha respectivamente. Os cultivares carioca (Diversos e rosinha G-2 (Rosinha tiveram produções de 2.094 e 1.677 kg/ha. Levando-se em consideração a alta capacidade produtiva demonstrada nesses experimentos e em outras regiões do Estado, bem como a disponibilidade de sementes, os cultivares aroana (H40C1722, moruna (H40C1725, piratã-1 e carioca podem ser indicados para plantio em larga escala na região do Vale do Paraíba.With the objective of indicating the best dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars for the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo State, trials were planted in three localities in the country of Pindamonhangaba, from 1973 to 1976. From 1973 to 1976 were observed the occurrence of hail in 1974 causing damage in one of the trials, and frost in 1975 that destroyed two of the three experiments planted. Among the pathogens of dry beans, it was noticed the presence of those causing the anthracnose and rust diseases. The best mean yields were observed for H38C1727, H38C1723, H40C1722, H40C1725, 'Piratã-2', and 'Piratã-1' with 2,475, 2,308, 2,218, 2,195, 2,178 and 2,164 kg/ha, respectively. The cultivars Moruna (H4001725, Aroana (H40C1722, Piratã-1 and Carioca can be pointed out for cultivation in

  5. Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun-dried sweet potato leaves. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study aimed to determine nutrient (iron, calcium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid) and anti-nutrient (oxalates and polyphenols) contents in raw, cooked and dried ...

  6. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  7. Effects of Locus Bean Gum, Kappa Carrageenan and Iota Carrageenan on the Syneresis, Texture and Some Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Ham / Efecto de la Goma de Algarrobo, la Carragenina Kappa y la Carragenina Iota Sobre la Sinéresis, Textura y Algunas C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Sepúlveda Cossio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effect of the additionof locus bean gum (LBG, Kappa carrageenan (KC and Iotacarrageenan (IC on some characteristics of cooked ham. For this purpose, a 2% mixture of LBG: KC: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments (T: (T1: 100% IC; (T2: 100% KC; (T3: 50: 50 LBG: KC mixture; (T4: 50: 50 LBG: IC mixture; (T5: 33.33: 66.67KC: IC mixture; (T6: 66.67: 33.33 KC: IC mixture; (T7: 25: 75 LBG: KC mixture; (T8: 25: 75 LBG: IC mixture; (T9: 50: 16.17: 33.33 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T10: 50: 33.33: 16.17 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T11: 25: 56.25: 18.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T12: 25: 18.75: 56.25 LBG: KC: ICmixture; (T13: 12.5: 43.75: 43.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture and (T14: 37.5: 31.25: 31.25 LBG: KC: IC mixture. For all brines, the cooked ham was prepared and extended to 100%, and characteristics of hardness and elasticity were evaluated 14 and 28 days after manufacturing, through a texture analysis profile (TAP; along with syneresis in the packaging (purges by gravimetric analysis and, hardness, elasticityand general appearance; and sensory attributes through a sensory analysis. The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures 18.12: 64.46: 17.42 and 16.36: 65.56: 18.08 of LBG: KC: IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.88%and 2.83%; the highest instrumental hardness (TAP was found inT7, and the highest predicted hardness at 14 days was found in mixture 24.72: 75.28 of LBG: KC, with a value of 22.74 N, while the highest predicted elasticity coinciding with a high hardness region was found in mixture 26.21: 67.82 : 8.98 of LBG: KC: IC, with a value of 0.93. In the sensory analysis, T7 and T11 (sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters.

  8. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  9. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  10. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  11. Secagem de café cereja descascado por ar quente e microondas Drying pulped coffee cherry beans by means of hot air ond microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cunha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a viabilidade de produzir café cereja descascado seco pela aplicação de microondas para assistir a secagem convencional a ar quente, a fim de reduzir o tempo de processo, com o aumento do rendimento industrial e da qualidade do produto perante os métodos tradicionais de secagem. Dois ciclos de secagem foram testados: a processo em secador rotativo convencional a ar quente, com umidade do produto reduzida de 45-50 a 11-13% b.u.; b processo subdividido em uma primeira etapa de pré-secagem convencional a ar quente de 45-50 a 30% b.u., seguida de etapa de secagem final por ar quente e microondas, com redução de 30 a 11-13% b.u. de umidade do produto. O tempo global do primeiro para o segundo ciclo de secagem foi reduzido de 15 a 37,5 para pouco mais de 10 horas, respectivamente. A qualidade sensorial do produto foi avaliada pela "prova da xícara", complementada por análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, com resultados satisfatórios. Um estudo preliminar dos aspectos econômicos envolvidos na ampliação de escala para uma linha industrial de processamento de café com a inclusão de um sistema a microondas foi também delineado.This research concerns a process development study focussing the application of microwaves to pulped coffee cherries production, in order to reduce the drying time and increase the industrial yield and product quality when compared to conventional drying processes. Two drying cycles were tested: a a hot air drying process using a conventional batch rotary dryer from 45-50 to 11-13% w.b. product moisture; b a two stage process, whereby the product was pre dried with hot air from 45-50 to 30% w.b., followed by a final microwave and hot air drying stage, to reduce product moisture from 30 to 11-13% w.b. The overall drying time was reduced from 15 to 37.5 hours to about 10 hours, respectively. The sensory quality of the product was evaluated by the "cup test", complemented

  12. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  13. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pbean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect or dietary raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean) on the performance of finisher broilers. Raw Mucuna pruriens seeds contained 30.3% crude protein. At 10% dietary level, raw and toasted Mucuna pruriens seed meals significantly (P ...

  15. Estimates of genetic parameters of late seed-coat darkening of carioca type dry beans Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos do caráter escurecimento tardio dos grãos de feijão carioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Andrade de Araújo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate commercialization of cultivars of carioca type dry beans, the grains must have the lightest possible cream color and this phenotype must be persistent (late seed-coat darkening. There are reports of genetic variability for this trait. The objectives of this study were to obtain information regarding genetic control of the trait, with emphasis on the estimate of heritability and if it varies according to days after harvest, to verify the effect of locations and/or crop season on seed-coat darkening of the grains and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic correlations of the trait with cooking time, tannin content and grain yield. F2:3 and F2:4 progenies derived from crossing of the cultivar BRSMG Madrepérola (late seed-coat darkening and the line RP-2 (early seed-coat darkening were used. It is concluded that seed-coat darkening is influenced by the environment, crop season or locations; nevertheless, the interaction progenies x environments and progenies x locations is predominantly simple, not expressively changing classification of the progenies. Although the heritability of the darkening scores tends to increase with the storage time of the grain, the interaction progenies x time periods of assessment was not observed. Grains with late seed-coat darkening present a lower tannin content and require less cooking time. The genetic correlation between a dark seed-coat and grain yield was practically null.Para facilitar a comercialização das cultivares de feijão carioca, estas devem possuir cor creme dos grãos o mais claro possível e esse fenótipo deve ser persistente (escurecimento tardio. Há relatos de variabilidade genética para esse caráter. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram obter informações sobre o controle genético do caráter, com ênfase na estimativa da herdabilidade e se ela varia com os dias após a colheita, verificar o efeito de locais e/ou safras sobre o escurecimento dos grãos e estimar as

  16. Effect of storage on the amino acid composition and biological quality of irradiated macacar beans Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, L.C.B.B.; de Medeiros, R.B.; Flores, H.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of two doses of gamma radiation (100 and 1,000 krad) upon the stability over a 6-month storage period of the amino acid composition and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of the macacar bean Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp were investigated. No important differences were noted when the aminograms of irradiated and nonirradiated beans, either raw or cooked were compared. Nevertheless, the losses of lysine, arginine, and histidine due to cooking were greater in the irradiated beans. The PER of nonirradiated was higher than that of irradiated beans before and after the 6 months of storage, and was always lowest in the beans subjected to the higher dose of radiation. Qualitatively, an association was observed between the nutritional value (PER) and small decreases in the content of certain amino acids which resulted mainly from increased thermal lability of the irradiated bean protein

  17. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of foods.

  19. Cooking crisis: What crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking has long been a topic of discussion and concern among those arguing for a healthy diet. Chadwick, the great public health reformer, in 1842 called for cooking education.\\ud \\ud The Obama administration has heartedly endorsed cooking, mainly through the First Lady and a program called Cooking Matters, to address the obesity problem in the United States (http://cookingmatters.org/). \\ud \\ud Changing practices in cooking and food preparation and the way we eat some argue are driven by a ...

  20. Cooking Up Creative Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-05-31

    There comes a time in every scientist’s career when one's mind seems to hit a wall. You can’t think of a new experiment that hasn’t been done before or figure out how to crack a problem that is blocking your progress. The easy questions have been answered. You go back to the wellspring of your creativity and find it dry. What to do? Collaborating with investigators who are investigating problems from a different data or analytical perspective is the best way I know to kick-start research creativity. They not only can provide new data, but they can also bring an expertise on how to get the most “flavor” out of the ingredient that they bring to your problem. As the complexity of the important biological problems continues to grow, too many cooks will never spoil the broth, but become a hallmark of the most creative research.

  1. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  2. The Dry Plant Extract of Common Bean Seed (Phaseoli Vulgari Pericarpium does not Have an Affect on Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Human Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cerović

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the effects and safety of a dry Phaseoli vulgari pericarpium (PVP extract on postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. A randomized crossover experiment where participants received either PVP extract or placebo. Chemical compounds in dry extract were assessed by established methods. Eighteen healthy participants (9 male and 9 female aged 29+/-4,8 years, body mass index (BMI 23+/-3,7 kg/m(2 were recruited among students and staff at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade. All participants were able to follow the study protocol without difficulty. The participants received either PVP extract or placebo 30 minutes before a 50g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. The protocol followed the guidelines for the OGTT with blood samples drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. This study demonstrated that there was no significantly effect of the PVP extract on incremental blood glucose (IBG and their areas under the curve (AUC neither male nor female participants. However, IBG together with AUC changes were significantly lower in male compared with female participants in treated and untreated groups. The presence of chrome, soluble fiber, vitamin C, protein, glucose and lectins were also quantified. The applied amount of PVP extract was unable to produce the postprandial hypoglycemia. We assumed that amounts of chrome, soluble fiber, vitamin C which have beneficial effects on diabetes treatment were sufficient to produce hypoglycemia.

  3. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  4. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  5. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  6. Influence of double cropping on growth and yield of dry beans with colored plastic mulches Influencia del doble cultivo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol con cubierta plástica de colores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ibarra-Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies of the use of plastic mulches in vegetable production, but there is little documentation of their use with dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in single and double cropping. The objective of this study was to grow dry beans over two consecutive growing seasons using the same plastic mulch of different colors and examine the influence of soil temperature on growth and yield. The experiment was conducted in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, in the spring and summer of 2008. The treatments included four colored plastic mulches: white-on-black, black, silver-on-black, aluminum-on-black, and bare soil as a control. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates. The percentage of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR reflected from the plastic tended to be highest with the white-on-black mulch and lowest with the black mulch. Mean soil temperature under the plastic mulch decreased with the increasing percentage of reflected PAR. Mean soil temperature exhibited a relationship of 98% and 99% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. Photosynthetically active radiation had a relationship of 98% and 86% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. The effect of the colored plastic mulch on yield was significant (p Existen numerosos estudios sobre el uso de cubierta plástica en la producción de hortalizas, sin embargo está muy poco documentado el cultivo simple o doble de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. El objetivo de este estudio fue cultivar frijol en dos estaciones de crecimiento consecutivas usando la misma cubierta plástica de diferentes colores y examinar la influencia de la temperatura del suelo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol. El estudio fue conducido en Saltillo, Coahuila, México, en la primavera y verano de 2008. Se usaron cuatro colores de acolchado plástico: blanco-sobre-negro, negro, plata-sobre-negro, aluminio-sobre-negro, y control de

  7. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  8. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  9. Gamma radiation effects on some nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics of stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini Filho, J.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation effects on physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of three Brazilian varieties of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) - Catu, Rajado and Carioca -were studied. The analytical parameters were obtained by the determination of soaking and cooking times, biological value in rats, protein electrophoretic profile, reductors sugars, oligosaccharides, fiber and fatty acids content. Also, amyloglucosidase, phytohemagglutinins, α-amylase and tryptic inhibitors activities were analysed. It was observed the gamma radiation until determined doses promotes changes on those parameters subsequently reducing substantially the cooking time without modification of the biological value of the proteins. This alteration was particularly noticed in the hard-to-cook beans. (author)

  10. A Cooking Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wynn D., Ed.

    This cooking curriculum, issued by the Washington District Early Childhood Council, details specific ways in which language arts, math, science, and social studies may be taught through cooking specific recipes. Cooking activities and recipes are presented for the fall, winter, and spring months, and guidelines are provided for preparing…

  11. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Masamitsu; Meshitsuka, Gyosuke; Nakano, Junzo

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2% in all over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking. (author)

  12. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Efeito dos parâmetros de extrusão termoplástica sobre as propriedades tecnológicas de farinhas pré-cozidas elaboradas com arroz e feijão Effect of the thermoplastic extrusion parameters on the technological properties of pre-cooked flours prepared with rice and beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    pré-gelatinizada mista de arroz e feijão apresenta as melhores características tecnológicas quando processada sob temperatura de 70 °C, 21% de umidade e com adição de 30% de farinha de feijão à mistura.The objective of this study was to obtain a pre-gelatinized flour from a mixed rice and bean flour, and to evaluate the influence of the formulations and processing conditions on the technological properties and protein content of the final product. A complete 2³ factorial design was adopted with central and axial points to prepare the mixed pre-gelatinized flour, varying the following parameters: percent of bean flour, moisture content and processing temperature. The responses were: protein content (Y1, water absorption index (Y2 and water solubility index (Y3. The formulations were processed in a single screw extruder. The temperature in zone 3 of the extruder varied between 46 and 114 °C, according to the experimental design. The processed products were dried in an air circulating oven at 50 °C for about 15 hours, presenting a final moisture between 4 and 6%, and were then ground in a knife mill and packed into polyethylene bags until analysed. For the protein content, only the percent bean flour was significant and with a positive effect, that is, the higher the bean flour content, the higher the protein content of the final product, independent of the processing conditions - temperature or moisture. For the water absorption index (WAI, the moisture content, temperature and moisture and temperature interaction were significant. Higher WAI values were observed at intermediate temperatures (60 to 80 °C and high moisture contents (17 to 20%. For the water solubility index (WSI, the moisture content, temperature and moisture e temperature interaction were again significant, higher WSI values being observed at higher temperatures (100 °C and lower moisture contents (14%. According to the experimental design, the pre-gelatinized mixed rice and bean flour

  14. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  15. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  16. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  17. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  18. Avaliação de algumas propriedades funcionais das farinhas de tremoço doce (Lupinus albus e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp e sua utilização na produção de fiambre Evaluation of some functional properties of lupin sweet flour (Lupinus albus and faba bean flour (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp and their utilization in cooked ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castilho

    2010-03-01

    enabled to identify that sweet lupin flour is able to absorb 172 to 186% of its weight in water, and ~62% in oil, while faba bean flour absorbs ~100% of its weight in water, and ~50% in oil. The emulsions obtained with both flours showed good activity and stability, suggesting a good application potential in the production of sausages. In the present work, some functional properties of the sweet lupin and faba bean flours were analyzed, including use in the production of cooked ham. The cooked ham was elaborated in the Quality Control Laboratory of foods in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty in the University of São Paulo State (UNESP in Araraquara (SP, Brazil, offering an enriched food nutritionally. When compared to cooked hams prepared with the addition of soy protein, the experimental hams presented no significant sensorial differences, such as appearance, color, flavor, texture and overall impression, however they had had little sensorial acceptability.

  19. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  20. Sensory Evaluation of Cooked Sausages with Legumes Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Gramatina; Jelena Zagorska; Evita Straumite; Svetlana Sarvi

    2012-01-01

    In the meat processing industry the substitution of meat with non-meat ingredients is considered an important strategy for reducing overall production costs. The main purpose of the current research was to evaluate differences in physical-chemical composition of cooked sausage with different legumes additions. Peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil (Lens culinaris) were used in preparation of sausages. The legumes at proportion of 20% of the total wei...

  1. Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Ouazib, Meriem; Garzón, Raquel; Farid Zaidi, Farid; Rosell, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of processing (germination, toasting and cooking) of chickpea beans was investigated on the resulting flours characteristics and their potential for obtaining gluten free breads. Rheological properties of dough were recorded using Mixolab�� and breads were analyzed for their instrumental quality, nutritional and sensory properties. Chickpea based doughs showed low consistency and their rheological behavior was defined by the starch gelatinization and gelification. The bread made wi...

  2. A quantitative performance assessment of improved cooking stoves and traditional three-stone-fire stoves using a two-pot test design in Chamwino, Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, J.; Uckert, G.; Graef, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Kimaro, A. A.; Sererya, O.; Sieber, S.

    2018-02-01

    In Tanzania, a majority of rural residents cook using firewood-based three-stone-fire stoves. In this study, quantitative performance differences between technologically advanced improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves are analysed. We test the performance of improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves using local cooks, foods, and fuels, in the semi-arid region of Dodoma in Tanzania. We used the cooking protocol of the Controlled Cooking Test following a two-pot test design. The findings of the study suggest that improved cooking stoves use less firewood and less time than three-stone-fire stoves to conduct a predefined cooking task. In total, 40 households were assessed and ask to complete two different cooking tasks: (1) a fast cooking meal (rice and vegetables) and (2) a slow cooking meal (beans and rice). For cooking task 1, the results show a significant reduction in firewood consumption of 37.1% by improved cooking stoves compared to traditional three-stone-fire stoves; for cooking task 2 a reduction of 15.6% is found. In addition, it was found that the time needed to conduct cooking tasks 1 and 2 was significantly reduced by 26.8% and 22.8% respectively, when improved cooking stoves were used instead of three-stone-fire-stoves. We observed that the villagers altered the initial improved cooking stove design, resulting in the so-called modified improved cooking stove. In an additional Controlled Cooking Test, we conducted cooking task 3: a very fast cooking meal (maize flour and vegetables) within 32 households. Significant changes between the initial and modified improved cooking stoves regarding firewood and time consumption were not detected. However, analyses show that both firewood and time consumption during cooking was reduced when large amounts (for 6-7 household members) of food were prepared instead of small amounts (for 2-3 household members).

  3. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  4. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  5. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  6. Feeding differently processed soya bean. Part 2. An assessment of haematological responses in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A; Egberongbe, O

    1992-01-01

    The use of differently processed soya bean as a major source of dietary protein was evaluated in a haematological study using broiler chickens in which groundnut cake (GNC), raw soya bean (RSB), roasted soya bean (RtSB), cooked soya bean (CSB) and soya bean oil cake (SBC) were fed on equi-protein basis. The results showed that: 1. Red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin content of blood significantly (P less than 0.05) increased in chicks fed RSB relative to the other soya bean diets. Feeding differently processed soya bean significantly (P less than 0.05) influenced mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) while the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was not significantly influenced. 2. Both the total white blood cell (WBC) count and the monocytes were significantly (P less than 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Chicks fed processed soya bean generally had higher number of monocytes. 3. Physical properties determined were specific gravity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The latter was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in all the processed soya bean-fed chicks. 4. Minerals determined in blood were Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and P. Of all these, chicks fed RSB had significantly (P less than 0.01) lower levels of blood Mg and marked decrease in Ca.

  7. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  8. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; Edi Suharyanto

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  9. Efeitos dos herbicidas glyphosate e paraquat, aplicados ao solo, sobre a emergência de feijão e soja e de algumas espécies daninhas Effects of the herbicides glyphosate and paraquat, applied to the soil, on the emergence of dry beans and soybeans and some weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Dias

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalho conduzido a campo na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, Guaíba, RS em 1979/80, usaram-se os herbicidas glyphosate, paraquat e sua combinação, objetivando determinar os efe itos de doses e de épocas de aplicação destes herbicidas em plântulas de feijão e de soja e sobre nutrientes do solo. Pelos resultados obtidos para emergência e peso de maté ria seca da parte aé re a de soja , não houve di ferenças para os tratamentos testados. Também não ocorreram diferenças significativas à população in ic ia l de feijão e sobre os elementos de solo analisados (Ca, Mg e K. Com relação ao peso de matéria seca da parte aérea do feijão, verificou-se que houve interação entre herbicida e doses usadas, tendo glyphosate isolado e glyphosate mais paraquat aplicados seqüencialmente nas doses máximas causado redução significativa naquele parâmetro. Com relação ao paraquat, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre as doses testadas.A field xeperiment was conducted during the 1979/80 growing season at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, in order to evaluate the efects of rates and times of appl ication of the herbicides glyphosate, paraqu at, and the ir combin at ion, on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybeans (Glvcine max (L. Merrill, and on some soil nutrierts. The results indicated no significant differences among the soybeans treatments tested fo r plant population and shoot dry weight. Also no sta ti sti cal diffe re nces occurred fo r dry beans plant population and for soil nutrients analysed (Ca, Mg, and K. For dry beans shoot dry weight, there was an interaction of herbicides and rates, where glyphosate sprayed alone and glyphosate plus paraquat applied at the maxima ra te s te sted caused significant decreases on that variable. For paraquat utilized alone, no significant effects were detected among the rates applied.

  10. effect of rate of inclusion of fishmeal prepared by cooking and sun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    SUN DRYING OF FISH OFFAL ON FEED INTAKE AND NUTRIENT RETENTION OF. GROWING ... ABSTRACT: Effect of cooked and sun dried fish offal on intake and nutrient retention of growing. Rhode Island Red ..... hematology and serum.

  11. γ-ray irradiation of cooked dishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Cheng Wei; Wen Shengli; Xiong Guangquan; Ye Lixiu; Chen Yuxia; Zhang Jinmu; He Jianjun; Lin Yong; Zhan Hanping

    2005-01-01

    Ready-to-eat cooked dishes, including stir-fried dishes, steamed dishes, roast meat, deep dried dishes, shrimps and seashells, and dishes of local flavor, etc were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays, and the decontamination effects were studied. The results showed that most of the cooked dishes are suitable for irradiation. The effective dose is 4 kGy to 8 kGy. Index of microbe of the irradiated dishes was conformed to the National Food-Health standards, and no significant sensory changes was observed with the irradiated dishes. The quality guarantee period (0-5 degree C) is 60 days. (authors)

  12. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Phytochemical analysis of Tephrosia vogelii (fish poison bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out to determine the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii (Fish poison bean), in order to test the extracts of the plant for use as fish tranquilizer. Fresh samples of T. vogelii were collected separately, air-dried for 21 days and oven-dried at 60o C for 3-4 hours to constant weight. The dried samples ...

  15. Investigation on Furan Levels in Pressure-Cooked Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. Arisseto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Furan is a food processing contaminant classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. As the occurrence of furan has been reported in a variety of foods processed in sealed containers, the objective of this work was to investigate if the contaminant can be found in home-cooked foods prepared in a pressure cooker. For that, several foods including beans, soy beans, whole rice, beef, pork, potato, and cassava were pressure-cooked and analyzed for the furan content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC/MS. Furan was not found above the limit of quantification in the pressure-cooked samples. No furan has either been found in reheated samples after 24 hours under cold storage. Although levels up to 173 μg/kg were already reported for commercial canned/jarred foods, it seems that the cooking in a pressure cooker may not represent a concern in relation to the occurrence of furan in foods.

  16. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  17. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans; Efeitos da irradiacao nas propriedades fisico-quimicas do feijao carioca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-10-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  18. QTL analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a black bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) but it has a low efficiency to fix nitrogen. The objective of this study is to map the genes controlling nitrogen fixation in common bean. A mapping population consisting of 122 recomb...

  19. Ensaio de adubação da soja e do feijoeiro em solo do arenito botucatu, com vegetação de cerrado Fertilizer experiments with soybeans and dry beans in «arentto botucatu» soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito de doses crescentes de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sôbre a produção da soja em solo derivado do arenito Botucatu, com vegetação de campo cerrado, foram instalados, em 1961-62, dois ensaios fatoriais em áreas vizinhas, uma das quais recebeu calcário dolomítico. Nos canteiros do último ensaio, semeou-se feijão em 1962-63, para verificar o efeito residual dos adubos aplicados na soja. As respostas ao nitrogênio e ao potássio, bem como as interações, não foram significativas. O efeito do fósforo, porém, foi significativo e linear, tanto na cultura da soja como na do feijão. Conquanto grande nas duas áreas, êsse efeito foi muito maior naquela que recebeu prévia calagem. Comparando os resultados dos dois ensaios, verificou-se que o efeito do calcário só se tornou grande na presença do fósforo. Na área com calcário a produção de soja, em média dos tratamentos que receberam 120 kg/ha de P2O5, atingiu cêrca de 1.800 kg/ha, equiparando-se às obtidas, no Estado de São Paulo, em terras consideradas férteis.In this paper are reported the results of two factorial experiments on poor soil derived from the Botucatu sandstone, to study the effects of three levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the yields of soybeans. The experiments were located in neighboring areas, one of which was previously limed with dolomitic lime. The plots of the latter were sown with dry beans in the following year, to study the residual effect of the fertilizers applied to the soybeans. The responses to nitrogen and potassium, as well as the interactions, were insignificant. The effect of phosphorus, however, was significant and linear with both crops. Although high in the two areas, this effect was much higher in the limed one. Comparing the results of the two experiments, it was concluded that the response to lime was negligible in absence of phosphorus but increased considerably in its presence. On the limed

  20. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT determination. The number of living and dead nymphs was recorded five days after spraying for LC determination, and daily during six days for LT determination. The LC50 estimated for fourth instar nymphs occurred at 0.56% concentration. For all instars, LC50 and LC95 were estimated at 0.32 and 2.78% concentrations, respectively. The estimated values of LT50 at 1% concentration were 2.46, 4.45, 3.02 and 6.98 days for the first to fourth instars, respectively. The LT50 occurred at five days for 0.5% and at four days for 1% concentration in all instars. A mortality rate of over 80% was observed on the 6th day for the first to third instars at 1% concentration. The first three nymphal stages were more susceptible to neem oil when compared to the fourth nymphal stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o estágio ninfal de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B mais suscetível ao óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. aplicado em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em casa telada. Foram avaliados o tempo letal (TL e concentração letal (CL do óleo comercial de sementes de nim Dalneem. Para CL, concentrações de 0, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2% do produto foram pulverizadas diretamente sobre as ninfas em cada ínstar. Para TL, o produto foi avaliado a 0, 0,5 e 1% de óleo de nim em cada ínstar. Ninfas vivas e mortas foram contadas cinco dias após a pulverização para CL e diariamente para TL durante seis dias. Para o quarto ínstar, a CL50 foi de 0,56% de óleo de nim. Considerando todos os ínstares, CL

  1. Precooked beans for food, nutrition, and income in Kenya and Uganda

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using precooked beans should reduce cooking time and the use of energy and fuel. Value-added processing presents great potential to improve food and nutritional security, reduce energy consumption, preserve the environment, create jobs, and contribute to global economic development. The approach based on the ...

  2. In vitro digestibility of processed and fermented soya bean, cowpea and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical legumes, ie soya bean and cowpea, were pre-treated and subsequently fermented using pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. Impact of soaking, cooking and fermentation of the legumes on their digestibility was determined using an in vitro digestion method. Processing of white maize included, amongst

  3. Iron contents of Malawian foods when prepared in iron cooking pots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen Geerligs, P. D.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, D. J.; Fairweather-Tait, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the iron content of Malawian foods prepared in iron pots and to examine the effects of continuous cooking time and added oil on the iron content of the food prepared. Foods prepared, which included a staple (Nsima), relish vegetables, and beans, had an

  4. Effect of Processing on the In Vitro and In Vivo Protein Quality of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia Faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Nosworthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein quality of different bean types after undergoing the preparatory methods of baking, cooking and extrusion was assayed. Protein quality was assessed using a rodent bioassay to evaluate growth and protein digestibility while amino acid composition was determined via HPLC. In vivo protein digestibility was compared to an in vitro assessment method. The average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS for processed beans was higher than the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS (61% vs. 45%. Extrusion/cooking of Phaseolus varieties resulted in higher PDCAAS (66% on average and DIAAS values (61% on average than baked (52% and 48% while baked faba beans had higher PDCAAS (66% and DIAAS (61% values. A significant correlation was found between PDCAAS and in vitro PDCAAS (R2 = 0.7497. This demonstrates which bean processing method will generate the optimal protein quality, which has benefits for both industrial production and individual domestic preparation.

  5. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  6. Crop physiological analysis of seed quality variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Physiological maturity, harvest maturity, earliness, common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., morphological markers, variation, moisture content, dry weight, viability, vigour, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, seed lot, seed

  7. Cooking does not decrease hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of wild blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca Ree; Renfroe, Michael H; Brevard, Patricia Bowling; Lee, Robert E; Gloeckner, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of domestic cooking methods on the hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA) of wild blueberries. Baked, microwaved, simmered, and pan-fried frozen wild blueberries, and a thawed uncooked control, were analyzed for HAA using an ABTS/H(2)O(2)/HRP decoloration method. All cooking treatments were derived from recipes using wild blueberries, and were performed in triplicate. A randomized block design was used to determine whether there were statistical differences in antioxidant content after cooking and between each of the trials. There were no statistically significant decreases after cooking the thawed berries. On both a fresh weight and a dry weight basis, pan-fried blueberries had significantly higher HAA than baked, simmered, and control blueberries (Pcooked berries retained significant HAA. Cooked wild blueberries can be recommended as a good source of dietary antioxidants.

  8. Influence of the environment in 40K concentration in Brazilian common beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, R.M.; Nogueira, R.A.; Edison Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of beans constitutes an important dietary habit in many Latin American, Asian and African countries. Carioca beans and the black type stand out among the many consumed common beans in Brazil. 40 K was used as a natural radiotracer to evaluate the influence of the season growing and the bean type in the potassium content into grain. The activity concentrations of 40 K and 137 Cs were evaluated on samples of beans by γ-ray spectrometry. 137 Cs was less than 1.3 Bq kg -1 . The highest potassium content in the grain were observed in the dry and winter seasons. The black beans showed higher potassium content than the carioca type. The potassium levels were compared with that of beans grown and consumed in other regions of the world. A method to estimate the bean consumption rates in Brazil independently of the location of the meal is proposed. The ingestion of common beans was estimated in 14.6 kg year -1 per person. The two regions with the highest consumption are the Southeast (19.2 kg year -1 ) and the Middle West (18.7 kg year -1 ), whose account for about 60 % of the intake of common beans is related to consumption out home. (author)

  9. Iron absorption from beans with different contents of iron, evaluated by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Franco, Márcia Varella Morandi; Dutra de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pereira, Helton Santos; Carvalho, José Luiz Vianna de; Abrams, Steven A; Brandão, Camila Fernanda Cunha; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio

    2018-06-01

    The introduction of biofortified foods such as beans with higher iron content may be a useful tool in preventing iron deficiency. The biofortification aims to reach the root of the problem of malnutrition, targets the neediest population, uses embedded distribution mechanisms, is scientifically feasible and effective in terms of cost, and complements other ongoing interventions to control micronutrient deficiency. However, to ensure effectiveness, measurement of the absorption of minerals is essential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the iron bioavailability of common bean BRS Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with common bean BRS Estilo in man through reliable techniques that have not been previously used in Brazil. The study included 29 young adult volunteers divided into 2 groups: Group CB (13 subjects) received 100 g of common beans (BRS-Estilo) cooked labeled with iron-58 ( 58 Fe) and Group TBB (16 patients) received 100 g common bean target for iron biofortification (BRS-Pontal), cooked and labeled with iron58 ( 58 Fe). The next day they received the reference dose of ferrous sulfate enriched iron-57 ( 57 Fe). Isotopic evaluation of iron for measurement of iron incorporation into erythrocytes was performed 14 days after consumption. The beans used, were produced, through conventional breeding program, by EMBRAPA/Rice and Beans. The iron absorption was evaluated by assessing the isotopic enrichment of the stable isotope. Mean iron absorption from the meal with common beans was 0.409% (±0.040%) and mean iron incorporation from the meal with target beans for biofortification 0.407% (±0.038%) and did not differ between the groups. This study tested the iron absorption from a single bean meal in healthy volunteers or non anemics, In the present study the iron absorption ratio from common bean Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification and compared with common bean BRS Estilo was not significantly different. The iron concentration

  10. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  11. Incidence and distribution of filamentous fungi during fermentation, drying and storage of coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans Incidência e distribuição de fungos filamentosos durante a fermentação, secagem e armazenamento de frutos e grãos de café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate and characterize filamentous fungi present in different stages of harvest, fermentation, drying and storage of coffee beans processed by natural method. The cherries were hand-picked and then placed on a cement drying platform where they remained until reached 11% of humidity. Microbial counts were found in all samples during fermentation and drying of the coffee beans. Counts of fungi in the coffee cherries collected from the tree (time 0 were around 1.5 x 10³ CFU/g. This number increased slowly during the fermentation and drying reaching values of 2 x 10(5 CFU/g within 22 days of processing. Two hundred and sixty three isolates of filamentous fungi were identified. The distribution of species during fermentation and drying was very varied while there was a predominance of Aspergillus species during storage period. The genera found were Pestalotia (4, Paecelomyces (4, Cladosporium (26, Fusarium (34, Penicillium (81 and Aspergillus (112 and comprised 38 different species.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e caracterizar fungos filamentosos presentes em diferentes estágios de beneficiamento de café processado pelo método natural, incluindo: colheita, fermentação, secagem e armazenamento. O café cereja foi colhido manualmente e então colocado em uma plataforma de cimento, onde permaneceu até atingir 11% de umidade. A contagem microbiana foi realizada em todas as amostras durante a fermentação e secagem do café. A população de fungos filamentosos no café cereja ainda nos pés (tempo 0 foi em torno de 1,5 x 10³ UFC/g. Este número aumentou vagarosamente durante a fermentação e secagem, alcançando valores de 2 x 10(5 UFC/g em 22 dias do processamento. Duzentos e sessenta e três isolados de fungos filamentosos foram identificados. A distribuição das espécies durante fermentação e secagem foi bastante variada, mas no armazenamento dos grãos ocorreu o predomínio de espécies de

  12. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mugabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-treated by soaking them in water for 24 hours, soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and steam blanching for 10 minutes. After that, pre-treated climbing beans were processed into flours by processing methods such as roasting, cooking and germination where anti-nutritional factors were reduced. The pretreatments did not significantly (p>0.05 affect phytates in climbing bean flours but processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced it. Pretreatments and processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced tannin content. The pretreatments followed by different processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 decreased trypsin inhibitors content. The great significant decrease in phytohemagglutinins content was observed in pretreatment followed by different processing methods. All pretreatments and processing conditions effectively decreased anti-nutritional factors at low level. However, pretreatments or untreated followed by germination and roasting were found to be the most and the least effective respectively.  Making flour from germinated climbing bean seeds is a good option for sustainable food processing as it reduces anti-nutritional factors. It is an inexpensive method in terms of time, energy and fuel for Rwandan households, restaurants and industries where climbing bean seeds are integral part of daily meal.

  13. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  14. Effect of Thermal Processing and Maceration on the Antioxidant Activity of White Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Karina; Brigide, Priscila; Bretas, Eloá Bolis; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which naturally occur in beans, are known to have antioxidant activity, which may be partially lost during the processing of this legume. This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing and maceration on the phenolic acid and flavonoids profile and content and on the antioxidant activity of white beans. According to the results obtained from the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, there were no significant differences among treatment groups analysed. When was using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl method (DPPH), beans cooked without maceration present the higher antioxidant activity, and raw beans the lower. The phenolic acids found in greater amounts were gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. Kaempferol was only detected in the soaked and cooked samples; catechin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were found in the highest concentrations. Quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside were not affected by the cooking process, either with or without maceration. In general, the heat treatment increased the antioxidant activity. PMID:24991931

  15. Influência da fermentação e secagem de amêndoas de cacau no teor de compostos fenólicos e na aceitação sensorial Influence of cocoa beans fermentation and drying on the polyphenol content and sensory acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Efraim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Devido à importância das etapas de fermentação e secagem das sementes de cacau para as características sensoriais dos produtos finais obtidos, bem como para os teores de compostos fenólicos presentes, objetivou-se avaliar a influência do tempo de fermentação e do tipo de secagem de sementes de cacaueiro nos teores de compostos fenólicos, bem como nas características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais dos produtos obtidos. Os tempos de fermentação avaliados foram 3 e 7 dias e a secagem foi realizada naturalmente (ao sol e artificialmente (estufa com circulação de ar a 35 °C. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais, flavan-3-óis e procianidinas foram quantificados durante a fermentação e ao término da secagem. Constatou-se que grande parte dos compostos fenólicos foi perdida durante a fermentação, sendo que as amêndoas fermentadas por 3 dias apresentaram teores maiores dos compostos fenólicos avaliados. Contudo, observou-se nessa condição uma significativa perda na qualidade sensorial. A secagem natural das amêndoas fermentadas permitiu maior retenção de polifenóis e também melhores resultados sensoriais em relação à secagem artificial. A avaliação sensorial realizada com uma bebida formulada com o liquor obtido dos diferentes tratamentos demonstrou que a amostra fermentada durante 7 dias apresentou as melhores notas sensoriais, sendo que o produto seco naturalmente foi o mais bem avaliado em relação aos demais.Due to the importance of the fermentation and drying stages in the sensory characteristics and in the phenolic content of cocoa products, the present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fermentation period and the type of drying of cocoa seeds, on the phenolic compounds content, as well as on the physical, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics of the products. The periods of fermentation were 3 and 7 days and the fermented beans were dried naturally (sun drying and

  16. Culinary alternatives for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): sensory characteristics of immature seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero del Castillo, Roser; Ferreira, Juan José; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Almirall, Antoni; Casañas, Francesc

    2010-08-15

    Immature bean seeds feature in several dishes in southern Europe; however, they are not used in all traditional areas of dry beans cultivation. To determine whether differences in the use of immature seeds are due to cultural reasons or intrinsic properties of the seeds, the prestigious varieties of beans cultivated in three areas of Spain with different traditions regarding the use of immature seeds in bean dishes were studied. We found differences in the culinary and sensory traits between beans harvested when mature and those harvested when immature in the three areas. However, the degree and direction of these differences varied according to the area. Moreover, the different varieties tested within each area responded differently. The sum of the genetic, environmental and interaction effects results in complex alternatives to the mature beans; the gastronomic tradition has taken advantage of only some of these alternatives. A lack of traditional dishes using immature beans does not mean that the local beans harvested when immature lack suitable sensory traits. Specific trials in each area of cultivation can reveal alternative textures and bean flavour intensities in immature seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Analytical determination of thiamine (vitamin B1) in irradiated and stored Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Bognar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) content in two varieties of Brazilian beans, Phaselus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp, var. macacar , irradiated with doses ranging from 0,05, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy was investigated. After a 6 months storage period, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and variety. Sensorial evaluation tests were carried out by a panel of six people trained to this specific task. Our purpose to work with these beans is because conflicting results have appeared in studies about vitamin loss after low-dose irradiation. In our case, after a 6-month storage period of this two kinds of beans, in addition to the analysis of cooking time and sensory properties the vitamin B 1 content was evaluated. No significant vitamin losses were observed in Macacar beans until 10.0 kGy. Carioca beans showed small losses after 2.5 kGy. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  19. What does cooking mean to you?: Perceptions of cooking and factors related to cooking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in American life and evidence suggesting that meals cooked at home are healthier, little is known about perceptions of what it means to cook in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe perceptions of cooking and factors important to how cooking is perceived and practiced among American adults. Seven focus groups (N = 53; 39 female; 35 Black, 16 White, 2 Asian) were conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in Baltimore City, Maryland. Participants were recruited from two neighborhoods; one with higher median income and access to healthy food and the other with lower income and low access to healthy food. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants' perceptions of cooking varied considerably, regardless of neighborhood income or food access, and spanned a continuum from all scratch cooking to anything made at home. Perceptions of cooking incorporated considerations of whether or how food was heated and the degree of time, effort and love involved if convenience foods were used. Key barriers to cooking included affordability, lack of time, and lack of enjoyment. Key facilitators of frequent cooking included extensive organization and time management to enable participants to incorporate cooking into their daily lives. Cooking is a complex concept and not uniformly understood. Efforts to encourage healthy cooking at home should consider the broad spectrum of activities Americans recognize as cooking as well as the barriers and facilitators to preparing food at home. Public health messages to encourage more frequent cooking should account for the heterogeneity in perspectives about cooking. More research should explore differences in perceptions about cooking in other diverse populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying Creativity Research to Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.; Hatcher, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    What, if any, benefit might there be to applying creativity research to cooking? The purpose of this paper was to address this question. Specifically, we draw on concepts and theories from creativity research to help clarify what is meant by creative cooking. This includes exploring creative cooking through the lens of the 4-C and Propulsion…

  1. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  2. Cooking with Quadratics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Luajean N.

    2010-01-01

    A project that mixes algebra with data collection, uses technology, extends into data analysis, and cooks marshmallows can excite both teachers and students. This article describes a project that intends to pique students' interest in higher mathematics, incorporate their knowledge of parabolas, and offer a meaningful mathematics experience. Using…

  3. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  4. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuey, R.K.; Koros, I.; Wanyonyi, W.

    2001-01-01

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  5. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    OpenAIRE

    TIANSAWANG,Kasarin; LUANGPITUKSA,Pairoj; VARANYANOND,Warunee; HANSAWASDI,Chanida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...

  6. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  7. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber content also increased in all grains during germination where the insoluble dietary fiber fractions were always found in higher proportions to soluble dietary fiber fractions. Our results also confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean. Therefore microwave cooking and steaming are the most recommended cooking processes to preserve GABA in germinated legumes and sesame.

  8. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination...... by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from...... coffee beans were capable of producing fumonisins B2 (FB2) and B4 when grown on Czapek Yeast Agar with 5% NaCl. Small amounts (1-9.7 ng g-1) of FB2 were detected in seven of 12 selected coffee samples after ion-exchange purification and LC-MS/MS detection. Two samples also contained FB4...

  9. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  10. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  11. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  12. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  13. Capture efficiency of cooking-related fine and ultrafine particles by residential exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, M M; Delp, W W; Singer, B C

    2015-02-01

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking-generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80%. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38% for low (51-68 l/s) and 54-72% for high (109-138 l/s) settings. CEs for 0.3-2.0 μm particles during front burner stir-frying were 3-11% on low and 16-70% on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80% both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  15. quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Ahlem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural parameters and microstructure were carried out to assess the impact of experimental factors. Results showed that hydrothermal treatment of corn flour affected in different extent on pasta properties, improving cooking and textural characteristics of pasta. The optimum formulation of corn-field bean contained 7.41 g of treated corn flour and 77.26 mL of water was selected on the base of desirability function approach with value of 0.825 which showed the best pasta properties. Obtained results showed also that addition of treated flour induced significant differences (p < 0.05 in all parameters in comparison with control pasta.

  16. Effect of arcelin protein on the biology of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833, in dry beans Efeito da proteína arcelina na biologia de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833, em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rabelo Barbosa

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Arcelin is a seed protein found in wild beans (Phaseolus vulgaris which gives resistance to Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Studies were carried out with the objective of estimating the effect of four alleles of protein arcelin (Arc1, Arc2, Arc3 and Arc4 on the biology of Z. subfasciatus. The experiment was carried out in laboratory at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, under non controlled conditions. The highest levels of antibiosis to Z. subfasciatus were observed in Arc1, with reduction in the number of eggs, number of emerged adults, adults longevity. In the line Arc2 only reduction in the number of emerged adults was observed. The lines Arc3 and Arc4 showed low efficiency on the reduction of progeny of Z. subfasciatus and effects in the longevity and egg-adult cycle were not detected. Insect sexual ratio was not altered by the presence of Arc1, Arc2, Arc3 and Arc4 in the seeds.A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada em feijões silvestres (Phaseolus vulgaris e que confere resistência ao caruncho-do-feijão, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Estudos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de conhecer o efeito de quatro alelos da proteína arcelina (Arc1, Arc2, Arc3 e Arc4, na biologia de Z. subfasciatus. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em condições não controladas. O mais alto nível de antibiose a Z. subfasciatus foi constatado na linhagem portadora do alelo Arc1, observando-se redução do número de ovos produzidos, redução do número de adultos emergidos, redução da longevidade de adultos. Na linhagem Arc2 constatou-se redução apenas no número de adultos emergidos. As linhagens Arc3 e Arc4 apresentaram baixa eficiência na redução da progênie de Z. subfasciatus, não observando

  17. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  18. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  20. Effect of thermal treatments on the chemical and biological value of irradiated and non-irradiated cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dario, A.C.; Salgado, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated and nonirradiated cowpea bean at 0.2 kGy submitted to several thermal treatments were studied. The cowpea bean flours irradiated at 0.2 kGy were superior to those non-irradiated concerning digestibility and the flours submitted to microwave oven were superior to those cooked under low pressure, autoclaved or even raw from the nutritional point of view. As to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, the results showed that the variety of cowpea bean under research presented neither trypsin inhibitor nor haemagglutinin activity, however, regarding tannin, a 0.006% content was found and considered negligible

  1. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  2. Availability of iron in grains common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigide, Priscila

    2002-01-01

    Common bean is the legume more consuming in Brazil, however, the average income of the farming in Brazil is low must the infestation of the grains, to fight these losses the irradiation process is an alternative healthful if compared the chemical handling. The objective of this research was evaluate the iron availability in irradiated raw and cooked beans (doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy). It was carried through the centesimal composition, anti nutritional factors (tannins and phytate) and iron dialyses for the method 'in vitro'. Cooking diminished the mainly components of the composition with exception of available carbohydrates, the protein content of 27.4 and 23.9; fat 1.2 and 1.1; fibre 23.7 and 18.6, carbohydrates 43.3 and 52.5; respectively for raw grains and cooked. It also had reduction in the amount of tannin which if correlated reversely with the applied doses, with exception of the dose of 2 kGy, varying of 1.56 (10 kGy) to 2.49 (2 kGy) to the for raw grains and traces (10 kGy) to 0.103 (2 kGy ) for grains cooked. The phytate varied of 4.63 (2 kGy) to 8.28 (0 kGy) and 5.29 (6 kGy) to the 9.55 (0 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked. In relation to the dialysed iron, the content varied of 1.16 (0 kGy) to 2.39 (6 kGy) and 5.33 (0 kGy) to the 8.02 (6 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked The dose of 6 kGy showed positive effect availability such as raw as cooked grain, it being recommended for the utilization. (author)

  3. Effects of cooking methods and temperatures on nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, Harun; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional and quality characteristics of anchovy after cooking. The fish were cooked by different methods (frying, baking and grilling) at two different temperatures (160 °C, 180 °C). Crude ash, crude protein and crude fat contents of cooked fish increased due to rise in dry matter contents. While cooking methods affected mineral content of anchovy, cooking temperature did not affect. The highest values of monounsaturated fatty acids were found in baked samples. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in baked samples were also high and similar in fried samples. Fried samples, which were the most preferred, lost its nutritional characteristics more than baked and grilled samples. Grilled and baked fish samples can be recommended for healthy consumption. However, grilled fish samples had hard texture due to more moisture loss than other methods. Therefore, it is concluded that baking is the best cooking method for anchovy.

  4. THE OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS AND MOULDS IN STORED COCOA BEANS AT SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on postharvest handling and technology processing of cocoa beans at farmer, trader and exporter levels in South Sulawesi were conducted together with investigations on moisture content, pest infestation (insect and mould and quality characteris tics in terms of reducing sugar, free amino acid and free fatty acid content. Surveys were conducted during dry (July 1997 and wet seasons (February 1998 in three regencies (Pinrang, Polewali-Mamasa and Luwu and Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi province. Interviews were carried out during surveys in the dry season. Number of respondents from farmers, trailers and exporters was 38, 15 and 5, respectively. In each season, number of samples taken from farmers, traders and exporters was 9, 21 and 15, respectively. In general, farmers, traders and exporters did not carry out postharvest handling and technology processing properly. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected from farmers, traders and exporters were higher than the tolerabl e limit recommended by SNI (7.5%. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected during the wet season was higher than in the dry season. Insects were found on cocoa beans collected from traders and exporters. Species composition and the presence of each insect species were varied among the two seasons, but the predominant species was Tribolium castaneum. At trader level the percentage of insect-damaged beans during the wet season was higher than that during the dry season, while at exporter le vel it was lower. During the two seasons the percentage of mouldy beans at farmer level was lower than the tolerable limit recommended by SNI (4%, while those from some samples at trader and exporter levels were higher than 4%, but based on the direct plating method, all of the samples at trader and exporter levels were mouldy. Species composition and the percentage of beans infected by each mould species at farmer, trader and exporter levels during the two seasons were va ried. The

  5. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of cereulide and enterotoxins by Bacillus cereus in fermented African locust beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Munk Hansen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    Afitin, iru and sonru are three spontaneously fermented African locust bean Benin condiments. The fermentation processes are exothermic, with temperatures mostly being above 40 °C. A total of 19 predominant Bacillus cereus isolates from afitin, iru and sonru, were investigated. The enterotoxin...... genes nhe (A, B, C) were present in all 19 isolates, the hbl (A, C, D) in one (afitin), and the cytK gene in three isolates (afitin). Levels of cytotoxicity to Vero cells and NheA production in BHI-broth was within the range of known diarrheal outbreak strains. Autoclaved cooked African locust beans...... inoculated with emetic (cereulide producing) B. cereus Ba18H2/RIF supported growth at 25, 30 and 40 °C with highly different maximum cereulide productions of 6 ± 5, 97 ± 3 and 0.04 ± 0.02 μg/g beans, respectively (48 h). For non-autoclaved cooked beans inoculated with 2, 4 and 6 log10 B. cereus Ba18H2/RIF...

  7. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type of...

  8. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  9. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  10. African yam bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... seeds of this crop have been determined (Okigbo, 1973; ... 62%, K2O per unit weight of muriate of potash (Beegle, 1990). ... determined. Plant dry weight was determined after drying to constant weight at 70°C. Yield parameters namely: length and number of reproductive branches, length of pod, days to 50 ...

  11. Who is cooking dinner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Hach, Sara

    2015-01-01

    on almost identical questionnaires centering on the previous day’s eating as reported by the individuals: this included foods eaten, the social context of its consumption and details of who had prepared the food. We make use of a sub-sample encompassing respondents from two-adult households who ate dinner...... developments in the gendering of cooking dinners in multi-person households. The analysis is based on two surveys from a project investigating changes in meal patterns in the Nordic countries. Individuals from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were interviewed in 1997 (n = 4823) and 2012 (n = 8242) based...

  12. Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis, 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.

  13. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  15. africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    (NARS), public and private sector actors along the varied bean product value chains, and technology end-users. This model .... centralised information and decision-processing is inefficient ... technologies to farmers, as illustrated by the case.

  16. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  17. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexachlorobenzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various foodstuffs before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Castell, Victoria; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2009-04-01

    The cooking-induced changes in the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various foodstuffs were investigated. Foods included fish (sardine, hake and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, boiled) samples were analyzed. There were some variations in the concentrations of PBDEs before and after cooking. However, they depended not only on the cooking process, but mainly on the specific food item. The highest HCB concentrations were found in sardine, being lower in cooked samples. All cooking processes enhanced HCB levels in hake, while very scarce differences could be noted in tuna (raw and cooked). In general terms, the highest PAH concentrations were found after frying by being the values especially notable in fish, excepting hake, where the highest total PAH levels corresponded to roasted samples. The results of this study show that, in general, cooking processes are only of a limited value as a means of reducing PBDE, HCB and PAH concentrations in food.

  18. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles

    OpenAIRE

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives...

  19. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  20. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  1. Past, present, and future of mutagens in cooked foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, T

    1986-08-01

    Mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium enabled us to detect various types of mutagens in cooked foods. A series of mutagenic heterocyclic amines has been isolated and identified in broiled fish and meat and in pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins. Feeding experiments showed these mutagens to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. The mechanism of formation and pathway of metabolic activation of these heterocyclic amines have been elucidated. Their contents in various cooked foods have been determined. The presence of mutagenic nitropyrenes (some of which were confirmed as carcinogens) in grilled chicken was also established. Roasted coffee beans also yield mutagens such as methylglyoxal. The formation of mutagen precursors, including beta-carboline derivatives and tyramine which become mutagens with nitrite treatment, was found during food processing. Oncogene activation in animal tumors induced by some of these food mutagens/carcinogens has been confirmed. The role of mutagens/carcinogens in cooked foods in human cancer development has not yet been exactly evaluated. In order to do this, more information on their carcinogenic potency, human intake, metabolism in the human body, and the effects of combined administration with other initiators, promoters and other modifying factors in food is required.

  2. Cooking up a Culinary Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongshem, Lars

    1993-01-01

    A program to introduce inner-city students to the fundamentals of French cooking has spread to more than 100 schools in 6 cities. The program awarded $400,000 in scholarships nationwide this year. Highlights a cooking competition of 10 juniors and seniors from the District of Columbia public schools. (MLF)

  3. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddoudi, I.; Sendi, Y.; Batnini, M.; Romdhane, S.B.; Mhadhbi, H.; Mrabet, M.

    2017-07-01

    A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW) by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51%) and root DW (up to 60%) for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110%) and root DWs (29% and 67%), in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  4. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  5. Contribution to the understanding of the cooking quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safo-Kantanka, O; Owusu-Nipah, J; Osei-Minta, M; Aubyn, A; Quansah, C [Crop Science Dept. Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Acquistucci, R [National Nutrition Inst., Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava cooking quality was investigated from the mealiness of the cooked roots, and elasticity and freedom from lumpiness of the pounded paste. Microscopic study of the cells of raw and cooked roots showed that the cooking quality was related to the size of the starch granules, and the difference between varieties could be explained on the basis of cell disorganization. Dry matter and starch content were related to the differences in mealiness, and amylose content of the starch to the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Fibre content was negatively correlated with cooking quality. The loss in cooking quality during rainy season was due more to the reduction of dry matter than starch content. Changes in the gelatinization properties of the starch were also related to the loss in cooking quality. Addition of common salt to fufu paste reduced the retrogradation tendency of the starch and made fufu acceptable for consumption long after its preparation. Application of mulch during the dry season minimized soil temperature fluctuations, maintained high soil moisture, which in turn reduced changes in tuber composition. (author). 16 refs, 6 tabs.

  6. Contribution to the understanding of the cooking quality of cassava (Manihot esculenta L. Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.; Owusu-Nipah, J.; Osei-Minta, M.; Aubyn, A.; Quansah, C.; Acquistucci, R.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava cooking quality was investigated from the mealiness of the cooked roots, and elasticity and freedom from lumpiness of the pounded paste. Microscopic study of the cells of raw and cooked roots showed that the cooking quality was related to the size of the starch granules, and the difference between varieties could be explained on the basis of cell disorganization. Dry matter and starch content were related to the differences in mealiness, and amylose content of the starch to the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Fibre content was negatively correlated with cooking quality. The loss in cooking quality during rainy season was due more to the reduction of dry matter than starch content. Changes in the gelatinization properties of the starch were also related to the loss in cooking quality. Addition of common salt to fufu paste reduced the retrogradation tendency of the starch and made fufu acceptable for consumption long after its preparation. Application of mulch during the dry season minimized soil temperature fluctuations, maintained high soil moisture, which in turn reduced changes in tuber composition. (author). 16 refs, 6 tabs

  7. Influence of relative humidity on radiosensitivity of Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Odamtten, G.T.; Appiah, V.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this paper deals with the moisture sorption isotherms of dried cocoa beans under different relative humidities of 55, 65, 75, 85 or 95%. The second part evaluates the effects of relative humidity (RH), initial moisture content (m.c.) of cocoa beans, and different radiation exposure doses (0, 250, 350, 450, 500 or 550 krad) on Aspergillus flavus spore inoculated cocoa beans kept in fixed RH environmental chamber of 75 or 85% RH post-irradiation for forty days. The results discussed suggest that the m.c. of beans increased from an initial level of 6.4% to 7, 7.8 and 8.9% at 55, 65, and 75% respectively, after a storage period of 6-8 days. However, beans stored under 85% or 95% RH continued to absorb moisture from their respective environments indefinitely during the 64-day storage period. Furthermore, the ambient relative humidity to which the beans are subjected before or after irradiation significantly affect the radiosensitivity of toxigenic A. flavus; the differences in such radiosensitivity are influenced by either the available moisture or the initial m.c. of the beans to the inoculum. The authors conclude from their study that high environmental RH increased the radio-resistance of A. flavus spores making it difficult to establish a radiation decontamination level of practical value under a tropical environment with high ambient relative humidity. (author)

  8. Modificação da concentração de amido resistente em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp por tratamento hidrotérmico e congelamento Modification of the concentration of resistant starch in macassar bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp hydrothermal process and freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Magalhães Salgado

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância das propriedades funcionais do amido resistente para a saúde, o elevado consumo de feijão macassar no Nordeste brasileiro e os efeitos do processo térmico e da estocagem sobre a estrutura do amido, foi realizado este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes tratamentos hidrotérmicos (cocção sob pressão e sem pressão e do armazenamento a 20ºC por 15 e 30 dias, sobre a formação de amido resistente do feijão macassar em dois estádios de maturação (verde e seco. Para analisar os fatores combinados foi realizado um planejamento fatorial do tipo 2³ com três variáveis independentes (fatores e uma variável dependente (resposta. Todas as variáveis exerceram efeitos significativos na produção de AR e a maior formação foi registrada para o feijão seco devido à hidratação prévia a cocção sem pressão, além do tempo de armazenamento congelado de 30 dias. No que diz respeito às analises físicas, após os tratamentos hidrotérmicos, ocorreram transformações nos padrões de cristalinidade e no aspecto morfológico dos feijões.Considering the importance of the functional properties of resistant starch for health, the high consumption of the macassar bean in the northeast of Brazil and the effects of the thermal process and storage on the structure of the starch, this work was implemented to evaluate the influence of different hydrothermal treatments (cooking under pressure and whithout pressure and of storage at 20ºC for 15 and 30 days, on the formation of resistant starch in the macassar bean, in two stages of maturation (green and dryed. To analyse the combined factors, a factorial design type 2³ was realized with three independent variables (factors and one dependent variable (response. All the variables exercised significant effects on the production of the resistant starch and the highest formation was registered for the dried bean due to the previous hydration before

  9. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  10. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO GALON

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weed interference is a factor that limits the productivity of beans and, among these, hairy beggarticks is one of the main species competing with the crop for environmental resources. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of black bean cultivars (BRS Campeiro, IPR Uirapuru, SCS204 Predileto and BRS Supremo in the presence of a biotype of hairy beggarticks. The experimental design is a completely randomized block with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a replacement series, consisting of a proportion of the crop and the hairy beggarticks: 100:0; 75:25; 50:50: 24:75, and 0:100, which corresponds to 40:0, 30:10, 20:20, 10:30, and 0:40 plant pots1. We accomplished competitive analysis through diagrams applied to the replacement series, as well as using relative competitive indices. The leaf area and shoot dry mass were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the species. There was competition between bean cultivars and hairy beggarticks for the same environmental resources, causing negative interference in the growth of the species, independent of the proportion of plants. Bean cultivars had a lower relative loss by reducing the morphological variables of the hairy beggarticks, thereby demonstrating superiority in its competitive ability in relation to the weed. Interspecific competition is less damaging than intraspecific competition for both species.

  11. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  12. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-01-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10 7 microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co 60 source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50 0 C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10 4 and 1.4 x 10 3 spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D 10 values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references

  13. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J; Carvalho, Lucia M J; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M; Cardoso, Flávio S N; Carvalho, José L V

    2016-01-01

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  14. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L F [Univ. of California, Berkeley; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-01-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100 g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock cod and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the food that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  16. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling and boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the foods that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  17. Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Rubén; Gómez, María; Fonseca, Sonia; Lorenzo, José M

    2014-06-01

    The influence of four different cooking methods (roasting, grilling, microwaving and frying) on cooking loss, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of foal meat was studied. Cooking loss were significantly (Pcooking methods increased TBARs content, since high temperature during cooking causes increased oxidation in foal steaks, this increase was significantly (Pcooking methods led to increased total volatile compounds (between 366.7 and 633.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter) compared to raw steaks (216.4AU×10(6)/g dry matter). The roasted steaks showed the highest volatile content, indicating that increased cooking temperature increases the formation of volatile compounds. Aldehydes were the most abundant compounds in cooked samples, with amounts of 217.2, 364.5, 283.5 and 409.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter in grilled, microwaved, fried and roasted samples, respectively, whereas esters were the most abundant compounds in raw samples, with mean amounts of 98.8AU×10(6)/g dry matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  19. Effects of Intercropping (Canola-Faba Bean on Density and Diversity of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hossain GHARINEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the biological effect and interference of crop and weed in canola-faba bean intercropping in comparison with mono culture, an experiment was conducted in randomize completely blocks design with three replication at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources, University. In this experiment treatments were different compositions of canola (Brassica napus L. var. haylo and faba bean (local cultivar. Plant densities (0, 20 and 40 plants per m2 for canola and four levels include (0, 20, 40 and 60 plants per m2 for faba bean in accordance with additive form mixed culture system respectively. Weed dry weight was affected by culture system and different levels of plant densities in mixed culture and there were significant difference 1%. Lowest weed dry weight was obtained in 20-60 and 40-60 plants m-2 canola-bean intercropping. In the intercropping parts only two species was observed while in the sole culture more than three species were exist. Results showed that with increasing in bean diversity, weed dry weight declines. According to our results, it is possible to control weed effectively by using intercropping system, but more studied is required. Diversity of weeds had been clearly affected. Results showed that only Beta and Malva species were existed in intercropping comparing to sole cultures that Brassica, Beta, Rumex and Malva were existed.

  20. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  1. Cooking in prison – from crook to cook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2014-01-01

    thinking about, purchasing, and preparing food. Overall, prisoners reported being very pleased with self-catering systems. Prisoners also stressed the importance of making healthy food although some prisoners felt they lacked cooking skills. In addition, study data describe and explores prisoner food...... groups, which are formed for economic and social reasons. The food-groups are understood as arenas for group solidarity, and opportunities to measure access, or lack thereof, to capital and resources. Self-catering supports prisoners’ responsibility, need for autonomy and improves prisoners’ cooking...... abilities and personal resources. During incarceration few roles are available for prisoner. The self-catering system offers the role as a cook which offers an opportunity for identity realignment from crook to cook....

  2. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2002-01-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a 60 Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  3. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  4. Effect of Steaming and Boiling on the Antioxidant Properties and Biogenic Amines Content in Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties of Different Colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Preti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of boiling and steaming cooking methods were studied on total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and biogenic amines of three green bean varieties, purple, yellow, and green. The vegetables gave good values both for antioxidant capacity and for phenolics content, with the purple variety being the richest in healthful components. Both the heat treatments affected the antioxidant properties of these vegetables, with boiling that reduced the initial antioxidant capacity till 30% in the yellow variety, having the same trend for total polyphenols, with the major decrement of 43% in the green variety. On the contrary, biogenic amines significantly increased only after boiling in green and yellow variety, while purple variety did not show any changes in biogenic amines after cooking. The steaming method showed being better cooking approach in order to preserve the antioxidant properties of green beans varieties and to maintain the biogenic amines content at the lowest level.

  5. 9 CFR 166.7 - Cooking standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking standards. 166.7 Section 166.7... HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.7 Cooking standards. (a) Garbage shall...) Garbage shall be agitated during cooking, except in steam cooking equipment, to ensure that the prescribed...

  6. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to prevent...

  7. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  8. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  9. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  10. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  11. Effect of hydrothermal treated corn flour addition on the quality of corn-field bean gluten-free pasta

    OpenAIRE

    Dib Ahlem; Wójtowicz Agnieszka; Benatallah Leila; Bouasla Abdallah; Zidoune Mohammed Nasreddine

    2018-01-01

    Corn semolina supplemented by field bean semolina in ratio of 2/1 (w/w) were used for obtaining protein and fiber enriched gluten-free pasta. The effect of hydrothermal treatment of corn flour on its applicability as gluten-free pasta improver was tested. A central composite design involving water hydration level and the amount of hydrothermal treated corn flour were used. Instrumental analyses of pasta (cooking loss, water absorption capacity, hydration and pasting properties, textural param...

  12. Effects of electron beam radiation on trait mutation in azuki bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry seeds of azuki bean (Vigna angularisi), Jingnong 6 and Hebei 801 varieties were irradiated by electron beam of 100, 300, 600, 700 and 900 Gy, respectively. Mutations of leaf shape and color, seed size and shape, trailing, more branching, dwarfing, early or late flowering time and high yield were created in M2 and M3 ...

  13. Effect of Cement–Locust Bean Waste Ash Blend on the Gradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPC) and up to 8% locust bean waste ash (LBWA) by dry weight of soil to investigate its effect on the gradation and plasticity characteristics of the modified soil. Test results generally show that the gradation and plasticity characteristics of the ...

  14. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIBAL BEAN (Canavalia virosa AND ITS ALTERNATIVE TOFU AND TEMPEH FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek F. Djaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing price of soybean becomes a serious problem for producers of traditional foods such as tempeh and tofu. These traditional foods are important protein sources for many Indonesian people. Tribal bean (Canavalia virosa could be used as a substitution of soybean for tempeh and tofu processing. This study aimed to determine physico-chemical characteristics of tribal bean and its products such as tofu and tempeh. Tribal bean old pods were peeled manually in the Postharvest and Agricultural Machinery Laboratory of the Yogyakarta AIAT. The peeled seeds were dried until 10% water content and their epidermis were removed mechanically by using an abrasive peeler to produce yellowish clean peeled beans. The beans were analyzed physically and chemically using the standard prosedure. Since the tribal bean seeds contained high HCN, to minimize HCN content the beans were presoaked for 48 hours in water. The beans were then mixed with soybean at a ratio of 50:50 or 25:75 and processed for making tempeh and tofu using traditional method. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the tribal bean tempe and tofu were analysed, involving organoleptic test with hedonic method, texture, as well as water, ash, protein and crude fiber contents. The results showed that tribal bean contained protein (37.30%, essential amino acids, minerals and fiber (3.1%, and a toxic substance HCN. Presoaking the beans in water for 48 hours significantly reduced HCN content by 98.51%, from 1334 ppm. Tofu made of a mixture of tribal bean and soybean at a ratio of 25:75 plus 2% rice vinegar as a coagulant has a white color and normal flavor appearances, and was accepted by panelists. The tribal bean tempeh contained 78.1% water, 1.21% ash, 8.14% protein, 3.1% crude fiber, and 44 ppm HCN. Tempeh made of a mixture of tribal bean and soybean at ratios of 50:50 and 25:75 showed good characters (flavor, taste, color, and texture and panelist acceptance, as well as nutrition

  15. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Shigeaki; Shigematsu, Toru; Karo, Mineko; Hayashi, Mayumi; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa. PMID:28231195

  17. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  18. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Ueno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation (Co60) in physic-chemical and sensory properties of aged beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Lenice Magali do

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of different doses of gamma radiation as an alternative process to improve the quality of aged beans. Beans of the 'Carioca 80' variety were submitted to an accelerated aging process according to the followings patterns: 30 deg C and 50 or 75% relative humidity and 40 deg C and 50 or 80% relative humidity, during 45 days. After that time samples were submitted to gamma irradiation at doses of 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Krad. At the same time samples of 1989, 1987 and 1983 harvest and submitted to slow aging process, 12 deg C and 50-60% relative humidity, were evaluated to comparison with former accelerated aging. All the samples were analysed on moisture and starch content, cooking time, texture and sensorial evaluation. The results showed that samples submitted to aged faster presented better quality, second the evaluated parameters, as far as irradiation applied was 300 Krad. The same happened to samples of harvest 1989 aged slowly. The 1987 and 1983 harvests, respectively, were the doses that gave better softness to the beans. This work permitted conclude that gamma irradiation is an alternative method of advantage for aged beans, for same decrease the cooking time and improvement the sensory quality of stored grain. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Bognár, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.; Bognar, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macacar beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macacar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1 , B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology

  2. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.) [pt

  3. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  4. Navy and black bean supplementation attenuates colitis-associated inflammation and colonic epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Hutchinson, Amber L; Pauls, Peter; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2018-02-27

    The enriched levels of nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds found in common beans can exert immunomodulatory effects within the colon that improve gut health and mitigate the severity of colitis-associated inflammatory pathology. Prior to acute colitis onset, C57Bl/6 mice were prefed isocaloric 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) diets for 3 weeks and switched to control basal diet (BD) 24 h prior to colitis induction via 5-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (2% w/v in drinking water)+3 days of fresh water. The severity of the acute colitis phenotype was attenuated by bean prefeeding, evidenced by reduced colon tissue inflammatory transcription factor activation (NFκB, STAT3) and inflammatory mediator levels in the colon (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and MCP-1) and serum (TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, MCP-1) versus BD (P≤.05). Additionally, biomarkers of enhanced wound repair responses were increased by bean prefeeding including colon tissue protein levels of IL-22, IL-27 and activated (i.e., GTP-bound) Cdc42 and Rac1 versus BD (P≤.05). mRNA expressions of genes involved in normal colonic epithelial function and the promotion of epithelial barrier integrity, defense and/or restitution and wound closure including MUC1, RELMβ, IgA and REG3γ were all increased in NB and BB prefed mice versus BD (P≤.05). Collectively, bean supplementation prior to colitis induction (i.e., mimicking disease relapse) primes the colonic microenvironment to attenuate the severity of the colitis inflammatory phenotype and maintain aspects of epithelial barrier function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Produção de matéria seca e trocas gasosas em cultivares de mamoneira sob níveis de irrigação Dry mass production and gas exchanges in castor bean cultivars under different irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cley A. S. de Freitas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de cinco níveis de irrigação por gotejamento, em três cultivares de mamoneira (IAC Guarani, Mirante 10 e BRS Paraguaçu mediante a quantificação da produção de matéria seca pelas diferentes partes da planta (limbo foliar, caule e pecíolo e a mensuração das trocas gasosas (fotossíntese, condutância estomática e transpiração. O experimento foi conduzido no campo, na Fazenda Experimental Vale do Curu, Pentecoste, CE, sob delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3 e com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram cinco lâminas de irrigação (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125% da evaporação do tanque Classe "A" e três cultivares. Os diferentes níveis de irrigação influenciaram as variáveis: massa seca do pecíolo, condutância estomática e fotossíntese; os valores máximos para essas variáveis foram obtidos com o nível de irrigação correspondente a 125% da evaporação no tanque Classe A. Houve uma resposta diferenciada na produção de biomassa e nas trocas gasosas entre as três cultivares avaliadas em todas as variáveis estudadas, exceto na massa seca do pecíolo.This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of five levels of drip irrigation in three castor bean cultivars (IAC Guarani, Mirante 10 and BRS Paraguaçu by measuring the dry mass production by the different plant parts (leaf blade, petiole and plant stem as well as by measuring the gas exchange processes (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. The experiment was conducted in the field, at the Fazenda Experimental, Vale do Curu, Pentecoste, Ceará (Br. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks in a 5x3 factorial scheme, in split plots with three repetitions. The treatments were five irrigation levels (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the class "A" pan evaporation (CAE applied to the three cultivars. The different irrigation levels

  6. Public perceptions of cooking and the implications for cooking behaviour in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in modern life, public perceptions about what it means to cook are unknown. We aimed to examine perceptions of cooking and their association with cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours in the USA. We designed and fielded a nationally representative survey among US adults (n 1112) in April 2015. We used factor analysis to identify perceptions about cooking and multivariate ordered logit and Poisson models to explore associations between those perceptions and cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours. Nationally representative web-based survey of US adults. US adults aged ≥18 years. Americans conceptualized cooking in three ways: the use of scratch ingredients, convenience foods and not using heat. Respondents who perceived cooking as including convenience foods were less confident in their ability to cook from scratch (OR=0·52, Pcooking (OR=0·68, P=0·01) than those who did not. Although individuals who perceived cooking as including only scratch ingredients reported cooking dinner (4·31 times/week) and using packaged/boxed products (0·95 times/week) the least frequently, few notable differences in the frequency of cooking meals were observed. Cooking frequency is similar among US adults regardless of how they perceive cooking, but cooking confidence and enjoyment are lowest among Americans who perceive cooking as including the use of convenience foods. These insights should inform the development of more specific measures of cooking behaviour as well as meaningful and targeted public health messages to encourage healthier cooking.

  7. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  8. Custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, afetado pelo manejo da irrigação e sistemas de cultivo Cost of electric energy in irrigated dry bean for center pivot affected by the irrigation management and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Turco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o consumo e o custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, cultivar IAC-Carioca, submetida a dois manejos de irrigação: TENS - tensiometria; TCA - balanço hídrico-climatológico, baseado no tanque "Classe A"; e dois sistemas de cultivo em Latossolo Vermelho: PD - plantio direto; PC - plantio convencional, no ano de 2002. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Área Demonstrativa e Experimental de Irrigação - ADEI da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP. O consumo de energia elétrica do sistema de irrigação foi monitorado, e seu custo, analisado para dois grupos tarifários: A e B, sendo os preços do kWh dos sistemas tarifários de energia elétrica obtidos na CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz. Os tratamentos em que o manejo da irrigação foi realizado pelo método do tanque "Classe A", ocasionaram os maiores consumos e custos de energia elétrica, em relação aos tratamentos em que o manejo foi realizado por tensiometria; entre os sistemas de plantio, não foram observadas diferenças. A tarifa Horo-Sazonal (verde e/ou azul, com desconto, foi a melhor opção para os quatro tratamentos.The objective of this work was to analyze the consumption and cost of electric energy in dry bean crop, IAC-Carioca, irrigated by center pivot, submitted to two irrigation managements: tensiometry and climatoligical water balance with Class A pan, under conventional and no-tillage systems, growed in Oxisol, in the year of 2002. The research was developed at the Demonstrative and Experimental Area of Irrigation - ADEI, of FCAV/UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The irrigation system electric energy consumption was monitored for two tariff groups: A and B. The prices of kWh of the tariff systems of electric energy had been gotten in the CPFL (São Paulo Company of Force and Light. The treatments where the irrigation management was carried through the method of the Class A

  9. Health impact on women using solid cooking fuels in rural area of Cuttack district, Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsa Mohapatra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 3 billion people use solid fuels (biomass and coal for cooking and heating, and this number is expected to grow until at least 2030. Around 73.7% of households in rural Odisha use wood for cooking. This current study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of solid cooking fuels on health of rural women in age group of 20–40 years and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure to cooking fuels and various health problems. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a village which is under the field practice area of the rural health and training centre, under Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences. Universal sampling technique was adopted for sample selection. Chi-square test was used to find the association between cooking fuel usage and self-reported symptoms. Results: Dry cough was the most common presenting symptom (15.03%, followed by eye and nose irritation present in nearly 12% each among the study participants. Headache, dry cough, and hypertension (HT was found to associated with number of cooking years and was also found to be statistically significant (P = 0.03, 0.02 and 0.0065, respectively. Discussion: Our study clearly indicated that the exposure to biomass fuel smoke is significantly associated with the prevalence of symptoms of headache, dry cough, and HT. Further research is required for improving information on dose-response relationships between indoor air pollution and various health effects. Conclusion: The morbidities were increased with increase in duration of cooking . Knowledge related to health effects of cooking fuels seems to be poor among the participants.

  10. Ruoanvalmistuspaperi Cook and chill prosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjohalme, Sirkka; Helin, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö lähti liikkeelle opinnäytetyön tilaajan, Metsä Tissuen, toiveesta tutkia Cook and chill -ruoanvalmistuspaperin soveltuvuutta Cook and chill -tuotantotapaan ammattikeittiöissä. Uudet toimintamenetelmät eroavat perinteisistä menetelmistä käytännössä näkyvimmin siinä, että ruoanvalmistus ei ole sidottu tarjoilupaikkaan ja ruoan tarjoilun ei tarvitse välttämättä tapahtua valmistuspäivänä. Tähän perustuu myös Cook and chill -tuotantotapa. Tutkimusyhteistyötä tehtiin Pirkkalan tuotanto...

  11. Onsite LLW storage at Cook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant has gained much experience through the onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste. Owned and operated by the Indiana Michigan Power Company, which is owned by American Electric Power, the plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan, on the southeast side of Lake Michigan, about 50 miles from Chicago. In November 1990, waste generators in the state of Michigan were denied access to licensed low-level waste disposal sites because of a lack of progress by the state in developing its own disposal site. Because of this lack, wastes from the Cook plant have been stored onsite for three years. This article covers four issues related to the Cook nuclear plant's experience in the low-level waste storage: storage capacity and waste generation rates, waste form and packages, regulatory issues, and the monitoring of the waste

  12. characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Biolog GN Microplates were used to assess carbon substrate utilisation. The SyrB gene was .... Positive reaction was observed as granular ... nutrient broth as positive control (Ignjatov et al.,. 2007). ..... nucleation-active Pseudomonas syringae.

  13. EFFICACY OF VEGETABLE OILS AGAINST DRY BEAN BEETLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    highest dose (9 ml kg-1) with castor oil and cottonseed oil, respectively. The lowest LC50 value of ... restrictions on use of insecticides, awareness of environmental pollution, the .... more plant materials such as neem oil for use in insect pest ...

  14. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 4 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Susceptibility of South African dry bean cultivars to bacterial diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 4 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%. Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%, and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker

  17. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  18. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2011-01-01

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...... different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences...

  19. Study on proteins of bean plants originating from gamma-treated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonev, D.; Chalykova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Dry seeds of bean variety Stella were radiated with gamma rays using 60 C as a source of radiation. The dose applied was 30 kR at an intensity 9.6 R/s. Irradiation caused disturbances at synthesis and properties of proteins of bean plants originating from gamma treated seeds. Some protein components showed changes in relative content and electrophoretic mobility. New more mobile protein components appeared. Protein complex of overground parts were more radioresistant than protein complex of the roots. (M.Ts.)

  20. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  1. Coffee beans as a natural test food for the evaluation of the masticatory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G; Senger, B

    2001-04-01

    A lot of test foods have been used during this century to evaluate the masticatory ability of human subjects. Nevertheless, none has been universally admitted. If the test food by itself is of importance, attention should also be paid to its behaviour during the chewing test procedure. Therefore, we analysed step by step coffee beans through the processing of the chewing test and a dry sieving The development of a compression test and a computer simulation have shown that groups of 11 coffee beans give satisfactory results and deserve to be used in mastication studies.

  2. Captain Cook Chased a Chook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Schlunke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we write the contemporary 'histories' of Captain Cook when they include such textual and material diversity? When that diversity ranges from children's rhymes to convenience stores as well as journals now claimed as iconic documents of the enlightenment? How might the insights of Bruno Latour into how the 'experimental' is produced in the laboratory be helpful in showing how Cook is produced in a settler culture? How does revealing the 'experimental' (the material and textual ethnography of history show us new ways of 'doing' history that engages with its textual as well as its material diversity.

  3. Adubação verde, calagem e adubação mineral do feijoeiro em solo com vegetação de «cerrado» Response of dry beans to fertilizer treatments on a «cerrado» soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1961-62 instalou-se, em Campinas, uma experiência de adubação para estudar o efeito de vários tratamentos sôbre a produção do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solo arenoso, com vegetação de cerrado. Grupos de parcelas receberam, ou não, 4 t/ha de calcário e 100 kg/ha de P2O5 como superfosfato simples ou fosforita de Olinda, e nelas foi semeado, ou não, Dolichos lablabe L., para ser usado como adubo verde. Em 1962-63, enquanto metade de cada parcela ficou sem nova adubação (série A, a outra (série B recebeu 30-100-50 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O nas formas de sulfato de amônio, superfosfato e cloreto de potássio. Em 1964-65 a série B só foi adubada com N. Em 1962-63 e 1964-65 semeou-se feijão; em 1963-64 o campo experimental ficou em pousio. O efeito da adubação verde sôbre a produção de feijão foi de apenas + 13%, na presença de NPK. e negativo, na ausência dessa adubação. A resposta média à calagem alcançou +41%, em 1962-63, e +34%, em 1964-65. A presença da adubação mineral favoreceu consideràvelmente a resposta ao corretivo. Em média dos dois anos e dos dois fosfatos, o efeito residual do fósforo, verificado na série A, corresponden a +123%. No primeiro ano, o superfosfato se mostrou superior à fosforita; no último, porém, foi inferior. A calagem beneficiou a atuação do superfosfato, mas prejudicou a da fosforita. Embora as adubações de 1961-62 tenham reduzido apreciàvelmente a necessidade de novas aplicações, o efeito médio das readubações de 1962-63 e 1964-65 atingiu +194% . Enquanto a produção média anual dos canteiros que ficaram sempre sem adubo e sem calcário foi de tão sòmente 174 kg/ha, a dos que receberam conjuntamente todos os fatôres estudados atingiu 910 kg/ha, equiparando-se à que se obtém em boas terras «de cultura».An experiment was conducted at Campinas, State of São Paulo, to study the effect of lime, green manure and mineral fertilizers on the yield of dry beans

  4. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of wheat middlings and soya bean meal on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and chemical components of these ingredients in growing pigs. Furthermore, the effects of the inclusion level on their contents of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were also determined by the difference method. In Experiment 1, six diets were fed to 36 growing pigs according to a completely randomised design. The basal diet was a corn-soya bean meal diet while the other five diets contained 9.6%, 19.2%, 28.8%, 38.4% or 48.0% of wheat middlings added at the expense of corn and soya bean meal. The measured digestibility of energy and most nutrients of wheat middlings increased (p soya bean meal (22.2% and 33.6%). The content of DE in soya bean meal did not differ at 22.2% and 33.6% inclusion levels (16.2 and 16.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively), but the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and carbohydrates was increased at a higher inclusion level (p soya bean meal and wheat middlings was affected by their dietary inclusion levels. For soya bean meal, the estimated energy contents was independent of its inclusion level, but not for wheat middlings. Therefore, the inclusion level of wheat middlings has to be considered for estimating their energy value.

  5. Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2013-06-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations.

  6. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  7. The effect of mung bean powder, and/or low fat soy flour as meat extender on the chemical, physical, and sensory quality of buffalo meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Kenawi M.A.; Abdelsalam R.R.; El-Sherif S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation of buffalo meat patties was evaluated in order to study the effect of adding low fat soy flour and/or mung bean powder as meat extenders. The results indicated that using low fat soy flour or mung bean powder as meat extenders at a level of 10% reduced the moisture and fat content, whereas increased the fiber and protein contents in the cooked samples. The reduction was greatest in the control (100% buffalo meat), and lowest in the sample contain...

  8. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer...

  9. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  10. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  11. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  12. Cook's Carteaux: Trends in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The following Nuclear News interview, conducted by associate editor Gregg M. Taylor, is with Paul F. Carteaux, training superintendent at Indiana/Michigan Power Company's Cook nuclear power plant. The site has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors. Cook-1, rated 1020-MWe (net), started commercial operation in August 1975, and the 1060-MWe Cook-2 began operation in July 1978

  13. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  14. Nutrient retention values and cooking yield factors for three South African lamb and mutton cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Salomina M; Strydom, Phillip E

    2017-11-01

    Nutrient content of raw and cooked foods is important for formulation of healthy diets. The retention of nutrients during cooking can be influenced by various factors, including animal age, carcass characteristics and cooking method, and these factors are often unique to specific countries. Here the effects of animal age (lamb and mutton) and carcass cut (shoulder, loin and leg) combined with cooking method (moist heat and dry heat) on yield and nutrient retention of selected nutrients of South African sheep carcasses were studied. Cooking yields and moisture retention were lower for lamb loin but higher for lamb leg. Energy and fat retention were higher for all cuts of mutton compared with lamb, while higher retention values for cholesterol were recorded for lamb. Mutton retained more iron (P = 0.10) and zinc and also more vitamin B 2 , B 6 and B 12 than lamb. Shoulder cooked according to moist heat cooking method retained more magnesium, potassium and sodium. Incorporating these retention and yield values into the South African Medical Research Council's Food Composition Tables provides a reliable reference to all concerned with nutrient content of food. It will also guide practitioners and primary industry to adjust animal production aimed at optimum nutrient content to specific diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood, (1). Effect of alcohol additives on pre-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, M; Meshitsuka, G; Nakano, J [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1979-12-01

    Studies have been made of kraft cooking of gamma irradiated wood. Beech (Fagus crenata Blume) wood meal suspended in aqueous alkaline alcohol was irradiated up to 1.5 KGy (0.15 Mrad) with gamma rays from a Co-60 source in the presence or absence of oxygen. The irradiated wood meals were washed thoroughly with fresh water, air dried and cooked under the ordinary cooking conditions. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Pre-irradiation in aqueous alkali have negligible effect on kraft cooking. (2) In the case of ethanol addition (50 g/l), pre-irradiation in vacuo shows acceleration of delignification and stabilization of carbohydrates during kraft cooking. Cooked yield gain by pre-irradiation was about 1.2 in all, over the range of delignification from 80 to 90%. Aqueous ethanol without alkali also shows positive but smaller effect than that with alkali. (3) Propanol, iso-propanol and butanol show positive but smaller effects than ethanol. However, methanol does not show any positive effect. (4) Irradiation in the presence of oxygen does not show any attractive effect on kraft cooking.

  16. Food, nutrition or cooking literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2014-01-01

    similarities and differences concerning the understanding of food literacy, ranging from a narrow r understanding of food literacy as the ability to read food messages to broader interpretations aimed at empowerment and self-efficacy concerning food and nutrition and from simple cooking skills to life skills...

  17. What’s Cooking, Man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    : 1) rechefisation, 2) the TV chef as a moral entrepreneur, 3) the TV chef and the revitalisation of the national myth and 4) cooking as masculine escapism. The article concludes that the innovation of the masculine identity that was launched in The Naked Chef has not continued; rather, the genre has...

  18. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2015-07-01

    Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relmβ and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on adolescent intelligence and social competence in Bangladesh with special reference to daily drinking/cooking water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Watanabe, Chiho; Shimizu, Hana; Tasmin, Saira; Tasnim, Sayra; Sultana, Nayar

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana. Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person). Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.

  20. Mutagenicity of cooked foods. Kuumennuskaesiteltyjen elintarvikkeiden mutageenisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikkanen, L. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Elintarvikelaboratorio)

    1989-09-01

    In this study the mutagenic activity in different kinds of ordinary Finnish foods was determined using mainly the Ames Salmonella bacterial assay. The purpose of this study was also to acquire the technical capability to study cooked food mutagens and to get basic informavtion about the mutagenic activity of foods under different cooking conditions. The samples tested were different kinds of ready-to-eat foods. Products were industrially heat-processed by frying and roasting, sterilization, smoking, deep-frying, spray-drying and UHT-treatment. According to the results, the majority of the fried and roasted food samples containing meat or fish were clearly or strongly mutagenic. Some of the products processed by sterilization and deep-frying were marginally mutagenic. The effect of the frying temperature on the mutagenicity in the Ames test was studied with minced meat. The mutagenic activity of the fried meat clearly correlated with the frying temperature. There were conspicuous differences in mutagenic activity between different fried and roasted products. Charcoal-grilled fish and the surface layers of the grilled meat and chicken were strongly mutagenic. Meat and fish hamburgers were in most cases only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenic activity was stronger in the surface layers of the products than in the inside. Also reheating by frying increased the mutagenicity of meat patties clearly. Differences in mutagenic activity between equivalent products of different manufacturers were evident in many cases. Variation of the mutagenicity was most conspicuous in the grilled products. This variation indicates that the industrial processing of food has a marked effect on the mutagenic activity of the final product, which thus might be reduced by modifying the process. The solvent extraction method used in this study was more effective than the Blue-Cotton method for the isolation of mutagenic compounds.

  1. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pearl Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tavassoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University during 2007 cropping season. The experiment was split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factors consisted of unfertilized (control (F1, recommended fertilizer (F2, recommended manure (F3, half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer (F4 and sub factors were cropping of millet (I1, 75% millet + 25% bean (I2, 50% millet + 50% bean(I3, 25% millet + 75% bean (I4 and sole crop of bean (I5. Results showed that were for these tow species the highest grain and dry matter yield and harvest index (HI obtained from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. However, fertilizer treatments did not have significant effect on 1000-seeds weight. Highest land equivalence ratio (LER for grain and dry matter yield was achieved from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. The highest crude protein (CP, P and K content in each of the forage crops obtained from recommended fertilizer treatment. Interrace culture different ratios treatments, for millet the highest grain and dry matter yield and P and K content achieved from sole cropping. While highest harvest index (HI, 1000-seeds weight and CP content in millet forage obtained from their intercroppings. Highest bean values for all traits in achieved from its sole cropping. Furthermore, highest LER for dry matter and grain obtained from 25% millet + 75% bean treatment.

  2. Sensory evaluation of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from Cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Arthur, Valter

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory aspects of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from 60 Co. The study involved eight panelists, between 17 to 23 years old, who were selected and trained for the descriptive analysis of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The panelists analyzed alterations of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of non-irradiated and irradiated black beans with doses 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10kGy. The results were analyzed by test F, ANOVA and the Tukey test (5%), with the use of computers and the sensory analysis software Compusense Five and SAS. The results showed that irradiated samples decreased the bitter flavor, accentuated color and brightness and samples non-irradiated dry texture. The radiation treatment is a good method for conservation of black beans in doses evaluated in this study.(author)

  3. Rehydration ratio of fluid bed-dried vegetables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In the food processing industry the heat treatment of vegetables is a very important ... preparation is very important for the best drying results, while the drying times are more or ... C for 3 minutes, cooked for 15 minutes in water and then.

  4. Improving Malaysian cocoa quality through the use of dehumidified air under mild drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Ching L; Law, Chung L; Cloke, Michael; Sharif, Suzannah

    2011-01-30

    Various studies have been conducted in the past to improve the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. However, the processing methods still remain crude and lack technological advancement. In terms of drying, no previous study has attempted to apply advanced drying technology to improve bean quality. This paper presents the first attempt to improve the quality of cocoa beans through heat pump drying using constant air (28.6 and 40.4 °C) and stepwise (step-up 30.7-43.6-56.9 °C and step-down 54.9-43.9 °C) drying profiles. Comparison was made against hot air drying at 55.9 °C. Product quality assessment showed significant improvement in the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. Quality was found to be better in terms of lower acidity (higher pH) and higher degree of browning (cut test) for cocoa beans dried using the step-up profile. All heat pump-dried samples showed flavour quality comparable to that of Ghanaian and better than that of Malaysian and Indonesian commercial samples. Step-up-dried samples showed the best flavour profile with high level of cocoa flavour, low in sourness and not excessive in bitterness and astringency. Dried cocoa samples from the step-up drying profile showed the best overall quality as compared with commercial samples from Malaysia, Indonesia and Ghana. The improvement of Malaysian cocoa bean quality is thus achievable through heat pump drying. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  6. Morphological and genetic characterisation of some lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) cultivars and their nodulating rhizobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, E.T.M.

    2014-07-01

    Three major investigations were carried out to assess the morphological traits and nodulation potential of thirteen lima bean cultivars as well as the genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating these lima bean cultivars. Thirteen lima bean cultivars obtained from the CSIR-PGGRI and various market centres in Ghana were used. The experiment was conducted in pots filled with natural topsoil and arranged in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The study aimed at obtaining some relevant information on the morphological traits of the lima bean to be improved upon, to evaluate their nodulation tendencies and determine similarities and differences of their nodulating rhizobia. Significant differences were obtained in quantitative characters (leaflet length, leaflet width, pod length, pod width, seed length, seed width, seed weight per 10 seeds and days to 50% emergence), contributing to divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Qualitative traits, however, were mostly similar, with few exceptions such as the flower wing colour, growth habit, leaf shape, main stem pigmentation, pod beak shape, seed secondary colour and seed pattern colour showing divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Two major clusters were joined at the similarity distance of 0.69. Majority of the lima bean cultivars were identified to be of the same morphotype with exception in cultivars M4 and A2. There were no significant differences in mean nodule number, mean effective and non-effective nodule counts. The lima bean cultivar GH 17I4 showed superior performance with respect to nodule number counts, effective nodules, fresh shoot weight and fresh root weight. Additionally lima bean cultivars, M5 and A2 indicated superior radiation use efficiency with total shoot dry matter of 731kg/ha and 704kg/ha respectively. A positive and high correlation existed between

  7. Molybdenum distribution and sensitivity in tomatoes, sunflowers and beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht-Buchholz, C

    1973-01-01

    The influence of increasing levels of molybdenum on the growth, molybdenum uptake and distribution in individual plant organs was investigated in tomatoes, beans and sunflowers in a 9 day trial. With tomatoes, which showed marked damage with high molybdenum levels, the molybdenum content of dry matter was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem. On the other hand, beans, insensitive towards the high molybdenum level, dry matter molybdenum content was appreciably higher in the stem than in the leaf. It is supposed that in plant species, insensitive to high molybdenum levels, molybdenum is held less firmly in this tissue and can attain damaging levels in the cytoplasm of the youngest leaf tissue cells. It is supposed, on the basis of the reactions which were carried out with expressed root juice and on the basis of the yellow coloration attainable in vitro in the tissue caused by the addition of molybdate solution, that the yellow coloration appearing in the cells and plant organs of various plant species, here tomatoes and sunflowers, with high molybdenum levels is due to a reaction between molybdenum and polyvalent phenols in cellsap.

  8. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m -1 ). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m -1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m -1 1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  9. Navy Bean and Rice Bran Intake Alters the Plasma Metabolome of Children at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal cholesterol in childhood predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. Navy beans and rice bran have demonstrated efficacy in regulating blood lipids in adults and children; however, their effects on modulating the child plasma metabolome has not been investigated and warrants investigation. A pilot, randomized-controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years old with abnormal cholesterol. Participants consumed a snack for 4 weeks containing either: no navy bean or rice bran (control; 17.5 g/day cooked navy bean powder; 15 g/day heat-stabilized rice bran; or 9 g/day navy beans and 8 g/day rice bran. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol for global, non-targeted metabolic profiling via ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma metabolite levels after 4 weeks of dietary intervention compared to control and baseline were analyzed using analysis of variance and Welch’s t-tests (p ≤ 0.05. Navy bean and/or rice bran consumption influenced 71 plasma compounds compared to control (p ≤ 0.05, with lipids representing 46% of the total plasma metabolome. Significant changes were determined for 18 plasma lipids in the navy bean group and 10 plasma lipids for the rice bran group compared to control, and 48 lipids in the navy bean group and 40 in the rice bran group compared to baseline. These results support the hypothesis that consumption of these foods impact blood lipid metabolism with implications for reducing CVD risk in children. Complementary and distinct lipid pathways were affected by the diet groups, including acylcarnitines and lysolipids (navy bean, sphingolipids (rice bran, and phospholipids (navy bean + rice bran. Navy bean consumption decreased free fatty acids associated with metabolic diseases (palmitate and arachidonate and increased the relative abundance of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipids

  10. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  11. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Fermentation on Processed Chocolate In West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon David H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of fermentation effects on processed chocolate have been made. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of different levels of fermentation of cocoa preparations (pasta, fats and powder to the chemical quality and flavor. Harvested Cocoa beans will be treated fermentation. The treatment used was the time of fermentation namely: (A Non fermentation, (B Imperfect fermentation (4 days and (C Perfect fermentation (5 days. The parameters observed was: (a chemical quality namely water content, fat content, pH, (b organoleptic tests namely color, aroma, taste bitter (bitterness, texture. The results showed that fermentation of cocoa beans have real impact on levels of fat, water content and pH. Panelists gave the highest rankings for quality of organoleptic attributes of pasta, fat and chocolate powder from perfectly fermented beans. Processing of cocoa beans into refined products had levels of depreciation for each stage. 100 kg dried cocoa beans could produce 79.0 kilograms of chocolate paste, 48.7 kg of cocoa powder, and 26.5 kg of fat. Fermentation for 5 days is the best solution to improve the quality of processed chocolate.

  12. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Campos-Vega

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins’ expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer.

  13. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  14. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  15. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  16. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnapriya, K.C.; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice can efficiently uptake uranium from water contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2.6 H 2 O), while cooking. • Unusual uranium uptake to the extent of about 1000 ppm is observed when rice is cooked in highly concentrated uranium contaminated water (1240 ppm). • Nature of interaction of uranium with carbohydrates is probed using small monosaccharides like glucose and mannose. • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed UO 2 2+ to be the most stable species in water in such solutions which can form complexes with sugars. • The species (UO 2 2+ ) is also observed in the case of water exposed to the common mineral, uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and similar type of complexation is observed with sugars. - Abstract: The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO 2 2+ , the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO 2 2+ with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO 2 (s), both of which exist as UO 2 2+ in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and without NaCl affected the extent of chemical interaction but was not consistent with the

  17. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  18. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Turp, Gulen; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE DE INÓCULO DE Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO RADICULAR SECA DO FEIJOEIRO EFFECT OF Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli INOCULUM DENSITY ON DRY ROOT ROT SEVERITY IN THE COMMON BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesimária Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram testadas quatro densidades de inóculo de Fusarium solani, em gramas por litro de solo (1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 8,0 e um tratamento testemunha, em solo tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, cultivado e não cultivado, com o objetivo de determinar a densidade mínima de inóculo no solo necessária para a ocorrência de podridão radicular seca do feijoeiro. Como variáveis respostas foram avaliadas: número de microorganismos totais do solo, número de propágulos de F. solani, atividade microbiológica total do solo e severidade da doença em plântulas. Os resultados indicaram que a densidade de inóculo do fungo variou com o tipo de solo. Para um solo não cultivado a densidade necessária para causar a doença esteve acima de 5.127 propágulos por grama de solo, enquanto para o solo cultivado a densidade de inóculo para causar doença foi de 3.701 propágulos por grama de solo. Os índices de doença em plântulas cultivadas sob o solo cultivado foram duas vezes superiores ao índice de doença de plântulas sob o solo não cultivado. A atividade microbiológica total nos solos, determinada pela desidrogenase de fluorescina diacetato, não se correlacionou com a população dos microorganismos, indicando que a simples presença desses não implica em que estejam ativos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Solo supressivo; solo conducivo; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Four densities of Fusarium solani inoculum (1, 2, 4 and 8 g/L of soil were tested for determining the minimum inoculum density for the occurrence of bean dry root rot, in two soil types. The response variables evaluated were the total number of microorganisms in the soil, the number of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli propagules, total soil microbial activity and seedling disease severity

  20. Simple Cloud Chambers Using a Freezing Mixture of Ice and Cooking Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and…

  1. Effect of rate of inclusion of fishmeal prepared by cooking and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooked and sun dried fish offal on intake and nutrient retention of growing Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicks in southern Ethiopia was evaluated. Unsexed day old RIR chicks were uniformly brooded, vaccinated against Gumboro and Newcastle diseases. At the age of 14 days, 10 chicks were assigned to each of the 5 ...

  2. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops; wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. Horani) and broad beans field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohammed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author)

  3. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  4. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  5. Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao beans with manual and semi-mechanized transfer, between fermentation boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro. P. Peláez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in the physical and chemical properties of fermented cocoa beans with cocoa beans transfer between wooden fermentation boxes manually (M and semi-mechanized (SM way. Mass temperature, moisture, pH, and total acidity of the cotyledon and pulp; the total polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content in fresh, fermented, and dried beans; and percentage of fermented beans and time required to move beans during fermentation were determined. The cocoa used grew in the Pachiza district of the San Martin region of Peru. Cocoa sampling was each 0, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of fermentation. The cocoa mass temperature was highest with both removal systems after 96 h of fermentation. M cotyledon and pulp samples had the highest moisture content and titratable acidity, while cotyledon and pulp pH with both systems were statistically equal. In contrast, fermented beans had a higher polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content with SM. SM produced the greatest amount of fermentation (91.67% and required the shortest amount of time to move beans (78.56 min. In conclusion, the system of fermentation of cocoa beans with SM was faster and produced fermented grains with high chemical quality.

  6. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  7. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  8. Availability of iron in grains common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) irradiated;Disponibilidade de ferro em graos de feijao comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigide, Priscila

    2002-07-01

    Common bean is the legume more consuming in Brazil, however, the average income of the farming in Brazil is low must the infestation of the grains, to fight these losses the irradiation process is an alternative healthful if compared the chemical handling. The objective of this research was evaluate the iron availability in irradiated raw and cooked beans (doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy). It was carried through the centesimal composition, anti nutritional factors (tannins and phytate) and iron dialyses for the method 'in vitro'. Cooking diminished the mainly components of the composition with exception of available carbohydrates, the protein content of 27.4 and 23.9; fat 1.2 and 1.1; fibre 23.7 and 18.6, carbohydrates 43.3 and 52.5; respectively for raw grains and cooked. It also had reduction in the amount of tannin which if correlated reversely with the applied doses, with exception of the dose of 2 kGy, varying of 1.56 (10 kGy) to 2.49 (2 kGy) to the for raw grains and traces (10 kGy) to 0.103 (2 kGy ) for grains cooked. The phytate varied of 4.63 (2 kGy) to 8.28 (0 kGy) and 5.29 (6 kGy) to the 9.55 (0 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked. In relation to the dialysed iron, the content varied of 1.16 (0 kGy) to 2.39 (6 kGy) and 5.33 (0 kGy) to the 8.02 (6 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked The dose of 6 kGy showed positive effect availability such as raw as cooked grain, it being recommended for the utilization. (author)

  9. Heat-induced formation of mepiquat by decarboxylation of pipecolic acid and its betaine derivative. Part 2: Natural formation in cooked vegetables and selected food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Stadler, Richard H; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    Mepiquat (N,N-dimethylpiperidinium) is a plant growth regulator registered for use as its chloride salt in many countries on cereals and other crops. Recent model system studies have shown that natural chemicals present in crop plants, such as pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine, may furnish mepiquat through different chemical pathways, when subjected to temperatures in the range of 200°C. In this study, we cooked raw vegetables that did not contain mepiquat to a palatable state using different traditional cooking methods, and detected mepiquat in 9 out of 11 oven-cooked vegetables, reaching up to 189μg/kg dry wt in oven-cooked broccoli. Commercial oven potato fries generated mepiquat during cooking, typically in the range of 20-60μg/kg. Only traces of mepiquat (cooked vegetables, including potatoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  11. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry, both...

  12. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  13. Heritability, combining ability and inheritance of storage root dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage root dry matter content (RDM) is central to the improvement of consumer and industrial attributes of root crops. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus species) is a legume root crop newly introduced in Uganda, but its adoption may be constrained by low RDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of ...

  14. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  15. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  16. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  17. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yadavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable planting and weed competition are the most important factors that greatly reduce the yield of bean. In order to study the effect of planting date on yield and yield components of three white bean cultivars in weed infest and weed free condition a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was carried out at Semirom in 2009. The treatments were planting date (May10, May 25 and June 9 and white bean cultivars (Shekofa, Pak and Daneshkade and two levels of weed infestation (weedy and weed free. Results showed that planting date, weed competition and cultivars had significant effects on yield and yield components of white bean. The 30-day delay in planting date reduced the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield of white bean cultivars, 22.5, 18, 20.1 and 22.5 percent respectively. Also weed competition, reduced the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield respectively by 13.5, 5.7 and 27.1 percent. Result of planting date and weed competition interaction effects indicated that the weed competition decreased grain yield (53% in third planting date more than others and delay in planting date was companion with increasing weed density and dry weight in flowering stage of bean. Also Shekofa cultivar had highest grain yield (3379 kg/ha at the first planting date and weed free condition.

  18. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  19. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  20. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Guerrero Nuñez, Karla V.; Ferland, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exam...

  1. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Annick N. Tanguay; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; Patrick S. R. Davidson; K. Vanessa eGuerrero Nuñez; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland; Mark B. Ferland

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we exa...

  2. Cooking Appliances Using High-Frequency Heating

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 秀行; Hideyuki, KIMURA; (株)日立製作所機械研究所

    2007-01-01

    We have produced a guide suitable for people with no technical knowledge of cooking appliances that use high-frequency heating. In general, cooking appliances that use an electric heat source are popular since, they are simple to use because the offer easy heat control, are safe because they do not have naked flames, and do not make kitchens dirty because there is no exhaust. In recent years, high-efficiency cooking appliances using high-frequency heating technology have surged in popularity....

  3. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapriya, K C; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T

    2015-10-30

    The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO2(2+), the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO2(2+) with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO2(NO3)2·6H2O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO2(s), both of which exist as UO2(2+) in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and without NaCl affected the extent of chemical interaction but was not consistent with the carbohydrate content. Uranium interaction with D-mannose monitored through ESI-MS, under optimized instrumental parameters, identified the peaks corresponding to uranyl adduct with mannose monomer, dimer and trimer and the species were confirmed by MS/MS studies. The product ion mass spectra showed peaks illustrating water loss from the parent ion as the collision energy was increased, an evidence for the strong interaction of uranium with mannose. This study would constitute the essential background for understanding interaction of uranium with various foods. Extension of this work would involve identification of foodstuff as green heavy metal scavengers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  5. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of cooking method and final core-temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Tri Utama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study observed the effects of cooking method and final core temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, aroma volatiles, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket (deep pectoralis. Methods Deep pectoralis muscles (8.65% of crude fat were obtained from three Hanwoo steer carcasses with 1+ quality grade. Samples were either oven-roasted at 180°C (dry heat or cooked in boiling water (moist heat to final core temperature of 70°C (medium or 77°C (well-done. Results Boiling method reduced more fat but retained more moisture than did the oven roasting method (p<0.001, thus no significant differences were found on cooking loss. However, samples lost more weight as final core temperature increased (p<0.01. Further, total saturated fatty acid increased (p = 0.02 while total monounsaturated fatty acid decreased (p = 0.03 as final core temperature increased. Regardless the method used for cooking, malondialdehyde (p<0.01 and free iron contents (p<0.001 were observed higher in samples cooked to 77°C. Oven roasting retained more inosinic acid, inosine and hypoxanthine in samples than did the boiling method (p<0.001, of which the concentration decreased as final core temperature increased except for hypoxanthine. Samples cooked to 77°C using oven roasting method released more intense aroma than did the others and the aroma pattern was discriminated based on the intensity. Most of aldehydes and pyrazines were more abundant in oven-roasted samples than in boiled samples. Among identified volatiles, hexanal had the highest area unit in both boiled and oven-roasted samples, of which the abundance increased as the final core temperature increased. Conclusion The boiling method extracted inosinic acid and rendered fat from beef brisket, whereas oven roasting intensified aroma derived from aldehydes and pyrazines and prevented the extreme loss of inosinic acid.

  7. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -IH and Vacuum cooking -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Murasaki, Masahiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. This study was aimed at making balance space foods menu for the healthy space-life. The kitchen utensil has a limit in the space environment. And a method to warm is only heater without fire. Therefore purpose of this study, we make the space foods which make by using vacuum cooking device and the IH heater We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores.. We could make the space foods which we devised with vacuum cooking and IH deliciously. As a result of sensuality examination, the eight points in ten points of perfect scores was appeared. This result showed, our space food menu is delicious. We can store these space foods with a refrigerator for 20 days by making vacuum cooking. This thing is at all important result so that a save is enabled when surplus food was done in future by performing vacuum cooking. We want to make delicious space foods menu with vacuum cooking and IH heater more in future.

  8. Cooking in Crisis: Lessons from the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The concern with low levels of cooking skills among the British population can be traced back to the 1780s coinciding with the start of urbanisation of the English rural classes. Modern concerns with the lack of cooking skills, since the 1980s, have focused on the links to healthy food choice and preparation. This has resulted in a number of initiatives but little policy development to support cooking in any structured way. Cooking was de-facto removed from the educational experience in schoo...

  9. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Usability analysis of industrial cooking equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Alexana Vilar Soares; Soares, Marcelo Márcio

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the comparative study of the equipment used for cooking in commercial of kitchens restaurants that use the system of traditional cooking and those ones which use the system called smart cooking (combination oven). The study investigates the usability issues concerning to the two systems, analyzing comparatively the aspects related to anthropometry, dimensional variables, the use of the product and also the product safety, as well as issues of information related to operation of the new concepts of cooking in intelligent systems.

  11. Evaluation of sowing patterns and weed control on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek - black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz Rezvani Moghadam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study different arrangements and weed controls effects on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek – black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season 2005 – 2006. Sixteen treatments comprising combinations of eight sowing patterns [A1: Sole black cumin, A2: Sole mung bean, A3: 3 rows black cumin– 2 rows mung bean, A4: 3 rows black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A5: 2 rows black cumin – 1 rows mung bean, A6: 1 row black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A7: 3 rows black cumin – 3 rows mung bean (Striped, A8: 1 row black cumin – 1 row mung bean (alternative rows] and two weed controls [V1: unweeded, V2: completely hand weeding] were arranged in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that in intercropping systems leaf area index (LAI of mung bean reduced but in the case of black cumin increased. Mung bean total dry matter in intercropping system did not differ comparing with sole crop but total dry matter in black cumin increased. All yield components in both crops affected by sowing patterns and weed control treatments. Number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules increased in A8, A4, A5 and A3 sowing patterns in mung bean and A3, A5 and A7 sowing patterns in black cumin compared with other arrangements. By increasing mung bean ratio in rows, the number of weed species, weed density, dry weight of weeds and abundance of weed species decreased. In unweeded treatment, number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules decreased in both crops. Land equivalent ratio (LER was more than 1.00 in all sowing patterns.

  12. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  14. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  15. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  16. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  17. Investigation of process and product parameters for physicochemical properties of rice and mung bean (Vigna radiata) flour based extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Baljit; Hussain, Syed Zameer; Sharma, Savita

    2017-05-01

    PR 106 and SML 668 cultivars of rice and mung bean respectively, were studied for their potential to serve as a nutritious snack with improved protein quality and quantity. The effect of extrusion conditions, including feed moisture content (14-18%), screw speed (400-550 rpm) and barrel temperature (130-170°C) on the physicochemical properties (bulk density, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and hardness) was investigated. The replacement of rice flour at 30% level with mung bean flour for making extruded snacks was evaluated. Pasting temperature increased (84-93 °C) while peak viscosity (2768-408 cP), hold viscosity (2018-369 cP), breakdown (750-39 cP), setback (2697-622 cP) and final viscosity (4715-991 cP) decreased with increasing mung bean flour addition. Increasing feed moisture lowered the specific mechanical energy (SME), WAI and WSI of extrudates whereas increased bulk density and hardness. Higher screw speed had linear positive effect on SME of extruder and negative linear effect on WAI. Positive curvilinear quadratic effect of screw speed was also observed on WSI and density. Higher barrel temperature linearly decreased the SME, density and hardness of extrudates. Developed extrusion cooked rice-mung bean snacks with increased protein content and improved protein quality along with higher dietary fibre and minerals have good potential in effectively delivering the nutrition to the population.

  18. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content.

  19. Investigation of aluminium state in some popular food, which are cooked in aluminium vessels, using spectroscopic analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahneh, M.; Saheune, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium and lead elements were determined in drinking water and salt solution from chick-pea and faba-bean cooked in aluminium vessels and others from teflon for comparison using atomic absorption spectroscopy by graphite furnace. The relationship between heating time and aluminium quantities transferred to these food solutions was investigated. The lead element was determined taking into consideration the fact that this element may enter in these vessels somehow during the manufacturing process. Results show that the highest value of aluminium quantities was recorded in salt solution ( 17.022 μg/ml) without heating , followed by chick-pea solution (9.95 μg/ml), then faba-bean solution (2.81 μg/ml) when the heated period was 120 minutes. (author)

  20. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  1. Adubação mineral do feijoeiro: IX - Efeitos de N, P, K, Se de uma mistura de micronutrientes, em "terra-roxa-misturada" préviamente tratada, ou não, com calcário dolomítico e adubação verde com labelabe Mineral fertilizers for dry beans: IX - Effects of N, P, K, S and a mixture of micro-nutrients on "terra-roxa-misturada" soils treated, or not, with lime and green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis pares de experiências instaladas em áreas vizinhas, uma das quais, no ano agrícola anterior, foi tratada com calcário dolomítico e adubação verde com labelade, ficando a outra simplesmente em pousio, as respostas às adubações minerais foram geralmente menores na área prèviamente tratada, ao passo que as produções obtidas foram consideravelmente maiores naquelas que ficaram em pousio.The effects of the indicated fertilizer treatments on dry beans were tested on six areas treated with dolomitic limestone and green manure with Dolichos lablabL. in the previous year and in six neighbouring areas left simply idle in that year. The responses to the fertilizers were generally lower in the areas previously treated, but the yields were considerably higher in the untreated areas.

  2. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  3. Synthesis of epoxidised soya bean oil acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd.

    1988-10-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from Asahi's epoxy resin AER 331 which is an epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Triethylamine (TEA) and Hydroquinone (HQ) were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. Observations of the experiment are described. (author)

  4. chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... African yam bean is a legume and its production has been reported to be ... determined according to standard methods (IITA, 1989). The .... control experiments were the highest-yielding accession, although ..... Handbook of.

  5. 7804 PERFORMANCE OF IMPROVED BEAN VARIETIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... 3. June 2013. ABSTRACT. A project aimed at improving bean production in Kigoma Region was carried out ... Some rain is required during the flowering and pod setting stages [2]. ..... library.ciat.cgiar.org/articulos/ciat/paperb.

  6. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (2012) P. biglobosa has important socio-economic and cultural values .... It is a common knowledge that Parkia bean processing is a chain activity which is ... that P. biglobosa trees are not productive even when found in the study area.

  7. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  8. Effect of the cooking method (grilling, roasting, frying and sous-vide) on the oxidation of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and protein cross-linking in jerky chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio A P; Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Madruga, Marta S; Estévez, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Broiler breast ( pectoralis major ) meat was submitted to salting with NaCl + NaNO 3 followed by a drying process to produce jerky-type chicken. The final product (raw broiler charqui) was desalted and then cooked using grilled, roasted, fried and sous-vide techniques. Sous-vide cooked samples showed lowest results of moisture loss compared to roasted and fried ones. Fatty acid profile suffered minor changes after cooking of broiler charqui. Regarding to protein oxidation, tryptophan fluorescence, protein carbonylation and disulphide bonds formation of chicken charqui were affected by cooking temperature while free thiol groups, Schiff base formation and hardness were mostly impacted by the length of cooking. Instrumental color of broiler charqui was affected by the type of cooking, being closely related with Maillard products formation. In conclusion, sous-vide technique seems to be the most advantageous cooking method to obtain high-quality ready-to-eat chicken charqui.

  9. Navy and black bean supplementation primes the colonic mucosal microenvironment to improve gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Wu, Wenqing; Pauls, K Peter; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2017-11-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks. NB and BB similarly altered the fecal microbiota community structure (16S rRNA sequencing) notably by increasing the abundance of carbohydrate fermenting bacteria such as Prevotella, S24-7 and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, which coincided with enhanced short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (microbial-derived carbohydrate fermentation products) and colonic expression of the SCFA receptors GPR-41/-43/-109a. Both NB and BB enhanced multiple aspects of mucus and epithelial barrier integrity vs. BD including: (i) goblet cell number, crypt mucus content and mucin mRNA expression, (ii) anti-microbial defenses (Reg3γ), (iii) crypt length and epithelial cell proliferation, (iv) apical junctional complex components (occludin, JAM-A, ZO-1 and E-cadherin) mRNA expression and (v) reduced serum endotoxin concentrations. Interestingly, biomarkers of colon barrier integrity (crypt height, mucus content, cell proliferation and goblet cell number) were enhanced in BB vs. NB-fed mice, suggesting added benefits attributable to unique BB components (e.g., phenolics). Overall, NB and BB improved baseline colonic microenvironment function by altering the microbial community structure and activity and promoting colon barrier integrity and function; effects which may prove beneficial in attenuating gut-associated diseases. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  11. Effect of the cooking method (grilling, roasting, frying and sous-vide) on the oxidation of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and protein cross-linking in jerky chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fábio A. P.; Ferreira, Valquíria C. S.; Madruga, Marta S.; Estévez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Broiler breast (pectoralis major) meat was submitted to salting with NaCl + NaNO3 followed by a drying process to produce jerky-type chicken. The final product (raw broiler charqui) was desalted and then cooked using grilled, roasted, fried and sous-vide techniques. Sous-vide cooked samples showed lowest results of moisture loss compared to roasted and fried ones. Fatty acid profile suffered minor changes after cooking of broiler charqui. Regarding to protein oxidation, tryptophan fluorescenc...

  12. Influence of sulfur dioxide and ozone on vegetation of bean and barley plants under different soil moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowski, A; Grzesiak, S

    1974-01-01

    The effects of toxic gases on extent of injuries to assimilating surface, dry weight yields, and generative development in bean and barley were studied in three successive phases of vegetation under conditions of optimum soil moisture and of drought just above the wilting point. Experiments with ozone and sulfur dioxide on bean and SO/sub 2/ on barley demonstrate that the susceptibility of plants to toxic gases decrease under drought conditions that cause a temporary dehydration of tissues. Determinations of sulfate sulfur contents in different plant organs show that a lower hydration of tissues is accompanied by lower adsorption of sulfur dioxide.

  13. A technique developed for labeling the green manures (sunnhemp and velvet bean) with 15 N for nitrogen dynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose

    1997-01-01

    A technique was developed for labeling the leguminous plant tissue with nitrogen ( 15 N) to obtain labelled material for nitrogen dynamic studies. Sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea L.) and velvet beans (Mucuna aterrima, sinonimia Stizolobium aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were grown in pots containing 10 kg of a Red Yellow Podzolic soil, under greenhouse conditions. The rate of 1.2 of nitrogen (ammonium sulphate with 11.37 atom % 15 N) per pot was applied three times. The labelled dried plant material showed 3.177 and 4.337 of atom % 15 N, respectively for velvet beans and sunnhemp. (author)

  14. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in biochemical components of non-traditional spaghetti during cooking were reflected in the quality of the cooked product. Spaghetti samples were made from traditional and non-traditional formulations including semolina 100%, whole wheat flour 100%, semolina-whole wheat flour (49:51), semol...

  16. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  17. Validation of feasibility and quality of chicken breast meat cooked under various water-cooking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2016-12-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the qualities of boneless chicken breasts are commonly determined by placing them in a bag and cooking them in a water bath. The results are often applied as references for comparing the influences of cooking techniques. However, whether a sample cooked under this "laboratory" condition actually represents the meat cooked under the "real-life" condition in which meat is frequently cooked directly in water without packaging remains unclear. Whether the two cooking conditions lead to comparable results in meat quality should be determined. This study evaluated the influence of cooking conditions, including "placed-in-bag and cooked in a water bath (BC)" and "cooked directly in hot water (WC)" conditions, on the quality of chicken meat. The results reveal that BC samples had a longer cooking time. Deboned-and-skinless BC samples had a higher cooking loss and lower protein solubility (P < 0.01). BC samples with bone and skin had a higher lightness in both skin and muscle. No significant differences were observed in attributes, including shear force, collagen solubility, microstructures, redness, yellowness and descriptive sensory characteristics between treatments. Based on the results, considering the quality attributes that might be influenced, is critical when conducting relevant research. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    . The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs......Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-time sous-vide-cooking of meat. This method is increasingly used, especially in high-end restaurants, where it receives much praise from leading chefs worldwide. Sous-vide-cooking uses vacuum-packaging of the meat and preparation in thermostated water-baths at temperatures between 54°C and 65°C for periods...

  19. Effect of altitude on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans can be affected by shade and postharvest processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Mohammed; de Meulenaer, Bruno; Duchateau, Luc; Boeckx, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    Although various studies have assessed altitude, shade and postharvest processing effects on biochemical content and quality of coffee beans, data on their interactions are scarce. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sucrose contents as well as physical and sensory qualities of green coffee beans from large plantations in southwestern Ethiopia were evaluated. Caffeine and CGA contents decreased with increasing altitude; they respectively declined 0.12 and 1.23gkg -1 100m -1 . Sucrose content increased with altitude; however, the altitude effect was significant for wet-processed beans (3.02gkg -1 100m -1 ), but not for dry-processed beans (0.36g kg -1 100m -1 ). Similarly, sucrose content increased with altitude with much stronger effect for coffee grown without shade (2.11gkg -1 100m -1 ) compared to coffee grown under shade (0.93gkg -1 100m -1 ). Acidity increased with altitude when coffee was grown under shade (0.22 points 100m -1 ), but no significant altitude effect was observed on coffee grown without shade. Beans grown without shade showed a higher physical quality score for dry (37.2) than for wet processing (29.1). These results generally underline the complex interaction effects between altitude and shade or postharvest processing on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Preliminary Study on the Synthesis of Phosphorylated Mung Bean Starch: The Effect of pH on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illona Nathania

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean (Vigna radiate L. is a grain legume widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mung bean seeds contain a significant amount of carbohydrate (63%-w/w and are easily digested compared to seeds from other legumes. Mung bean starch has the potential to be used as thickener or gelling agents in food industries. Certain functional properties of mung bean starch, however, still need to be improved. In this research, a preliminary study was performed to upgrade mung bean starch properties using phosphorylation reaction. In particular, the effect of starch suspension pH (6–10 on the functional properties of the modified products was investigated. Phosphorylation was carried out at 130 °C, for 2 h using sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP with an intake of 5%-w based on dry starch. The phosphorylated products were subsequently washed with water and dried. The experimental results show that the P-content of the phosphorylated mung bean starch is accessible in the range of 0.04–0.08%. The solubility (6.09–11.37%-w/w and swelling power (9.88–11.17 g/g of the modified starch products have been improved compared to native starch (solubility = 6.06 %-w/w, swelling power = 8.05 g/g. Phosphorylation also proved to increase peak viscosity, paste clarity, and water absorption/oil absorption capacity of the products.

  1. Disinfestation of copra, desiccated coconut and coffee beans by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manato, E.C.

    1987-08-01

    Nine insect pests were found associated with copra of which copra beetle, Necrobia rufipes, saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne and tropical warehouse moth, Ephestia cautella were found feeding on this food. While feeding on different coffee beans, coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer showed preference on Arabica, Liberica and Excelsa but not in Robusta coffee beans. For mass rearing, the most suitable medium for copra beetle was desiccated coconut + yeast (2:1) and for coffee bean beetle, it was dried cassava chips + yeast (3:1). The life cycles completed in these food media were 43 to 60 and 42 to 56 days by copra beetle and coffee bean weevil respectively. Irradiation studies on these 2 species of insects showed that the eggs were most sensitive followed by larvae and pupae. A dose of 0.05 kGy prevented adult emergence from irradiated eggs and younger larvae, while doses of 0.10 to 0.25 kGy effected the survival of emerged adults. However, a dose of 0.50 kGy would be effective for the disinfestation of small packages (i.e. 0.25 to 0.50 kg in each) of copra or coffee beans initially infested with immature stages of beetles and weevils respectively. Packaging of irradiated commodities in polypropylene bags particularly those impregnated with permethrin prevented reinfestation by the insect pests. Toxic residues of permethrin in the prolypropylene film resulted in high mortality thereby preventing insect penetration of the packaging materials. Both copra beetles and coffee bean weevils were rather good invaders than penetrators as these species entered into the packages readily through existing openings in jute sack, woven polypropylene sack or flour bag. Organoleptic tests showed no change in aroma, flavour and general acceptability of irradiated coffee beans. In microbial studies it was observed that a dose of 0.6 kGy would eliminate Salmonella

  2. Gamma-ray mutagenic effect on adzuki bean and the optimum dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huifang; Li Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    Dry seeds of three kinds of adzuki beans (Jinhong1, Jihong9218, and Jingnong6) were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The radiation effects on seedlings were analyzed to estimate the optimum dose, which was 400 to 600 Gy, based on the average half lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 473.3 Gy for the three kinds of adzuki beans. The M 1 γ-ray mutagenic effects were studied by farming the three kinds of adzuki beans irradiated to 350, 500 and 650 Gy. It was found that the beans treated with higher doses had obvious inhibition on germination rate, seedling development, with significant or very significant difference compared with the CK. There was significantly negative correlation between seedling emergences, seedling height and doses. Irradiation affected mature plants by reducing plant height, decreasing nodes number of main stem, pods number per plant, seeds per pod and shortening pod length with significant. The order of radio-sensitivity to γ-rays was as follows: Jinhong1, Jihong9218, and Jingnong6. (authors)

  3. Reaction of common bean lines and aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P H; Santos, J B; Lima, I A; Lara, L A C; Alves, F C

    2014-11-07

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the reaction of common bean lines to white mold, the aggressiveness of different Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from various common bean production areas in Brazil, and comparison of the diallel and GGE (genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction) biplot analysis procedures via study of the line-by-isolate interaction. Eleven common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lines derived from 3 backcross populations were used. Field experiments were performed in the experimental area of the Departamento de Biologia of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2011 and 2012 dry crop season and 2011 winter crop season through a randomized block design with 3 replications. This study was also set up in a greenhouse. Inoculations were performed 28 days after sowing by means of the straw test method. The reaction of the bean lines to white mold was assessed according to a diagrammatic scale from 1 (plant without symptoms) to 9 (dead plant). Estimations of general reaction capacity (lines) and general aggressiveness capacity (isolates) indicated different horizontal levels of resistance in the lines and levels of aggressiveness in the isolates. Therefore, it was possible to select more resistant lines and foresee those crosses that are the most promising for increasing the level of resistance. It was also possible to identify the most aggressive isolates that were more efficient in distinguishing the lines. Both diallel and GGE biplot analyses were useful in identifying the genotypic values of lines and isolates.

  4. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tawaraya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L−1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

  5. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Anderson D.B.; Mansur Neto, Elias

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  6. Earthworms (Amynthas spp. increase common bean growth, microbial biomass, and soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julierme Zimmer Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the effect of earthworms on plants and biological soil attributes, especially among legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of earthworms (Amynthas spp. on growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and on soil biological attributes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with five treatments and eight repetitions. The treatments consisted of inoculation with five different quantities of earthworms of the genus Amynthas (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 worms per pot. Each experimental unit consisted of a plastic pot containing 4 kg of soil and two common bean plants. The experiment was harvested 38 days after seedling emergence. Dry matter and plant height, soil respiration, microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and metabolic quotient were determined. Earthworm recovery in our study was high in number and mass, with all values above 91.6% and 89.1%, respectively. In addition, earthworm fresh biomass decreased only in the treatment that included eight earthworms per pot. The presence of earthworms increased the plant growth and improved soil biological properties, suggesting that agricultural practices that favor the presence of these organisms can be used to increase the production of common bean, and the increased soil CO2 emission caused by the earthworms can be partially offset by the addition of common bean crop residues to the soil.

  7. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Anderson D.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Varginha, MG (Brazil); Mansur Neto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  9. Analyzing the Cooking Behavior of Sophomore Female Students : In relation to the ability for preparation of cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Imakawa, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the Dandori-ryoku (the ability for preparation in cooking) by analyzing the practical cooking behavior of sophomore female students. Ten sophomore female students were participated in the experiment to cook three kinds of food (cooking rice, making miso soup and fried vegetables). The behavior of the participants during cooking were videotaped and analyzed in detail later especially in relation to Dandori-ryoku. Such behaviors as “starting from cooking ric...

  10. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, M.W.; Fregene, M.A.; Beebe, S.E.; Ceballos, H.

    2007-01-01

    (CGM) and cassava brown streak (CBS) resistance from a wild relative, M. esculenta sub spp. flabellifolia. The use of advanced backcrossing with additional wild relatives is proposed as a way to discover genes for high protein content, waxy starch, delayed post-harvest physiological deterioration, and resistance to whiteflies and hornworm. Other potential targets of MAS such as beta carotene and dry matter content as well as lower cyanogenic potential are given. In addition, suggestions are made for the use of molecular markers to estimate average heterozygosity during inbreeding of cassava and for the delineation of heterotic groups within the species. A final section describes the similarities and differences between the MAS schemes presented for the two crops. Differences between the species can be ascribed partially to the breeding and propagation systems of common beans (seed propagated, selfpollinating) and cassava (clonally propagated, cross-pollinating). In addition, differences in growth cycles, breeding methods, availability of genetic markers, access to selection environments and the accompanying opportunities for phenotypic selection influence the decisions in both crops of when and how to apply MAS. Recommendations are made for applying MAS in breeding of both crops including careful prioritization of traits, marker systems, genetic stocks, scaling up, planning of crosses and the balance between MAS and phenotypic selection. (author)

  11. KARAKTERISASI BIJI DAN PROTEIN KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet SEBAGAI SUMBER PROTEIN [Characterization of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Seed and Its Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to characterize the physiochemical properties of hyacinth beans as new protein source. The result of research showed that hyacinth beans are oval shaped and orange and yellow coloured. The edible part of hyacinth beans is 83.2 ± 1.1 % of dry seed; in which the carbohydrate is 67.9 ± 1.1 %; protein: 17.1 ± 1.5 % and fat: 1.1 ± 0.4 %. According to their solubility, the protein fractions were found as albumin: 18.22 %; globuli : 55.15 % and glutelin : 26.13 %, whereas prolamin was not detected. Further analyis showed that, the globulin is consisted of globulin 7S (3.50% and globulin 11S (0.67 %. The hyacinth beans are potential to be used for protein source.

  12. Look who's cooking. Investigating the relationship between watching educational and edutainment TV cooking shows, eating habits and everyday cooking practices among men and women in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Television (TV) cooking shows have evolved from focusing on educating to focusing on entertaining, as well. At present, educational TV cooking shows focus on the transfer of cooking knowledge and skills, whereas edutainment TV cooking shows focus on entertaining their viewers. Both types of shows are ongoing success stories. However, little is known regarding the shows' links with the cooking and eating habits of their audiences. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between watching an educational or edutainment TV cooking show and one's cooking and eating habits. Given public health concerns regarding the decline in cooking behaviors and the simultaneous increase in caloric intake from food outside the home, this study suggests a promising intervention. The results of a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 845) demonstrate that the audiences of educational and edutainment TV cooking shows do not overlap. Although there is little connection between watching specific shows and eating behavior, the connection between watching shows and cooking behaviors varies across gender and age lines. Behaviors also differ depending on whether the viewer is watching an educational or edutainment cooking show. For example, men of all ages appear to cook more often if they watch an educational show. However, only older men (above 38 years) seem to cook more often if they watch an edutainment TV show. The results demonstrate that the relationship between watching TV cooking shows and cooking habits warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on germination and Vitamin-C content of green gram and moth beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Priya; Marathe, S.A.; Rao, V.S.; Bongirwar, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Insect disinfestation of prepacked legumes by using low dose gamma irradiation is well known. Changes in sprout length, water uptake and Vitamin C contents of radiation processed legumes were studied. Gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy) of green gram (Phaseolus aureus) and moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) reduced the sprout length on germination by 6-18% at 0.25 kGy and 20-32% at 0.75 kGy, compared to control. Water uptake was not affected in both the legumes by radiation treatment. Vitamin C content increased significantly on germination in both the legumes for 24 and 48 hrs. Further on cooking of the seeds, Vitamin C contents were decreased in both the legumes significantly, more so in pressure cooked and shallow fried samples, compared to boiled (simple cooking). As such radiation treatment did not show any significant change in Vitamin C content of both the legumes either on germination and/or on cooking compared to control. (author)

  14. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. REACTION OF INTRODUCED BEAN (PHASEOLUS ACCESSIONS TO THE INFESTATION BY THIELAVIOPSIS BASICOLA (BERKELEY & BROOME UNDER NATURAL EPIPHYTOTIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Georgieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A periodic phytopathology field monitoring was conducted on 35 introduced common bean (Phaseolus accessions at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute in 2014. The epiphytotic disease black root rot on the bean crops (over 75 % reduction of the stand was recorded for the first time for the area of Bulgaria. The causal agent isolated from the plant tissue was identified as the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola (Berkeley Ferraris. A strong relationship between disease severity variation and environmental and soil conditions was established. Black root rot was most severe when cool and wet weather occurred from seedling time to about three weeks after planting, combined with increased soil compaction. Field resistance was recorded in Bulgarian var. “Plovdivski zult”, var. “Starozagorski tzer” and line № 564 (3,66%, 5.33% and 6,50 % dumping-off of bean seedlings, respectively. Bean accession introduced from dry climate areas were highly susceptible to black root rot pathogen (over 76.0 % dumping-off of bean seedlings. Indirect relationship was found between bean tolerance to Th. basicola and presence of the anthocyanin in the hypocotyl and seed coat color. Install the average negative correlation between seed color signs (and hypocotyl and the resistance of plants to Th. basicola. Samples with resistance to black root rot belong to the group with beige, red, brown or black color of seeds. The presence of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins in the seed coat and hypocotyls beans can serve as an indirect indication of the selection of resistant to black rot breeding materials.

  16. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. DE RON

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were i to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and ii to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593 and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence and high

  17. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ron, Antonio M; Rodiño, Ana P; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M; Lema, María J; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  18. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  19. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  20. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  1. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  2. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  3. UTILIZATION OF MEMBRANE MICROFILTRATION IN PREPARATION OF HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN FROM FERMENTED RED BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EXTRACT AS FORTIFICATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Moerniati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP as savory flavor from fermented red bean broth through stirred membrane cell using micro filtration membrane with pore size of 0.45 µm was performed to get fortified agent utilized in preparation of beans sauce. The objective of this work was to study an effect of pressure and kind of red bean broth extract on content of total protein, soluble protein and dry solid in the retentate and permeate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein used for fortified agent of red bean sauces. Preparation process of hydrolyzed vegetable protein was done using fixed rotary speed of 400 rpm, pressure of 20, 25 and 30 psi at room temperature. To investigate the effect of pressure on this separation, the feed were red bean broth extract fermented for 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Fermentation process were conducted using salt fermentation with inoculum of Rhizopus-C1, salt and red bean ratios of 30:10:60%. The analysis of flux and contents of total protein, dissolved protein and dry solid in the retentate and permeate was carried out, and the result of experiment showed that interaction of Red bean broth extract with 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of fermentation and operation condition of microfiltration membrane separation tends to affect on flux and content of total protein, dissolved protein and dry solid in retentate and permeate. Red bean broth extract for 6 weeks fermentation resulted higher protein content in permeate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein than in retentate. Permeate at pressure of 25 psi gives flux value of 0.0217 mL/cm2.minute and contents of total protein of 1.31 %, dissolved protein of 6.9 mg/g, and dry solid of 2.6%, while retentate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein or fortified agent indicate contents of total protein of 1.52%, dissolved protein of 4.15 mg/g, and dry solid of 3.64%. It was found that micro filtration process was able to increase dissolved protein content of about 3 times.   Keywords

  4. Study on rhizobium interaction with osmoprotectant rhizobacteria for improving mung bean yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryani, Y.; Sudadi; Dewi, W. S.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gunungkidul has calcareous soil with limitations including calcareous stone, mostly hilly terrain, and shallow cultivated layer. Furthermore, nowadays we face the disadvantages climates such as long dry seasons, a short rainy season and high temperatures caused by climate change. Climate change leads to irregular rainwater availability for microbes and crops. Research in this field is currently needed as climate change affected directly on crop production, while we need to find the strategy to keep high productivity of the plant. This research aimed to determine the ability of osmoprotectant rhizobacteria and rhizobium to support mung bean yield. Osmoprotectant rhizobacteria were isolated and screened from the calcareous soil in Gunungkidul with disadvantageous climates such as a long dry season, a short rainy season and high temperature. This research was arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The result showed that osmoprotectant rhizobacteria isolate of strain Al24-k and Ver5-k can produce 9.6306 mg g‑1 cell of glycine betaine in a soil density 1.7667 x 107 CFU g‑1 and 11.4870 mg g‑1 cell of glycine betaine in a soil density 1.9667 x 107 CFU g‑1. Inoculation of isolates osmoprotectant rhizobacteria can support mung bean yield. Osmoprotectant rhizobacteria isolate did not effect rhizobium in mung bean rhizosphere.

  5. Fate of nitrogen (15N) from velvet bean in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, Walkyria Bueno; Muraoka, Takashi; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2004-01-01

    Because of their potential for N 2 biological fixation, legumes are an alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can even replace or supplement mineral fertilization. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate temporal patterns of velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) green manure release of nitrogen to rice plants, and to study the fate of nitrogen from velvet bean in rice cultivation. The isotopic dilution methodology was used. Treatments consisted of a control and 10 incubation periods of soil fertilized with 15 N-labeled velvet bean (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 days). The plant material was previously chopped, sifted (10 mm mesh sieve) and oven-dried (65 deg C). Incubation of the plant material (2.2 g kg -1 soil) was initiated by the longest period, in order to synchronize the planting of the test crop, rice (Oryza sativa), at time zero for all treatments. Green manure incorporation promoted increases in rice dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake. These variables showed maximum values at incubation periods of 38 and 169 days, respectively. Green manure nitrogen utilization by rice plants was highest at an incubation period corresponding to 151 days. More than 60% of the green manure nitrogen remained in the soil after rice cultivation. The highest green manure nitrogen recovery from the soil-plant system occurred at an incubation period equivalent to 77 days. (author)

  6. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  7. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  8. Engineering soya bean seeds as a scalable platform to produce cyanovirin-N, a non-ARV microbicide against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Barry R; Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Ramessar, Koreen; Saucedo, Carrie J; Wilson, Jennifer; Buckheit, Karen W; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Araújo, Ana Claudia G; Lacorte, Cristiano C; Madeira, Luisa; McMahon, James B; Rech, Elibio L

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to provide effective anti-HIV microbicides to resource-poor areas worldwide. Some of the most promising microbicide candidates are biotherapeutics targeting viral entry. To provide biotherapeutics to poorer areas, it is vital to reduce the cost. Here, we report the production of biologically active recombinant cyanovirin-N (rCV-N), an antiviral protein, in genetically engineered soya bean seeds. Pure, biologically active rCV-N was isolated with a yield of 350 μg/g of dry seed weight. The observed amino acid sequence of rCV-N matched the expected sequence of native CV-N, as did the mass of rCV-N (11 009 Da). Purified rCV-N from soya is active in anti-HIV assays with an EC50 of 0.82-2.7 nM (compared to 0.45-1.8 nM for E. coli-produced CV-N). Standard industrial processing of soya bean seeds to harvest soya bean oil does not diminish the antiviral activity of recovered rCV-N, allowing the use of industrial soya bean processing to generate both soya bean oil and a recombinant protein for anti-HIV microbicide development. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations: "Cook"ed to perfection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN celebrated its 60th anniversary with a gala celebration. Hundreds of CERN staff members and users, dignitaries from CERN Member States and representatives of international organisations filled the marquee for a ceremony featuring speeches as well as music from the EU Youth Orchestra. CERN Recruitment Unit section leader Anna Cook was called in at the last minute to host the ceremony.   Anna had just got back from a run on her day off when she got the call. On the line CERN60 project leader Sascha Schmeling, Globe manager Bernard Pellequer and video editor Jacques Fichet had a problem. French-Swiss journalist Darius Rochebin, who had been pegged to host CERN's 60th anniversary ceremony, had been forced to cancel at the last minute, just three days before the event. Would Anna host the celebration – a ceremony to be attended by hundreds and broadcast around the world for all to see? After asking whether it was a joke, she said: “OK, I&rsquo...

  10. 20 CFR 654.413 - Cooking and eating facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooking and eating facilities. 654.413... Cooking and eating facilities. (a) When workers or their families are permitted or required to cook in their individual unit, a space shall be provided and equipped for cooking and eating. Such space shall...

  11. 46 CFR 169.703 - Cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking and heating. 169.703 Section 169.703 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.703 Cooking and heating. (a) Cooking and heating... cooking, heating or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (c) The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or...

  12. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  13. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  14. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by ½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.

  15. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  16. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  17. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  18. 2015 Cook & Tift County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Tift and Cook Counties GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task NOAA Contract No. EA133C-11-CQ-0010 Woolpert Order No. 75271...

  19. DASH Diet: Tips for Shopping and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dash-in-brief-html. Accessed April 7, 2016. Essential kitchen equipment. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyCooking/Essential-Kitchen-Equipment_UCM_430098_Article.jsp. Accessed April 7, ...

  20. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  1. Effects of water blanching on polyphenol reaction kinetics and quality of cocoa beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, A. S.; Hii, C. L.; Law, C. L.; Suzannah, S.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, drying has an inhibitory effect on the substantial recovery of cocoa polyphenols. This is majorly because of the high degradation of polyphenol compounds as well as the enhanced activity of polyphenol oxidases; a pre-cursor for browning of polyphenols during drying. Pre-treatment technique such as water blanching (80° and 90°C for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min exposure times respectively) can inactivate the polyphenol oxidases enzyme and promote high percent of the polyphenol recovery in dried cocoa bean. The degradation kinetics of cocoa polyphenols during hot water blanching are analyzed; The rate constant for the polyphenol degradation after blanching was found to be ranging from 0.0208 to 0.0340 /min. The results for dried fresh cocoa beans showed an optimal level of polyphenol recovery (118 mg GAE/g) when blanched at 90°C for 5 minutes duration. The antioxidant activity is also analyzed using DPPH scavenging assay.

  2. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  3. 8351 Volume 13 No. 5 December 2013 EFFECT OF DRYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-05

    Dec 5, 2013 ... cassava chips, cassava flour and starch for human consumption while the leaves can be cooked ... food and textile industries include solubility, pasting properties which include its ... However, a fast and optimum drying process will reduce .... major factor contributing to the swelling behaviour of starch [14].

  4. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnapriya, K.C.; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T.

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Rice can efficiently uptake uranium from water contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}) 2.6 H{sub 2}O), while cooking. • Unusual uranium uptake to the extent of about 1000 ppm is observed when rice is cooked in highly concentrated uranium contaminated water (1240 ppm). • Nature of interaction of uranium with carbohydrates is probed using small monosaccharides like glucose and mannose. • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to be the most stable species in water in such solutions which can form complexes with sugars. • The species (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is also observed in the case of water exposed to the common mineral, uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and similar type of complexation is observed with sugars. - Abstract: The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO{sub 2}(s), both of which exist as UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and

  5. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wright

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  6. The emergence of cooking in Southwest Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    There has been surprisingly little systematic study by prehistorians of how in the distant past people cooked and consumed food. There are many unanswered questions. For example, how did cooking emerge and affect human evolution, how did it change with the advent of farming, when did kitchens first appear and who built the earliest known ovens? Research on Palaeolithic and Neolithic food preparation and consumption is now beginning to suggest answers to such questions.

  7. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.2 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes...

  8. EMS induced dwarf and high yielding mutant in yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.; Abraham, Susan

    1990-01-01

    The species Pachyrrhizus erosus Linn., commonly known as yam bean, is cultivated in many countries for its edible underground tubers. The young tubers can be eaten raw, cooked, or can be sliced and made into chips. As genetic variability is limited in this species, a mutation breeding programme, using physical and chemical mutagens, was initiated to induce variability in a locally adapted cultivar. Genetically pure seeds were treated with concentrations of EMS ranging from 0.25 to 2%. Evaluation of M 2 raised from 1.25% treatment revealed a dwarf mutant showing a higher yield than the control. This mutant attained a height of 20 cm only in M 3 as against 82 cm in the controls. Though the starch content of the tuber and rotenone content in the seeds were the same as that in the control, protein content was slightly higher and the sugar content slightly less

  9. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  10. Foliar absorption of phosphorus by common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Rosa, J.P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effet of urea and/or sucrose on P uptake from H 3 PO 4 and monoammonium phosphate by bean leaves. A solution containing 0.145% P and specific activity 10μ Ci/ml is sprayed early in the morning or late afternoon. Besides the treatment without urea and sucrose, these substances are added in two concentrations 0.66% N + sucrose, and 1.32% N + sucrose. Twenty four hous after application, 52% of the applied P is absorved by the bean trifoliate leaf. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  12. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    The Definitive Guide to NetBeans(t) Platform is a thorough and definitive introduction to the NetBeans Platform, covering all its major APIs in detail, with relevant code examples used throughout. The original German book on which this title is based was well received. The NetBeans Platform Community has put together this English translation, which author Heiko Bock updated to cover the latest NetBeans Platform 6.5 APIs. With an introduction by known NetBeans Platform experts Jaroslav Tulach, Tim Boudreau, and Geertjan Wielenga, this is the most up-to-date book on this topic at the moment. All

  13. Effects of cooking process on the changes of concentration and total amount of radioactive caesium in beef, wild plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Rieko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain information about effects of the cooking process on the changes of concentration and amount of radioactive materials in foods, we determined the concentration of radioactive caesium in several foods such as beef, edible wild plants, blueberries and mushrooms, before and after cooking. Our results showed that drying after soaking in liquid seasoning and the removal of astringent taste were effective in removing radioactive caesium from foods. More than 80% of radioactive caesium could be removed by these cooking methods. These results suggest that cooking processes such as boiling and soaking in liquid seasoning or water are effective to remove radioactive caesium from foods. Moreover, appropriate food additives such as baking soda were useful to promote the removal of radioactive caesium from foods. On the other hand, simple drying, jam making, grilling and tempura cooking could not remove radioactive caesium from foods. In addition, we showed that the concentration of radioactive caesium in foods was raised after simple drying, although the amount of radioactive caesium was unchanged. It would be necessary to monitor radioactive caesium concentration in processed foods because they might have undergone dehydration by cooking, which could result in concentrations exceeding regulatory levels. (author)

  14. Water sorption kinetics of damaged beans: GAB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Baptestini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to model the water sorption kinetics of damaged beans. Grains with initial moisture content of 53.85%, dry basis (d.b., were used. One portion of the grains was used to obtain desorption isotherms, while the other was subjected to drying until the moisture content of 5.26% (d.b., so that it was subjected to the adsorption. For the induction of damage, a Stein Breakage Tester was used. To obtain the equilibrium moisture content, grains were placed in a climatic chamber at 20, 30, 40 and 50 ± 1 °C combined with relative humidity of 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 ± 3%. The GAB model fitted well to the equilibrium moisture experimental data of damaged grains and control. With increasing temperature, the monolayer moisture contents decreased in adsorption and desorption processes, ranging from 9.84 to 5.10% d.b. The lower moisture content in the monolayer in damaged grains indicates that lower moisture content is necessary to ensure their conservation.

  15. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  16. Effect of spray drying on the properties of amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble amylose-hexadecyl ammonium chloride complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and hexadecyl ammonium chloride by excess steam jet cooking. Amylose inclusion complexes were spray dried to determine the viability of spray drying as a production method. The variables tested in...

  17. Culinary and sensory traits diversity in the Spanish Core Collection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A.; Casquero, P.A.; Mayo, S.; Almirall, A.; Plans, M.; Simó, J.; Romero-del-Castillo, R.; Casañas, F.

    2016-11-01

    The Spanish National Plant Genetic Resource Center’s core collection of bean germplasm includes 202 accessions selected from more than 3000 accessions in function of passport data, seed phenotype, genetic background, and agronomic traits. To acquire more useful information about these accessions, we cultivated and characterized them for sensory and culinary traits. We found considerable variation for culinary and sensory traits of the cooked beans (mean coefficients of variation: 41% for the sensory traits and 40% for the culinary traits). The large dataset enabled us to study correlations between sensory and culinary traits and among these traits and geographic origin, seed color, and growth habit. Greater proportion of white in the seed coat correlated positively with brightness and negatively with mealiness (r=0.60, r=-0.60, p<0.001, respectively). Mealiness correlated negatively with seed-coat roughness and rate of water absorption (r=-0.60, r=-0.53, p<0.001, respectively). Materials of Andean origin had lower seed-coat brightness (p<0.01) and seed-coat roughness, and greater seed-coat perceptibility, mealiness, flavor, and aroma (p<0.001) than materials of Mesoamerican origin. Growth habit failed to correlate with culinary or sensory traits. Breeders can benefit from the information about this core collection available at www.crf.inia.es/crfesp/paginaprincipaljudia.asp. (Author)

  18. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  19. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  20. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…