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Sample records for cony

  1. A New Polycrystalline Co-Ni Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, M.; Mulvey, P.; Ismail, F.; Radecka, A.; Rahman, K. M.; Lindley, T. C.; Shollock, B. A.; Hardy, M. C.; Moody, M. P.; Martin, T. L.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Dye, D.

    2014-12-01

    In 2006, a new-ordered L12 phase, Co3(Al,W), was discovered that can form coherently in a face-centered cubic (fcc) A1 Co matrix. Since then, a community has developed that is attempting to take these alloys forward into practical applications in gas turbines. A new candidate polycrystalline Co-Ni γ/ γ' superalloy, V208C, is presented that has the nominal composition 36Co-35Ni-15Cr-10Al-3W-1Ta (at.%). The alloy was produced by conventional powder metallurgy superalloy methods. After forging, a γ' fraction of ~56% and a secondary γ' size of 88 nm were obtained, with a grain size of 2.5 μm. The solvus temperature was 1000°C. The density was found to be 8.52 g cm-3, which is similar to existing Ni alloys with this level of γ'. The alloy showed the flow stress anomaly and a yield strength of 920 MPa at room temperature and 820 MPa at 800°C, similar to that of Mar-M247. These values are significantly higher than those found for either conventional solution and carbide-strengthened Co alloys or the γ/ γ' Co superalloys presented in the literature thus far. The oxidation resistance, with a mass gain of 0.08 mg cm-2 in 100 h at 800°C, is also comparable with that of existing high-temperature Ni superalloys. These results suggest that Co-based and Co-Ni superalloys may hold some promise for the future in gas turbine applications.

  2. Authentication-secrecy code based on conies over finite fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴定一; 王学理

    1996-01-01

    An authentication-secrecy code based on the rational normal curves over finite fields was constructed,whose probabilities of successful deception achieve their information-theoretic bounds.The set of encoding rules for this code is a representation system for cosets of a certain subgroup in the projective transformation group.A special case is studied,i.e.the rational normal curves are the conies over finite fields.The representation system for the cosets which determines the set of encoding rules will be given.

  3. Structural and oxidation properties of CoNi nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Granja, Faustino; Montejano-Carrizales, Juan Martin; Vogel, Eugenio E.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocylinders made out of CoNi alloys offer interesting properties which are dependent on the proportion of the constituent elements, the preparation methods and the thermal history of the sample. In the present paper we calculate the structural and electronic properties of Co1- x Ni x alloys at subnanoscopic level. SIESTA program is used to relax the structures following standard protocols. Relative positions of the minority atoms (Ni) are varied aiming to find the lowest energy configurations. It is found that Ni atoms minimize energy at surface positions mainly at the ends of the cylinders. The implications of this result in the magnetic properties of the systems are discussed. The work is continued to study the oxidation properties of the different possible surface compositions. It is found that surfaces of Ni are more resistant to oxidation than Co ones. The combination of the two previous results can lead to cylinders with high magnetic coercivity and relatively high resistance to oxidation.

  4. Microwave absorption of nanoscale CoNi powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Bhagat, S. M.; Luna, C.; Vazquez, M.

    2006-05-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and microwave magnetoabsorption can be expected to be powerful tools for characterization of magnetic nanoparticles. In the present work, we have studied the FMR and magnetic field dependence of nonresonant microwave losses in CoNi nanoparticles of about 45, 100, and 200 nm caliper sizes prepared by the polyol technique. Contrary to our expectation, FMR lines, although wide, show that the particles are not truly spherical. Subsequent scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations have confirmed this finding. Further, as before, all the powders are found to have large zero field absorption which reduces on application of a direct current (dc) field parallel to the microwave magnetic field but is relatively insensitive to a dc field if the powder is located in the microwave electric field, hence defining a magnetoimpedance for the system.

  5. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption of chain-like CoNi by a hydrothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Biao; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Xie, Yajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan (China); Zhang, Rui, E-mail: zhangray@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan (China); Zhengzhou Aeronautical Institute of Industry Management, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan (China)

    2014-12-15

    One-dimension CoNi chains with lengths of several to tens and diameter of 1-2 μm were synthesized through a tartrate assisted hydrothermal method at 140 °C for 15 h. The obtained CoNi chains were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The electromagnetic characteristics of CoNi chains were studied at 1–18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss (RL) can reach −34.33 dB at 17.5 GHz with a thickness of 1.0 mm. The value of reflection loss below −10 dB can be tuned in the 4.6–18 GHz by adjusting the absorber thickness of 1.0–3.0 mm. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the CoNi chains are ascribed to the good impedance matching, multiple polarization and unique chain-like shape. The experimental results showed that chain-like CoNi is a promising candidate as a low density, strong-absorption, wide-band and thin-thickness microwave absorber. - Highlights: • The CoNi chains were prepared through a tartrate-assisted hydrothermal method. • The CoNi chains are polyphasic with a mixture of fcc lattice and hcp lattice. • An optimal reflection loss value of −34.33 dB could be obtained at 17.5 GHz. • The RL below −10 dB is from 4.6 to 18.0 GHz with thickness of 1.0–3.0 mm. • The chain-like CoNi is a promising absorber with wide-band and thin-thickness.

  6. Appropriate deposition parameters for formation of fcc Co-Ni alloy nanowires during electrochemical deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Aiman; Shahzad Khan, Babar; Mehmood, Tahir

    2016-12-01

    The effect of deposition potential on the crystal structure and composition of Co-Ni alloy nanowires is studied by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The alloy nanowires deposited at -3.2 V are metastable fcc phase Co-Ni. The alloy nanowires deposited at -1.8 V are hcp phase Co-Ni. The formation of the metastable fcc alloy nanowires can be attributed to smaller critical clusters formed at the high potential as the smaller critical clusters favor fcc structure because of the significant surface energy effect. The content of Co inside nanowires increases with increasing potential. This can be understood by the polarization curves of depositing Co and Ni nanowires, which show that the current density ratio of Ni to Co at low potential has larger value than that at high potential.

  7. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF NINO CONI SANTANA NATIONAL PARK AT TUTUALA VILLAGE, TUTUALA SUB-DISTRICK, LAUTEM DISTRCK, TOMOR-LESTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmiro Jose De Deus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nino Coni Santana National Park had been suffered by illegal logging, and other activities that are not environmenknowleage. Lack of a security and knowledgeabout forest also contributeto increasethe damage of Nino Coni Santana National Park (1The purpose of this research is to determine management strategy of Nino Coni National Park due to illegal logging in the area Tutuala and Mehara village at Tutuala sub-district,Lautem district, Timor Leste and determine management strategy of Nino Coni Santana National Park. Public perception obtained through questionnaires with purpose sampling method. The formula of management strategy for the damage in Nino Coni Santana National park use SWOT analysis to identify internal and external factors. The level of damage known by identifiy thearea due damaged by illegal logging.(2 The results showed that the damage by illegal logging at Nino Coni Santana national park caused because people are not involved in management of Nino Coni Santana National Park. The problems are illegal logging, encroachment,of forest, slash the wood harting wild animals, lack organization,andillegal grazing.(3 The management strategy of Nino Coni Santana National Park based on local culture, the establishment of a special UPTD that manage Coni Nino Santana forests, HKM and tourism programs, public development programs and cooperation of local people in order to utilize, surveillance and patrolling forests. In order to develop local knowledge as a base inNino Coni Santana National park,through HKM and tourism, Public socialization about the importance of forest. To measure the success of this management,should do monitoring, controlling andevaluation periodically by the government and involve the local people around Nino Cono Santana National Park.

  8. Stacking fault probability and stacking fault energy in CoNi alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟敏; 江伯鸿; 刘岩; 漆王睿

    2001-01-01

    The stacking fault probability of CoNi alloys with different contents of Ni was measured by X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that the stacking fault decreases with increasing Ni content and with increasing temperature. The thermodynamical calculation has found an equation that can express the stacking fault energy γ of CoNi at temperature T. The phase equilibrium temperature depends on the composition of the certain alloy. The relationship between stacking fault energy γ and stacking fault probability Psf is determined.

  9. Evolution of magnetic properties and domain structures in Co/Ni multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianpeng; Jin, Tianli; Wang, Ying; Ren, Yang; Wang, Lianwen; Bai, Jianmin; Cao, Jiangwei

    2016-11-01

    Co/Ni multilayers with different layer thicknesses and repetition numbers were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The films with appropriate Co and Ni layer thicknesses show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The results of magnetic force microscopy indicate that the films show a maze domain in the demagnetization state and that the domain width decreases with increasing layer thickness and repetition number. The magnetostatic and domain wall energies of the film stack were calculated on the basis of an irregular maze domain pattern. The results suggest that the magnetostatic energy is the main reason for the variation of the domain width in Co/Ni multilayers.

  10. Large electric-field control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in strained [Co/Ni] / PZT heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopman, Daniel; Dennis, Cindi; Chen, P. J.; Iunin, Yury; Shull, Robert

    We present a piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructure with PMA - a Co/Ni multilayer sputtered directly onto a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) substrate. Chemical-mechanical polishing was used to reduce the roughness of PZT plates to below 2 nm rms, enabling optimal magnetoelectric coupling via the direct interface between PZT and sputtered Co/Ni films with large PMA (Keff = (95 +/-9 kJ/m3)) . We grew the following layer stack: Ta(3)/Pt(2)/[Co(0.15)/Ni(0.6)]x4/Co(0.15)/Pt(2)/Ta(3); numbers in parentheses indicate thicknesses in nm. Applied electric fields up to +/- 2 MV/m to the PZT generated 0.05% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayer, enabling a large electric-field reduction of the PMA (ΔKeff >= 103 J/m3) and of the coercive field (35%). Our results demonstrate that: (i) heterostructures combining PZT and [Co/Ni] exhibit larger PMA (Keff ~105 J/m3) than previous magnetoelectric heterostructures based on Co/Pt and CoFeB, enabling thermally stable hybrid magnetoelectric/spintronic devices only tens of nm in diameter and (ii) electric-field control of the PMA is promising for more energy efficient switching of spintronic devices.

  11. CoNi(2)S(4) nanosheet arrays supported on nickel foams with ultrahigh capacitance for aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Chen, Ruqi; Xie, Wei; Zou, Lilan; Qin, Ni; Bao, Dinghua

    2014-11-12

    We report that CoNi2S4 nanosheet arrays exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2906 F g(-1) and areal capacitance of 6.39 F cm(-2) at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2), as well as good rate capability and cycling stability, and superior electrochemical performances with an energy density of 33.9 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 409 W kg(-1) have been achieved in an assembled aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor. The CoNi2S4 nanosheet arrays were in situ grown on nickel foams by a facile two-step hydrothermal method. The formation mechanism of the CoNi2S4 nanosheet arrays was based on an anion-exchange reaction involving the pseudo Kirkendall effect. The two aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors in series using the CoNi2S4 nanosheet arrays as the positive electrodes can power four 3-mm-diameter red-light-emitting diodes. The outstanding supercapacitive performance of CoNi2S4 nanosheet arrays can be attributed to ravine-like nanosheet architectures with good mechanical and electrical contact, low crystallinity and good wettability without an annealing process, rich redox reactions, as well as high conductivity and transport rate for both electrolyte ions and electrons. Our results demonstrate that CoNi2S4 nanosheet arrays are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor applications.

  12. Strain-assisted magnetization reversal in Co/Ni multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopman, D B; Dennis, C L; Chen, P J; Iunin, Y L; Finkel, P; Staruch, M; Shull, R D

    2016-06-14

    Multifunctional materials composed of ultrathin magnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy combined with ferroelectric substrates represent a new approach toward low power, fast, high density spintronics. Here we demonstrate Co/Ni multilayered films with tunable saturation magnetization and perpendicular anisotropy grown directly on ferroelectric PZT [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] substrate plates. Electric fields up to ±2 MV/m expand the PZT by 0.1% and generate at least 0.02% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayered film. Modifying the strain with a voltage can reduce the coercive field by over 30%. We also demonstrate that alternating in-plane tensile and compressive strains (less than 0.01%) can be used to propagate magnetic domain walls. This ability to manipulate high anisotropy magnetic thin films could prove useful for lowering the switching energy for magnetic elements in future voltage-controlled spintronic devices.

  13. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous hall effect in Co/Ni multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Jingyan; Jiang, Shaolong; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xujing; Yu, Guanghua

    2016-12-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Ni multilayer were optimized by manipulating its interface structure (inducing HfO2 capping layer and Pt insertion) and post-annealing treatment. A strong PMA can be obtained in Co/Ni multilayers with HfO2 capping layer even after annealing at 400 °C. The heavy metal Hf may improve the interfacial spin-orbit coupling, which responsible for the enhanced PMA and high annealing stability. Moreover, the multilayer containing HfO2 capping layer also exhibited high saturation anomalous Hall resistivity through post-annealing, which is 0.85 μΩ cm after annealing at 375 °C, 211% larger than in the sample at deposited state which is only 0.27 μΩ cm. The enhancement of AHE is mainly attributed to the interface scattering through post-annealing treatment.

  14. Strain-assisted magnetization reversal in Co/Ni multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopman, D. B.; Dennis, C. L.; Chen, P. J.; Iunin, Y. L.; Finkel, P.; Staruch, M.; Shull, R. D.

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional materials composed of ultrathin magnetic films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy combined with ferroelectric substrates represent a new approach toward low power, fast, high density spintronics. Here we demonstrate Co/Ni multilayered films with tunable saturation magnetization and perpendicular anisotropy grown directly on ferroelectric PZT [Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] substrate plates. Electric fields up to ±2 MV/m expand the PZT by 0.1% and generate at least 0.02% in-plane compression in the Co/Ni multilayered film. Modifying the strain with a voltage can reduce the coercive field by over 30%. We also demonstrate that alternating in-plane tensile and compressive strains (less than 0.01%) can be used to propagate magnetic domain walls. This ability to manipulate high anisotropy magnetic thin films could prove useful for lowering the switching energy for magnetic elements in future voltage-controlled spintronic devices.

  15. Homogeneous precipitation of α-phase Co-Ni hydroxides hexagonal platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juanjuan Liu; Xuyang Wang; Xiayin Yao; Jun wang; Zhaoping Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of α-phase Co-Ni hydroxides hexagonal platelets through homogeneous precipitation,using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) or urea as a hydrolytic agent.In the CoCl2-NiCl2-HMT system,pure α-phase can be synthesized at the concentrations of both metal ions higher than 20 mM,while in the CoCl2-NiCl2-urea system,the formation of pure α-phase is independent of the concentrations of the metal ions.When using HMT,monodisperse hexagonal platelets of α-phase Co-Ni hydroxides can be produced in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).Cyclic voltammogram curve of the hexagonal platelets prepared with HMT demonstrates electrochemical performance superior to that of urea.

  16. Enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers with a thin seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, H.; Venkatesan, M.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2010-10-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is induced in Co/Ni multilayers when they are grown on a (111) textured Au seed layer, provided it is at least 2 nm thick. The anisotropy increases with increasing Au thickness due to improved crystallinity. Postannealing treatments of as-grown [Co(0.3)/Ni(0.6)]5 (thicknesses in nanometer) multilayers enhance the coercivity and PMA up to an annealing temperature of 250 °C, but higher temperatures lead to intermixing of Co and Ni which diminishes PMA. The easy axis becomes in-plane for samples annealed at 400 °C. The improvement in PMA in Co/Ni layers due to annealing is limited by the Au seed layer thickness. Annealing also reduces the saturation magnetization by ˜15% due to the formation of superparamagnetic islands. Our results show that the PMA in Co/Ni multilayers can be improved by annealing up to 350 °C, which is required for the thermal stability of spin transfer torque memories.

  17. Hydrogel covered bimetallic Co:Ni magnetic nano alloy for protein adsorption in biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajar, Kausar; Alveroglu, Esra

    2017-10-01

    In this study, polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel covered CoNi magnetic nanoalloys with various Co/Ni molar ratio (from 1/4 to 4/1) were synthesized, characterized and used for adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). XRD, EDS, VSM, SEM, AFM, Automated Gas Sorption Analyzer and Fluorescence measurements were used for characterizations and adsorption studies. The results confirm that all the synthesized nanoalloys have soft ferromagnetic nature and particles size were determined to be in the range of 8.60-12.19 nm. Adsorption performances of magnetic nanoalloys were investigated on bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results showed that prepared CoNi:PAAm composites have multistage adsorption kinetics for BSA and increasing Ni content in the CoNi nanoalloys enhance the adsorption rate constant and the rate constant can be tuned between 0.003 s-1 and 0.009 s-1 and between 0.01 s-1 and 0.60 s-1 for the first order adsorption and the second order adsorption stages, respectively. These results show that CoNi:PAAm composites can open new pathways for preparing a special composite material which has specific adsorption kinetic for bio-separation technology.

  18. Magnetic domain patterns on strong perpendicular magnetization of Co/Ni multilayers as spintronics materials: I. Dynamic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiko; Kudo, Kazue; Kojima, Kazuki; Yasue, Tsuneo; Akutsu, Noriko; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki; Bauer, Ernst; Koshikawa, Takanori

    2013-10-09

    Materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy can reduce the threshold current density of the current-induced domain wall motion. Co/Ni multilayers show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and therefore it has become a highly potential candidate of current-induced domain wall motion memories. However, the details of the mechanism which stabilizes the strong perpendicular magnetization in Co/Ni multilayers have not yet been understood. In the present work, the evolution of the magnetic domain structure of multilayers consisting of pairs of 2 or 3 monolayers (ML) of Ni and 1 ML of Co on W(110) was investigated during growth with spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy. An interesting phenomenon, that the magnetic domain structure changed drastically during growth, was revealed. In the early stages of the growth the magnetization alternated between in-plane upon Co deposition and out-of-plane upon Ni deposition. The change of the magnetization direction occurred within a range of less than 0.2 ML during Ni or Co deposition, with break-up of the existing domains followed by growth of new domains. The Ni and Co thickness at which the magnetization direction switched shifted gradually with the number of Co/Ni pairs. Above 3-4 Co/Ni pairs it stayed out-of-plane. The results indicate clearly that the Co-Ni interfaces play the important role of enhancing the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Current-induced domain wall motion in Co/Ni nano-wires with different Co and Ni thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K; Chiba, D; Koyama, T; Yamada, G; Ono, T [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan); Tanigawa, H; Fukami, S; Suzuki, T; Ohshima, N; Ishiwata, N [NEC Corporation, 1120 Shimokuzawa, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5298 (Japan); Nakatani, Y, E-mail: ono@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    The authors have investigated magnetic domain wall motion induced by electric currents in ferromagnetic nano-wires made of Co/Ni multilayers. The thicknesses of Co and Ni layers were changed, whereas the numbers of layer stacks of Co and Ni were the same in all samples. The sample with thinner total Co/Ni thickness showed the lower threshold current density for the domain wall motion as an overall trend, which is qualitatively in agreement with the expectation by the theory based on the adiabatic spin-transfer model. The lowest threshold current density was 2.9x10{sup 11} A/m{sup 2} obtained in the sample with the total Co/Ni thickness of 3.4 nm and the wire width of 110 nm.

  20. Seed layer impact on structural and magnetic properties of [Co/Ni] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enlong; Swerts, J.; Devolder, T.; Couet, S.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Spampinato, V.; Franquet, A.; Conard, T.; Van Elshocht, S.; Furnemont, A.; De Boeck, J.; Kar, G.

    2017-01-01

    [Co/Ni] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have been researched and applied in various spintronic applications. Typically, the seed layer material is studied to provide the desired face-centered cubic (fcc) texture to the [Co/Ni] to obtain PMA. The integration of [Co/Ni] in back-end-of-line processes also requires the PMA to survive post-annealing. In this paper, the impact of NiCr, Pt, Ru, and Ta seed layers on the structural and magnetic properties of [Co(0.3 nm)/Ni(0.6 nm)] multilayers is investigated before and after annealing. The multilayers were deposited in-situ on different seeds via physical vapor deposition at room temperature. The as-deposited [Co/Ni] films show the required fcc(111) texture on all seeds, but PMA is only observed on Pt and Ru. In-plane magnetic anisotropy is obtained on NiCr and Ta seeds, which is attributed to strain-induced PMA loss. PMA is maintained on all seeds after post-annealing up to 400 °C. The largest effective perpendicular anisotropy energy ( KUeff≈2 ×105 J/m3) after annealing is achieved on the NiCr seed. The evolution of PMA upon annealing cannot be explained by further crystallization during annealing or strain-induced PMA, nor can the observed magnetization loss and the increased damping after annealing. Here, we identify the diffusion of the non-magnetic materials from the seed into [Co/Ni] as the major driver of the changes in the magnetic properties. By selecting the seed and post-annealing temperature, the [Co/Ni] can be tuned in a broad range for both PMA and damping.

  1. Austenite layer and precipitation in high Co-Ni maraging steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchong; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    In high Co-Ni maraging steel, austenite has a great effect on the fracture toughness of the steel and the precipitated carbides are the main strengthening phase. In this study, both austenite layers and precipitation were observed and their formation theory was analyzed by Thermo-Calc simulation and several reported results. TEM and HRTEM observation results showed that the thickness of the austenite layers was about 5-10 nm and the length of the needle-like precipitated carbides was less than 10nm. The carbides maintained coherent or semi-coherent relation with the matrix.

  2. Influence of aspect ratio and anisotropy distribution in ordered CoNi nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, W.O., E-mail: wrosa@cbpf.br [Depto. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007-Oviedo (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, R. Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150 - 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vivas, L.G. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain); Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970-Campinas (Brazil); Asenjo, A.; Vazquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The size effects on magnetic properties of nanowires arrays were studied varying the nanowires diameter and maintaining the same periodicity among them, for two different nominal compositions of Co and Ni in the alloy form. The competition among magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies changes drastically from smallest to biggest diameters altering the easy axis direction. In the case of 75% of Co in alloy, experimental values of the effective anisotropy constant (K{sub eff}) vary from positive to negative depending on the diameter, which means a reversal of the easy axis direction. For 50% of Co the shape anisotropy dominates over the magnetocrystalline for all studied diameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered CoNi nanowire alloys have been produced by electrodeposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrolyte temperature ensures the deposition of CoNi alloys instead of Co and Ni segregated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A competition between shape and magnetocrystalline anisotropies determines the direction of the easy magnetization axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of the effective anisotropy gives us information respect to the easy axis modification.

  3. Temperature dependence of carrier spin polarization determined from current-induced domain wall motion in a Co/Ni nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K.; Koyama, T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Fukami, S. [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Suzuki, T. [RENESAS Electronics Corporation, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5298 (Japan); Ohshima, N. [NEC Energy Device Ltd., 1120 Shimokuzawa, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5298 (Japan); Ishiwata, N. [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Nakatani, Y. [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2012-05-14

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni nanowire at various temperatures and with various applied currents. The carrier spin polarization was estimated from the measured domain wall velocity. We found that it decreased more with increasing temperature from 100 K to 530 K than the saturation magnetization did.

  4. Magnetic domain patterns on strong perpendicular magnetization of Co/Ni multilayers as spintronics materials: II. Numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kazue; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kojima, Kazuki; Yasue, Tsuneo; Akutsu, Noriko; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki; Bauer, Ernst; Koshikawa, Takanori

    2013-10-02

    Magnetic domains in ultrathin films form domain patterns, which strongly depend on the magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers changes with the number of layers. We provide a model to simulate the experimentally observed domain patterns. The model assumes a layer-dependent magnetic anisotropy. With the anisotropy parameter estimated from experimental data, we reproduce the magnetic domain patterns.

  5. Spin orbit torques and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in dual-interfaced Co-Ni multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jiawei

    2016-09-07

    We study the spin orbit torque (SOT) and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in the dual-interfaced Co-Ni perpendicular multilayers. Through the combination of top and bottom layer materials (Pt, Ta, MgO and Cu), SOT and DMI are efficiently manipulated due to an enhancement or cancellation of the top and bottom contributions. However, SOT is found to originate mostly from the bulk of a heavy metal (HM), while DMI is more of interfacial origin. In addition, we find that the direction of the domain wall (DW) motion can be either along or against the electron flow depending on the DW tilting angle when there is a large DMI. Such an abnormal DW motion induces a large assist field required for hysteretic magnetization reversal. Our results provide insight into the role of DMI in SOT driven magnetization switching, and demonstrate the feasibility of achieving desirable SOT and DMI for spintronic devices.

  6. Magnetic domain wall motion in Co/Ni nanowires induced by a sloped electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keisuke; Murayama, Soh; Nakatani, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    We report the sloped-electric-field (SEF)-driven motion of a magnetic domain wall (DW) in a Co/Ni nanowire with a perpendicular anisotropy using micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the DW velocity increases in proportion to the modulation ratio of the SEF, and rapidly decreases above a threshold ratio of SEF (i.e., the breakdown). We derived the analytical equation of the effective magnetic field caused by the SEF, and show the resultant DW velocity. Also, we found that the maximum DW velocity is three times faster when the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is 0.06 erg/cm2. The results presented here offer a promising route for the design of non-volatile memory and logic devices using only the electric-field.

  7. Tuneable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in single crystal [Co/Ni](111) superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottwald, M; Girod, S; Andrieu, S; Mangin, S, E-mail: gottwald@lpm.u-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS - Nancy Universite, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France)

    2010-06-15

    This paper is dedicated to the preparation of thin film with a strong perpendicular to the film plane magnetic anisotropy, behaviour of great interest for spintronics. Single-crystalline [Co/Ni] (111) superlattices have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The epitaxial growth of Co and Ni was controlled by using reflection high energy diffraction (RHEED), allowing us to get an accurate control of the thicknesses. The superlattices magnetic properties were studied using magnetometry. All of them exhibit strong perpendicular to the plane magnetic anisotropy. The maximum of magneto-crystalline anisotropy is obtained for one cobalt mo nolayer. A simple model which takes into account surface and volume anisotropy explains the evolution of perpendicular anisotropy in these layers.

  8. Platinum-free binary Co-Ni alloy counter electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxu; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Lin, Lin; Yu, Liangmin

    2014-09-26

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted growing interest because of their application in renewable energy technologies in developing modern low-carbon economies. However, the commercial application of DSSCs has been hindered by the high expenses of platinum (Pt) counter electrodes (CEs). Here we use Pt-free binary Co-Ni alloys synthesized by a mild hydrothermal strategy as CE materials in efficient DSSCs. As a result of the rapid charge transfer, good electrical conduction, and reasonable electrocatalysis, the power conversion efficiencies of Co-Ni-based DSSCs are higher than those of Pt-only CEs, and the fabrication expense is markedly reduced. The DSSCs based on a CoNi0.25 alloy CE displays an impressive power conversion efficiency of 8.39%, fast start-up, multiple start/stop cycling, and good stability under extended irradiation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Studies on the Codeposition of SiC Nanopowder with Nickel, Cobalt, and Co-Ni Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rudnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of SiC nanopowder (approximately 120 nm with nickel, cobalt, and Co-Ni alloy matrix was studied. It was found that particles suspended in the bath affect slightly the reduction of metallic ions. Incorporation of the ceramic particles was governed mainly by the morphology of the matrix surface, while no strict correlation between the amount of cobalt ions adsorbed on the powder and the SiC content in the composites was found. Microhardness of nickel deposits was 585±5 HV, while for cobalt-rich coatings (84–95 wt.% Co the values were in the range of 260–290 HV, independently of the SiC content in the coatings. Fine-grained nickel deposits were characterized by good corrosion resistance, while cobalt and Co-Ni alloys showed high corrosion current densities.

  10. Formation and Growth Kinetics of Reverted Austenite During Tempering of a High Co-Ni Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Marina; Ressel, Gerald; Méndez Martín, Francisca; Ploberger, Sarah; Marsoner, Stefan; Ebner, Reinhold

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that high Co-Ni steels exhibit excellent toughness. Since the good toughness in these steels is supposed to be related to thin layers of austenite between martensite crystals, this work presents an experimental study corroborated with diffusional calculations to characterize the evolution of reverted austenite. Atom probe measurements were conducted for analyzing the element distribution in austenite and martensite during tempering. These results were correlated with crystallographic information, which was obtained by using transmission electron microscopy investigations. Additionally, the experimental findings were compared with kinetic calculations with DICTRA™. The investigations reveal that reverted austenite formation during tempering is connected with a redistribution of Ni, Co, Cr, and Mo atoms. The austenite undergoes a Ni and Cr enrichment and a Co depletion, while in the neighboring martensite, a zone of Ni and Cr depletion and Co enrichment is formed. The changes in the chemical composition of austenite during tempering affect the stability of the austenite against phase transformation to martensite during plastic deformation and have thus decisive influence on the toughness of the material.

  11. Evaluation of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a bacterial Co-Ni transporter for acquisition of cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Smitha; Joshi-Saha, Archana; Singh, Sudhir; Ramachandran, V; Singh, Surya; Thorat, Vidya; Kaushik, C P; Eapen, Susan; D'Souza, S F

    2012-11-15

    Phytoremediation is a viable strategy for management of toxic wastes in a large area/volume with low concentrations of toxic elemental pollutants. With increased industrial use of cobalt and its alloys, it has become a major metal contaminant in soils and water bodies surrounding these industries and mining sites with adverse effects on the biota. A bacterial Co-Ni permease was cloned from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum to explore its potential for phytoremediation and was found to be specific for cobalt and nickel. The transgenic plants accumulated more cobalt and nickel as compared to control, whereas no significant difference in accumulation of other divalent ions was observed. The transgenic plants were evaluated for cobalt content and showed increased acquisition of cobalt (up to 5 times) as compared to control. The plants were also assessed for accumulation of nickel and found to accumulate up to 2 times more nickel than control. At the same initial concentration of cobalt and nickel, transgenic plant preferentially accumulated cobalt as compared to nickel. The present study is perhaps the first attempt to develop transgenic plants expressing heterologous Co transporter with an improved capacity to uptake cobalt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Properties of Co/Ni codoped ZnO based nanocrystalline DMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljawfi, Rezq Naji [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Mollah, S., E-mail: smollah@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Nanoparticles of Co and Ni codoped zinc oxide, Zn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1-x}Ni{sub x}O (x=0.0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09), diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) are synthesized by the sol-gel method at annealing temperature of 500 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm the single phase character of the samples with x=0.0 and 0.03. However, minor NiO secondary phase is detected in the samples with x=0.06 and 0.09. All of them possess the hexagonal wurtzite structure. There is no significant change in the lattice parameters due to variation of doping concentration. The average particle size is found to be 19.31-25.71 nm. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of the dopants into the ZnO lattice structure. Magnetization data reveal the presence of room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM). The XRD patterns rule out the formation of secondary phase of either metallic Co cluster or CoO in the samples. Nevertheless, the secondary phases are a concern in any DMS system as a source of spurious magnetic signals. Therefore, we carried out the XPS studies from which the oxidation states of Co and Ni are found to be Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}, respectively. Moreover, XPS O 1s spectra show evidence of the presence of the oxygen vacancy in the ZnO matrix. - Highlights: > Nanocrystalline Zn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1-x}Ni{sub x}O is synthesized by sol-gel method. > Co/Ni doping does not change the lattice parameters. > Average particle size is {approx}20 nm. > Spectroscopic and magnetization studies confirm the formation of DMS. > XPS data corroborates the presence of Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}.

  13. Characterization and corrosion behaviour of CoNi alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, México, D. F. (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sánchez-Marcos, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Salas, E. [Spline Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, ESRF, BP 220-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Arce, E.M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, México, D. F. (Mexico); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    CoNi alloys including Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 70}, Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Co{sub 70}Ni{sub 30} were prepared via mechanical alloying using Co and Ni powders. The crystallinity and short-range order were studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the milling process increases the number of vacancies, especially around the Co atoms, while the milling time decreases the crystalline size and enhances the crystallinity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterise the chemical composition of the samples surface. The magnetic properties were analysed using zero-field cooling, field cooling and a magnetic hysteresis loops. The magnetic saturation moment is approximately 1.05 μ{sub B}/atom; this value decreases with the mechanical alloying time, and it is proportional to the cobalt concentration. The polarization and impedance curves in different media (NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH) showed similar corrosion resistance values. The corrosion resistance increased in the order NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH. A good passivation layer was formed in NaOH due to the cobalt and nickel oxides on the particle surfaces. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying • Milling time decrease size and enhances crystallinity. • Oxygen is not present in a significant percentage in bulk but is detected on the surface. • Magnetic saturation moment is 1.05 mB/atom and decrease with mechanical allowing time • Corrosion resistance is higher in NaOH than in NaCl or HCl solutions.

  14. Effect of deposition technique of Ni on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, S., E-mail: sakbulut@gtu.edu.tr [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Akbulut, A. [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey); Özdemir, M. [Marmara University, Physics Department, Göztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Yildiz, F., E-mail: fyildiz@gtu.edu.tr [Gebze Technical University, Physics Department, Istanbul Cad, PK 41400 Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Si/Pt 3.5/(Co 0.3/Ni 0.6){sub n} /Co 0.3/ Pt 3 (all thicknesses are nm) multilayers were investigated for two different sample sets by using ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) techniques. In the first sample set all layers (buffer, cap, Co and Ni) were grown by magnetron sputtering technique while in the second sample set Ni sub-layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at high vacuum. Apart from deposition technique of Ni, all other parameters like thicknesses and growth rates of each layers are same for both sample sets. Multilayers in these two sample sets display PMA in the as grown state until a certain value of bilayer repetition (n) and the strength of PMA decreases with increasing n. Magnetic easy axis's of the multilayered samples switched from film normal to the film plane when n is 9 and 5 for the first and second sample sets, respectively. The reason for that, PMA was decreased due to increasing roughness with increasing n. This was confirmed by X Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurements for both sample sets. Moreover, in the first sample set coercive field values are smaller than the second sample set, which means magnetic anisotropy is lower than the latter one. This stronger PMA is arising due to existence of stronger Pt (111) and Co/Ni (111) textures in the second sample set. - Highlights: • Effect of deposition techniques for Ni sub-layers on magnetic properties in [Co/Ni]{sub n} multilayered films was studied. • Ni sub-layers were deposited by two different techniques, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and magnetron sputtering. • Spin reorientation thickness and magnitude of the anisotropy are strongly depending on growing techniques.

  15. In-operando elucidation of bimetallic CoNi nanoparticles during high-temperature CH 4 /CO 2 reaction

    KAUST Repository

    AlSabban, Bedour

    2017-05-02

    Dry reforming of methane (DRM) proceeds via CH4 decomposition to leave surface carbon species, followed by their removal with CO2-derived species. Reactivity tuning for stoichiometric CH4/CO2 reactants was attempted by alloying the non-noble metals Co and Ni, which have high affinity with CO2 and high activity for CH4 decomposition, respectively. This study was focused on providing evidence of the capturing surface coverage of the reactive intermediates and the associated structural changes of the metals during DRM at high temperature using in-operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). On the Co catalysts, the first-order effects with respect to CH4 pressure and negative-order effects with respect to CO2 pressure on the DRM rate are consistent with the competitive adsorption of the surface oxygen species on the same sites as the CH4 decomposition reaction. The Ni surface provides comparatively higher rates of CH4 decomposition and the resultant DRM than the Co catalyst but leaves some deposited carbon on the catalyst surface. In contrast, the bimetallic CoNi catalyst exhibits reactivity towards the DRM but with kinetic orders resembling Co catalyst, producing negligible carbon deposition by balancing CH4 and CO2 activation. The in-operando X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements confirmed that the Co catalyst was progressively oxidized from the surface to the bulk with reaction time, whereas CoNi and Ni remained relatively reduced during DRM. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation considering the high reaction temperature for DRM confirmed the unselective site arrangement between Co and Ni atoms in both the surface and bulk of the alloy nanoparticle (NP). The calculated heat of oxygen chemisorption became more exothermic in the order of Ni, CoNi, Co, consistent with the catalytic behavior. The comprehensive experimental and theoretical evidence provided herein clearly suggests

  16. Electronic Structures and Alloying Behaviors of Ferrite Phases in High Co-Ni Secondary Hardened Martensitic Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The electronic structure of ferrite (tempered martensite phase) in high Co-Ni secondary hardened martensitic steel has been investigated. The local density of states (LDOS) of alloying elements in the steel displays the relationship between solid solubility and the shape of the LDOS. The bond order integral (BOI) between atoms in the steel shows that the directional bonding of the p orbital of Si or C leads to the brittleness of the steel. At last, ∑BOI between atoms demonstrate that C, Co, Mn, Cr, Mo, Si strengthen the alloyed steel through solid-solution effects.

  17. Low-field magnetization process and complex permeability of FeCoBSiTa wires coated with hard magnetic CoNi layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Báez-Pimiento; I Betancourt; M E Hernández-Rojas; G A Badini-Confalonieri; A Jacas; M Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Biphase wires consisting of a soft magnetic amorphous nucleus surrounded by a hard magnetic CoNi layer of variable thickness were obtained by means of rotating water-quenching method and subsequent electroplating technique. Magnetization processes for all the biphase wires were resolved in terms of reversible bulging of magnetic domains and spin rotation by means of complex permeability measurements within the frequency range of 10 Hz–13 MHz. Results are interpreted in terms of CoNi layer effect on the magnetic anisotropy of the soft core.

  18. Os caminhos da “Quase memória” em Nancy Huston e Carlos Heitor Cony = The paths of “Almost memory” in Nancy Huston and Carlos Heitor Cony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha, Vanessa Massoni da

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe uma reflexão sobre a escrita memorialística no romance canadense Cantique des plaines, de Nancy Huston, de 1993 e no romance brasileiro Quase memória, de Carlos Heitor Cony, de 1995. Trata-se de privilegiar na tessitura dos romances o binômio ‘memória e morte’ e investigar o papel incontornável da memória como elo espaço-temporal entre avós, pais e filhos. Neste sentido, contemplaremos as relações entre a escrita, o luto e os diálogos entre o lembrar e o esquecer

  19. Effects Of The Combined Heat And Cryogenic Treatment On The Stability Of Austenite In A High Co-Ni Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The stability of austenite is one of the most dominant factors affecting the toughness properties of high Co-Ni steels such as Aermet 100 and AF1410. Thus, the aim of this work was to get a deeper understanding on the impact of combined heat and cryogenic treatment on the stability of retained and reverted austenite. In order to characterize the evolution of the phase fraction of austenite during tempering at different temperatures and times, X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out. The stability of austenite, which was formed during tempering, was analyzed with dilatometric investigations by studying the transformation behavior of the austenite during cooling from tempering temperature down to −100°C. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy investigations were performed to characterize the chemical composition and phase distribution of austenite and martensite before and after tempering.

  20. Current-driven domain wall motion due to volume spin transfer torque in Co/Ni multilayer systems on Au underlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwang-Su; Yang, See-Hun; Thomas, Luc; Parkin, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the current-induced domain wall (CIDW) dynamics in perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni multilayers deposited on Au underlayer, where the conventional spin transfer torque governs the domain wall dynamics, by the Kerr microscope. It is found that the DW angle tilting following Oersted field profile plays an important role in domain wall (DW) motion at high current density J by decreasing DW velocity with the increasing J, while distorting its DW morphology. Also we find that the DW pinning becomes pronounced as the anisotropy decreases by increasing number of Co/Ni repeats. Most remarkably, the DW tilting angle changes its sign by inserting ultrathin Pt layer between Au and Co layer, which suggests that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin Hall effect induces opposite effect in DW tilting. Our findings can be of use for application of CIDW to spintronics with perpendicularly magnetized systems.

  1. TEOA-mediated formation of hollow core-shell structured CoNi2S4 nanospheres as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Li, Meng; Chai, Yao; Luo, Min; Li, Li

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report for the first time a cost-effective and general approach for the high-yield synthesis of a hierarchical core-shell and hollow structure of ternary CoNi2S4 in a triethanolamine (TEOA)-assisted hydrothermal system. It is found that a continuous increase in TEOA usages facilitates the formation and transformation of hierarchical CoNi2S4 hollow nanospheres, and the formation mechanism of the unique structure is revealed to be assembly-then-inside-out evacuation and Ostwald ripening mechanism during the sulfidation process. More importantly, when used as faradaic electrode for supercapacitors, the hierarchical hollow CoNi2S4 nanospheres display not only exceptional pseudocapacitve performance with high specific capacitance (2035 Fg-1 at 1 Ag-1) and excellent rate capability (1215 Fg-1 at 20 Ag-1), but also superior cycling stability, with only about 8.7% loss over 3000 cycles at 10 Ag-1. This work can provide some guidance for us in the structural and compositional tuning of mixed binary-metal sulfides toward many desired applications.

  2. Magnetic tunnel transistor with a perpendicular Co/Ni multilayer sputtered on a Si/Cu(1 0 0) Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, C.; Lu, Y.; Robert, S.; Sala, G.; Lenoble, O.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Devaux, X.; Montaigne, F.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied a magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT) structure based on a MgO tunnelling barrier emitter and a [Co/Ni]5/Cu multilayer base on a Si (0 0 1) substrate. Evident links between the Schottky barrier preparation techniques and the properties of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the [Co/Ni] multilayer have been revealed by combined x-ray diffraction and magnetometry analyses. The Si surface treated by hydrofluoric acid (HF) is found to favour a Cu [1 0 0] texture growth which is detrimental to the [Co/Ni]5 PMA properties. However, a Ta layer insertion can restore the [1 1 1] texture required for the PMA appearance. By carefully engineering the base crystallographic texture structure, we obtain both a good quality of Schottky barrier and PMA property; a magneto-current ratio of 162% has been measured for MTTs with a spin-valve base composed of one magnetic layer having in-plane anisotropy and another one with out-of-plane anisotropy.

  3. Recording and tribological properties of CoNi magnetic films on chemically textured aluminum rigid disk substrates (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuya, N.; Tokushima, T.; Hirayama, Y.; Oka, Y.

    1991-04-01

    In a rigid disk a very smooth surface is desirable for high density recording, while it tends to stick to the magnetic head. To avoid this difficulty, the mechanical texturing (M/T) is widely used. Unfortunately very low flying height can't be achieved with the M/T. To improve the flying height, authors have developed a new texturing process using anodically oxidized aluminum substrates named chemical texturing (C/T).1 Aluminum anodic oxide films have a regularly arranged honeycomb structure and uniform and roughness-controlled surfaces were formed by etching process of chemical texturing. In the present research, the relation between the recording and tribological properties and the etching conditions were investigated. On C/T substrates Cr, a longitudinal magnetic layer CoNi, C were sputtered in an inline sputtering equipment. The surface of the sputtered layer was flat (Rawrite, modulation and so on) were examined. In spite of isotropy on the disk surfaces, the modulation caused by the inline sputtering was not observed, and high coercive force of 1200 Oe was obtained. Tribological properties (gride height, CSS, friction) were measured. Gride height was lower than 0.1 μm, and CSS more than 30 000 cycles. In semi-pilot plant production, thousands of C/T disks were prepared. Yield of disks having less than 5 missing and/or extra pulses was higher than 95%.

  4. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co|Ni multilayer films studied with ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic x-ray microspectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macia, F., E-mail: ferran.macia@gmail.com [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Warnicke, P. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Bedau, D. [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arena, D.A. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kent, A.D. [Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy and magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy (MTXM) experiments have been performed to gain insight into the magnetic anisotropy and domain structure of ultrathin Co|Ni multilayer films with a thin permalloy layer underneath. MTXM images with a spatial resolution better than 25 nm were obtained at the Co L{sub 3} edge down to an equivalent thickness of Co of only 1 nm, which establishes a new lower boundary on the sensitivity limit of MTXM. Domain sizes are shown to be strong functions of the anisotropy and thickness of the film. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show record sensitivity of x-ray microscopy in a 1 nm Co effective thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found extreme sensitivity of the domain structure to number of bilayer repeats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perpendicular anisotropy is nearly independent of the number of bilayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have combined Ferromagnetic resonance and high resolution XMCD microscopy.

  5. Element-specific study of the coupled magneto-structural and magneto-electronic properties of CoNi nanoarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Yao; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Lin, Hong-Ji

    2013-04-01

    The magneto-structural (MS) and magneto-electronic (ME) effects, as well as their coupling relationship, were investigated in electroless-plated (EL) Co0.5Ni0.5 arrays treated by post N2 annealing and in situ field plating. Separately and combined, these two treatments have been widely employed to improve the properties of magnetic nanostructures. This work aimed to discriminate between treatments with respect to electronic and structural properties, and magnetic degrees of freedom of Co0.5Ni0.5 nanostructures. The field-plated sample exhibited a strong MS-ME coupling due to magneto-crystalline anisotropy (MCA), arising from a FCC (111) preferred orientation with lattice planes stacking orthogonally to the long axial direction of the arrays. A large coercivity was observed in this structure, arising from high magnetic stability. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism revealed that magnetization was enhanced primarily by Co magnetism, while the field-plated sample underwent a MS/ME transition with corresponding increase of the plating field. Conversely, the heat-treated sample comprised isotropically oriented nanocrystals approximately 20 ± 3 nm in diameter, coated with an oxidation layer (approximately 5 ± 2 nm thick). The absence of MCA in these samples ensured a weak MS-ME coupling. Although the Ni magnetization of heat-treated samples remained close to that of the field-plated sample, the Co constituent exhibited CoO and Co3O4 phases in addition to the metallic state. By contrast, the Co constituent of the field-plated sample was mainly metallic. The lack of MCA, combined with a complex Co magnetic state, appears responsible for the divergent macroscopic magnetic behaviors of the heat-treated and the field-plated samples. By isolating changes in local magnetic moments of Ni and Co, we gained a fundamental understanding of the effects of post-N2 annealing and field plating on CoNi. Such knowledge may assist researches in improving the magnetic properties of

  6. Compositional variation of magnetic moment, magnetic anisotropy energy and coercivity in Fe(1- x)M x (M = Co/Ni) nanowires: an ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa Aravindh, S.; Mathi Jaya, S.; Valsakumar, M. C.; Sundar, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ab initio simulations are used to investigate the magnetic and electronic properties of freestanding Fe(1- x)M x (M = Co/Ni) nanowires. The stability of the nanowires increases with Co (Ni) addition, as seen from the increase in cohesive energy. With the addition of Co (Ni), the average magnetic moment shows a monotonic decrease, in contrast to the Slater-Pauling behavior observed in bulk Fe-Co/Ni alloys. The magnetic anisotropy energy of the nanowire is observed to change sign, from a parallel alignment of spins along the wire axis, to a perpendicular alignment with the increase of Co and Ni content. The magnetic anisotropy energy variation is seen to be correlated with the orbital moment anisotropy. The coercivity, as calculated using the Jacobs-Bean model is observed to decrease with Co (Ni) addition to the nanowire.

  7. Mechanical properties and microstructure of 3D-printed high Co-Ni secondary hardening steel fabricated by laser melting deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hui-ping; Liu, Xiao; Ran, Xian-zhe; Li, Jia; Liu, Dong

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructure of the 3D-printed high Co-Ni secondary hardening steel fabricated by the laser melting deposition technique was investigated using a material testing machine and electron microscopy. A microstructure investigation revealed that the samples consist of martensite laths, fine dispersed precipitates, and reverted austenite films at the martensite lath boundaries. The precipitates are enriched with Co and Mo. Because the sample tempered at 486°C has smaller precipitates and a higher number of precipitates per unit area, it exhibits better mechanical properties than the sample tempered at 498°C. Although the 3D-printed samples have the same phase constituents as AerMet 100 steel, the mechanical properties are slightly worse than those of the commercial wrought AerMet 100 steel because of the presence of voids.

  8. Enhanced saturation magnetization in buckypaper-films of thin walled carbon nanostructures filled with Fe3C, FeCo, FeNi, CoNi, Co and Ni crystals: the key role of Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Lan, Mu; Wang, Shanling; He, Yi; Zhang, Sijie; Xiang, Gang; Boi, Filippo S

    2015-07-21

    We report an advanced chemical vapour deposition approach which allows the direct in situ synthesis of cm-length ultrathin buckypapers comprising carbon nanostructures filled with Fe3C, FeCo, FeNi, CoNi, Co and Ni by sublimation and pyrolysis of single or combined metallocenes with very low quantities of dichlorobenzene. As a result, extremely high saturation magnetizations of 117 emu g(-1), 90 emu g(-1) and 80 emu g(-1) are obtained for the specific cases of Fe3C, FeCo and FeNi, respectively, while variable saturation magnetizations of 70 emu g(-1), 58 emu g(-1) and 6.7 emu g(-1) are obtained for Co, CoNi and Ni respectively.

  9. Magnetic properties dependence on the coupled effects of magnetic fields on the microstructure of as-deposited and post-annealed Co/Ni bilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franczak, Agnieszka [LISM, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Department of Materials Science, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Levesque, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.levesque@univ-reims.fr [LISM, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Coïsson, Marco [Electromagnetism Division, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy); Li, Donggang [LISM, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, 110004 Shenyang (China); Barrera, Gabriele [Electromagnetism Division, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy); Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica, 10125 Torino (Italy); Celegato, Federica [Electromagnetism Division, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy); Wang, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, 110004 Shenyang (China); Tiberto, Paola [Electromagnetism Division, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy); Chopart, Jean-Paul [LISM, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic films and multilayers are the focus of much attention motivated mainly by their wide range of applications, such as magnetic data storage devices and sensors. The magnetic multilayer structures are normally prepared through physical means of deposition, as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or sputtering. However, there are already examples of materials produced by electrochemical routes, which share with the other deposition techniques a high sensitivity of magnetic and transport properties of the samples on their crystallographic and chemical structure. In addition, electrochemical deposition allows growing structures with high aspect ratio, which are not possible to obtain by MBE deposition followed by lithographic processes. The present work investigates the Co/Ni bilayered nanocrystalline films produced through the temperature-elevated electrochemical deposition, and modified by annealing carried out also under an external magnetic field. The results indicate an increase of the coercive field of deposited Co/Ni bilayers, when the electrodeposition process was conducted under magnetic field of 1 T. The annealing processing caused further remarkable increase of the coercive field of as-prepared bilayers that has been preserved under magnetic annealing conditions. The magnetic properties are discussed in terms of samples microstructure. In as-prepared samples the in-plane magnetization was observed, while high temperature treatment, causing microstructural changes in the film, resulted also in appearance of a small component of magnetization oriented perpendicularly to the films’ plane that could have been observed by MFM analysis. The induced perpendicular magnetization component in the post-annealed samples was a result of the magnetic field applied in the perpendicular direction to the samples’ surface during annealing treatment. - Highlights: • Co deposits were obtained at high electrolyte temperature under applied B-field. • The

  10. Vertically cross-linked and porous CoNi2S4 nanosheets-decorated SiC nanowires with exceptional capacitive performance as a free-standing electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Meng; Meng, Alan; Li, Qingdang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a simple, low-cost and mild hydrothermal technology of growing vertically cross-linked ternary nickel cobalt sulfides nanosheets (CoNi2S4 NSs) with porous characteristics on SiC nanowires (SiC NWs) supporters with outstanding resistances to oxidation and corrosion, good conductivity and large specific surface area deposited directly on carbon cloth (CC) is successfully developed, forming a new family of free-standing advanced hybrid electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Such integrated electrode (SiC NWs@CoNi2S4 NSs) manifests intriguing electrochemical characteristics such as high specific capacity (231.1 mA h g-1 at 2 A g-1) and rate capability due to the synergistic effect of SiC NWs and CoNi2S4 NSs with unique morphology. Additionally, an asymmetric supercapacitor is also assembled via using this special hybrid architectures as positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) on Ni foam (NF) as negative electrode, and it can yield a high energy density of 57.8 W h kg-1 with a power density of 1.6 kW kg-1 and long cycling lifespan. This study constitutes an emerging attractive strategy to reasonably design and fabricate novel SiC NWs-based nanostructured electrodes with enhanced capacity, which holds great potential to be the candidate of electrode materials for environmentally benign as well as high-performance energy storage devices.

  11. Computer-assisted electrochemical fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on surface decoration of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand2013@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 671496734 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalvand, Ali R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 671496734 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laboratorio de Desarrollo Analítico y Quimiometría (LADAQ), Cátedra de Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, CC 242 (S3000ZAA), Santa Fe (Argentina); Goicoechea, Hector C. [Laboratorio de Desarrollo Analítico y Quimiometría (LADAQ), Cátedra de Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, CC 242 (S3000ZAA), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, a novel, robust and very attractive statistical experimental design (ED) using minimum-run equireplicated resolution IV factorial design (Min-Run Res IV FD) coupled with face centered central composite design (FCCCD) and Derringer's desirability function (DF) was developed to fabricate a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on electrodeposition of CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets. The modifications were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The CoNi bimetallic alloy NPs were characterized using digital image processing (DIP) for particle counting (density estimation) and average diameter measurement. Under the identified optimal conditions, the novel sensor detects nitrite in concentration ranges of 0.1–30.0 μM and 30.0–330.0 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 μM. This sensor selectively detects nitrite even in the presence of high concentration of common ions and biological interferents therefore, we found that the sensor is highly selective. The sensor also demonstrated an excellent operational stability and good antifouling properties. The proposed sensor was used to the determination of nitrite in several foodstuff and water samples. - Highlights: • Eight variables were screened by Min Run Res IV FD to identify the key variables. • Mathematical models for the two studied responses were developed by FCCCD. • By using DF the responses were optimized simultaneously. • The SEM image of the modified electrode was processed by digital image processing. • The sensor was successfully applied to determination of nitrite in real samples.

  12. CoNi合金19原子团簇结构与热力学特性研究%Structures and thermodynamic properties of 19-atom clusters CoNi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任世伟; 谢英明; 孙敬伟

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a total number of 19 clusters of CoNi's alloy ground state and non-ground-state structures were studied with GEAM by using molecular dynamics method combined with simulated annealing algorithms. In this premise, some thermodynamic properties of clusters were studied by warming up the system. Through this study we found that the ground state structure of the alloy is double icosahedral structure, regardless of the proportion of the alloy, and the ground state energy increases with the rising of the number of Co atoms. In the mean time we studied the alloy clusters' phase-change properties and found that pure metal and alloy both have pre-melting phenomenon, and the melting temperatures tend to drop with the increasing of Ni atom number when the alloy melts.%用分子动力学方法并结合模拟退火的算法,采用GEAM势研究了总数为19的CoNi合金团簇的基态和非基态结构,并以此为基础给系统升温,研究了团簇的热力学特性.研究发现,无论合金比例如何,基态结构都是双正二十面体结构,且基态能量随Co原子个数的增加而增加.此外,还研究了合金团簇的相变规律,发现无论纯金属还是合金,都存在预熔现象,熔化时随着合金中Ni原子个数的增加,熔化温度有下降的趋势.

  13. Bi/Pt底层对Co/Ni多层膜反常霍尔效应的影响%Influence of Bi/Pt underlayer on the anomalous Hall effect in Co/Ni multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向萍萍; 王伟; 程鹏; 李宝河; 崔派; 白云峰

    2016-01-01

    The samples of Co/Ni multilayer with Pt and Bi/Pt underlayer were successfully prepared on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering technique. The dependence of anomalous Hall effect was investigated on Bi layer thickness, periodic numbers, Co and Ni inner layer thickness, and annealing temperature. As a result, the optimum multilayer structure of Bi(1nm)/Pt(5nm)/[Co(0.3nm)Ni(0.5nm)]1/Co(0.3nm)/Pt(1nm) was obtained with high Hall resistance, better rectangle degree and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The experiment indicates that the annealing treatment is beneficial to enhancing the anomalous Hall effect.%采用直流磁控溅射法在玻璃基片上制备了一系列分别以Pt和Bi/Pt为底层的Co/Ni多层膜样品。通过研究Bi的厚度、周期层数、周期层中的Co和Ni的厚度以及退火温度对样品反常霍尔效应的影响,最终获得了霍尔效应最强、良好的霍尔曲线矩形度,同时具有良好的垂直各向异性的最佳样品Bi(1nm)/Pt(5nm)/[Co(0.3nm)Ni(0.5nm)]1/ Co(0.3nm)/Pt(1nm)。实验表明,退火处理有利于增强反常霍尔效应。

  14. Enhancement of p erp endicular magnetic anisotropy and thermal stability in Co/Ni multilayers by MgO/Pt interfaces%MgO/Pt界面对增强Co/Ni多层膜垂直磁各向异性及热稳定性的研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俱海浪; 向萍萍; 王伟; 李宝河

    2015-01-01

    Co/Ni multilayers with Pt and MgO/Pt underlayer have been grown by means of magnetron sputtering and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the samples is studied using anomalous Hall effect (AHE). The Co/Ni multilayer has to be thermally stable to stabilize the PMA, which is studied by annealing treatment. In early researches of Co/Ni multilayes, the optimum sample with Pt underlayer was obtained as Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Ni(0.4 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Pt(2 nm) with PMA in good performance. Thermal stability of the sample is studied in this paper by the Hall loop measurement of it after annealing. Results show that the remanence ratio and rectangular degree of the sample are kept well and the Hall resistance (RHall) has little change at the annealing temperature of 100 ◦C. As the annealing temperature rising above 100 ◦C, the PMA of Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Ni(0.4 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Pt(2 nm) becomes weakened. Its coercivity (Hc) decreases rapidly and RHall reduces greatly. So the thermal stability of Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Ni(0.4 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Pt(2 nm) will be poor and the PMA cannot be enhanced by annealing treatment. A series of samples with MgO/Pt underlayer are prepared with the thickness of Pt being fixed at 2 nm and that of MgO ranging from 1 to 5 nm. Thus the interface between amorphous insulation layer and metal layer is added to be used to enhance the PMA of the sample for the strong electron additive scattering. Magnetization reversal can be very rapid and the rectangular degree is kept very well, and furthermore, the remanence ratio of the samples can reach 100% so they all show good PMA. The Hc increases with increasing MgO underlayer and reaches the maximum value as the MgO thickness arrives at 4 nm, and the Hc of the sample MgO(4 nm)/Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Ni(0.4 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Pt(2 nm) is 2.3 times that of Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Ni(0.4 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Pt(2 nm), the RHall is up to 9%correspondingly. The roughnesses of Pt(2 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/ Ni(0.4 nm)/Co(0.2 nm)/Pt(2 nm

  15. Shape-memory effect in Co-Ni single crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟敏; 刘岩; 张少宗; 江伯鸿

    2004-01-01

    The thermal shape-memory effect at room temperature for Co-32% Ni(mass fraction) magnetic shape memory alloy of single crystal was presented. When compressing the sample along the [001] direction at room temperature, strain can be recovered to some extent during later heating and the recovery rate varies with the pre-strain.But no obvious recoverable strain can be obtained along other crystal directions. For the thermal-mechanical training of the sample along [001], the recovery strain decreases obviously during the second round of compress and nearly no recovery happens after the third round of compress. A possible mechanism based on reversible motions of Shockley partial dislocations was proposed.

  16. Isothermal entropy changes in nanocomposite Co:Ni67Cu33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, S.; Skomski, R.; Li, X.-Zh.; Le Roy, D.; Mukherjee, T.; Binek, Ch.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    The temperature-dependent magnetic properties of artificial rare-earth, free-magnetic nanostructures are investigated for magnetic cooling. We consider two-phase nanocomposites, where 2 nm nanoclusters of cobalt are embedded in a Ni67Cu33 matrix. Several composite films were produced by cluster deposition. The average Co nanocluster size can be tuned by varying the deposition conditions. Isothermal magnetization curves were measured at various temperatures 150 K < T < 340 K in steps of 10 K. The isothermal entropy changes ΔS were calculated using the Maxwell relation. The entropy changes measured were, -ΔS = 0.15 J/kg.K in a field change of 1 T at 260 K and 0.72 J/kg.K in a field change of 7 T at 270 K.

  17. M2C Precipitate in Isothermal Tempering of High Co-Ni Alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ultra-strength alloy steel with high content of Co and Ni is typical tempering martensite steel, and the secondary hardening is accomplished by the precipitation of fine scale alloy carbides with black-white contrast until peak-hardening. The crystal structure of precipitates was well determined as M2C with hexagonal by micro-beam diffraction. Observing in HREM, M2C carbides were shown coherent with the ferrite matrix completely and have their own structure.

  18. Functional MoS2 by the Co/Ni doping as the catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B. B.; Zhang, P.; Han, L. P.; Wen, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Since the discovery of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the metal phthalocyanine, the great enthusiasm is ignited for searching the catalysts with low price replacing Pt-based catalysts. Here, the catalytic activities for the ORR on the Co or Ni doped MoS2 are studied by using density-functional theory (DFT). It is found that Co/MoS2 resembles FeN4 active site while Ni/MoS2 is similar with CoN4 active site. In details, for Co/MoS2, under the acid medium, the rate-determining step (RDS) is located at the second H2O formation with a barrier of 1.49 eV. While under the alkaline medium, RDS is the final OH- formation with the barrier of 0.94 eV. For Ni/MoS2, under the acid medium, the RDS is the same as that of Co/MoS2 with a barrier of 0.87 eV. However, RDS is the O formation with the barrier of 0.92 eV under the alkaline medium. Furthermore, due to the intact HOOH adsorption, it is expected that the 2e- ORR is present on Ni/MoS2, which means inferior activity compared with Co/MoS2. Our calculation demonstrates the ability to functionalize inert materials for the ORR and provides new materials to design effective Pt-free catalysts for fuel-cell technology.

  19. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Ultrathin Co/Ni Multilayer Films Studies with Ferromagnetic Resonance and Magnetic X-Ray Microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    Element specific hysteresis measurements for n¼6 obtained at the Fe L3 edge with an out-of-plane applied field, showing a hard axis magnetic response...of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these systems, XMCD spectroscopy and element-specific hysteresis loops were measured at beam line U4B at...Fig. 2(b) and (c) were measured by tuning the photon energy to the L3 edges of Co, Ni, and Fe and sweeping the out-of-plane magnetic field from an

  20. Hydrogen production by low-temperature reforming of bioethanol over ZnO-supported Co-Ni and Co-Cu catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, J.; Homs, N.; Ramirez de la Piscina, P.

    2005-07-01

    The use of a renewable, non-toxic biomass-derived source, like bioethanol, to produce hydrogen is actually very attractive. In such domain, the search of a catalytic system highly effective for the selective steam-reforming process is of current research interest, CH3CH2OH+3H2O.6H2+2CO2. The steam-reforming of ethanol involves numerous steps and usually competes with several parallel reactions that originate undesired products like CO and CH4, resulting in lower hydrogen yields and difficult practical application. Copper- and nickel-based catalysts, including catalysts containing both metals, have been extensively studied in the steam-reforming of ethanol [1-3]. It has been well established that copper favours the dehydrogenation reaction and nickel the breaking of C-C bonds. Moreover, the presence of basic supports and Cu-Ni alloys prevent the formation of carbon deposits [1-3]. On the other hand, we have shown that ZnO-supported cobalt catalysts are very selective to hydrogen and CO2 from the steam reforming of bioethanol mixtures below 673 K [4]. In addition, sodium addition to ZnO-supported cobalt catalysts results in a major stability by suppressing the deposition of carbon [5]. Here we present the catalytic behaviour at low temperature of sodium-promoted, bimetallic cobalt-nickel and cobalt copper catalysts supported on ZnO and compare their performance with mono metallic ZnO-supported Ni and Cu samples. Catalysts have been tested in the steam-reforming reaction of bioethanol at atmospheric pressure (C2H5OH:H2O1:4 v/v) and characterised by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after reaction. The effect of introduction of copper or nickel on cobalt-based catalysts is discussed in relation to their catalytic performances. (Author)

  1. Trądzik odwrócony leczony operacyjnie innowacyjnymi technikami redukcji powstałych ubytków – opis przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bieniek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acne inversa is a recurrent, suppurative disease manifestedby abscesses, fistulas and scarring.Many conservative therapies areusually disappointing, and an early surgical intervention often remainsthe only successful treatment. This condition has a significant impact onthe quality of the patient’s life; therefore there is a need for introductionof effective therapeutic modalities at every stage of the disease.Objective. Presentation of two innovative techniques of wound closureafter surgical excision of the affected skin areas.Case report. A 42-year-old female patient suffering from acne inversa,treated previously with ineffective methods based on a conservativeapproach, was operated on with the use of tumescent infiltration anaesthesiaand our own surgical techniques such as the “star-like” and“pubic flaps” techniques.Conclusions. Presented data show unequivocally that our own methodsof surgical wound closure are highly effective and that a patientwith acne inversa can tolerate it well. We encourage the use of thesetechniques, but choosing the best option requires an individualapproach.

  2. Two 3D structured Co-Ni bimetallic oxides as cathode catalysts for high-performance alkaline direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Shu, Chengyong; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yuanzhen; Liu, Yongning

    2017-09-01

    Two NiCo2O4 bimetallic oxides were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. SEM and TEM observations show that these materials have three-dimensional (3D) dandelion-like (DL) and flower-like (FL) morphologies. Their large specific surface areas (90.68 and 19.8 m2·g-1) and porous structures provide many active sites and effective transport pathways for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Electrochemical measurements with a rotating ring-disc electrode (RRDE) indicate that the electron transfer numbers of the NiCo2O4-DL and NiCo2O4-FL catalysts for ORR in an alkaline solution are 3.97 and 3.91, respectively. Fuel cells were assembled with the bimetallic oxides, PtRu/C and a polymer fiber membrane (PFM) as cathode catalysts, anode catalyst and electrolyte film, respectively. For NiCo2O4-DL, the peak power density reaches up to 73.5 mW·cm-2 at 26 °C, which is the highest room-temperature value reported to date. The high catalytic activity of NiCo2O4 is mainly attributed to the presence of many Co3+ cations that directly donate electrons to O2 to reduce it via a more efficient and effective route. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of NiCo2O4-DL is superior to that of NiCo2O4-FL because it has a higher specific surface area and is less crystalline.

  3. Microstructure of AIFeCuCoNiCr High-entropy Alloy with Multi-principal Elements%多主元高熵合金AlFeCuCONiCr的微观结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭娜娜; 孙宏飞; 王刚; 牛占蕊; 袁博; 李忠丽

    2011-01-01

    依据多主元高熵合金的设计理念,采用真空电弧炉熔炼等摩尔比多主元高熵合金AlFeCuCoNiCr,研究合金的组织结构。研究发现:A1FeCuCoNiCr合金的铸态组织是典型的树枝晶,并有纳米析出相和非晶相形成;合金存在严重的成分偏析现象,铜偏聚于枝晶间;合金形成了简单的面心立方+体心立方(FCC+BCC)结构和少量金属间化合物。%According to the design concept of high-entropy alloy with multi principal elements, A1FeCuCoNiCr high-entropy alloy was prepared by vacuum arc melting in equimolar ratio to investigate the microstructure. The results showed that the alloy was typical dendritic structure; nanoprecipitates and amorphous phase appeared in alloy; the composition segregation was very serious, Cu gathered in the interdendritic region; the alloy was composed of FCC, BCC and a little intermetallic compounds.

  4. Structural, magnetic and spectral properties of Gd and Dy co-doped dielectrically modified Co-Ni (Ni0.4Co0.6Fe2O4) ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditta, Allah; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Junaid, Muhammad; Khalil, R. M. Arif; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2017-02-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) and Dysprosium (Dy) co-doped Ni-Co (Ni0.4Co0.6Fe2O4) ferrites were prepared by micro-emulsion route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the development of cubic spinel structure. The lattice parameter and X-ray density were found to increase from 8.24 to 8.31 Å and 5.57 to 5.91 (gm/cm3) respectively as the Gd-Dy contents increased in nickel-cobalt ferrites. The crystallite size calculated from the Scherrer's formula exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline ferrites (13-26 nm). Two foremost absorption bands observed in FTIR spectra within 400 cm-1 (υ2) to 600 cm-1 (υ1) which correspond to stretching vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes respectively. The dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (tanδ) were decreased by the optimization of frequency and abrupt decrease in the low frequency region and higher values in the high frequency region were observed. The dielectric dispersion was due to rapid decrease of dielectric constant in the low frequency region. This variation of dielectric dispersion was explicated in the light of space charge polarization model of Maxwell-Wagner. The dielectric loss occurs in these ferrites due to electron hopping and defects in the dipoles. The electron hopping was possible at low frequency range but at higher frequency the dielectric loss was decreased with the decrease of electron hopping. Magnetic properties were observed by measuring M-H loops. Due to low dielectric loss and dielectric constant these materials were appropriate in the fabrication of switching and memory storage devices.

  5. Caracterización estructural y química de Siliciuros de Co-Ni preparados ablación de láser pulsado: un estudio experimental y teórico

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA MÉNDEZ, MANUEL

    2003-01-01

    Por medio de la técnica de depósito de láser pulsado (PLD), se prepararon películas delgadas de Co- Ni/p-Si depositadas sobre sustratos de Si (100). Las muestras se sometieron a tratamientos térmicos en vacío para promover la formación de siliciuros. De los análisis realizados con XPS se detectaron corrimientos químicos para las transiciones del Co2p y Si2p, las cuales son energías de enlace características de siliciuros, en el rango de 778.3-778.6 eV y 853.2-853.6 ...

  6. Novel powder-coating solutions to improved micro-structures of ZnO based varistors, WC-Co cutting tools, and Co/Ni nano-phase films and sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Åsa

    2002-01-01

    Solution chemistry is a versatile and powerful tool in the synthesis of designed, complex nano-level high-tech materials. Normally, the technique is considered too expensive for large-scale production of complex multi-component ceramic materials. This thesis describes the expansion of the useful area of solution processing to multi-component bulk materials such as ZnO-based high-field varistors and WC–Co cutting tools, by developing novel techniques for solution-based coating of conventionall...

  7. Structural, magnetic and spectral properties of Gd and Dy co-doped dielectrically modified Co-Ni (Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditta, Allah [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Junaid, Muhammad, E-mail: junaid.malik95@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Khalil, R.M. Arif [Department of Physics, Sahiwal Sub-Campus Bahauddin Zakariya University, Sahiwal (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)

    2017-02-15

    Gadolinium (Gd) and Dysprosium (Dy) co-doped Ni-Co (Ni{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ferrites were prepared by micro-emulsion route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the development of cubic spinel structure. The lattice parameter and X-ray density were found to increase from 8.24 to 8.31 Å and 5.57 to 5.91 (gm/cm{sup 3}) respectively as the Gd-Dy contents increased in nickel-cobalt ferrites. The crystallite size calculated from the Scherrer's formula exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline ferrites (13–26 nm). Two foremost absorption bands observed in FTIR spectra within 400 cm{sup −1} (υ{sub 2}) to 600 cm{sup −1} (υ{sub 1}) which correspond to stretching vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes respectively. The dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (tanδ) were decreased by the optimization of frequency and abrupt decrease in the low frequency region and higher values in the high frequency region were observed. The dielectric dispersion was due to rapid decrease of dielectric constant in the low frequency region. This variation of dielectric dispersion was explicated in the light of space charge polarization model of Maxwell-Wagner. The dielectric loss occurs in these ferrites due to electron hopping and defects in the dipoles. The electron hopping was possible at low frequency range but at higher frequency the dielectric loss was decreased with the decrease of electron hopping. Magnetic properties were observed by measuring M-H loops. Due to low dielectric loss and dielectric constant these materials were appropriate in the fabrication of switching and memory storage devices.

  8. Growth and magnetic properties of vertically aligned epitaxial CoNi nanowires in (Sr, Ba)TiO3 with diameters in the 1.8-6 nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, V.; Milano, J.; Coati, A.; Vlad, A.; Sauvage-Simkin, M.; Garreau, Y.; Demaille, D.; Hidki, S.; Novikova, A.; Fonda, E.; Zheng, Y.; Vidal, F.

    2016-12-01

    The growth by pulsed laser deposition of fully epitaxial nanocomposites made of Co x Ni1-x nanowires (NW) vertically self-assembled in Sr0.5Ba0.5TiO3/SrTiO3(001) layers is reported. The diameter of the wires can be tuned in the 1.8-6 nm range. The composition of the wires can be controlled, with the growth sequence and the fcc crystallographic structure of the wires preserved for Co content up to 78%. The nanocomposite systems obtained display a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with out-of-plane easy axis as shown through analysis of ferromagnetic resonance measurements. It is shown that the magnitude of the magnetic anisotropy depends sensitively on the structural quality of the nanocomposites.The energy barrier for magnetization reversal scales as the square of the diameter of the NW and reaches 60 {k}{{B}}{T}{{amb}} for 6 nm diameter, with T amb = 300 K.

  9. Co-Ni超高强度钢的疲劳裂纹扩展行为与组织的关系%Relationship Between Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour and Microstructures in Co-Ni Ultra-high Strength Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平; 凌斌; 王俊丽

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between fatigue crack growth behaviour and microstructures of 23NiCo steel was studied at the stress ratio R=0.1. 23NiCo steel showed slower fatigue crack growth rate than other steels with the same strength level,it is related to the characteristic of microstructures of 23NiCo steel.The absence of cementite and formation of reverted austenite at the plate boundaries tempered at 482℃ are the main factors.%研究了23NiCo钢应力比R=0.1的疲劳裂纹扩展行为与组织的关系。23NiCo钢比同一强度级钢具有较低的裂纹扩展速率的原因主要与钢的微观组织特征有关。23NiCo钢在482℃回火组织中板条边界形成薄膜状的逆转奥氏体和不存在渗碳体是主要的组织因素。

  10. AcEST: DK946851 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 Definition tr|B1PID4|B1PID4_9CONI Putative elongation factor 1A (Fragment) OS=Cupressus sempervirens Align...ion factor 1A (Fragment) ... 33 5.4 >tr|B1PID4|B1PID4_9CONI Putative elongation factor 1A (Fragment) OS=Cupressus

  11. AcEST: DK963239 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 328 2e-88 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...SGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQV 177 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=

  12. AcEST: DK960754 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 349 1e-94 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 349 bits (895), Expect =

  13. AcEST: DK957328 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 332 2e-89 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN...TGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVST 179 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  14. AcEST: DK963304 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 176 7e-43 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin OS=Go...1 HVPRAVFVDLEPTVIDEVRTGTYRQLFHPEQLISGKEDAANNFARGHYTIGKEIV 115 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  15. AcEST: DK955662 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 327 4e-88 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA...VS + Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGGTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso

  16. AcEST: DK961441 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PE=2 SV=1 284 2e-75 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TU...KLADNCT LQGF VF+AVG Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVG 142 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  17. AcEST: DK961521 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 187 7e-48 tr|A9PL15|A9PL15_GOSH...55 ERLSVDYGKKSK 166 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 S

  18. AcEST: DK962318 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =1 327 5e-88 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... ...VH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 327 bits (837), Expe

  19. AcEST: DK953894 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 307 4e-82 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 307...|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 307 bits (786), Expect

  20. AcEST: DK962945 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 347 3e-94 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOS...57 VVEPYNS Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNS 187 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1

  1. AcEST: DK958153 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 327 5e-88 tr|A9PL19|...PSPQ Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGGTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQ 176 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  2. Validation of noninvasive pulse contour cardiac output using finger arterial pressure in cardiac surgery patients requiring fluid therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuizen, C.M.; Lansdorp, B.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Scheffer, G.J.; Lemson, J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nexfin (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) allows for noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood pressure (ABPNI) and cardiac output (CONI) by measuring finger arterial pressure (FAP). To evaluate the accuracy of FAP in measuring ABPNI and CONI as well as the adequacy of detecting

  3. Validation of noninvasive pulse contour cardiac output using finger arterial pressure in cardiac surgery patients requiring fluid therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuizen, Charlotte; Lansdorp, Benno; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Lemson, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nexfin (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) allows for noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood pressure (ABPNI) and cardiac output (CONI) by measuring finger arterial pressure (FAP). To evaluate the accuracy of FAP in measuring ABPNI and CONI as well as the adequacy of detecting

  4. Multiple Microcomputer Control Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    INDEX, , EAADDOf - LUPO -CZKRO FLAG$ LAPP duFF JUIORD699 2170 0044 0@tlFPOIGOOE00oo00oooSO0o4000 ulISA ALU FLAG$ RCAILWORD CONY 2100 0048...5. E.R(YLL*~~IOFLAGS r6TCH CONY 13.0 aOCI 0t0000000(0006000743C19SCoo AaLU*C.P.C .A.A.f - LUPO -CURO rLAOS.AI.L LAWS CONY 3370 ALU.A(O.V, OUR -4 40.A0

  5. Kansas Nightjar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common nighthawk (CONI) and common poorwill (COPO) are two priority species identified in the Flint Hills Surrogate Species Report for which we do not have adequate...

  6. Magneto-transport measurements of domain wall propagation in individual multi segmented cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2016-03-01

    Magnetotransport measurements were performed on multisegmented Co/Ni nanowires fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition. Individual nanowires were isolated and electrodes patterned to study their magnetization reversal process. The magnetoresistance reversal curve of the multisegmented nanowire exhibits a step in the switching field. Micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization reversal process are in agreement with the experimental findings and attribute the step at the switching field to the pinning of a domain wall at the interface of the Co/Ni nanowire.

  7. AcEST: DK955920 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 296 7e-79 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso... Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 296 bits (757), Expect = 7e-79 Ident...RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV 519 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAV 141 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI

  8. AcEST: DK956633 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 350 5e-95 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson... Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLS 190 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length

  9. AcEST: DK961804 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 292 1e-77 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...TGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVY 172 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 L

  10. AcEST: DK960015 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 88 2e-76 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 288 2e-76 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSH...VDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 Query: 637 VVEPYNS 657 VVEPYNS Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNS 187 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso

  11. AcEST: DK963606 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available W7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 333 5e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson..._9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 333 bits (854), Expect = 5e-90

  12. AcEST: DK952919 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 358 1e-97 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...LSTHS 658 VVEPYNSVLSTHS Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHS 193 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  13. AcEST: DK960306 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 371 e-101 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubu...7 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTD Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTD 199 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  14. AcEST: DK956495 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cosa PE=2 SV=1 336 6e-91 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 336 6e-91 tr|A9...E Y Sbjct: 181 VVEPY 185 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii

  15. AcEST: DK961035 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SEI4|A9SEI4_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 425 e-117 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...MEEGEFSEAREDLAALEKDYEEVG 436 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Lengt

  16. AcEST: DK961369 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8e-81 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 205 8e-81 tr|A9P849|A9P849_POPTR ...IHIGQAGIQVGNACWELYCLEHGIQPDGQMPSDKTVGGGDDAFNTFFSETGAG 59 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  17. AcEST: DK960080 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rrucosa PE=2 SV=1 379 e-103 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 379 e-103 tr...THSLLEHTDVA 683 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTDVA Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTDVA 201 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  18. AcEST: DK957305 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 348 2e-94 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin O...VEPY 647 VVEPY Sbjct: 181 VVEPY 185 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  19. AcEST: DK951343 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =2 SV=1 409 e-113 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 409 e-113 tr|A9PL15|A9...82 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Leng

  20. AcEST: DK949956 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 02 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 372 e-102 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alph...VLSTHSLLEHTDV 696 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTDV Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTDV 200 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  1. AcEST: DK961667 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 365 2e-99 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin O...9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 365 bits (936), Expect = 2e-99

  2. AcEST: DK949772 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 323 5e-87 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tub...XNSVLSTHSLL 696 NSVLSTHSLL Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLL 195 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  3. AcEST: DK954281 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-92 tr|B7TIW7|B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 341 3e-92 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilso...>tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 341 bits (874

  4. AcEST: DK958049 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 346 8e-94 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 346 bits (887), Expect =

  5. AcEST: DK955801 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-83 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 311 2e-83 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Al...9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 311 bits (798), Expect = 2e-83

  6. AcEST: DK947332 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =2 SV=1 303 5e-81 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 303 5e-81 tr|A9PL19|A9...LADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGG Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGG 144 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  7. AcEST: DK962830 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 341 3e-92 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin OS=Go...Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 341 bits (...SGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 Query: 632 VVEP 643 VVEP Sbjct: 181 VVEP 184 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI

  8. AcEST: DK962749 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 335 2e-90 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-t...GKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 Query: 637 V 639 V Sbjct: 181 V 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  9. AcEST: DK953647 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 353 4e-96 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN...STHSL 594 VVEPYNSVLSTHSL Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSL 194 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wils...onii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 353 bits (906), Expect = 4e-96 Identiti

  10. AcEST: DK960905 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 223 2e-83 tr|A9P849|A9P849_POPTR Putative uncha...PSPQVSTSV Sbjct: 172 YPSPQVSTSV 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=

  11. AcEST: DK957865 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 SV=1 328 2e-88 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 177 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 328 bits

  12. AcEST: DK958003 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 379 e-103 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubu...VEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTDVAVLL Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTDVAVLL 204 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  13. AcEST: DK948361 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 400 e-110 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...STHSLLEHTDVAVLLDNEAIYDICR 214 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Leng

  14. AcEST: DK954985 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 339 7e-92 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TU...KKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 Query: 633 V 635 V Sbjct: 181 V 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  15. AcEST: DK963437 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 13 4e-84 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 313 4e-84 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSH...QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 313 bits (803), Exp

  16. AcEST: DK958362 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 327 4e-88 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=...Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 327 bits (...SPQVS + Sbjct: 121 RIRKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGGTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQVSTS 180 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI

  17. AcEST: DK959951 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 tr|A9SEI4|A9SEI4_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 400 e-110 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...jct: 336 KTKRTIQFVDWCPT 349 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  18. AcEST: DK963473 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 325 1e-87 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P...RKLADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGGTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYP 173 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wil...sonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 325 bits (833), Expect = 1e-87 Identit

  19. AcEST: DK960595 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 350 5e-95 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha...uery: 637 VCEPYNSVLS 666 V EPYNSVLS Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLS 190 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  20. AcEST: DK962468 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-83 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 310 6e-83 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Al...LSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYP 173 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=

  1. AcEST: DK955655 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 259 4e-68 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P....A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 45

  2. AcEST: DK956379 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 350 3e-95 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...ALNVDVTEFQTN 258 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1

  3. AcEST: DK949329 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 335 2e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...637 V 639 V Sbjct: 181 V 181 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Lengt

  4. AcEST: DK955217 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 322 8e-87 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-...9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451

  5. AcEST: DK951838 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =1 336 6e-91 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 336 6e-91 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_...LGFTVYPSPQVST 179 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Sco

  6. AcEST: DK959840 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B7TIW7|B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 333 6e-90 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 333 bits (854), Exp

  7. AcEST: DK956261 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 352 1e-95 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-t...ry: 620 VVEPYNSVLS 649 VVEPYNSVLS Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLS 190 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  8. AcEST: DK951921 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |B7TIW7_BETVE Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 329 7e-89 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...GSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSP 175 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1

  9. AcEST: DK959506 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 374 e-102 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson... 201 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 374 bits

  10. Quantum conductance in electrodeposited nanocontacts and magnetoresistance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhoussine, F.; Encinas, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The conductance and magnetoresistance measurements in magnetic Ni-Ni and Co-Ni nanocontacts prepared by electrodeposition within the pores of a track of track-etched polymer membrane were discussed. At room temperature, Ni-Ni constrictions were found to show broad quantization plateaus of conduct...... of conductance during their dissolution in units of e/h, as expected for ferromagnetic ballistic nanocontacts. The measurement of the positive and negative magnetoresistance in Co-Ni nanocontacts was also elaborated....

  11. Conformal Coating of Cobalt-Nickel Layered Double Hydroxides Nanoflakes on Carbon Fibers for High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Supercapacitor Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2014-07-01

    High specific capacitance coupled with the ease of large scale production is two desirable characteristics of a potential pseudo-supercapacitor material. In the current study, the uniform and conformal coating of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (CoNi0.5LDH,) nanoflakes on fibrous carbon (FC) cloth has been achieved through cost-effective and scalable chemical precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment step. The conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH/FC electrode showed 1.5 times greater specific capacitance compared to the electrodes prepared by conventional non-conformal (drop casting) method of depositing CoNi0.5LDH powder on the carbon microfibers (1938 Fg-1 vs 1292 Fg-1). Further comparison of conformally and non-conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH electrodes showed the rate capability of 79%: 43% capacity retention at 50 Ag-1 and cycling stability 4.6%: 27.9% loss after 3000 cycles respectively. The superior performance of the conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH is mainly due to the reduced internal resistance and fast ionic mobility between electrodes as compared to non-conformally coated electrodes which is evidenced by EIS and CV studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. AcEST: DK948735 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sbjct: 181 VVEPYNSVLSTHSLLEHTD 199 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1...E Alpha tubulin OS=Betula verrucosa PE=2 SV=1 369 e-101 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wils...onii GN=TUA1 P... 369 e-101 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin OS=Gossypium hirsu

  13. Investigation of magnetic anisotropy and role of underlayer in obliquely sputtered metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Nguyen, L.T.; Lodder, J.C.; Williams, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Co and CoNi films have been obliquely sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with and without Cr underlayer. The spin-reorientation observed in films directly deposited on PET is related to the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Co (FCC) and change in microstructure from columns to elongate

  14. AcEST: DK945608 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BlastX Result : TrEMBL tr_hit_id B1PID4 Definition tr|B1PID4|B1PID4_9CONI Putative elongation factor 1A (Fragment) OS=Cupressus...elongation factor 1A (Fragment) OS=Cupressus sempervirens PE=2 SV=1 Length = 138 Score = 33.5 bits (75), Exp

  15. Ferromagnetic order induced on graphene by Ni/Co proximity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Mayra; Colmenarez, Luis; López, Alejandro; Berche, Bertrand; Medina, Ernesto

    2016-12-01

    We build a tight-binding Hamiltonian describing Co/Ni over graphene, contemplating ATOP (a Co/Ni atom on top of each carbon atom of one graphene sublattice) and HCP (one Co/Ni atom per graphene plaquette) configurations. For the ATOP configuration the orbitals involved, for the Co/Ni, are the dz2-r2, which most strongly couples to one graphene sublattice and the dx z,dy z orbitals that couple directly to the second sublattice site. Such configuration is diagonal in pseudospin and spin space, yielding electron doping of the graphene and antiferromagnetic ordering in the primitive cell in agreement with DFT calculations. The second, HCP, configuration is symmetric in the graphene sublattices and only involves coupling to the dx z,dy z orbitals. The register of the lattices in this case allows for a new coupling between nearest-neighbor sites, generating nondiagonal terms in the pseudospin space and novel spin-kinetic couplings mimicking a spin-orbit coupling generated by a magnetic coupling. The resulting proximity effect in this case yields ferromagnetic order in the graphene substrate. We derive the band structure in the vicinity of the K points for both configurations, the Bloch wave functions and their spin polarization.

  16. AcEST: DK960863 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available I Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 314 2e-84 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI A...ADNCTGLQGFLVFNAVGGGTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSP 175 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson

  17. AcEST: DK961570 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available I Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 177 1e-84 tr|A9PL19|A9PL19_GOSHI Alpha-tubulin OS=Gossypium h... GTGSGLGSLLLERLSVDYGKKSKLGFTVYPSPQV 177 >tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2

  18. AcEST: DK952850 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |A9SEI4_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 369 e-101 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilson...I Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 369 bits (946), Expect = e-101 Iden

  19. Ungarlane Aron Losonczi tegutseb

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ungari arhitektil Aron Losonczil õnnestus luua läbipaistev betoon LiTraCon, mis muudab interjööri õhuküllaseks ja konstruktsioonimassiivid kergemaks. Arhitekti asutatud firma tegeleb LiTraConi tootmismeetodite täiustamisega

  20. AcEST: DK952315 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _9CONI 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A red... 67 1e-09 tr|Q9ZRH3|Q9ZRH3_MORAL 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutar... 567 Query: 361 GRLLKSHMKCNRSRK 405 G+L+KSHMK NRS K Sbjct: 568 GQLVKSHMKYNRSSK 582 >tr|Q9ZRH3|Q9ZRH3_MORAL

  1. Microemulsion-mediated synthesis of cobalt (pure fcc and hexagonal phases) and cobalt-nickel alloy nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Sharma, Shudhanshu; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V; Lofland, Samuel E; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2009-08-15

    By choosing appropriate microemulsion systems, hexagonal cobalt (Co) and cobalt-nickel (1:1) alloy nanoparticles have been obtained with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a cationic surfactant at 500 degrees C. This method thus stabilizes the hcp cobalt even at sizes (fcc cobalt is predicted to be stable. On annealing the hcp cobalt nanoparticles in H(2) at 700 degrees C we could transform them to fcc cobalt nanoparticles. Microscopy studies show the formation of spherical nanoparticles of hexagonal and cubic forms of cobalt and Co-Ni (1:1) alloy nanoparticles with the average size of 4, 8 and 20 nm, respectively. Electrochemical studies show that the catalytic property towards oxygen evolution is dependent on the applied voltage. At low voltage (less than 0.65 V) the Co (hexagonal) nanoparticles are superior to the alloy (Co-Ni) nanoparticles while above this voltage the alloy nanoparticles are more efficient catalysts. The nanoparticles of cobalt (hcp and fcc) and alloy (Co-Ni) nanoparticles show ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetization of Co-Ni nanoparticles is reduced compared to the bulk possibly due to surface oxidation.

  2. Reorientation of magnetic anisotropy in obliquely sputtered metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.; Wormeester, H.; Poelsema, B.

    2002-01-01

    Reorientation in the magnetic anisotropy as a function of film thickness has been observed in Co-Ni and Co thin films, obliquely sputtered on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate at a large incidence angle (70°). This effect is a consequence of the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the films (f

  3. Light reception and circadian behavior in `blind' and `clock-less' mutants of Neurospora crassa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragovic, Zdravko; Tan, Ying; Görl, Margit; Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    2002-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a model organism for the genetic dissection of blue light photoreception and circadian rhythms. WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1) and WC-2 are considered necessary for all light responses, while FREQUENCY (FRQ) is required for light-regulated asexual development (coni

  4. Effect of Cr underlayer on obliquely sputtered Co on PET substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.T.; Lisfi, A.; Phan le kim, P.L.K.; Lodder, J.C.; Keim, Enrico G.

    2002-01-01

    Oblique deposition of magnetic films is often used for magnetic recording tape. The well known materials are Co and CoNi deposited by reactive evaporation with O/sub 2/ directly on a polymer substrate. However, for the next generation of high density media the desirable magnetic properties have not

  5. Eigenoscillations Near Cascade of Thin Disks Between the Pair of Parallel Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    3D space" Dinamika Sploshnih Sred , 2000, vol 117, pp. 8 3 -8 8 (in Russian) KIi-; UKiAINI•, IX-TH IN7TERNA770h’NAL CONI,’ERENCJI, ON MATHEMAw7CAL MiEHoDs IN ELI,(’TiOMAGNIJ77C THEORY

  6. A medium-range air combat game solution by a pilot advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.; Gold, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft , both equipped with medium-range guided missiles, is .a key element of future air warfare. This dynamic coni lict can be viewed as an interaction of a twotarget diiferential game (between the air--craft) and two independent missileaircraft pursuit-e

  7. Welders’ lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidor Kern

    2010-02-01

    Conclusions: h is study coni rms that longterm welders may have symptoms with no functional disorders, but with prominent morphological changes. h e key to correct diagnosis is an occupational history of the patient. Diagnostic work-up includes funda-mental procedures in suspected interstitial lung disease. h e best therapy is cessation of exposure.

  8. Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model captures the effect of volume illumination and coni...

  9. O Dissecador de Passarinhos e a Idade da Razão – Reflexões sobre a relação entre recepção e criação na produção literária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Pereira dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available From a previous study on the importance of sartrean intertext during the writing and rewriting of the novel O Ventre of Carlos Heitor Cony, this article intends to reflect on the relationship between creation and reception in the literature.  

  10. Presence of adhesive vesicles in the mycoherbicide Alternaria helianthi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria helianthi conidia have been shown to cause disease on common cocklebur. Conidia were applied to slides made hydrophobic by coating with dimethyldicholorosilane (mimics leaf surface), then rinsed and treated with FITC-Con A to stain the adhesive material. Alternaria helianthi coni...

  11. Optical second-harmonic diffraction study of anisotropic surface diffusion: CO on Ni(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.; Zhu, X.D.; Daum, W.; Shen, Y.R. (Department of Physics, University of California, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1992-10-15

    We describe in detail a technique using optical second-harmonic (SH) diffraction from a one-dimensional laser-induced monolayer grating to probe surface diffusion of adsorbates and its anisotropy on a solid surface. The case of CO on Ni(110) is used as a demonstration. The two orthogonal and independent diffusion tensor components along (1{bar 1}0) and (001) are measured, exhibiting a strong anisotropy in both the activation energy {ital E}{sub diff} and the preexponential factor {ital D}{sub 0} in the diffusion coefficients. A compensation effect between {ital E}{sub diff} and {ital D}{sub 0} is observed. In comparison with CO/Ni(111) and CO/Ni(100), our result suggests that the Ni(110) surface seen by CO is much smoother than Ni(111) and Ni(100). Both advantages and limitations of the present technique are mentioned and possible complications in the data analysis are discussed.

  12. Non-collinear magnetization configuration in interlayer exchange coupled magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Min, B.-C.; Kim, J.-Y.; Park, B.-G.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shin, K.-H.

    2011-09-01

    Element specific magnetic hysteresis loops of the interlayer exchange coupled CoFeB/Ru/[Co/Ni]4 structure were measured utilizing x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. It was found that the Co/Ni multilayer and the CoFeB layer have Ru thickness dependent oscillatory interlayer coupling. Due to its interlayer coupling with the perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni multilayer, the CoFeB magnetization direction is slightly tilted out-of-plane from its in-plane magnetic easy axis. Quantitative measurements show that the tilting angle is small (magnetic field (˜50 Oe) applied to this structure will result in a completely in-plane CoFeB magnetization.

  13. Three-terminal magnetic tunneling junction device with perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB sensing layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, H., E-mail: hr-honjou@aist.go.jp; Nebashi, R.; Tokutome, K.; Miura, S.; Sakimura, N.; Sugibayashi, T. [Green Platform Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, Tsukuba (Japan); Fukami, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Murahata, M.; Kasai, N. [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ishihara, K. [Smart Energy Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ohno, H. [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We demonstrated read and write characteristics of a three terminal memory device with a perpendicular anisotropy-free layer of a strip of [Co/Ni] and a low-switching perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB/MgO sensing layer. This new design of the cell results in a small cell area. The switching magnetic field of the sensing layer can be decreased by changing sputtering gas for the Ta-cap from Ar to Kr. An electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) revealed that the boron content in CoFeB with a Kr-sputtered Ta-cap was smaller than that with an Ar-sputtered one. A change in resistance for the MTJ was observed that corresponded to the magnetic switching of the Co/Ni wire and its magnetoresistance ratio and critical current were 90% and 0.8 mA, respectively.

  14. Role of TbFe on Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Giant Magnetoresistance Effect in [Co/Ni]N-Based Spin Valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghong Tang; Zongzhi Zhang; Yanyan Zhu; Bin Ma; Qinyuan Jin

    2014-01-01

    The exchange-coupled [Co/Ni]N/TbFe nano-magnetic films can display strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) which depends on the Tb:Fe component ratio, TbFe layer thickness and the repetition number N of [Co/Ni]N multilayer. Perpendicular spin valves in the nano thickness scale, consisting of a [Co/Ni]3 free and a [Co/Ni]5/TbFe reference multilayer, show high giant magnetoresistance (GMR) signal of 6.5%and a large switching field difference over 3 kOe. However, unexpected slanting of the free layer magnetization, accompanied by a reduced GMR ratio, was found to be caused by the presence of a thick Fe-rich or even a thin but Tb-rich TbFe layer. We attribute this phenomenon to the large magnetostriction effect of TbFe which probably induces strong stress acting on the free layer and hence reduces its interfacial PMA.

  15. Dynamique de structuration spatio-temporelle des populations de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... conventionnelle de la « Directive Cadre sur l'Eau de l'Union Européenne (DCE) » préconisée pour l'échantillonnage .... barrage hydro-agricole de Boura dans le bassin de la. Volta se ... les eaux usées de la plaine irriguée ; c'est ainsi que nous ..... impactées par les activités agricoles et les rejets urbains.

  16. AcEST: DK956969 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a PE=2 SV=1 352 1e-95 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 352 1e-95 tr|A9PL1...I Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 451 Score = 352 bits

  17. AcEST: DK951069 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 183 8e-45 tr|A5B819|A5B819_VITVI Putative uncharacterized protein (Fragmen... 183 1e-44 tr|B2LSM2|B2LSM2_9CONI HAP5B OS=Picea wils...onii PE=2 SV=1 181 4e-44 tr|A9NKR8|A9NKR8_PICSI Putative

  18. AcEST: BP918381 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Alpha tubulin OS=Picea wilsonii GN=TUA1 P... 237 4e-61 tr|A9PL21|A9PL21_GOSHI Al...7 4e-61 tr|A9SEI4|A9SEI4_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 237 4e-61 tr|A9QVH4|A9QVH4_9CONI

  19. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2017-05-08

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  20. AcEST: DK960900 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omitrella paten... 67 1e-09 tr|Q6WP38|Q6WP38_9CONI 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A red... 67 1e-09 tr|Q9ZRH3|Q9ZRH3_MORAL...+L+KSHMK NRS K Sbjct: 568 GQLVKSHMKYNRSSK 582 >tr|Q9ZRH3|Q9ZRH3_MORAL 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A

  1. Interface magnetism of 3d transition metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, A. M. N.; Johansson, B.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1999-01-01

    The layered resolved magnetic spin moments of the magnetic 3d bilayer interfaces Fe/V bcc, Fe/Co bcc, Fe/Cu bcc, Co/V bcc, Co/Ni fee, Co/Cu fee, Ni/V fee, Ni/Cr fcc, Ni/Cu fee and the magnetic surfaces Fe bcc, Co bcc, Co fee, and Ni fee are calculated for the (001), (011), and (111) orientations...

  2. Rozwój lokalnych mediów internetowych wobec kształtowania się społeczeństwa obywatelskiego. Analiza na podstawie portalu MM Moje Miasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Majcherczyk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł poświęcony jest przedstawieniu Internetu jako miejsca rozwoju mediów lokalnych, a tym samym kształtowania się społeczeństwa obywatelskiego. Skupia się na analizie portalu społecznościowego MM Moje Miasto jako platformy dziennikarstwa obywatelskiego, bazującego na lokalności przekazu. Opisuje działanie portalu i jego otoczenie medialne.  

  3. Advanced Transformer Demonstration And Validation Project Summary Report Based On Experiences At Nas, North Island, San Diego. California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    OPERATIONAL CONTROLS *FAN CONI.TO SWITCH The ton wcano w~ tdh con be in fte automabc, iwnua, c off podiuon. in automatic tum UM an V4d off at ft p.~mouy...TRIDENT TRAINING FAC / ANDFRSON, KTNGS nAV, rA UNITED TECHNOLOGIES / IB, WINDSOR LOC,.S. "T UNIV OF NEW MEXICO / NMERI (FALK), AI,BITOtItROI’E, NM UNIV

  4. USAF (United States Air Force) Stability and Control DATCOM (Data Compendium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    SUPERSONIC NORMA L-FORCE-CURVE SLOPE FOR CONIE-CYLINDERS 4...22 0 .2 .4 n . 6* .8 1.0 ’s - . 6 .4 . 0 -2.4- SUPERSONIC SPEEDS ACN I[I~) -- Ei3~d2-_ (per...r Spctnns. Ni APA RN I AR ig"P. (l)i 23. Foster, G, V,, Mollenberg, E. F., and Woods, R. L.: Low-Speed Longitudinal Characteristics of an Unswept

  5. Temperature dependence of the switching field in all-perpendicular spin-valve nanopillars

    OpenAIRE

    Gopman, D. B.; Bedau, D.; Wolf, G.; Mangin, S; Fullerton, E. E.; Katine, J. A.; Kent, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present temperature dependent switching measurements of the Co/Ni multilayered free element of 75 nm diameter spin-valve nanopillars. Angular dependent hysteresis measurements as well as switching field measurements taken at low temperature are in agreement with a model of thermal activation over a perpendicular anisotropy barrier. However, the statistics of switching (mean switching field and switching variance) from 20 K up to 400 K are in disagreement with a N\\'{e}el-Brown model that as...

  6. Comparative study on the anticancer activities and binding properties of a hetero metal binuclear complex [Co(dipic)2Ni(OH2)5]·2H2O (dipic=dipicolinate) with two carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Somaye; Shiri, Fereshteh; Majd, Mostafa Heidari; Razmara, Zohreh

    2017-07-01

    Recognizing of binding mechanisms between drugs and carrier proteins is basic for us to understand the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of them. In this research, the anticancer activities of a binuclear complex [Co(dipic)2Ni(OH2)5]·2H2O (dipic=dipicolinate) against MDA-MB-231 cell lines were studied. Results of MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis revealed that above complex can induce the cytotoxicity and the apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. So, this complex was selected to investigate its binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine β-lactoglobulin (βLG) by spectroscopic methods (UV-visible, fluorescence and FT-IR) along with molecular docking technique. The fluorescence data showed Co-Ni complex quench the fluorescence of both proteins by a static quenching mechanism and HSA has stronger binding affinity toward Co-Ni complex than βLG. The binding constant (Kb), number of binding sites (n) and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and showed that the Co-Ni complex binds to protein (HSA and βLG) through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces with one binding site. The results of UV-visible measurements indicated that the binding of above complex to HSA and βLG may induce conformational and micro-environmental changes of studied proteins. Protein-ligand docking analysis confirmed that the Co-Ni complex binds to residues located in the subdomain IIA of HSA and site II of βLG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A Global Approach to Parameter Estimation of Chaotic Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    on parain - In general, Julia sets are not smooth, but very coni- eter variations.. plicated fractal objects, exhibiting an amazing variety of P or...is obeyed. We will refer to equation 25 as the parain - 1. 10 ter sensitivity power law. 6 Let us consider. for example. the quadratic map •’ 10 fe(Z... parain - 10000. eter. 3.1 The power law for smnoothly changing global functions In this section we demonstrate that if a global function is

  8. Spinel ferrite thin-film synthesis by spin-spray ferrite plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Tran Hoang; Van, Ha Thi Bich; Phong, Tran Canh; Abe, Masanori

    2003-04-01

    By spin-spray ferrite plating with optimizing conditions in the oxidizing and reaction solutions, we can synthesize polycrystalline ferrite film of spinel type (Fe, M){sub 3}O{sub 4}, where M=Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, etc., in low temperatures (<100 deg. C). By this method we can synthesize Co, Co-Ni ferrite for perpendicular magnetic recording media with high coercivity H{sub c} in the plane perpendicular to the film.

  9. Thin Co/Ni-based bottom pinned spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory stacks with high annealing tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Y.; Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Liu, E.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm2 after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.

  10. Characterization and Hydrogen Storage of Surface-Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, identification, and H2 storage of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs have been investigated in the present work. MWCNTs were produced from the catalytic-assembly solvent (benzene-thermal (solvothermal route. Reduction of C6Cl6 with metallic potassium was carried out in the presence of Co/Ni catalyst precursors at 503–623 K for 12 h. XRD patterns indicated that the abstraction of Cl from hexachlorobenzene and the formation of KCl precipitates were involved in the early stage of the synthesis process of MWCNTs. This result offers further explanation for the formation of MWCNT structure and yield using the solvothermal route depending on the Co/Ni catalyst precursors. The diameter of MWCNTs ranged between 30 and 100 nm and the H2 storage capacity of MWCNTs improved when 2.7–3.8 wt% Pd or NaAlH4 were doped. The XANES/EXAFS spectra revealed that the Co/Ni catalyst precursors of the MWCNT synthesis were in metallic form and Pd atoms possessed a Pd–Pd bond distance of 2.78 Å with a coordination number of 9.08. Ti-NaAlH4 or Pd nanoparticles were dispersed on MWCNTs and facilitated to improve the H2 storage capacity significantly with the surface modification process.

  11. A fascinating combination of Co, Ni and Al nanomaterial for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sher Bahadar; Khan, Shahid Ali; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-05-01

    Interesting combination of Co, Ni and Al have been assessed for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets of NiCoAl, Co-Al oxide nanoparticles and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles were prepared and studied for the first time as OER catalyst. Among all the subjected catalysts, the binary LDH comprise of NiCoAl showed comparatively high catalytic activity than Co-Al oxide nanoparticles and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles. The Co-Al and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles showed current densities of 34.6 and 24.5 mA cm-2, respectively at 1 V in 0.3 M KOH solution. However at the same conditions, NiCoAl-LDH showed comparatively low overpotential, high current density (40.8 mA cm-2) and lower Tafel slope. The low overpotential and high catalytic activity of NiCoAl-LDH stipulate the possibility to reduce the demand of precious, rare earth and expensive transition metal catalyst in electrochemical water splitting for OER.

  12. Catalytic Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane by Cobalt Nickel Nanoparticles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Hydrogen Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well dispersed magnetically recyclable bimetallic CoNi nanoparticles (NPs supported on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO were synthesized by one-step in situ coreduction of aqueous solution of cobalt(II chloride, nickel (II chloride, and graphite oxide (GO with ammonia borane (AB as the reducing agent under ambient condition. The CoNi/RGO NPs exhibits excellent catalytic activity with a total turnover frequency (TOF value of 19.54 mol H2 mol catalyst−1 min−1 and a low activation energy value of 39.89 kJ mol−1 at room temperature. Additionally, the RGO supported CoNi NPs exhibit much higher catalytic activity than the monometallic and RGO-free CoNi counterparts. Moreover, the as-prepared catalysts exert satisfying durable stability and magnetically recyclability for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB, which make the practical reusing application of the catalysts more convenient. The usage of the low-cost, easy-getting catalyst to realize the production of hydrogen under mild condition gives more confidence for the application of ammonia borane as a hydrogen storage material. Hence, this general method indicates that AB can be used as both a potential hydrogen storage material and an efficient reducing agent, and can be easily extended to facile preparation of other RGO-based metallic systems.

  13. A fascinating combination of Co, Ni and Al nanomaterial for oxygen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: sbkhan@kau.edu.sa [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Shahid Ali; Asiri, Abdullah M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cobalt based nanomaterials. • Water splitting. • Low overpotential. • Plausible self-repair electrocatalyst. - Abstract: Interesting combination of Co, Ni and Al have been assessed for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets of NiCoAl, Co-Al oxide nanoparticles and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles were prepared and studied for the first time as OER catalyst. Among all the subjected catalysts, the binary LDH comprise of NiCoAl showed comparatively high catalytic activity than Co-Al oxide nanoparticles and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles. The Co-Al and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles showed current densities of 34.6 and 24.5 mA cm{sup −2}, respectively at 1 V in 0.3 M KOH solution. However at the same conditions, NiCoAl-LDH showed comparatively low overpotential, high current density (40.8 mA cm{sup −2}) and lower Tafel slope. The low overpotential and high catalytic activity of NiCoAl-LDH stipulate the possibility to reduce the demand of precious, rare earth and expensive transition metal catalyst in electrochemical water splitting for OER.

  14. Electrospinning preparation, characterization and magnetic properties of cobalt-nickel ferrite (Co(1-x)Ni(x)Fe2)O4) nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jun; Chu, Yanqiu; Shen, Xiangqian; Zhou, Guangzhen; Guo, Yintao

    2012-06-15

    Uniform Co(1-)(x)Ni(x)Fe(2)O(4) (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) nanofibers with average diameter of 110 nm and length up to several millimeters were prepared by calcination of electrospun precursor nanofibers containing polymer and inorganic salts. The as-spun and calcined nanofibers were characterized in detail by TG-DTA, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, SAED and VSM, respectively. The effect of composition of the nanofibers on the structure and magnetic properties were investigated. The nanofibers are formed through assembling magnetic nanoparticles with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as the structure-directing template. The structural characteristics and magnetic properties of the resultant nanofibers vary with chemical composition and can be tuned by adjusting the Co/Ni ratio. Both lattice parameter and particle size decrease gradually with increasing nickel concentration. The saturation magnetization and coercivity lie in the range 29.3-56.4 emu/g and 210-1255 Oe, respectively, and both show a monotonously decreasing behavior with the increase in nickel concentration. Such changes in magnetic properties can mainly be attributed to the lower magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the smaller magnetic moment of Ni(2+) ions compared to Co(2+) ions. Furthermore, the coercivity of Co-Ni ferrite nanofibers is found to be superior to that of the corresponding nanoparticle counterparts, presumably due to their large shape anisotropy. These novel one-dimensional Co-Ni ferrite magnetic nanofibers can potentially be used in micro-/nanoelectronic devices, microwave absorbers and sensing devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thin Co/Ni-based bottom pinned spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory stacks with high annealing tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, Y., E-mail: Yoann.Tomczak@imec.be [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A. [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Liu, E. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-25

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm{sup 2} after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.

  16. An enigmatic frog of the genus Atelopus (Family Bufonidae) from Parque Nacional Chirripó, Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jay M; Bolaños, Federico

    2009-01-01

    A distinctive new species of Atelopus is described from Parque Nacional Chirrip6 Grande, Cordillera de Talamanca (3,400-3,500 m). It closely resembles populations of the Atelopus ignescens complex from the Andes of northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. It differs most significantly from these frogs in the pattern of spiculae and coni development on the throat, chest, hands and feet. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1,600 km.

  17. Combat sports energy costs evaluation by remote sensing. Progress report 10: Man-environment heat exchange equation evolution and improvement; Valutazione del costo energetico degli sport di combattimento in remote sensing; Progress report 10: Man-environment heat exchange equation evolution and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacripanti, A. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Direzione Sicurezza Nazionale e Protezione Sanitaria; Dal Monte, A. [CONI, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Scienza dello Sport; Rossi, L.; Fabbri, M. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    The foundation, evolution and related improvements of the new heat and mass transfer equation, used in the joint research of CONI-ENEA (the Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) - FILPJ are shown in this report. Emphasis is given to the experimental history and the changes that are justified in a more formal approach on the basis of theoretical thermodynamics or similarity and dimensional theory. The new form of the equation in the computer code actually utilized in the research is given in the appendix.

  18. Large spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co-Ni/W heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiawei; Qiu, Xuepeng; Legrand, William; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2016-07-01

    The spin orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Co-Ni multilayers sandwiched between two heavy metals (HM) have been studied. By exploring various HM materials, we show an efficient enhancement or cancellation of the total SOT, depending on the combination of the two HM materials. The maximum SOT effective field is obtained in Pt/Co-Ni/W heterostructures. We also model our double HM system and show that the effective spin Hall angle has a peak value at certain HM thicknesses. Measuring the SOT in Pt/Co-Ni/W for various W thicknesses confirms an effective spin Hall angle up to 0.45 in our double HM system.

  19. Exchange coupled composite FePt/TbCo/[Co/Ni]N films with an TbCo interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The exchange coupled composite FePt/TbCo/[Co/Ni]N films have been prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The net magnetization of ferromagnetic TbCo changes with the temperature variation, and then the magnetic configuration of FePt/TbCo/[Co/Ni]N changes. When a RE-dominated Tb32Co68 is inserted, FePt/Tb32Co68/[Co/Ni]5 has high coercivity at room temperature because of its synthesis ferrimagnetic sandwich structure, but small coercivity is obtained when the temperature is higher than 200 °C because of its graded ECC structure.

  20. Interim Field Evaluation of Windrow Revetment. Missouri River, Section 32, Streambank Erosion Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    CLY’,ON ’v AT v 9 eo - 0 C-.~ .. 0. 00. ( i 0O 0 CEA CONY 0 0 0 .. 0 0r 1 ~ . L0ON~~ DEMONSTRATION SIT ::X___ __ 0 0 CEA CONT DIO CUT LEGEN ZLITCN TETIR...RIE loo 3lIRVE 00 RANGE *6 AVG. VEL. FOR CHANNEL = 3.90 FPS 10 NOV. 1976 RAN %Q’:=S%-SEE NOTE I QGP = 35.000 CFS SEE Qvs = 3S,00CFS rNOTE 4 QLrv

  1. Gas and pressure effects on the synthesis of amorphous carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tingkai; LIU Yongning; ZHU Jiewu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gas, pressure and temperature on the production of amorphous carbon nanotubes were investigated using an arc discharging furnace at controlled temperature. Co/Ni alloy powder was used as catalyst.The discharge current was 80 A and voltage was 32 V. The optimal parameters were obtained: 600℃ temperature, hydrogen gas and 500 torr pressure. The productivity and purity of amorphous carbon nanotubes are 6.5 gram per hour and 80%, respectively. The diameter of the amorphous carbon nanotubes is about 7-20 nm.

  2. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-05-11

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  3. Une difficile adaptation des objectifs internationaux en matière de gestion de l’eau dans un espace périurbain : le cas du Val de Norges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Prudhomme

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce cas, l'étude du territoire du Val de Norges permet de mettre en évidence que le développement périurbain en augmentant la pression sur la ressource engendre des problèmes environnementaux en matière de gestion de l'eau. La présence de différents groupes de pression rend encore plus difficile la mise en œuvre, à échelle locale, de solutions préventives préconisées par les instances internationales.

  4. Informe científico de investigador: Rendtorff Birrer, Nicolás Maximiliano (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Rendtorff Birrer, Nicolás Maximiliano

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo mi trabajo en el Centro de tecnología de recursos Minerales y cerámica (CETMIC) perteneciente a la CIC y al CONICET, en el grupo de materiales cerámicos liderado por el Dr. E Aglietti. Al mismo tiempo coordino las actividades del sub-grupo de materiales cerámicos tradicionales y participo de diversas colaboraciones científicas nacionales e internacionales. En particular con el Advance ceramic processing group, NIMS, Tsukuba Japón, con el grupo de materiales cerámicos del IFLP (CONI...

  5. La comptabilité de couverture en juste valuer sous IAS 39 : Quelles conséquences pour les fonds propres prudentiels dans le secteur bancaire ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaji, Hamza

    2005-01-01

    Nous avons essayé à travers ce travail de vérifier dans le cadre du modèle de la juste valeur, la compatibilité de la comptabilité de couverture préconisée par la norme IAS 39 aux objectifs de la réglementation prudentielle sur les fonds propres bancaires. Nos conclusions soutiennent que la macro-couverture est l’approche la plus adéquate à l’activité d’intermédiation de la banque commerciale et celle qui correspond le mieux aux objectifs de la réglementation prudentielle.

  6. LA COMPTABILITE DE COUVERTURE EN JUSTE VALEUR SOUS IAS 39 : QUELLES CONSEQUENCES POUR LES FONDS PROPRES PRUDENTIELS DANS LE SECTEUR BANCAIRE ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaji, Hamza

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Nous avons essayé à travers ce travail de vérifier dans le cadre du modèle de la juste valeur, la compatibilité de la comptabilité de couverture préconisée par la norme IAS 39 aux objectifs de la réglementation prudentielle sur les fonds propres bancaires. Nos conclusions soutiennent que la macro-couverture est l'approche la plus adéquate à l'activité d'intermédiation de la banque commerciale et celle qui correspond le mieux aux objectifs de la réglementation prudentie...

  7. Ultrafast Magnetoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    a Co?Ni synthetic free layer, Journal of Applied Physics , (02 2008): 0. doi: 10.1063/1.2832671 2012/03/22 14:46:56 11 J.-M. L. Beaujour, G. de...of Co/Pd/Co/Ni multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy irradiated with helium ions, Journal of Applied Physics , (02 2011): 0. doi: 10.1063...polycrystalline Fe[sub 1-x]V[sub x] alloy thin films, Journal of Applied Physics , (02 2008): 0. doi: 10.1063/1.2830648 2012/03/21 16:03:33 1 TOTAL: 11 (b

  8. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RELATED MINERALIZATION OF CHERT FORMATIONS IN SOUTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There occur abundant cherts in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata in southern Tibet. Some of them possess characteristic hydrothermal structures such as layered, laminated, massive and breccia structures.Ratios of Al/(Al+Fe+Mn), Co/Ni, Fe/Ti and TiO2-Al2O3 demonstrate that their origin is related to hydrothermal sedimentation. The chert formations have close relationship with Sb, Au and poly-metallic mineralization, and the ore-forming fluid show strong correlation with fossil hydrothermal water.

  9. Cylindrical Jet-Wind Interaction Model of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Ma; Yong-Feng Huang; Zi-Gao Dai; Tan Lu

    2003-01-01

    Observations on relativistic jets in radio galaxies, active galactic nuclei,and "microquasars" revealed that many of these outflows are cylindrical, not coni-cal. So it is worthwhile to investigate the evolution of cylindrical jets in gamma-raybursts. We discuss afterglows from cylindrical jets in a wind environment. Numeri-cal results as well as analytic solutions in some special cases are presented. Our lightcurves are steeper compared to those in the homogeneous interstellar medium case,carefully considered by Cheng, Huang & Lu. We conclude that some afterglows,used to be interpreted as isotropic fireballs in a wind environment, can be fitted aswell by cylindrical jets interacting with a wind.

  10. Current induced perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy racetrack memory with magnetic field assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Klein, J.-O.; Chappert, C.; Ravelosona, D. [IEF, University of Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France); UMR8622, CNRS, Orsay 91405 (France); Zhao, W. S., E-mail: weisheng.zhao@u-psud.fr [IEF, University of Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France); UMR8622, CNRS, Orsay 91405 (France); Electronics and Information Engineering School, University of Beihang, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-01-20

    High current density is indispensable to shift domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires, which limits the using of racetrack memory (RM) for low power and high density purposes. In this paper, we present perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy (PMA) Co/Ni RM with global magnetic field assistance, which lowers the current density for DW motion. By using a compact model of PMA RM and 40 nm design kit, we perform mixed simulation to validate the functionality of this structure and analyze its density potential. Stochastic DW motion behavior has been taken into account and statistical Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out to evaluate its reliability performance.

  11. Brulure et Grossesse: A Propos de Deux Cas et Revue de la Litterature

    OpenAIRE

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Les brûlures thermiques au cours de la grossesse sont rares, cependant elles requièrent une attention particulière du fait qu'elles engagent le pronostic maternel et foetal. Les Auteurs rapportent deux observations qui illustrent la gravité de cette association. Le traitement des brûlures pendant la grossesse connaît des particularités en rapport avec les modifications anatomiques et physiologiques de la gestation. Certains Auteurs ont préconisé des recommandations, comme en particulier le tr...

  12. REAL-TIME DETECTION OF SURVIVIN mRNA EXPRESSION IN CERVICAL CANCER CELL LINES USING MOLECULAR BEACON IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The initiated growth of human cancer cells of-ten mostly come fromthe abnor mal expression ofgenes.Survivinis anapotosis inhibitor of IAPfami-ly,cloned by Ambrosini in1997usingthe cDNAofeffector cell protease receptor-1(EPR-1),and is thekey gene for the development and advancement oftumor.Inthe present study,the feasibility of detec-ting the expression of survivin mRNA was exam-inedincervical cancer cell lines using molecular bea-coni maging technology.MATERIALS AND METHODS1Cervical cancer cell lines and ce...

  13. Fabrication of cobalt-nickel binary nanowires in a highly ordered alumina template via AC electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghafar; Maqbool, Muhammad

    2013-08-14

    Cobalt-nickel (Co-Ni) binary alloy nanowires of different compositions were co-deposited in the nanopores of highly ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates from a single sulfate bath using alternating current (AC) electrodeposition. AC electrodeposition was accomplished without modifying or removing the barrier layer. Field emission scanning electron microscope was used to study the morphology of templates and alloy nanowires. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the deposition of Co-Ni alloy nanowires in the AAO templates. Average diameter of the alloy nanowires was approximately 40 nm which is equal to the diameter of nanopore. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the alloy nanowires consisted of both hexagonal close-packed and face-centered cubic phases. Magnetic measurements showed that the easy x-axis of magnetization is parallel to the nanowires with coercivity of approximately 706 Oe. AC electrodeposition is very simple, fast, and is useful for the homogenous deposition of various secondary nanostuctured materials into the nanopores of AAO.

  14. Study of magnetoelastic and magnetocrystalline anisotropies in Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x} nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskaltsova, Anastasiia, E-mail: amoskaltsova@inesc-mn.pt [National Technical University Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute, 21, Frunze Str., 61002 Kharkiv (Ukraine); INESC-MN, Rua Alves Redol, 9-1, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Proenca, Mariana P. [IFIMUP and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Dep. Física e Astronomia, Univ. Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Nedukh, Sergey V. [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12, Proskura str., 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Sousa, Célia T. [IFIMUP and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Dep. Física e Astronomia, Univ. Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Vakula, Arthur [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12, Proskura str., 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Kakazei, Gleb N. [IFIMUP and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Dep. Física e Astronomia, Univ. Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Magnetism National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36b Vernadskogo Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Tarapov, Sergey I. [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12, Proskura str., 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Araujo, Joao P. [IFIMUP and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Dep. Física e Astronomia, Univ. Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Highly ordered Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x} nanowire (NW) arrays were electrodeposited inside nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide membranes. The control of the applied potential during the electrodeposition process allowed us to easily tune the Co% in the alloy. Systematic studies on the morphological and crystallographic properties together with static and dynamic magnetic characterizations were performed. In this work we focus on the study of the dynamic magnetic properties of CoNi NW arrays using the ferromagnetic resonance method at both room (RT) and low (LT) temperatures. The careful comparison analysis performed between the magnetic anisotropy fields obtained at RT and LT, allowed us to extract for the first time the magnetocrystalline anisotropy effect of the Co component and, most importantly, the magnetoelastic anisotropy effect of Ni. - Highlights: • Ordered hexagonal arrays of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x} nanowires were grown by DC electrodeposition. • The Co:Ni ratio in the nanowires was tuned by varying the deposition potential. • We studied magnetic anisotropies using ferromagnetic resonance method. • The experiments were performed at room and low temperatures. • We extracted the magnetoelastic contribution of Ni in the fabricated nanowires.

  15. Kinetics of Carbon Monoxide Electro-Oxidation in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells from Ni-YSZ Patterned-Anode Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, J.

    2013-04-17

    A mathematical model is developed around the framework of a reduced mechanism describing electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide on Ni-YSZ patterned anodes. The electro-oxidation mechanism involves three reactions, one describing adsorption/ desorption of COonNi, and two single-electron charge-transfer steps inwhich the surface adsorbate CO(Ni) participates directly. These steps are coupled with surface transport in a reaction-diffusion model for which analytic equilibrium and steady-state solutions are derived. As much as possible, we make use of existing, independent, published information about heterogeneous chemistry, surface transport, and other model parameters. The only unknowns in our model are taken to be the kinetic rate constants of the electrochemical reactions, which we evaluate by fitting the model predictions to previously published patterned-anode experiments [B. Habibzadeh, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (2007)]. The results show that diffusion of CO on the Ni surface to the three-phase boundary is the rate-controlling process for CO electro-oxidation. Moreover, from a reaction standpoint, the charge-transfer process is dominated by a slow step involving CO(Ni). These findings collectively demonstrate the critical dependence of the electro-oxidation process to the direct participation of CO. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Modifications for the improvement of catalyst materials for hydrogen evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN SLAVKOV

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The structural and electrocatalytic characteristics of composite materials based on non-precious metals were studied. Precursors of metallic phase (Ni, Co or CoNi and oxide phase (TiO2 were grafted on a carbon substrate (Vulcan XC-72 by the sol-gel procedure and thermally treated at 250 ºC. Ni and CoNi crystals of 10–20 nm were produced, in contrast the Co and TiO2 were amorphous. The dissimilar electronic character of the components gives rise to a significant electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER, even in the basic series of prepared materials. Further improvement of the catalysts was achieved by modification of all three components. Hence, Mo was added into the metallic phase, TiO2 was converted into the crystalline form and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were used instead of carbon particles. The improvement, expressed in terms of the lowering the hydrogen evolution overpotential at 60 mA cm–2, was the most pronounced in the Ni-based systems grafted on MWCNTs (120 mV lower HER overpotential compared to 60 mV in case of Ni-based systems grafted on crystalline TiO2 (TiO2 prepared at 450 ºC and of Ni-based systems containing 25 at.% Mo. Nevertheless, even with the realized enhancement, of all the fested materials, the Co-based systems remained superior HER catalysts.

  17. Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding behavior of Co0.9Ni0.1 microcluster based magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Injamamul; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we performed steady shear and oscillatory magnetorheological (MR) studies in magnetic fluids containing CoNi sub-micron sized clusters of 450 nm in diameter. Such Co-rich nanoclusters were synthesized by conventional homogeneous nucleation without any external surfactant or reducing agent in liquid polyol at elevated temperature. The x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies were done for analyzing the sample composition and morphology. Two variants of fluid samples were prepared by dispersing 15 vol% and 20 vol% of CoNi powders in castor oil. Room temperature steady magnetoshear studies indicate viscoplastic behavior with stronger dependence of static yield stress on magnetization than a dipolar coupling that was operational in the dynamic yield stress. Magnetosweep measurements at constant shear rate showed interesting viscous relaxation at high magnetic fields. We also explored dynamical elastic behavior through oscillatory magnetorheological studies under both strain sweep and frequency sweep modes, and showed glass transition like phenomenon occurring in them above critical shear amplitudes.

  18. Sulfide composition and microthermometry of fluid inclusions in the leg 111 sheeted dike section of Ocean Drilling Program hole 504B, Costa Rica rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeps, D. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (West Germany)); Herzig, P.M. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-06-10

    Hole 504B of the Ocean Drilling Program is dedicated to the study of crustal structure and hydrothermal processes in 5.9-m.y.-old oceanic basement. Continuing the work of previous legs, hole 504B was extended 212.3 m to a total depth of 1,562.3 m below seafloor (bsf) during leg 111 in 1986. Quartz-sulfide veins occur at a depth of 1,369-1,388 m bsf in basalts of the sheeted dike complex. The ore minerals are predominantly pyrite, less chalcopyrite, rare Co-rich Cu-Fe-S phases, and a thiospinel (linnaeite/carrollite). Microprobe analyses yield a high Co content in zoned vein pyrites (>8 wt%) as well as in the Cu-Fe-S phases (>5 wt%). Up to 35.8 wt% CO was detected in the thiospinel. A Co/Ni ratio of > 100 distinguishes the vein pyrite from pyrite in the basaltic wall rock and from pyrite formed as an alteration product of olivine (Co/Ni < 5). The Co/Ni ratios correlate positively with Cu and negatively with As. Co-rich, nonstoichiometric Cu-Fe-S sulfides in chalcopyrite are interpreted as metastable phases which have been quenched at a high temperature and prohibited from exsolution of the stable products chalcopyrite and pyrite. Fluid inclusions in quartz from the quartz-sulfide veins are two-phase and vary from liquid- to vapor-dominated. Their salinities range from 4.2 to 7.2 wt% equivalent NaCl and average 5.5 wt%. Pressure (360 bars) corrected average filling temperatures vary from 271 to 408 C with a maximum of 486 C. This is consistent with calculated quartz formation temperatures for a single quartz separate (+4.2{per thousand} {delta}{sup 18}O) using oxygen isotope thermometry. The {delta}{sup 18}O value of the hydrothermal fluid was determined to be +1.7{per thousand}. The temperature data indicate fluid alteration of the sheeted dikes at about 350 to 500 C.

  19. Room temperature synthesis of Ni-based alloy nanoparticles by radiolysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Berry, Donald T.; Lu, Ping; Leung, Kevin; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Huang, Jian Yu; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2009-09-01

    Room temperature radiolysis, density functional theory, and various nanoscale characterization methods were used to synthesize and fully describe Ni-based alloy nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized at room temperature. These complementary methods provide a strong basis in understanding and describing metastable phase regimes of alloy NPs whose reaction formation is determined by kinetic rather than thermodynamic reaction processes. Four series of NPs, (Ag-Ni, Pd-Ni, Co-Ni, and W-Ni) were analyzed and characterized by a variety of methods, including UV-vis, TEM/HRTEM, HAADF-STEM and EFTEM mapping. In the first focus of research, AgNi and PdNi were studied. Different ratios of Ag{sub x}- Ni{sub 1-x} alloy NPs and Pd{sub 0.5}- Ni{sub 0.5} alloy NP were prepared using a high dose rate from gamma irradiation. Images from high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) show that the Ag-Ni NPs are not core-shell structure but are homogeneous alloys in composition. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) maps show the homogeneity of the metals in each alloy NP. Of particular interest are the normally immiscible Ag-Ni NPs. All evidence confirmed that homogeneous Ag-Ni and Pd-Ni alloy NPs presented here were successfully synthesized by high dose rate radiolytic methodology. A mechanism is provided to explain the homogeneous formation of the alloy NPs. Furthermore, studies of Pd-Ni NPs by in situ TEM (with heated stage) shows the ability to sinter these NPs at temperatures below 800 C. In the second set of work, CoNi and WNi superalloy NPs were attempted at 50/50 concentration ratios using high dose rates from gamma irradiation. Preliminary results on synthesis and characterization have been completed and are presented. As with the earlier alloy NPs, no evidence of core-shell NP formation occurs. Microscopy results seem to indicate alloying occurred with the CoNi alloys. However, there appears to be incomplete reduction of the Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to form the W

  20. Chondritic meteorite fragments associated with the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Asish R; Petaev, Michail I; Poreda, Robert J; Jacobsen, Stein B; Becker, Luann

    2003-11-21

    Multiple chondritic meteorite fragments have been found in two sedimentary rock samples from an end-Permian bed at Graphite Peak in Antarctica. The Ni/Fe, Co/Ni, and P/Fe ratios in metal grains; the Fe/Mg and Mn/Fe ratios in olivine and pyroxene; and the chemistry of Fe-, Ni-, P-, and S-bearing oxide in the meteorite fragments are typical of CM-type chondritic meteorites. In one sample, the meteoritic fragments are accompanied by more abundant discrete metal grains, which are also found in an end-Permian bed at Meishan, southern China. We discuss the implications of this finding for a suggested global impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  1. The concept of strategic partnership as an input in the modern alliance theory

    OpenAIRE

    Czechowska, Lucyna

    2013-01-01

    Artykuł poświęcony jest nowej instytucji międzynarodowych stosunków politycznych – partnerstwu strategicznemu. Autorka analizuje w nim realia prowadzenia polityki zagranicznej w pierwszej dekadzie XXI wieku oraz zabiera głos w dyskusji pomiędzy neoliberałami a neorealistami odnośnie naturalnej skłonności państw do rywalizacji lub współpracy. Osadzając swoją koncepcję w ramach realistycznej teorii sojuszy omawia także stan badań literatury przedmiotu oraz rozróżnienie na sojusze sensu stricte ...

  2. Low-temperature steam-reforming of ethanol over ZnO-supported Ni and Cu catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homs, Narcis; Llorca, Jordi; De la Piscina, Pilar Ramirez [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    ZnO-supported Ni and Cu as well as bimetallic Co-Ni and Co-Cu catalysts containing ca. 0.7wt% sodium promoter and prepared by the co-precipitation method were tested in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction at low temperature (523-723K), using a bioethanol-like mixture diluted in Ar. Monometallic ZnO-supported Cu or Ni samples do not exhibit good catalytic performance in the steam-reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production. Copper catalyst mainly dehydrogenates ethanol to acetaldehyde, whereas nickel catalyst favours ethanol decomposition. However, the addition of Ni to ZnO-supported cobalt has a positive effect both on the production of hydrogen at low temperature (<573K), and on catalyst stability. Evidence for alloy formation as well as mixed oxides at the microstructural level was found in the bimetallic systems after running the ethanol steam-reforming reaction by HRTEM-EELS. (author)

  3. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells; Electrocatalizadores para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M. A.; Fernandez V, S. M. [ININ, Depto. de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Mexico 11801, D. F. (Mexico); Vargas G, J. R. [IPN, Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Mexico 07300, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  4. Employee Motivation Research Based on the Psychological Contract in Chinese Small and Medium -sized Family Firm%基于心理契约的中国中小家族企业员工激励研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝冬梅; 冯书娟

    2012-01-01

    This article, through analyzing concretely the achievements and existing problems of employee motivation and the impact factors in Chinese small and medium - sized family firms, by using psychological contract theory, conies up with an . employee motivation mechanism model based on the psychological contract, and states the specific incentives in detail.%通过对中小家族企业员工激励的现状和存在的问题及对问题产生的影响因素的具体分析,借助心理契约理论,提出基于心理契约的员工激励模型,并详细陈述激励措施.

  5. Stolen beauty: gender, aesthetics and embodiment in Brazilian drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Pontes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a broader research on gender inflections in the Brazilian intellectual field and in Brazilian drama, between 1940 and 1968, the article discusses the relations between aesthetics and gender, and their implications on the careers of actresses Cacilda Becker, Maria Della Costa, Tônia Carrero and Cleyde Yáconis. According to testimony of those who saw her perform on stage, Cacilda was never hampered by her less favorable physical attributes. The hypothesis is that this is due to the cunning tricks of the conventions of dramatic arts that allow the dodging of social, gender and physical constraints. Widely evoked by the media to portrait, underline or diminish women under its focus, beauty rarely features as a relevant dimension in the analysis of female trajectories. Hence the interest in discussing the subject through its refraction on the process of social construction of artistic careers.

  6. AcEST: BP920542 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available G1 Definition sp|Q6BDG1|MATK_KETDA Maturase K OS=Keteleeria davidiana Align length 38 Score (bit) 35.4 E-val...p|Q6BDG1|MATK_KETDA Maturase K OS=Keteleeria davidiana GN=matK ... 35 0.17 sp|Q9MV46|MATK_ABIHL Maturase K O... 1... 30 6.9 >sp|Q6BDG1|MATK_KETDA Maturase K OS=Keteleeria davidiana GN=matK PE=3 SV=1 Length = 519 Score =... K (Fragment) OS=Keteleeria david... 35 1.7 tr|Q9MV57|Q9MV57_9CONI Maturase K OS=...Keteleeria evelyniana GN=ma... 35 1.7 tr|Q8MEW5|Q8MEW5_KETDA Maturase K OS=Keteleeria davidiana GN=mat... 35

  7. Mendes, Emília & Ida Lucia Machado (éds. 2010. As emoções no discurso (Campinas, São Paulo : Mercado de Letras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani David Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Logos, ethos, pathos : conçue dans le cadre d’une rhétorique de l’argumentation, la triade aristotelicienne reste toujours d’actualité dans l’approche préconisée par les tendances de l’analyse du discours qui ont comme principe de prendre en compte le dispositif d’énonciation dans son ancrage sociohistorique. Le logos, on le sait, se rapporte à la dimension raisonnable de l’argumentation, dimension responsable de la cohérence logique des arguments ; l’ethos correspond à l’image de soi que l’o...

  8. Induction and mechanism of cucumber resistance to anthracnose induced by Pieris rapae extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pieris rapae extract was sprayed on the surface of cucumber leaf to determine the induction of resistance to anthracnose.The enzyme activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were detected on cucumber leaves after P.rapae extract induction and pathogen challenge.The results showed that the disease index of cucumber anthracnose was significantly decreased after the cucumber was induced with the P.rapae extract at a concentration of 5.0 mg·mL-1.The POD and PPO activities in foliar-applied P.rapae extract without pathogen inoculation (PETO) or with pathogen inoculation (PETI) were relatively higher than those with no-P.rapae extract treatment and without pathogen inoculation (CONO) or with pathogen inoculation (CONI),respectively.The results suggested that the increased levels of POD and PPO activities in PETO and PETI play an important role in the induction of resistance to cucumber anthracnose.

  9. Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

    2014-04-01

    Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  10. PHYSICAL TREATMENT OF THE STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE IN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Stojiljković

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents various methods of the physical treatment used in healing women with the stress urinary incontinence. It is emphasized that the exercises for strengthening the pelvic floor are effective in curing the stress incontinence but the most efficient exercise program has not been determined yet. Likewise, it is pointed out that the biofeedback application, along with the exercise, is no more efficient than the application of the exercises only but, still, much better results are achieved by applying the biofeedback at the beginning of the treatment. In order to evaluate the effects of the vaginal coni, electric and magnetic simulations in treating women with the stress urinary incontinence further explorations are necessary.

  11. Synthesis gas production on glass cloth catalysts modified by Ni and Co oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.B.Aldashukurova; A.V.Mironenko; Z.A.Mansurov; N.V.Shikina; S.A.Yashnik; V.V.Kuznetsov; Z.R.Ismagilov

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic activity of nanostructured low percent (1%) Co-Ni catalysts on the basis of glass fiber (GF) prepared by a"solution combustion" (SC) method was studied.The catalytic activity of the prepared samples was studied in the reaction of dry reforming of methane (DRM) with CO2.The obtained samples were characterized by a number of physico-chemical methods,including XRD,SEM,TEM,TGA and AFM.The active component was shown to be dispersed in the near-surface layer of the support as nanoparticles of 10—20 nm in size.The active component showed a Co3O4 or(Co,Ni)Co2O4 spinel structure,depending on the catalyst composition.The spinel structure of the active component interacted strongly with the carrier,providing resistance to carbonization,high catalytic activity toward DRM,and high activity and stability in oxidation reactions.

  12. Introductory Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory Comments The fifth yearly volume of the Colloquia Humanistica comprises a thematic section on Nation, Natsiya, Ethnie. The subject it discusses has thus far received little attention as a research problem in the Slavia Orthodoxa, the Slavia Romana, the Balkans but also in Central and Eastern Europe.   Uwagi wstępne Piąty numer rocznika "Colloquia Humanistica" przedstawia dział tematyczny, poświęcony kategoriom narodu, nacji i etni. Temat ten, w takiej perspektywie, którą proponujemy, nie spotkał się dotąd z należytym namysłem badawczym w sferze Slavia Otrhodoxa, Slavia Romana i na Bałkanach, jak też w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej.

  13. Konflikt nad Chałchyn goł - teoria i praktyka sowieckiej myśli wojskowej

    OpenAIRE

    Binek, Maciej W.

    1998-01-01

    Wydano z pomocą finansową Ministerstwa Edukacji Narodowej. Artykuł niniejszy poświęcony jest wyłącznie militarnej stronie konfliktu. Należy jednak pokrótce zarysować jego tło polityczne. Azjatyckie tereny Związku Sowieckiego i Mongolia od daw na znajdowały się w orbicie zainteresowań Japonii (tzw. koncepcja „uderzenia na północ”). Przygotowując się do urzeczywistnienia planów zdobycia tych obszarów Japończycy rozpoczęli w Mandżurii budowę sieci kolejowej, niezbędnej do przerzutu d...

  14. Report of two cases of double outlet left ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chul Soon; Lim, Tae Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Double outlet left ventricle (DOLV), even defined as origins or both great vessels from left ventricle, implies varieties of morphology in concern with loop pattern, location of ventricular septal defect, conotruncal anatomy, and presence or absence of pulmonary stenosis. With the improvement of surgical technique, corrective surgery of DOLV become possible, and preoperative diagnosis and determination of the accurate anatomical relationship between great vessels, ventricular septal defect, and ventricles is very important in surgical implication. Authors have recently experienced two cases of DOLV. The one is with subpulmonic conus, subpulmonic ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and preductal type coarctation of aorta. The other is with bilateral coni and subaortic ventricular septal defect. Loop patterns are [S, D, D]in both cases.

  15. Magnetic dichroism effect of binary alloys using circularly-polarized x-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S. Z.; Schumann, F.O.; Willis, R.F.; Goodman, K.W.; Tobin, J.G.; Carr, R.

    1997-05-01

    We have studies the magnetic propertied of CoNi binary alloy films with various atomic compositions using soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) technique. The alloy films were deposited on single Cu(100) crystals in situ using our well-established epitaxial growth technique to achieve a layer-by-layer growth and a metastable fcc structure, with all films exhibiting an in-plane magnetic anistrophy. Utilizing the element-specific ability and nanostructure magnetization sensitivity of this technique, we have been able to perform the absorption measurements at L2 and L3 edge of Co and Ni atoms and observed large dichroism signals. The extraction of spin moment and orbital moment for varying elemental stoichiometry using magneto- optical sum rules is discussed.

  16. La description de la compétence lexicale en langue étrangère : perspectives méthodologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Sylviane; Monfort, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Le but principal de l’article est de démontrer que l’analyse d’erreurs reste un outil très utile pour décrire la compétence lexicale de l’apprenant. Elle peut, en effet, fournir - tant aux didacticiens qu’aux psycholinguistes - la base empirique solide qui leur a tant fait défaut jusqu’à présent.La procédure méthodologique préconisée dans l’article comprend, outre une analyse rigoureuse des erreurs lexicales, une phase d’exploitation semi-automatique, au cours de laquelle les données lexicale...

  17. Preparation of Carbon Nanotubes by the Catalysis of Polymer Metal Complex on Porous Al203 Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI YanLi; ZHANG XiaoGang; LI HuLin

    2001-01-01

    @@ At present, synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is normally conducted on a vapor-to-solid interface at ca. 500-3500℃ via various vapor phase methods, such as are discharge, laser ablation, catalytic pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition, etc.1-2 Recently, channel materials (such as channels of alumina and of AlPO4-5 zeolite) 3 have been utilized as solid-state templates to grow CNTs inside the channel. Here we described a novel method to prepare the carbon nanotubes based on the decomposition of C2H2 gas on the Co-Ni catalyst anchored by polymer complex on the porous A12O3 matrix. The degree of graphitization of synthesized CNTs and catalysts are of great interest.

  18. Preparation of Carbon Nanotubes by the Catalysis of Polymer Metal Complex on Porous Al203 Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; YanLi

    2001-01-01

    At present, synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is normally conducted on a vapor-to-solid interface at ca. 500-3500℃ via various vapor phase methods, such as are discharge, laser ablation, catalytic pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition, etc.1-2 Recently, channel materials (such as channels of alumina and of AlPO4-5 zeolite) 3 have been utilized as solid-state templates to grow CNTs inside the channel. Here we described a novel method to prepare the carbon nanotubes based on the decomposition of C2H2 gas on the Co-Ni catalyst anchored by polymer complex on the porous A12O3 matrix. The degree of graphitization of synthesized CNTs and catalysts are of great interest.  ……

  19. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    was inspired by a computational screening, suggesting that alloys such as Ni-Fe, Co-Ni, and Co-Fe should show superior activity to the industrially used nickel catalyst. Especially the Ni-Fe system was considered to be interesting, since such alloy catalysts should be both more active and cheaper than the Ni...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...... pose an environmental risk. The focus was put on iron-containing zeolite catalysts, since these recently have shown great potential as catalysts for the process. A number of different zeolites were compared. BEA was found to be the most active, thus focus was put on this material. Different preparation...

  20. La place de l’a priori dans l’analyse des données économiques ou le programme fort des méthodes inductives au service de l’hétérodoxie

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Le positionnement épistémologique de Jean-Paul Benzécri a été explicité dans un article écrit pour l’Encyclopedia Universalis faisant figure de véritable manifeste car il en appelle à refonder la pratique des statisticiens sur la base d’un Novius Organum qui serait basé sur l’analyse des correspondances. Cette note formule l’hypothèse que le « rasoir d’Occam » préconisé par Jean-Paul Benzécri a fonctionné dans les faits plutôt comme un outil de déconstruction au service des tendances hétérodo...

  1. Kompetencja rodzimych użytkowników polszczyzny oraz obcokrajowców (Ukraińców) w zakresie stosowania polskiej frazeologii temporalnej

    OpenAIRE

    Nikołajczuk, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Artykuł poświęcony jest badaniom znajomości normy w zakresie polskiej frazeologii temporalnej rodzimych użytkowników polszczyzny oraz Ukraińców uczących się tego języka. Ujawniono, jakie odstępstwa od zawartej w słownikach normy frazeologicznej wybranych związków temporalnych są najbardziej charakterystyczne dla polskojęzycznej komunikacji osób ukraińskojęzycznych, native speakerów. Materiałem badawczym są Korpusy tekstów języka polskiego oraz ankiety zawierające polskie związk...

  2. Gli incerti confini del cosmo dai buchi neri alle macchine del tempo

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Il libro mostra come la gravitazione abbia un ruolo determinante nei fenomeni cosmici che più ci impressionano, da quelli relativamente vicini alla nostra esperienza (come la formazione delle stelle) a quelli meno intuibili (come la formazione dei buchi neri), alla struttura dell'Universo nel suo insieme. Oltre a spiegare, in modo qualitativo, concetti come la geometria dello spazio-tempo, la relatività del tempo e i coni di luce, l'autore formula un'ipotesi innovativa tendente a spiegare l'origine della gravitazione e con essa quella dei fenomeni circondati ancora da un alone di mistero: la materia oscura dell'Universo e il destino della materia alla fine del collasso gravitazionale.

  3. Tooth replacement of tigerfish Hydrocynus vittatus from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Gagiano

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of tooth replacement was observed in 14 tigerfish which had been caught during the period 1991 - 1993 in the Olifants and Letaba rivers in the Kruger National Park. Replacement of teeth is a quick process (3-5 days and first replacement of adult coni- cal dentition takes place at six to seven months post hatch, at a body length of 100 mm (FL. Swollen gums are evident prior to tooth replacement and newly erupted teeth are loosely embedded in the gums. Tooth replacement occurs in both the upper and lower jaws simultaneously. It was observed in the laboratory that the feeding behaviour was affected when adult conical dentition was replaced in @ 287 mm (FL specimens.

  4. Temperature dependence of the switching field in all-perpendicular spin-valve nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopman, D. B.; Bedau, D.; Wolf, G.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Katine, J. A.; Kent, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    We present temperature dependent switching measurements of the Co/Ni multilayered free element of 75-nm-diameter spin-valve nanopillars. Angular dependent hysteresis measurements as well as switching field measurements taken at low temperature are in agreement with a model of thermal activation over a perpendicular anisotropy barrier. However, the statistics of switching (i.e. the mean switching field and the variance of the switching field distribution) from 20 up to 400 K are in disagreement with a Néel-Brown model that assumes a temperature independent barrier height and anisotropy field. We introduce a modified Néel-Brown model that fits the experimental data in which we attribute a T3/2 dependence to the barrier height and the anisotropy field due to the temperature dependent magnetization and anisotropy energy.

  5. Chemistry and thermal history of metal particles in Luna 20 soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Blau, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Individual metal particles from Luna 20 thin sections 521, 513 and 514 as well as several small metallic inclusions in silicate particles from Luna 20 thin sections 501 and 502 were examined using optical microscopy and the electron microprobe. All the metallic particles and inclusions analyzed are of meteoritic Co-Ni content as are most of the metallic particles from the Fra Mauro and the Apollo 16 highlands sites. It is proposed that most of the metal at these 3 sites had its origin in the meteoritic projectiles that bombarded and accumulated in the early lunar crust. It is apparent that the metallic particles and some of the metallic inclusions in the Luna 20 soil have been subjected to reheating on the moon and this process has removed any evidence of the original meteoritic microstructure of the metal.

  6. Microstructure and Properties of Coating from Cemented Carbide on Surface of H13 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microstructures and properties of coating from cemented carbide on the substrate of H13 by vacuum powder sintering were studied. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructures of coating was discussed. The interface characteristics between coating and H13 steel substrate, microhardness distribution and wear resistance in the coating were analyzed. The coating from cemented carbide with thickness of 1-3 mm by vacuum powder sintering at temperature ranging from 1280 ℃ to 1300 ℃ was obtained. The experimental results indicated that the coating with microhardness of HV 1600 favorable to wear resistance is strongly bonded with the H13 steel substrate by mutual diffusion and penetration of Fe,Cr, Mo,V in substrate towards the coating and W, Co,Ni in coating towards the substrate.

  7. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements of (Co/Ni/Co/Pt) multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiaa, R.; Shaw, J. M.; Nembach, H. T.; Bahri, M. Al; Ranjbar, M.; Åkerman, J.; Piramanayagam, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Multilayers of [Co/Ni(t)/Co/Pt]×8 with varying Ni thickness were investigated for possible use as a free layer in magnetic tunnel junctions and spintronics devices. The thickness t of the Ni sub-layer was varied from 0.3 nm to 0.9 nm and the resulting magnetic properties were compared with (Co/Ni) and (Co/Pt) multilayers. As determined from magnetic force microscopy, magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance measurements, all multilayers exhibited perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Compared with (Co/Pt) multilayers, the sample with t of 0.9 nm showed almost the same anisotropy field of μ 0 H k   =  1.15 T but the damping constant was 40% lower. These characteristics make these multilayers attractive for spin torque based magnetoresistive devices with perpendicular anisotropy.

  8. Un médico higienista buscando ordenar el mundo urbano argentino de comienzos del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto llegó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica se reproduce.

  9. Characterization and EXAFS Studies of Cobalt Synthesized by sol-gel auto Combustion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Singh, Priya; Ninama, Samrath

    2016-10-01

    The Co-Ni ferrites with general formula NiXCo1-XFe2O4 (where X=0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 2, 0.4) were prepared by Sol-gel auto combustion method. X-ray, FTIR and EXAFS measurement were carried out. Extended X ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra have been recorded at the K-edge of Fe using the Dispersive EXAFS (DEXAFS) beam line-8 Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source RRCAT, Indore, India. The EXAFS data have been analysed using the computer softer Athena. These have been used to determine the Bond length in these ferrites with help of four different methods, namely, Levy's, Lytle's and Lytle, Sayers and stern's (LSS).

  10. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2017-06-22

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  11. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powder mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loudjani, N., E-mail: loudjani_nadia@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et Spectroscopie des solides, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Bensebaa, N.; Dekhil, L.; Alleg, S. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et Spectroscopie des solides, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Sunol, J.J. [Dep. de Fisica, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, Girona 17071 (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    In the present work, morphological, structural, thermal and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} alloy prepared by high energy planetary ball milling have been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The coercivity and the saturation magnetization of alloyed powders were measured at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetization. Morphological observations indicated a narrow distribution in the particle and homogeneous shape form with mean average particle size around 130 {mu}m{sup 2}. The results show that an allotropic Co transformation hcp{yields}fcc occurs within the three first hours of milling and contrary to what expected, the Rietveld refinement method reveals the formation of two fcc solid solutions (SS): fcc Co(Ni) and Ni(Co) beside a small amount of the undissolved Co hcp. Thermal measurement, as a function of milling time was carried out to confirm the existence of the hcp phase and to estimate its amount. Magnetic measurement indicated that the 48 h milled powders with a steady state particles size have the highest saturation (105.3 emu/g) and the lowest coercivity (34.5 Oe). - Highlights: > By using the Rietveld refinement method we found that Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} alloy, milled for 48 h, contains two fcc solid solutions: fcc Co(Ni) and Ni(Co), beside a small amount of the undissolved Co hcp. DSC measurement as a function of milling time was carried out to confirm the existence of the hcp phase and to estimate its amount. > By means of imageJ we found the area distribution and not just the diameter distribution. > The coercivity is strongly related to the particles size distribution.

  13. Revealing the synergetic effects in Ni nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and their application in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanqi; Zhong, Jun; Wang, Jian; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-05-01

    The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications.The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnified TEM images, high resolution TEM images and the particle size distributions of the samples, the STXM results of a thick tube at different positions, XPS results, stability test. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01168j

  14. Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding behavior of Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1} microcluster based magnetorheological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arief, Injamamul; Mukhopadhyay, P.K., E-mail: pkm@bose.res.in

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we performed steady shear and oscillatory magnetorheological (MR) studies in magnetic fluids containing CoNi sub-micron sized clusters of 450 nm in diameter. Such Co-rich nanoclusters were synthesized by conventional homogeneous nucleation without any external surfactant or reducing agent in liquid polyol at elevated temperature. The x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies were done for analyzing the sample composition and morphology. Two variants of fluid samples were prepared by dispersing 15 vol% and 20 vol% of CoNi powders in castor oil. Room temperature steady magnetoshear studies indicate viscoplastic behavior with stronger dependence of static yield stress on magnetization than a dipolar coupling that was operational in the dynamic yield stress. Magnetosweep measurements at constant shear rate showed interesting viscous relaxation at high magnetic fields. We also explored dynamical elastic behavior through oscillatory magnetorheological studies under both strain sweep and frequency sweep modes, and showed glass transition like phenomenon occurring in them above critical shear amplitudes. - Highlights: • A typical polymer/surfactant free polyol reduction method was used to synthesize large-scale Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1} nanoclusters. • Room temperature rate-dependent magnetorheology of CoNi-nanoclusters based MR fluids revealed viscoplastic behavior. • Magnetic fields were replaced by powder particle magnetization (M) for better yield stress scaling. • In addition to previously reported M{sup 2}-dependence, higher order relations (~M{sup 3}) were also noted for static yield stress. • An interesting viscous relaxation phenomenon occurred at higher magnetic fields.

  15. Development of Coke-tolerant Transition Metal Catalysts for Dry Reforming of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sabban, Bedour E.

    2016-11-07

    catalysts, Ni9Pt1/ZrO2 showed high stability with the least carbon amount (0.55 wt.%). On the other hand, mono- and bimetallic Co-Ni/ZrO2 were then prepared following the same synthesis protocol. The ZrO2 support was chosen because of its high thermal stability and absence of mixed oxide formation with the active metals. It was demonstrated that on monometallic Co catalyst, the kinetic analysis showed first-order in CH4 and negative-order in CO2 on the DRM rate. The Co catalyst deactivated without forming carbon deposits. On contrary, on monometallic Ni catalyst, the DRM rate was proportional to CH4 pressure but insensitive to CO2 pressure. The Ni surface provides comparatively higher rates of CH4 decomposition and the resultant DRM than the Co catalyst but leaves some deposited carbon on the catalyst surface. In contrast, the bimetallic CoNi catalyst showed kinetics resembling the Co catalyst, i.e., the first-order with respect to CH4 pressure and the negative-order with respect to CO2 pressure on the DRM rate. Noticeably, the stability of CoNi catalyst was drastically improved over the monometallic counterparts and no deposited carbon was detected after the DRM reaction. The results suggest that for an appropriate Co/Ni ratio, the bimetallic CoNi/ZrO2 catalyst exhibits intermediate reactivity towards CH4 and CO2 between Co and Ni producing negligible carbon deposition by balancing CH4 and CO2 activation.

  16. Origin of magnetization-induced anisotropy of magnetic films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Han-Min; Chong-Oh Kim; Taek-Dong Lee; Hyo-Jin Kim

    2007-01-01

    It is proposed that the magnetization-induced anisotropy of magnetic films of cubic crystal structure originates from the anisotropy of atomic pair ordering, shape anisotropy, and strain anisotropy resulting from the constraint of the magnetostriction strain imposed on the film by the substrate. Calculated are the three anisotropy constants and their sum K vs temperature for Ni, Fe, and 55%Ni-Fe films; the room temperature (RT) constants vs the substrate temperature Tt during deposition or annealing after deposition for Ni and 50%Ni-Co films; the RT constants vs composition fraction for Fe-Ni films with Tt = RT, 250℃ and 450℃, Co-Ni films at Tt = RT, 100℃ and 320℃, and Fe-Co films with Tt = RT and 300℃; the spread of RT K vs composition fraction for Fe-Ni films; and RT △K/K vs composition fraction for Fe-Ni and Co-Ni films, where △K denotes the variation of K of the film that is detached from its substrate. The calculated curves well accord with the measurements. The irrelevancy of K to the substrate material and the fast kinetics of the annealing in a field applied in the direction of the hard axis are explained reasonably.The anisotropies of Fe and Ni films originate mainly from the shape anisotropy and the strain anisotropy, respectively. The major anisotropy component in many cases depends not only on composition fraction but also on Tt . For example, the RT anisotropy of 40-70%Ni-Fe films, when Tt is RT, mostly comes from the anisotropy of atomic pair ordering while it stems mostly from the shape anisotropy when Tt is 450 ℃. The most important cause of the spread in values of K is the spread of the intrinsic anisotropic stresses superimposed on the intrinsic isotropic planar stress. It is suggested that the field cooling induced magnetic anisotropy originating from the induced crystal texture observed in the bulk alloys is also a major origin for Co and Co-rich alloy films of hexagonal crystal structure.

  17. CoxNi100-x nanoparticles encapsulated by curved graphite layers: controlled in situ metal-catalytic preparation and broadband microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Dai, Y. Y.; Geng, D. Y.; Ma, S.; Li, D.; An, J.; He, J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-10-01

    We report a one-step approach for preparing dispersive CoxNi100-x nanoparticles completely encapsulated by curved graphite layers. The nanoparticles were prepared by evaporating Co-Ni alloys and the shell of graphite layers was formed by in situ metal-catalytic growth on the surface of nanoparticles whose layer number was controlled by tuning the Co content of the alloys. By modulating the composition of the magnetic core and the layer number of the shell, the magnetic and dielectric properties of these core/shell structures are simultaneously optimized and their permeability and permittivity were improved to obtain the enhanced electromagnetic match. As a result, the bandwidth of reflection loss (RL) exceeding -20 dB (99% absorption) of the nanocapsules is 9.6 GHz for S1, 12.8 GHz for S2, 13.5 GHz for S3 and 14.2 GHz for S4. The optimal RL value reaches -53 dB at 13.2 GHz for an absorber thickness of 2.55 mm. An optimized impedance match by controlling the growth of the core and shell is responsible for this extraordinary microwave absorption.We report a one-step approach for preparing dispersive CoxNi100-x nanoparticles completely encapsulated by curved graphite layers. The nanoparticles were prepared by evaporating Co-Ni alloys and the shell of graphite layers was formed by in situ metal-catalytic growth on the surface of nanoparticles whose layer number was controlled by tuning the Co content of the alloys. By modulating the composition of the magnetic core and the layer number of the shell, the magnetic and dielectric properties of these core/shell structures are simultaneously optimized and their permeability and permittivity were improved to obtain the enhanced electromagnetic match. As a result, the bandwidth of reflection loss (RL) exceeding -20 dB (99% absorption) of the nanocapsules is 9.6 GHz for S1, 12.8 GHz for S2, 13.5 GHz for S3 and 14.2 GHz for S4. The optimal RL value reaches -53 dB at 13.2 GHz for an absorber thickness of 2.55 mm. An optimized

  18. Enhanced X-Band Electromagnetic-Interference Shielding Performance of Layer-Structured Fabric-Supported Polyaniline/Cobalt-Nickel Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Hou, Lei; Bi, Siyi; Lu, Yinxiang

    2017-09-12

    Despite tremendous efforts, fabrication of lightweight conductive fabrics for high-performance X-band electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding remains a daunting technical challenge. We herein report an ingenious and efficient strategy to deposit polyaniline/cobalt-nickel (PANI/Co-Ni) coatings onto lyocell fabrics that involves consecutive steps of in situ polymerization and electroless plating. The PANI-Co-Ni ternary-component system successfully induced a synergistic effect from EM wave-absorption and EM wave-reflection and, moreover, upgraded the match level between magnetic loss and dielectric loss. By the judicious control of polymerization cycles and plating time, low-weight fabric-supported PANI/Co-Ni composites (with PANI and Co-Ni loading of 2.86 and 3.99 mg·cm(-2), respectively) were prepared, which displayed relatively high EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) (33.95-46.22 dB) when compared to their single peers (PANI-coated fabric and Co-Ni-coated fabric) or even the sum of them. Inspired by the so-called "1 + 1 > 2" phenomenon, here we demonstrated that there was an EMI SE enhancement effect in this conductive polymer/metal system that may be associated with interphase chemical and/or physical interactions. Further analysis revealed that this EMI SE enhancement effect was evident under circumstances of relatively low metal content and became weak with the increase of metal content. The mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and vector network analysis (VNA). The linkage between PANI and Co-Ni coatings was in the form of Co-N/Ni-N, which mimics the atomic configuration occurring in cobalt porphyrins. The Co-N/Ni-N configuration strengthened the interphase adhesion and thus resulted in shielding fabrics with high durability for

  19. The case for metamorphic base metal mineralization: pyrite chemical, Cu and S isotope data from the Cu-Zn deposit at Kupferberg in Bavaria, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Debaille, V.; Pašava, J.; Kuulmann, L.; Debouge, W.

    2017-01-01

    The stratiform Cu-Zn sulfide deposit at Kupferberg in Germany represents Bavaria's largest historic base metal producer. The deposit is hosted by Early Paleozoic volcano-sedimentary strata at the margin of a high-grade allochthonous metamorphic complex. The present paper reports on the first Cu and S isotope data as well as trace element analyses of pyrite from this unusual deposit. The new data point to syn-orogenic mineralization that was driven by metamorphic fluids during nappe emplacement. Primary Cu ore occurs as texturally late chalcopyrite within stratiform laminated pyrite in black shale in two different tectonostratigraphic units of very low and low metamorphic grade, respectively, that were juxtaposed during the Variscan orogeny. Trace element contents of different pyrite types suggest the presence of at least one hydrothermal pyrite generation (mean Co/Ni = 35), with the other pyrite types being syn-sedimentary/early diagenetic (mean Co/Ni = 3.7). Copper isotope analyses yielded a narrow δ65Cu range of -0.26 to 0.36‰ for all ore types suggesting a hypogene origin for the principal chalcopyrite mineralization. The ore lenses in the two different tectonostratigraphic units differ with regard to their δ34S values, but little difference exists between poorly and strongly mineralized domains within a given locality. A genetic model is proposed in which syn-sedimentary/early diagenetic pyrite with subordinate chalcopyrite and sphalerite formed in black shale beds in the two different stratigraphic units, followed by late-tectonic strata-internal, hydrothermal mobilization of Fe, Cu, and Zn during syn-orogenic thrusting, which concentrated especially Cu to ore grade. In agreement with this model, Cu distribution in stream sediments in this region shows distinct enrichments bound to the margin of the allochthonous complex. Thus, Kupferberg can be considered a rare example of a syn-orogenic Cu deposit with the Cu probably being derived from syn

  20. Structural studies of molecular and metallic overlayers using angle- resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) was used to study molecular and metallic overlayers on metal surfaces through analysis of p2mg(2[times]1)CO/Ni(110) and the p(2[times]2)K/Ni(111) adsorption. For the dense p2mg(2[times]1)CO/Ni(110) surface layer, photoemission intensities from C 1s level were measured in three directions at photoelectron kinetic energies 60-400 eV. Using multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) modeling, it was found that CO molecules are adsorbed on short-bridge sites, with adjacent CO along the [110] direction displaced alternatively in opposite directions towards the [001] azimuths to form a zigzag chain geometry. The tilt angle is 16[plus minus]2[degree] from the surface normal for the direction linking the C atom and the center of the Ni bridge. The carbon C-Ni interatomic distance was determined to be 1.94[plus minus]0.02[Angstrom]. The first- to second-layer spacing of Ni is 1.27[plus minus]0.04[Angstrom], up from 1.10[Angstrom] for the clean Ni(110) surface, but close to the 1.25[Angstrom] Ni interlayer spacing in the bulk. The C-O bond length and tilt angle were varied within small ranges (1.10--1.20[Angstrom] and 15--23[degrees]) in our MSSW simulations. Best agreement between experiment and simulations was achieved at 1.16[Angstrom] and 19[degrees]. This yields an O-O distance of 2.95[Angstrom] for the two nearest CO molecules, (van der Waals' radius [approximately] 1.5 [Angstrom] for oxygen). Two different partial-wave phase-shifts were used in MSSW, and structural results from both are in very good agreement. For the p(2[times]2)K/Ni(111) overlayer, ARPEFS [chi](k) curves from K 1s level measured along [111] and [771] at 130K showed that the K atoms are preferentially adsorbed on the atop sites, in agreement with a LEED study of the same system.

  1. Structural studies of molecular and metallic overlayers using angle- resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) was used to study molecular and metallic overlayers on metal surfaces through analysis of p2mg(2{times}1)CO/Ni(110) and the p(2{times}2)K/Ni(111) adsorption. For the dense p2mg(2{times}1)CO/Ni(110) surface layer, photoemission intensities from C 1s level were measured in three directions at photoelectron kinetic energies 60-400 eV. Using multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) modeling, it was found that CO molecules are adsorbed on short-bridge sites, with adjacent CO along the [110] direction displaced alternatively in opposite directions towards the [001] azimuths to form a zigzag chain geometry. The tilt angle is 16{plus_minus}2{degree} from the surface normal for the direction linking the C atom and the center of the Ni bridge. The carbon C-Ni interatomic distance was determined to be 1.94{plus_minus}0.02{Angstrom}. The first- to second-layer spacing of Ni is 1.27{plus_minus}0.04{Angstrom}, up from 1.10{Angstrom} for the clean Ni(110) surface, but close to the 1.25{Angstrom} Ni interlayer spacing in the bulk. The C-O bond length and tilt angle were varied within small ranges (1.10--1.20{Angstrom} and 15--23{degrees}) in our MSSW simulations. Best agreement between experiment and simulations was achieved at 1.16{Angstrom} and 19{degrees}. This yields an O-O distance of 2.95{Angstrom} for the two nearest CO molecules, (van der Waals` radius {approximately} 1.5 {Angstrom} for oxygen). Two different partial-wave phase-shifts were used in MSSW, and structural results from both are in very good agreement. For the p(2{times}2)K/Ni(111) overlayer, ARPEFS {chi}(k) curves from K 1s level measured along [111] and [771] at 130K showed that the K atoms are preferentially adsorbed on the atop sites, in agreement with a LEED study of the same system.

  2. Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamika Ilunga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49% followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53% and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%. None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes. Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p Peranema sp. as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of heavy-metals in wastewater treatment, in addition to Pseudomonas

  3. Beleza roubada: gênero, estética e corporalidade no teatro brasileiro Stolen beauty: gender, aesthetics and embodiment in Brazilian drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Pontes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma pesquisa mais ampla sobre as inflexões de gênero no campo intelectual e no teatro brasileiro, entre 1940 e 1968, o artigo discute as relações entre estética e gênero e suas implicações nas carreiras das atrizes Cacilda Becker, Maria Della Costa, Tônia Carrero e Cleyde Yáconis. Segundo testemunho dos que a viram representar, Cacilda não foi prejudicada por seus atributos físicos menos favoráveis. A hipótese é de que isso se deve às artimanhas das convenções teatrais, que permitem burlar constrangimentos físicos, sociais e de gênero. Fartamente presente na mídia para retratar, realçar ou diminuir as mulheres sob seu foco, a beleza raramente aparece como dimensão relevante na análise das trajetórias femininas. Daí o interesse em discutir essa questão através de sua refração no processo de construção social das carreiras artísticas.Drawing from a broader research on gender inflections in the Brazilian intellectual field and in Brazilian drama, between 1940 and 1968, the article discusses the relations between aesthetics and gender, and their implications on the careers of actresses Cacilda Becker, Maria Della Costa, Tônia Carrero and Cleyde Yáconis. According to testimony of those who saw her perform on stage, Cacilda was never hampered by her less favorable physical attributes. The hypothesis is that this is due to the cunning tricks of the conventions of dramatic arts that allow the dodging of social, gender and physical constraints. Widely evoked by the media to portrait, underline or diminish women under its focus, beauty rarely features as a relevant dimension in the analysis of female trajectories. Hence the interest in discussing the subject through its refraction on the process of social construction of artistic careers.

  4. Microwave behavior in CoFe-based single- and two-phase magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, Rhimou [Materials Science Institute of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Resource Development, FST, UAE, BP 418, Tangier (Morocco); Innovative Technologies Laboratory, ENSA of Tangier, UAE, BP 1818, Tangier (Morocco); Infante, German; Torrejon, Jacob; Vazquez, Manuel [Materials Science Institute of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Britel, Mohammed Reda [Innovative Technologies Laboratory, ENSA of Tangier, UAE, BP 1818, Tangier (Morocco); Brigui, Jamal [Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Resource Development, FST, UAE, BP 418, Tangier (Morocco)

    2011-03-15

    The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), spectra in the frequency range up to 12 GHz has been investigated as a function of applied DC magnetic field (up to 80 kA/m) for single-phase CoFe-based Pyrex-coated microwire as well as for biphase microwires after depositing an outer shell, with hard (CoNi) and soft (FeNi) magnetic character, respectively. In addition, a parallel study on the low-frequency magnetic hysteresis loop of all these samples has been performed. In particular, we have focused on the influence of the thickness of the insulating Pyrex layer and magnetic character of the outer magnetic phase. For single-phase microwires, the increase of the Pyrex thickness results in a continuous strengthening of the circular magnetoelastic anisotropy of the CoFe-based core as deduced from FMR and confirmed by low-frequency measurements. For biphase microwires three absorption peaks are observed: two of them can be ascribed to each magnetic phase since FMR frequencies obey the Kittel condition for a thin film. A third absorption peak is observed at lower frequencies that does not follow such an equation and can be ascribed to a pure geometrical effect of these biphase microwires. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Energy solutions for sports facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, Paola; Santiangeli, Adriano [CIRPS: Inter-University Research Centre for Sustainable Development, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18, Rome (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    The sports facilities are characterized by special energy needs different from any other user and they are characterized by high heat and electricity loads. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to propose a tool to provide a preliminary estimation of the power and energy required by the sports centres. In addition, the possibility to make the building self-energy sufficient has been considered, thanks to the exploitation of renewable energy sources (RES). The overall work has been performed following three steps: energy needs analysis; local RES availability analysis; energy balance of Sport Centres. Considering that each sport facility is characterized by different energy needs depending on the sport typology itself, the analysis started from the features established by the CONI (National Italian Olympic Committee) standardization. For calculations a program in LabVIEW has been developed to evaluate the energy requirements of the sports centre considering as inputs the sport halls, the playgrounds and the supporting rooms, the level of the sport activity (e.g. agonistic) and the climatic conditions of the area where the facilities are located. The locally available RES are evaluated in order to decide which one can be exploited to feed the Sport Centre. The proposed solution for the energy production refers to a combination of different and innovative technologies which involve, in particular, hydrogen technologies. The energy and costs analysis has been finally carried out for an application case in Dubai. (author)

  6. Indentation strength of silicon nitride ceramics processed by spark plasma sintering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeggagh, N. [Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, LaMCoS CNRS UMR5259, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Tohoku University, 6-6-11, Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Joly-Pottuz, L., E-mail: lucile.joly-pottuz@insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Chevalier, J. [Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Omori, M.; Hashida, T. [Tohoku University, 6-6-11, Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nélias, D. [Université de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, LaMCoS CNRS UMR5259, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2015-09-17

    We investigated the influence of the microstructure on the true stress–strain curve of silicon nitride based ceramics. The materials were processed by spark plasma sintering technique. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with fine, average and coarse microstructures were obtained. Load versus displacement curves (P–h) were obtained by means of instrumented indentation technique using diamond coni-spherical tip. The experimental data were coupled with a minimization method based on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm and the non-linear part of the mechanical response was identified. Based on the obtained stress–strain curves, rolling contact simulations were performed. In addition, the nature of Hertzian contact damage was examined in the material with coarse microstructure using diamond indenters of radii 0.2 and 1 mm. The surface damage was observed under optical microscopy while Focused Ion Beam Sectioning technique permitted to image the subsurface damage. An evident size effect was noticed: fracture consisting of classical ring cracks dominated at large scale while distributed microcracks beneath the indent dominated at small scale.

  7. Investigations of the conversion of inorganic carbonates to methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy; Rao, C N R

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic carbonates, which occur abundantly on earth, constitute an inexpensive natural source of carbon. Therefore, the direct conversion of these carbonates into methane is of considerable importance. Thermal decomposition of transition metal carbonates with the composition MCa(CO(3))(2) (where M=Co, Ni, or Fe, and M/Ca is 1:1) and M(1)M(2)Ca(CO(3))(3) (where M(1)M(2)=CoNi, NiFe, or FeCo, and M(1)/M(2)/Ca is 1:1:2) shows that the reduced transition metals in combination with metal oxide nanoparticles (e.g., Co/CoO/CaO) act as catalysts for the conversion of CO(2) (produced from the carbonates) into methane. The favorable decomposition conditions include heating at 550 degrees C in an H(2) atmosphere for 5-6 h. These catalysts are found to be excellent for the methanation of CaCO(3), exhibiting high efficiency in the utilization of H(2) with 100 % conversion and 100 % selectivity. The best catalyst for conversion of CaCO(3) into CH(4) is Co/CoO/CaO. There are also indications that similar catalysts based on Fe may yield higher hydrocarbons.

  8. Magnetization switching by spin-orbit torque in an antiferromagnet-ferromagnet bilayer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Shunsuke; Zhang, Chaoliang; Duttagupta, Samik; Kurenkov, Aleksandr; Ohno, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching shows promise for realizing ultrafast and reliable spintronics devices. Bipolar switching of the perpendicular magnetization by the SOT is achieved under an in-plane magnetic field collinear with an applied current. Typical structures studied so far comprise a nonmagnet/ferromagnet (NM/FM) bilayer, where the spin Hall effect in the NM is responsible for the switching. Here we show that an antiferromagnet/ferromagnet (AFM/FM) bilayer system also exhibits a SOT large enough to switch the magnetization of the FM. In this material system, thanks to the exchange bias of the AFM, we observe the switching in the absence of an applied field by using an antiferromagnetic PtMn and ferromagnetic Co/Ni multilayer with a perpendicular easy axis. Furthermore, tailoring the stack achieves a memristor-like behaviour where a portion of the reversed magnetization can be controlled in an analogue manner. The AFM/FM system is thus a promising building block for SOT devices as well as providing an attractive pathway towards neuromorphic computing.

  9. Soudage homogène MIG de l'alliage d'aluminium 6061 MIG homogeneous welding of 6061 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Alexandre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le soudage homogène (métal d'apport identique au métal de base de l'alliage d'aluminium 6061 avec un procédé dit semi-automatique (MIG n'a jamais été reporté jusqu'à maintenant dans la littérature. Nous montrons ici que l'utilisation d'un dérivé du procédé de soudage MIG, le MIG CMT (Cold Metal Transfer permet d'obtenir des cordons de soudures sains (sans fissuration à chaud. De plus des traitements thermiques ont permis de retrouver partiellement ou de restaurer totalement les propriétés de la soudure. Nos résultats sont comparés à des essais de soudage MIG CMT avec le métal d'apport préconisé pour le soudage de l'alliage 6061. The homogeneous welding (same filler metal as base metal of the 6061 aluminium alloy with MIG process has never been reported in the open access literature. This work shows that the CMT (Cold Metal Transfer MIG, a derivative of MIG, allows producing welds without hot-cracking. Moreover, further heat treatments partially increased or fully restore the mechanical properties of the weld. These results are compared with 6061 heterogeneous welds usually met in the industry.

  10. The electrochemical properties of four dental casting suprastructure alloys coupled with titanium implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Hakan Tuna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As the choice of suprastructure alloy to be combined with titanium for the oral cavity is still a much debated issue, the aim of this study was to investigate the electrochemical interaction of the suprastructure/implant couples under the determined experiment conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The potentiodynamic polarization curves and open-circuit potentials (OCP of four UCLA type suprastructures coupled with straight Swiss Plus implant fixtures were taken in Afnor type artificial saliva solution at 37°C. The concentration of ions leached into artificial saliva solutions was estimated with ICP-MS. SEM images of the margins of suprastructure/implant couples were obtained before and after the electrochemical tests. RESULTS: The OCP value of titanium became passive at the most negative potential. The lowest difference between the initial and constant OCP value was exhibited by the Au based suprastructure. Suprastructures made greater contributions to the potentiodynamic polarization curves of the implant/suprastructure couples. According to the ICP-MS results, Pd based and Au based couples dissolved less than Co-Ni based and Co-Cr based couples. CONCLUSIONS: Within the conditions this study, it may be concluded that the titanium implant forms a stable passive oxide layer in artificial saliva exposed to open air and does not affect the corrosion properties of the suprastructures. Pd based and Au based couples have been found to be more corrosion-resistant than base alloy couples.

  11. [Burns and pregnancy: report on two cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, A; Achbouk, A; Siah, S; Ihrai, H

    2010-06-30

    Les brûlures thermiques au cours de la grossesse sont rares, cependant elles requièrent une attention particulière du fait qu'elles engagent le pronostic maternel et foetal. Les Auteurs rapportent deux observations qui illustrent la gravité de cette association. Le traitement des brûlures pendant la grossesse connaît des particularités en rapport avec les modifications anatomiques et physiologiques de la gestation. Certains Auteurs ont préconisé des recommandations, comme en particulier le traitement précoce de la thrombose veineuse et la surveillance obstétricale avec un accouchement dirigé à l'approche du terme. La mortalité maternelle et périnatale augmente significativement à partir de 50% de la surface corporelle brûlée. De ce fait une prise en charge multidisciplinaire est indispensable. Le pronostic de brûlure chez la femme enceinte reste très réservé, d'où l'intérêt d'une prise en charge multidisciplinaire réunissant obstétricien, réanimateur et plasticien.

  12. Quantitative magnetometry analysis and structural characterization of multisegmented cobalt–nickel nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Díaz Barriga-Castro, Enrique [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Vega, Víctor; García, Javier [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Luna, Carlos [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Manuel Prida, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); and others

    2015-04-01

    Understanding and measuring the magnetic properties of an individual nanowire and their relationship with crystalline structure and geometry are of scientific and technological great interest. In this work, we report the localized study of the magnetic flux distribution and the undisturbed magnetization of a single ferromagnetic nanowire that poses a bar-code like structure using off-axis electron holography (EH) under Lorentz conditions. The nanowires were grown by template-assisted electrodeposition, using AAO templates. Electron holography allows the visualization of the magnetic flux distribution within and surroundings as well as its quantification. The magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the nanowires. - Highlights: • The structure-magnetic property relationship of CoNi nanowires is determined. • Off axis electron holography for the magnetic nanowires is used for the analysis. • The magnetization is quantitatively obtained from the retrieved phase images. • These results lead to a better comprehension of the magneto-crystalline phenomena.

  13. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  14. Gold and trace element zonation in pyrite using a laser imaging technique: Implications for the timing of gold in orogenic and carlin-style sediment-hosted deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, R.R.; Danyushevsky, L.; Hollit, C.; Maslennikov, V.; Meffre, S.; Gilbert, S.; Bull, S.; Scott, R.; Emsbo, P.; Thomas, H.; Singh, B.; Foster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser ablation ICP-MS imaging of gold and other trace elements in pyrite from four different sediment- hosted gold-arsenic deposits has revealed two distinct episodes of gold enrichment in each deposit: an early synsedimentary stage where invisible gold is concentrated in arsenian diagenetic pyrite along with other trace elements, in particular, As, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Te, V, and Se; and a later hydrothermal stage where gold forms as either free gold grains in cracks in overgrowth metamorphic and/or hydrothermal pyrite or as narrow gold- arsenic rims on the outermost parts of the overgrowth hydrothermal pyrite. Compared to the diagenetic pyrites, the hydrothermal pyrites are commonly depleted in Ni, V, Zn, Pb, and Ag with cyclic zones of Co, Ni, and As concentration. The outermost hydrothermal pyrite rims are either As-Au rich, as in moderate- to high- grade deposits such as Carlin and Bendigo, or Co-Ni rich and As-Au poor as in moderate- to low-grade deposits such as Sukhoi Log and Spanish Mountain. The early enrichment of gold in arsenic-bearing syngenetic to diagenetic pyrite, within black shale facies of sedimentary basins, is proposed as a critical requirement for the later development of Carlin-style and orogenic gold deposits in sedimentary environments. The best grade sediment-hosted deposits appear to have the gold climax event, toward the final stages of deformation-related hydrothermal pyrite growth and fluid flow. ?? 2009 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  15. Mechanism for reversible CO/CO2 electrochemical conversion on a patterned nickel electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Li, Wenying; Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-10-01

    The patterned Ni negative electrode on single-crystal YSZ in CO-CO2 atmosphere is investigated in both the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) modes. The effects of the temperature T, partial pressure of CO and CO2 (pCO and pCO2) on the electrochemical performance are measured to obtain the intrinsic kinetic parameters by natural logarithm linear fitting. The strong dependency of surface diffusion resistance on pCO implies that surface diffusion could be related to CO(Ni). The electrochemical performance had an obviously positive correlation with T and pCO. The limitation of CO2 adsorption leads to a weak dependency of polarization on pCO2. The electrochemical performance of SOEC mode in the atmosphere without CO is 1.21 times higher than that in the atmosphere without CO2, which implies that CO electrochemical reduction could be more significant than CO2 electrochemical reduction in the patterned Ni electrode. An analytical calculation is performed for the speculation of rate-limiting steps. In the SOFC mode, CO oxidation into CO2 is speculated to be rate-determining, besides, adsorbed carbon oxidation into CO could be also non-ignorable. In the SOEC mode, CO reduction into carbon could be more probably the major electrochemical reaction on the pure Ni surface.

  16. Fataluku medicinal ethnobotany and the East Timorese military resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and poisonous plants used by the East Timor resistance was undertaken in the Lautem District of East Timor to study medicinal plant use in the region. Interviews were conducted with a single key consultant from the resistance army who belonged to the Fataluku culture. This study is of importance as a historical document and because no previous medicinal ethnobotanical studies on this region exist. Methods A rapid ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and poisonous plants was conducted through the proposed Conis Santana National Park in the Lautem district of East Timor. Medicinal and poisonous plants were identified by a Consultant and data was collected by the authors using classical descriptive ethnobotanical techniques (i.e. no quantitative measures through an unstructured open ended interview. Results During the survey 40 medicinal and poisonous plants were identified by the Consultant and collected by the authors. Defining characteristics of the Consultant's knowledge include a high frequency use of trees, heavily forested habitats, leaves, decoctions and drinks for a range of conditions relevant to a resistance army. Conclusion Despite limitations of the study, important contributions of this study include preservation of a part of the cultural history of the resistance movement and traditional botanical knowledge of the Fataluku. Furthermore, initial findings may indicate that traditional botanical knowledge is unique amongst different East Timorese cultures in terms of plant selection.

  17. Les territoires fragiles dans la région alpine : une proposition de lecture entre innovation et marginalité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Corrado

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une lecture et une description des territoires alpins fragiles, en jetant un autre regard, où le concept de fragilité est associé à celui de handicap, c’est-à-dire un autre regard sur l’identification des potentiels locaux spécifiques qui peuvent être encore activés à travers une force créatrice propre aux Alpes. La lecture est effectuée en fonction des territoires alpins fragiles qui font partie des provinces de Turin et Coni et se base sur une analyse empirique des initiatives qui enclenchent en quelque façon des dynamiques micro-territoriales de développement innovant.The paper proposes a reading and description of fragile Alpine areas that overturns the conventional standpoint, according to which marginality is often synonymous with handicap. The paper starts form a different point of view, able to recognize specific local potentialities that can still be activated with a specific creative effort. The reading regards fragile Alpine areas in the Provinces of Turin and Cuneo and is based on an empirical analysis of the actions underlying current micro-territorial innovative development trends.

  18. Separation of Ni and Co by D2EHPA in the Presence of Citrate Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Hamed; Haghshenas Fatmehsari, Davoud; Firoozi, Sadegh

    2017-10-01

    Recycling processes for the recovery of metallic content from the electronic wastes are environmentally friendly and economical. This paper reports a method for the recovery and separation of Ni and Co from the sulfate solution by the use of D2EHPA. In this regard, the influence of citrate ion, as a carboxylate ligand, was examined in the separation conditions of Ni and Co via D2EHPA (a poor selective extractant for Ni and Co separation). It was found that the Δ {pH}_{0.5}^{Ni-Co} (the difference between pH values corresponding to 50 pct extraction of metallic ion) increases to 1.5 at the citrate concentration of 0.05 M; this Δ {pH}_{0.5}^{Ni-Co} value is much higher than that obtained in the absence of citrate ion (0.1). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that the citrate ion is co-absorbed during the metallic ions absorption by D2EHPA meaning that the metal-organic complexes contain Co/Ni and citrate ion. Also, the stoichiometric coefficients of the Ni and Co extraction reaction were proposed by applying the slope analysis method.

  19. Synthesis of MWCNTs Using Monometallic and Bimetallic Combinations of Fe, Co and Ni Catalysts Supported on Nanometric SiC via TCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanometric Carbid Silicon (SiC supported monometallic and bimetallic catalysts containing Fe, Co, Ni transition metals were prepared by wet impregnation method. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized over the prepared catalysts from catalytic decomposition of acetylene at 850°C by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD technique. The synthesized nanomaterials (catalysts and CNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Raman spectroscopy. In this paper, using of nanometric SiC powder as catalyst support was examined and the effect of applied catalyst type on characteristics of grown CNTs was investigated. The results revealed that iron, cobalt and nickel are in oxide, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4 forms and nanometric SiC powder can be applied as an appropriate catalyst support in CNT growth process. It was observed that the produced CNTs on bimetallic Fe-Co possess smaller average diameter, less amorphous carbon and denser morphology compared to other binary metallic combinations. It was found that the catalytic activity of bimetallic composition decreased in the order of Fe-Co> Fe-Ni> Co-Ni. Furthermore, the monometallic Fe catalyst has the most catalytic activity compared to monometallic Co and Ni catalysts.

  20. Domain size criterion for the observation of all-optical helicity-dependent switching in magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadri, Mohammed Salah; Hehn, Michel; Pirro, Philipp; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Malinowski, Grégory; Fullerton, Eric E.; Mangin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    To understand the necessary condition for the observation of all-optical helicity-dependent switching (AO-HDS) of magnetization in thin films, we investigated ferromagnetic Co/Pt and Co/Ni multilayers as well as ferrimagnetic TbCo alloys as a function of magnetic layer compositions and thicknesses. We show that both ferro- and ferrimagnets with high saturation magnetization show AO-HDS if their magnetic thickness is strongly reduced below a material-dependent threshold thickness. By taking into account the demagnetizing energy and the domain wall energy, we are able to define a criterion to predict whether AO-HDS or thermal demagnetization (TD) will be observed. This criterion for the observation of AO-HDS is that the equilibrium size of magnetic domains forming during the cooling process should be larger than the laser spot size. From these results we anticipate that more magnetic materials are expected to show AO-HDS. However, the effect of the optical pulses' helicity is hidden by the formation of small magnetic domains during the cooling process.

  1. BERGSON ŞI RAŢIONALISMUL GERMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Bobica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette communication, on analyse l’influence exercée par les représentants du rationalisme allemand – Kant et Hegel – dans la formation de la conception métaphysique de Henri Bergson, ainsi que les éléments par lesquels cette conception se détache catégoriquement du criticisme kantien et du rationalisme spéculatif de Hegel. Il est relevé que le domaine réservé à la métaphysique par Bergson, est celui de l’esprit et que la méthode préconisée par lui pour la connaissance de ce dernier est tout à fait différente de celle de Kant ou de Hegel. L’argumentation de Bergson concernant la nécessité de la réunion de la métaphysique et de la science en vue d’élucider les problèmes surgis à la confluence du monde corporel avec le monde de l’esprit.

  2. Thermokinetic Study on the Complexation Reaction of the First-Row Transitional Metal Chlorides with Histidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,San-Ping(陈三平); GAO,Sheng-Li(高胜利); SHI,Qi-Zhen(史启祯)

    2004-01-01

    The enthalpy change of the complexation reactions of the first-row transitional metal chlorides including CrCl3,MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, NiCl2 and CuCl2 with L-α-histidine in water were determined by a microcalorimeter at 298.15-323.15 K. The standard enthalpy of formation of Cr(His)3+2 (aq) and M(His)2+2 (aq) (M=Mn, Fe, Co,Ni and Cu) were calculated. Based on the thermodynamic and kinetic equations of the reactions, three thermodynamic parameters (the activation enthalpy, the activation entropy, the activation free energy), the rate constants, and three kinetic parameters (the apparent activation energy, the pre-exponential constant and the reaction order) are obtained. The solid complexes of CrCl3, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, NiCl2 and CuCl2 with histidine were prepared and acterized by IR as well. The results showed that, with the atomic number increasing, three thermodynamic parameters, △G≠(-), △H≠(-) and △S≠(-) of the complexation reaction of these metal chlorides with L-α-histidine in water present an analogy regularity.

  3. Superconducting Gap Symmetry of LaFeP(O,F Observed by Impurity Doping Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Miyasaka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated Mn, Co and Ni substitution effects on polycrystalline samples of LaFePO0.95F0.05 by resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. In LaFe1-xMxPO0.95F0.05 (M = Mn, Co and Ni, the superconducting transition temperature (Tc monotonously decreases with increasing the impurity doping level of x. There is a clear difference of Tc suppression rates among Mn, Co and Ni doping cases, and the decreasing rate of Tc by Mn doping as a magnetic impurity is larger than those by the nonmagnetic doping impurities (Co/Ni. This result indicates that in LaFePO0.95F0.05, Tc is rapidly suppressed by the pair-breaking effect of magnetic impurities, and the pairing symmetry is a full-gapped s-wave. In the nonmagnetic impurity-doped systems, the residual resistivity in the normal state has nearly the same value when Tc becomes zero. The residual resistivity value is almost consistent with the universal value of sheet resistance for two-dimensional superconductors, suggesting that Tc is suppressed by electron localization in Co/Ni-doped LaFePO0.95F0.05.

  4. Ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping Cu-Co-Ag polymetallic deposit in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiming; LIU Jiajun; ZHANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping copper-cobalt-silver polymetallic deposit have been studied in view of the S, Pb, C, O and H isotopic characteristics and the ratio of Co/Ni of cohaltite. The results showed that sulfur in metallic sulfides may have come from a mixed sulfur-source consisting of the sulfur-source from metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks and the sulfur-source from basin sulfates;lead in the ores was provided by the sedimentary rocks and basement rocks; CO2 in ore-forming fluids was derived from thermolysis of altered and normal marine facies carbonates and decarboxylation of sedimentary organic matter respectively; the ore-forming fluids belong to the SO4-Cl-Na-Ca-type basin thermal brines derived from paleo-meteoric waters; cobalt in the deposit may also be derived from the metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks.

  5. Effect of the low magnetic field on the electrodeposition of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 100−x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, 07738 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Arce Estrada, E.M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, 07738 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J.; Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Magnetic, chemical and structural properties of electrosynthesized Co{sub x}Ni{sub 100−x} have been studied. The electrodeposition has been conducted both in the presence and absence of a low magnetic field. The application of a perpendicular magnetic field during the synthesis modified slightly the morphology of the alloys. These changes depend more on the film composition than on the applied field, as demonstrated by AFM images. In the absence of magnetic field, the Co{sub x}Ni{sub 100−x} film grows along the (200) direction. However, when the magnetic field was applied, a preferential orientation along the (111) direction was observed. No important magnetic changes are induced by the presence of the magnetic field during the growth. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) experiments, the chemical composition of the films was preserved during preparation regardless of whether or not magnetic field is applied. There has been observed an increase in deposition rate in the presence of field even at these low magnetic fields. - Highlights: • CoNi alloys were electrosynthesized in the absence and presence of a low magnetic field. • Application of a magnetic field produced an orientation in the (111) plane of the alloy. • An external field changes the voltammetric curves reducing the energy required for the alloy formation. • The composition and magnetic properties were constant in the absence and presence of magnetic field.

  6. Presenza e valori del passato remoto in riassunti di opere letterarie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Miklič

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available In una ricerca più ampia sulle possibilita espressive della lingua italiana nel campo della temporalità, e precisamente nella fase dedicata alle caratteristiche di costruzione tipiche di testi riassuntivi e di presentazione (analizzati soprattutto sulla Enciclopedia Garzanti della letteratura [GAR] e sul Dizionario Bompiani de/le opere e dei personaggi [BOM] si è potuta constatare una molteplicita di modi di presentazione del testo originale. Tale molteplicità risulta, da una parte, dalla maggiore o minore larghezza nell'includere nel testo secondario vari mondi testuali possibili (contenuto narrativo dell'opera originale coni propri mondi testuali, situazione storica a cui quest'opera fa riferimento, vita dell'autore e genesi dell'opera, caratteristiche Ietterarie e commenti valutativi, fortuna dell'opera ecc. e, dall'atra, dall'utilizzazione di varie modalita espressive messe a disposizione dello scrivente dalla sua competeza linguistica e testuale (disposizione e ordinamento di detti mondi nel testo, procedimenti narrativi, tecniche narrative, modi di inserimento di un secondo discorso ecc. nonché, infine, dalle scelte fatte nell'associare questi elementi. Nella nostra discussione ci limiteremo a quelle parti della presentazione che si referiscono al riassunto "puro" dell'opera originale.

  7. Fermi surfaces and Phase Stability of Ba(Fe$_{1-x}$M$_x$)$_2$As$_2$ (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn)

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Suffian; Johnson, Duane

    2014-01-01

    BaFe$_2$As$_2$ with transition-metal doping exhibits a variety of rich phenomenon from coupling of structure, magnetism, and superconductivity. Using density functional theory, we systematically compare the Fermi surfaces (FS), formation energies ($\\Delta E_f$), and density of states (DOS) of electron-doped Ba(Fe$_{1-x}$M$_x$)$_2$As$_2$ with M={Co, Ni, Cu, Zn} in tetragonal (I$4/mmm$) and orthorhombic (F$mmm$) structures in nonmagnetic (NM), antiferromagnetic (AFM), and paramagnetic (PM, disordered local moment) states. We explain changes to phase stability ($\\Delta E_f$) and Fermi surfaces (and nesting) due to chemical and magnetic disorder, and compare to observed/assessed properties and contrast alloy theory with that expected from rigid-band model. With alloying, the DOS changes from common-band (Co,Ni) to split-band (Cu,Zn), which dictates $\\Delta E_f$ and can overwhelm FS-nesting instabilities, as for Cu,Zn cases.

  8. Rare earths and trace elements contents in leaves: A new indicator of the composition of atmospheric dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, P; Cibella, F; Falcone, E E; Cuttitta, G; Saiano, F; Inguaggiato, C; Latteo, V

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between the trace element distribution in atmospheric particles and leaves of some exposed plants in the environment was recently demonstrated. This indication would suggest that the trace element analysis of leaves in these plants could provide information about the composition, nature and origin of the atmospheric dust dispersed in the environment. In order to corroborate this hypothesis, the distribution of trace elements and Rare Earths were studied in leaves of some endemic plants, in the atmospheric fallout and in soils of rural, urban and industrial ecosystems in Sicily. These elements have been chosen to discriminate the source and nature of different source on atmospheric dust and the larger capability of the composition of the latter materials to influence the metal ion distribution in leaves of studied plants rather than the soil composition. These evidences are related to the recognition both of positive La anomaly and trace element enrichments in studied leaves and to their particular V/Th and Co/Ni signature. On the other hand, some particular normalised REE features recognised in leaves suggest that a limited contribution to the REE budget in studied leaves is provided by the REE migration from roots.

  9. Ethylene Glycol Intercalated Cobalt/Nickel Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheet Assemblies with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance: Structural Design and Green Synthesis for Advanced Electrochemical Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Zhang, Xiong; Xu, Zhongtang; Sun, Xianzhong; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-09-09

    Because of the rapid depletion of fossil fuels and severe environmental pollution, more advanced energy-storage systems need to possess dramatically improved performance and be produced on a large scale with high efficiency while maintaining low-enough costs to ensure the higher and wider requirements. A facile, energy-saving process was successfully adopted for the synthesis of ethylene glycol intercalated cobalt/nickel layered double hydroxide (EG-Co/Ni LDH) nanosheet assembly variants with higher interlayer distance and tunable transitional-metal composition. At an optimized starting Co/Ni ratio of 1, the nanosheet assemblies display a three-dimensional, spongelike network, affording a high specific surface area with advantageous mesopore structure in 2-5 nm containing large numbers of about 1.2 nm micropores for promoting electrochemical reaction. An unprecedented electrochemical performance was achieved, with a specific capacitance of 4160 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) and of 1313 F g(-1) even at 50 A g(-1), as well as excellent cycling ability. The design and optimization of EG-Co/Ni LDH nanosheets in compositions, structures, and performances, in conjunction with the easy and relatively "green" synthetic process, will play a pivotal role in meeting the needs of large-scale manufacture and widespread application for advanced electrochemical storage.

  10. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherien; Kamal; Hassan; Nermin; Mohammed; El-Sammad; Amria; Mamdouh; Mousa; Maha; Hashim; Mohammed; Abd; el; Razik; Hussein; Farrag; Amani; Nassir; Eldin; Hashim; Victoria; Werner; Ulrike; Lindequist; Mahmoud; Abd; El-Moein; Nawwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant ef ects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia ferrea(C. ferrea) leaf in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ(65 mg/kg body weight). C. ferrea extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration serum, liver and pancreas were used for evaluating biochemical and histopathological changes.Results: Oral administration of C. ferrea leaf extract significantly reduced elevated serum glucose, α-amylase, liver function levels and signii cantly increased serum insulin, total protein and body weight as well as improved lipid proi le due to diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione, and diminished levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas and liver damage and coni rmed the biochemical i ndings.Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract ef ectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Atomic dynamics in Zr-based glass forming alloys near the liquidus temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Sri Wahyuni; Yang, Fan; Gill, Elisabeth; Rätzke, Klaus; Meyer, Andreas; Faupel, Franz

    2017-01-01

    We report simultaneous radiotracer diffusion experiments of Co-57 and of Zr-95 in binary Z r64N i36 , Z r36N i64 , and ternary Z r60N i25A l15 alloys above but near the liquidus temperature (Tl). In contrast to the multicomponent Z r46.75T i8.25C u7.5N i10B e27.5 (Vit4), where a significant component decoupling at the Tl is observed, the ratio between Zr and Co self-diffusion coefficients is smaller than two in the alloys with fewer components. The difference in the degree of decoupling compared to Vit4 can be explained in terms of different Tl's. Moreover, owing to the high accuracy of the simultaneous tracer diffusion technique, we are able to resolve a small but notable composition dependence of the ratio DCo/DZr , which decreases with increasing Zr content for all glass forming alloys reported here. In contrast to a hard sphere (HS)-like mixture, where decoupling is controlled only by atomic sizes, this indicates a coupling of the Co/Ni and Zr diffusion, due to the strong chemical affinity between the diffusing components. Our results are in very good agreement with recent simulations in Z r64N i36 based on mode coupling theory (MCT).

  12. Surface energy of metal alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takrori, Fahed M.; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of surface energy of alloy nanoparticles experimentally is still a challenge therefore theoretical work is necessary to estimate its value. In continuation of our previous work on the calculation of the surface energy of pure metallic nanoparticles we have extended our work to calculate the surface energy of different alloy systems, namely, Co-Ni, Au-Cu, Cu-Al, Cu-Mg and Mo-Cs binary alloys. It is shown that the surface energy of metallic binary alloy decreases with decreasing particle size approaching relatively small values at small sizes. When both metals in the alloy obey the Hume-Rothery rules, the difference in the surface energy is small at the macroscopic as well as in the nano-scale. However when the alloy deviated from these rules the difference in surface energy is large in the macroscopic and in the nano scales. Interestingly when solid solution formation is not possible at the macroscopic scale according to the Hume-Rothery rules, it is shown it may form at the nano-scale. To our knowledge these findings here are presented for the first time and is challenging from fundamental as well as technological point of views.

  13. Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Berger, Andreas; Kent, Andrew D.

    2016-08-01

    Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies separated by a non-magnetic spacer is studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFeB layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. At a fixed frequency, we show that there is an avoided crossing of layer ferromagnetic resonance modes providing direct evidence for interlayer coupling. The mode dispersions for different Ru thicknesses are fit to a Heisenberg-type model to determine the interlayer exchange coupling strength and layer properties. The resulting interlayer exchange coupling varies continuously from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic as a function of the Ru interlayer thickness. These results show that the magnetic layer single domain ground state consists of magnetizations that can be significantly canted with respect to the layer planes and the canting can be tuned by varying the Ru thickness and the layer magnetic characteristics, a capability of interest for applications in spin-transfer torque devices.

  14. L’improvisation : une invitation à voyager en classe de FLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Cocton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available L’improvisation en didactique du français langue étrangère est, après plus d’une cinquantaine d’années d’existence, une pratique de classe aujourd’hui délaissée par les enseignants qui en ont peur ou la connaissent mal. Préconisée par le BELC dès les années 70, choisie dans les manuels de FLE pour ses bienfaits pédagogiques (Caré : 1989, elle est, depuis peu, considérée par la majorité des ouvrages périphériques liés à la didactique de la pratique théâtrale, comme une « technique » visant à communiquer autrement. L’objectif de cet article est de faire un état des lieux de la notion d’improvisation et d’expliquer comment elle s’insère dans un dispositif pédagogique invitant l’apprenant à effectuer un voyage dans son apprentissage langagier, personnel et culturel.

  15. Nano-fabricated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy electrodes for lateral spin valves and observation of Nernst-Ettingshausen related signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chejanovsky, N.; Sharoni, A., E-mail: amos.sharoni@biu.ac.il [Department of Physics and Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 590002 (Israel)

    2014-08-21

    Lateral spin valves (LSVs) are efficient structures for characterizing spin currents in spintronics devices. Most LSVs are based on ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes for spin-injection and detection. While there are advantages for using perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) FM, e.g., stability to nano-scaling, these have almost not been studied. This is mainly due to difficulties in fabricating PMA FMs in a lateral geometry. We present here an efficient method, based on ion-milling through an AlN mask, for fabrication of LSVs with multi-layered PMA FMs such as Co/Pd and Co/Ni. We demonstrate, using standard permalloy FMs, that the method enables efficient spin injection. We show the multi-layer electrodes retain their PMA properties as well as spin injection and detection in PMA LSVs. In addition, we find a large asymmetric voltage signal which increases with current. We attribute this to a Nernst-Ettingshausen effect caused by local Joule heating and the perpendicular magnetic easy axis.

  16. Electronic structure and electrical transport properties of LaCo1-xNixO3 (0 ≤ x ≤0.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Rajesh; Shukla, D. K.; Gautam, Sanjeev; Hwa Chae, Keun; Kumar, Ravi

    2013-08-01

    The structural analysis of LaCo1-xNixO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) samples assures single phase rhombohedral structure with space-group R3¯c. Electronic structure of these samples has been studied by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at K-edge of O, Ni, Co and M5,4 edge of La. These studies confirm the trivalent state of Co/Ni and La in all the compositions. Upon substitution of the Ni at the Co site in LaCoO3, the O K-edge spectra show a feature about 1.2 eV lower than that of LaCoO3. This feature keeps on growing as the concentration of the Ni is increasing. This is consistent with our resistivity data which shows drastic decrease in resistivity with the Ni substitution. The resistivity data have been analyzed using Arrhenius and Efros-Shklovski's type variable range hopping models in different temperature ranges. The activation energy decreases and localization length increases systematically with increase in the Ni concentration. Observed features have been explained on the basis of change in charge-carrier density with substitution. The disorder-induced localization of carriers is found to govern conduction mechanism and resistivity behavior in substituted sample.

  17. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect.

  18. Large enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high annealing stability by Pt insertion layer in (Co/Ni-based multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of ultrathin Pt insertion layers on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA and annealing stability of Ta/Pt/(Co/Ni×3/Co/Pt/Ta multilayered films. When the Pt layers were inserted at the Co/Ni interfaces, the PMA of the multilayered films decreased monotonically as the thickness of the Pt insertion layer (tPt was increased. However, when the Pt layers were inserted at the Ni/Co interfaces, the PMA increased from 1.39 × 106 to 3.5 × 106 erg/cm3 as tPt increased from 0 to 10 Å. Moreover, the multilayered film containing 6-Å-thick Pt insertion layers that inserted at the Ni/Co interfaces exhibited the highest annealing stability for PMA, which was up to temperature of 480 °C. We hypothesize that the introduced Pt/Co interfaces, due to the Pt insertion layers, are responsible for the enhanced PMA and high annealing stability. This study is particularly important for perpendicularly magnetized spintronic devices that require high PMA and high annealing stability.

  19. Properties of easy-plane/perpendicular magnetic anisotropy bilayers with varied interlayer exchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Kent, Andrew D.

    We explore the possibility of an easy-cone ground state in coupled easy plane/easy axis magnetic bilayers. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFe layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we characterize the magnetic behavior of the coupled thin films for different Ru thicknesses by determining the resonance fields for both the acoustic and optical FMR modes. In particular, we observe a gap in the resonance field opening up between the two modes in angular-dependent FMR, which is direct evidence for the presence of interlayer coupling. Quantitative comparisons with a theoretical model indicate that by varying the Ru thickness the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from ferromagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic. These results are consistent with a canted magnetic ground state in zero field, a state of interest for applications in spin-torque devices, such as current tunable spin-torque oscillators. Supported by NSF-DMR1309202 and Spin-Transfer Technologies Inc.

  20. Crucial role of interlayer distance for antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Yao; Lin, Po-Han; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Shih, Chun-Wei; Lee, Meng-Ju; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jih, Nae-Yeou; Cheng, Pei-Yu; Wei, Der-Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Antiferromagnetic (AFM) thin films were recently proposed to be an alternative to conventional materials for achieving perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ferromagnetic thin films, because AFM thin films exhibit an advantage of flexible control. Here, we report that antiferromagnet-induced PMA is highly sensitive to interfacial moments of AFM thin films as well as the magnetic interaction of such moments with volume moments, determined according to the vertical interlayer distance. Magnetic hysteresis loops and x-ray magnetic domain imaging revealed the establishment of perpendicular magnetization on face-centered tetragonal (fct)-like Mn/Co/Ni films when covered with monolayered Mn films. A cover of Mn films that exhibit contracted fct- [vertical-to-in-plane lattice constant ratio (c /a )=0.95 ] and expanded fct-like (c /a =1.05 ) structures at different thickness levels induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy and PMA in Co/Ni films, respectively, confirming that the interlayer distance is a crucial parameter for establishing perpendicular magnetization.

  1. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-11-01

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.

  2. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-11-09

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation.

  3. Application of high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy: Vibrational resolved C 1s and O 1s spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehlisch, A.; Nilsson, A.; Martensson, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    There are various effects which determine the line shape of a core-level electron spectrum. These are due to the finite life-time of the core hole, inelastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectron, electronic shake-up and shake-off processes and vibrational excitations. For free atoms and molecules the different contributions to the observed line shapes can often be well separated. For solids, surfaces and adsorbates the line shapes are in general much broader and it has in the past been assumed that no separation of the various contributions can be made. In the present report the authors will show that this is indeed not the case. Surprisingly, the vibrational fine structure of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) can be resolved in the C 1s and O 1s electron spectra. This was achieved by the combination of highly monochromatized soft X-rays from B18.0 with a high resolution Scienta 200 mm photoelectron spectrometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with tunable excitation energy yields as a core level spectroscopy atomic and site-specific information. The presented measurements allow for a determination of internuclear distances and potential energy curves in corehole ionized adsorbed molecules. The authors analysis of the c(2x2) phase CO/Ni(100) on {open_quotes}top{close_quotes} yielded a vibrational splitting of 217 +/- 2 meV for C 1s ionization. For O 1s ionization a splitting of 173 +/- 8 meV was found.

  4. First-principles study on structural stability of 3d transition metal alloying magnesium hydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method based on the density functional theory was used to investigate the energy and electronic structure of magnesium hydride (MgH2) alloyed by 3d transition metal elements. Through calculations of the negative heat formation of magnesium hydride alloyed by X (X denotes 3d transition metal) element, it is found that when a little X (not including Sc) dissolves into magnesium hydride, the structural stability of alloying systems decreases, which indicates that the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 can be improved. After comparing the densities of states(DOS) and the charge distribution of MgH2 with or without X alloying, it is found that the improvement for the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 alloyed by X attributes to the fact that the weakened bonding between magnesium and hydrogen is caused by the stronger interactions between X (not including Cu) and hydrogen. The calculation results of the improvement for the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2-X (X=Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co,Ni, Cu) systems are in agreement with the experimental results. Hence, the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 are expected to be improved by addition of Cr, Zn alloying elements.

  5. Trial Excavation of the Dananwan Site in Ulan County, Qinghai%青海乌兰县大南湾遗址试掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青海省文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    Ulan County was one of the territories of the Tuyuhun and Tuhun ethnic groups,as well as an area which the Qinghai route of the Silk Road had to pass.In 2000,the Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out a trial excavation on the Danawan site in Ulan,The work resulted in the revelation of tombs,sacrificial remains and house-foundations,whic yielded bronzes,iron aromor,gold and silver conis,pottery vessels and stone post-bases,The peculiar phenomena in tombs,sacrificial places and houses are helpfuls to the understanding of the ancient cultural aspect in the western Qinghai region.One of the sacrificial sites yielded Roman gold coins and Sassanid silver ones,Their discovery,especially the ROman gold coins as the first finds of this kind in Qinghai Province,provides new material for studying Sino-foreign exchanges at that time and the position of Qinghai in these relations.Judging from the unearthed vestiges and objects,the Danawan site continued to function to the 11th century at the latest.

  6. Die andersheid van Die verdwaalde land – die waarheid as storie vertel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hattingh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Die verdwaalde land was written by Abraham Phillips, a so-called Coloured man from a South African working class background; someone who has no knowledge of literary conventions. The question arises: how can such a text be read without its uniqueness being affected by biased preconceptions? This article shows that post-structurally inspired theories on colonial discourse reveal perspectives on the complexity within the simplicity of this story. In this analysis of Die verdwaalde land particular emphasis is placed on identifying the framing strategies through which images and presentations of the Self and Other are created. Literary conventions are exposed as mechanisms which demarcate meaning, which in principle do not differ much from the manipulative strategies which define identity in the real world.Irrespective of nationality and time the line at which light race meets dark is the line at which human sociality is found at the lowest ebb; and wherever that line conies into existence there arc found the darkest shadows which we humans have cast by our injustice and egoism across the earth. (Olive Schreiner - Thoughts on South Africa

  7. Application of Chemical Doping and Architectural Design Principles To Fabricate Nanowire Co2Ni3ZnO8 Arrays for Aqueous Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingyuan; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Lianhe; Wang, Jun; Li, Rumin

    2016-08-10

    Electrode materials derived from transition metal oxides have a serious problem of low electron transfer rate, which restricts their practical application. However, chemically doped graphene transforms the chemical bonding configuration to enhance electron transfer rate and, therefore, facilitates the successful fabrication of Co2Ni3ZnO8 nanowire arrays. In addition, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode materials, considered as Ni and Zn ions doped into Co3O4, have a high electron transfer rate and electrochemical response capability, because the doping increases the degree of crystal defect and reaction of Co/Ni ions with the electrolyte. Hence, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode exhibits a high rate property and excellent electrochemical cycle stability, as determined by electrochemical analysis of the relationship between specific capacitance, IR drop, Coulomb efficiency, and different current densities. From the results of a three-electrode system of electrochemical measurement, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode demonstrates a specific capacitance of 1115 F g(-1) and retains 89.9% capacitance after 2000 cycles at a current density of 4 A g(-1). The energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor (AC//Co2Ni3ZnO8) is 54.04 W h kg(-1) at the power density of 3200 W kg(-1).

  8. Hydrothermal Mineralization on the Mesoproterozoic Passive Continental Margins of China:A Case Study of the Langshan-Zha'ertaishan Belt, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Runmin; ZHAI Yusheng

    2004-01-01

    Most ore-forming characteristics of the Langshan-Zha'ertaishan hydrothermal exhalation belt, which consists of the Dongshengmiao, Huogeqi, Tanyaokou and Jiashengpan large-superlarge Zn-Pb-Cu-Fe sulfide deposits, are most similar to those of Mesoproterozoic SEDEX-type provinces of the world. The characteristics include: (1) All deposits of this type in the belt occur in third-order fault-basins in the Langshan-Zha'ertaishan aulacogen along the northern margin of the North China Platform; (2) these deposits with all their orebodies hosted in the Mesoproterozoic impure dolomite-marble and carbonaceous phyllite (or schists) have an apparent stratabound nature; ores display laminated and banded structures,showing clear depositional features; (3) there is some evidence of syn-sedimentary faulting, which to a certain extent accounts for the temporal and spatial distribution and the size of the orebodies in all deposits and the formation of intrabed conglomerates and breccias; (4) they show lateral and vertical zonation of sulfides; (5) The Cu/(Pb+Zn+Cu) ratio of the large and thick Pb+Zn+Cu orebodies gradually decreases from bottom to top; and (6) barite is interbedded with pyrites and sometimes with sphalerite. However, some characteristics such as the Co/Ni radio of the pyrites, the volcanism, for example, of the Langshan-Zha'ertaishan metallogenic belt, are different from those of the typical SEDEX deposits of the world. The meta-basic volcanic rock in Huogeqi, the sodic bimodal volcanic rocks in the Dongshengmiao and potassic bimodal-volcanic rocks with blastoporphyritic and blasto-glomeroporphyritic texture as well as blasto-amygdaloidal structure in the Tanyaokou deposits have been discovered in the only ore-bearing second formation of the Langshan Group in the past 10 years. The metallogeny of some deposits hosted in the Langshan Group is closely related to syn-sedimentary volcanism based on the following facts: most of the lead isotopes in sphalerite, galena

  9. Understanding and Exploration of the Biomineralization Mechanisms for the Controllable Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junwu

    novel morphologies, such as, hollow radiating cluster-like particles, hollow sheaf-like crystals, and hollow rods, which are depended on CTAB micellar structures. Besides organic additives, inorganic dopants, such as, Mg2+ ion, are found to be another key factor to influence the polymorph and morphology. We combine two types of additives (Mg 2+ ion and a denatured collagen protein (gelatin)) to direct the mineralization of CaCO3. The polymorphs and morphologies critically depend on gelatin concentration at a given Mg2+ concentration. While, at a given gelatin concentration, the Mg molar percentages in the mother solution, although not a determining factor for the polymorphs, can affect the crystal micro- and nano-structures. The controlled crystallization can be rationalized by the interplay between Mg2+ and gelatin, which mutually enhances their uptake and regulate the concomitant mineralization. The biomineralization process can be divided into the nucleation of amorphous precursors and the subsequent amorphous to crystalline transformation. Thirdly, on the basis of understanding the biomineralization mechanisms discussed above, we extrapolate it to synthesize transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage application. We have applied a bio-inspired approach to prepare CoxNi1-xO (0≤xgraphene sheets, breaking out the Co/Ni molar ratio limitation for the known stable mixed oxide spinel NiCo2O4. This success has allowed us to further screen the compositions for electrochemical capacitor. CoxNi1-xO/graphene composite electrodes achieve a peak specific capacitance as the Co/Ni molar ratio is closed to 1. This bio-inspired approach also is applied for anchoring Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals on graphene sheets. The size and morphology of the Ni(OH)2 nanocrystals can be controlled via altering the treated temperature during the Ostwald ripening process. The specific capacitance decreased with increasing Ni(OH) 2 nanocrystal size, whereas the cycling

  10. A dicotomia tradutor/autor na leitura de "a tarefa do tradutor", de Benjamin, por Derrida The dichotomy translator/author in the reading of Benjamin's "die aufgabe des übersetzers" by Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanete Dutra Santana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a dicotomia entre tradutor/tradução (texto de chegada e autor/original (texto de partida, considerando a postura da crítica tradicional, representada aqui pela apreciação de Maurício Santana Dias à tradução de A Divina Comédia, de Dante Alighieri, empreendida por Italo Eugênio Mauro e de Carlos Heitor Cony e Ivo Barroso a traduções do poema O Corvo, de Edgar Allan Poe; alguns casos exemplares em que tradução e original se confundem, como a tradução que Charles Baudelaire fez dos contos de Edgard Allan Poe e a obra de Daniel Gagnon, Une fille a marie e The daughter to marriage, uma mesma história escrita pelo mesmo autor em duas línguas diferentes; a questão dos direitos autorais e a discussão de Jacques Derrida sobre tradução e original e a tarefa do tradutor, contida em "Des Tours de Babel", texto em que retoma o clássico "A tarefa do tradutor" (Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers, de Walter Benjamin. Partindo da análise de discurso, da desconstrução e dos conceitos pós-coloniais de tradução, nosso objetivo foi demonstrar que as obras traduzidas não se encontram, necessariamente, em patamar inferior, em termos de qualidade literária, em relação à obra de partida, ressaltando que, em muitos casos, quando não se dispõe do que chamamos "elementos formais de distinção", não é possível distinguir original de tradução. Logo, concluímos, partir do pressuposto de que inferioridade literária seria característica de tradução premissa em que a crítica tradicional tem se apoiado para justificar suas avaliações negativas das traduções não faz sentido algum.The article analyzes the dichotomy between translator/translation and author/"original", considering the stance of the traditional critique, represented here by the Mauricio Santana Dias´ appreciation to the translation of Dante Alighieri´s Divina Comedia, done by Italo Eugenio Mauro; Carlos Heitor Cony´s appreciation to the

  11. Influence of Tire Powder' s Pyrolysis by Particle Size/Heating Rate and Catalyst and Its Thermogravimetric Analysis%粒径、升温速率及催化剂对废轮胎胶粉热解特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义烽; 薛勇; 蒋东燕; 廖洲

    2013-01-01

    A TG experiment was conducted to study the pyrolysis process of waste tire powder. The TG/DTG curve and its change rule were discussed on the condition of the different particle size, heating rate and catalyst. The results show that The TG/DTG curve moved to high- temperature zone with increment of temperature rising rate, and the pyrolysis reaction time At would cut short, which proved that speed up the heating rate contribute to pyrolysis reaction of waste tire powder. The influence of particle size (20 mesh to 100 mesh) to the TG/DTG curve of waste tire powder was thin and the final weight loss rate decreased with the increase of mesh number. NiCl2, CoCl2 and Co/Ni could reduce the activation energy of waste tire powder in the low temperature zone, among which the effect of NiCl2 was obvious which decreased activation energy for 30. 37 kJ/mol, ZnO had no influence on reaction activation energy in low temperature zone; In the high temperature zone NiCl2 decreased reaction activation energy of waste tire, however, CoCl2, Co/Ni and ZnO increased reaction activation energy to the 16. 966 kj/mol 10. 813 kj/mol and 7. 5 kJ/mol each; Cr2O3 had no influence on the activation energy of the waste tire powder in the low and high temperature zone.%采用热重分析法探讨了不同粒径、升温速率及催化剂对废轮胎胶粉热解特性的影响.结果表明:随升温速率加快,废轮胎胶粉的TG/DTG曲线向着高温区段移动,且热解反应时间△t会缩短,说明升温速率加快有助于废轮胎胶粉的热解反应;粒径(20目至100目)对废轮胎胶粉热解反应TG/DTG曲线影响很小,但目数增大最终失重率会变小.在低温段,NiCl2,CoCl2和Co/Ni 3种催化剂都能有效降低废轮胎胶粉热解的反应活化能,其中NiCl2效果明显,可以降低30.37 kJ/mol,而ZnO对低温区的反应活化能没有影响;在高温段,NiCl2能降低废轮胎胶粉的反应活化能,而CoCl2,Co/Ni和ZnO则使反应活化能分别升高16

  12. Oxygen bridges between NiO nanosheets and graphene for improvement of lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangmin; Wang, Da-Wei; Yin, Li-Chang; Li, Na; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-04-24

    Graphene has been widely used to dramatically improve the capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance of nearly any electrode material for batteries. However, the binding between graphene and these electrode materials has not been clearly elucidated. Here we report oxygen bridges between graphene with oxygen functional groups and NiO from analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and confirm the conformation of oxygen bridges by the first-principles calculations. We found that NiO nanosheets (NiO NSs) are bonded strongly to graphene through oxygen bridges. The oxygen bridges mainly originate from the pinning of hydroxyl/epoxy groups from graphene on the Ni atoms of NiO NSs. The calculated adsorption energies (1.37 and 1.84 eV for graphene with hydroxyl and epoxy) of a Ni adatom on oxygenated graphene by binding with oxygen are comparable with that on graphene (1.26 eV). However, the calculated diffusion barriers of the Ni adatom on the oxygenated graphene surface (2.23 and 1.69 eV for graphene with hydroxyl and epoxy) are much larger than that on the graphene (0.19 eV). Therefore, the NiO NS is anchored strongly on the graphene through a C-O-Ni bridge, which allows a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. The easy binding/difficult dissociating characteristic of Ni adatoms on the oxygenated graphene facilitates fast electron hopping from graphene to NiO and thus the reversible lithiation and delithiation of NiO. We believe that the understanding of this oxygen bridge between graphene and NiO will lead to the development of other high-performance electrode materials.

  13. Periodic table of 3d-metal dimers and their ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsev, G L; Mochena, M D; Jena, P; Bauschlicher, C W; Partridge, H

    2004-10-08

    The ground states of the mixed 3d-metal dimers TiV, TiCr, TiMn, TiFe, TiCo, TiNi, TiCu, TiZn, VCr, VMn, VFe, VCo, VNi, VCu, VZn, CrMn, CrFe, CrCo, CrNi, CrCu, CrZn, MnFe, MnCo, MnNi, MnCu, MnZn, FeCo, FeNi, FeCu, FeZn, CoNi, CoCu, CoZn, NiCu, NiZn, and CuZn along with their singly negatively and positively charged ions are assigned based on the results of computations using density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation functional. Except for TiCo and CrMn, our assignment agrees with experiment. Computed spectroscopic constants (r(e),omega(e),D(o)) are in fair agreement with experiment. The ground-state spin multiplicities of all the ions are found to differ from the spin multiplicities of the corresponding neutral parents by +/-1. Except for TiV, MnFe, and MnCu, the number of unpaired electrons, N, in a neutral ground-state dimer is either N(1)+N(2) or mid R:N(1)-N(2)mid R:, where N(1) and N(2) are the numbers of unpaired 3d electrons in the 3d(n)4s(1) occupation of the constituent atoms. Combining the present and previous results obtained at the same level of theory for homonuclear 3d-metal and ScX (X=Ti-Zn) dimers allows one to construct "periodic" tables of all 3d-metal dimers along with their singly charged ions.

  14. Geochemical Characteristics of Sedimentary Manganese Deposit of Guichi, Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The sedimentary manganese deposits occurring in Gufeng formation of the Permian in Guichi area, south Anhui Province, include manganese carbonate deposit formed by sedimentation, and manganese oxide deposit made by later oxidation. The total REE contents of these samples are relatively low ( < 250 × 10-6), belonging to LREE-enriched type,showing LREE enrichment during the process of formation of Mn deposit, especially during Mn-oxidizing process. Three normalized REE patterns and SCNA-normalized trace elements spider diagrams of the Mn-bearing sequence rocks and ores in this area reflect their same origin of ore sources, which is similar to rock-forming and ore-forming conditions. The Mnforming materials primarily came from the continent with higher mature degree and single material source. The δEu and δCe negative anomaly and Ce anomaly ( < - 0.1 ) manifest that Mn-bearing sequence of the Permian was mostly formed in marine basin and oxidative environment. The Sr and Ba anomaly, Sr/Ba and Co/Ni values reflect the Mn deposit environment was of deep water and high-salinity of marine facies. Although the Ce/La (mean 1.05), Y/Ho (25 ~ 41.5) and trace metals show a variety of correlations with Mn in the ten rock samples, which show multiple sources for the manganese, the analysis of geochemical characteristics indicate that the material sources of Mn deposit have been primarily terrestrially derived. Another source of the manganese probably comes from the seafloor volcanism in this area. Analysis of sedimentary features and geohistoric evolvement reveals that the maximum transgression of the Qixia Period, ore district is then in deep shelf-basin sedimentary setting and the Mn-bearing sequence is deposited.

  15. A Statistical Analysis on the Articles and Authors in the 2010 Issues of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics%《中国医学伦理学》2010年度载文及作者分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳; 张忠元; 刘东梅; 唐雪梅; 雷红艳; 范菲菲

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metrological literature analysis of the articles and their authors published on the in total 6 issues of Chinese Medical Ethics in 2010, this paper conies up with the conclusion that the journal has great advantages such as large amount of paper loading, vast information release, flexible columns setting, being rich in content, short in dispatch delay, novel and reliable in transmission of information, and timely reporting of updated research results in the related field of disciplines. Papers published on the journal are always of high quality, and the journal has authoritative and extensive influence in the academic field, so that it provides an important platform for medical ethics and bioethics researchers of different levels to publish their new scientific theories, new developments, as well as exchange information and experience.%采用文献计量学的方法,对《中国医学伦理学》2010年度共6期期刊的载文和作者进行统计和分析,发现2010年该杂志栽文量大,信息量大,栏目设置灵活,内容丰富,发文时滞短,传递信息新颖可靠,能及时报道领域内学科研究成果.该杂志刊载的论文质量高,在学术领域内权威性强、影响广泛,是医学伦理学、生命伦理学领域内各层次科研人员发表新学说、新动态、交流信息和经验的重要平台.

  16. Re-Os isotopic and trace element compositions of pyrite and origin of the Cretaceous Jinchang porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Heilongjiang Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Cui, Bin; Wang, Bo-Chao; Yin, Yi-Fan; Wang, Jing-Rui

    2016-11-01

    The Jinchang Cu-Au deposit in Northeast China contains more than 76 tons of Au and 4683 tons of Cu with average ore grades of 11.34 g/t Au and 1.44% Cu. The deposit is typical of porphyry types and consists of gold orebodies mainly hosted in a ∼113 Ma granitic porphyry and breccia pipes within the porphyry intrusion. Mineralization is closely associated with early potassic alteration and late phyllic alteration. Pyrite is the main Au-bearing mineral and contains 1.48-18.9 ppb Re and 11.4-38 ppt common Os. Extremely low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios are indicative of derivation of ore-forming materials from the crust. Low Re in pyrite from the Jinchang deposit may indicate a mixing source of mantle and crust or a crustal source. Five Re-Os isotopic analyses yield a model 1 isochron age of 114 ± 22 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 0.15), similar to the age of the host porphyry. Pyrite contains detectable Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Au, Sb, Pb and Bi. Pyrite has Co/Ni ratios similar to that of volcanogenic and hydrothermal sulfide deposits, indicating a magmatic-hydrothermal origin, and has Au and As contents similar to that of porphyry-epithermal systems. Pyrite grains from potassic and phyllic alteration stages have different trace element contents, reflecting the evolution of ore-forming fluids from magmatic dominated to magmatic mixed with meteoric water. In combination with regional geology, our new results are suggestive of origin of the Jinchang Cu-Au deposit from contemporary intrusions of granitic porphyries related to the Early Cretaceous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  17. Effects of Mg substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Co0.5Ni0.5-x Mg x Fe2O4 nanoparticle ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, M. Rosnan; Z, Othaman; R, Hussin; Ali, A. Ati; Alireza, Samavati; Shadab, Dabagh; Samad, Zare

    2016-04-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline Co-Ni-Mg ferrite powders with composition Co0.5Ni0.5-x Mg x Fe2O4 are successfully synthesized by the co-precipitation method. A systematic investigation on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of un-doped and Mg-doped Co-Ni ferrite nanoparticles is carried out. The prepared samples are characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD analyses of the synthesized samples confirm the formation of single-phase cubic spinel structures with crystallite sizes in a range of ˜ 32 nm to ˜ 36 nm. The lattice constant increases with increasing Mg content. FESEM images show that the synthesized samples are homogeneous with a uniformly distributed grain. The results of IR spectroscopy analysis indicate the formation of functional groups of spinel ferrite in the co-precipitation process. By increasing Mg2+ substitution, room temperature magnetic measurement shows that maximum magnetization and coercivity increase from ˜ 57.35 emu/g to ˜ 61.49 emu/g and ˜ 603.26 Oe to ˜ 684.11 Oe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A·m-1), respectively. The higher values of magnetization M s and M r suggest that the optimum composition is Co0.5Ni0.4Mg0.1Fe2O4 that can be applied to high-density recording media and microwave devices. Project supported by the Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Physics Department of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and the Ministry of Education Malaysia (Grant Nos. Q.J130000.2526.04H65).

  18. The Chineysky gabbronorite-anorthosite layered massif (NorthernTransbaikalia, Russia): its structure, Fe-Ti-V and Cu-PGE deposits, and parental magma composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, Bronislav I.; Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda A.; Ariskin, Alexey A.; Nikolaev, George S.

    2016-12-01

    The 1858 ± 17 Ma Chineysky layered anorthosite-gabbronorite massif is located in the southern part of the Siberian platform, within the Kodaro-Udokan metallogenic province of Northern Transbaikalia. The Chineysky Massif outcrops over approximately 130 km2 and contains Russia's largest V ore resources, hosted within titanomagnetite-rich layers, concentrated in the Magnitny and Etyrko deposits. The titanomagnetite ore reserves were estimated at 2 billion tons with 30 % Fe and 10 % TiO2 on average. In addition, two large Cu-PGE deposits—Rudny and Kontactovy—are hosted in the contact rocks between the intrusion and the sandstone floor rocks. A distinctive feature of the Chineysky sulfide ore is their Cu-enriched composition with much lesser amounts of nickel and cobalt (Cu/Ni/Co 76:7:1). The sulfide ore contains up to 355 ppm PGE and 30 ppm Au + Ag. Three types of sulfide mineralization have been distinguished: (1) endo-contact disseminated sulfides within gabbronorite, (2) exo-contact impregnations in sandstone, and (3) veins of massive sulfides in the exo-contact sandstone. The ore consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, with less abundant pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Co-Ni arsenides and sulfoarsenides, linneite-group minerals, sphalerite, cubanite, and millerite. In addition, many rare minerals were recognized in the ores, including PGM (sperrylite, michenerite, merenskyite, etc.). Using the latest version of the COMAGMAT-5 program, the parental magma temperature ( 1150 °C), its composition ( 55 wt.% SiO2, 5.8 % MgO), and the most primitive olivine (Fo77) and plagioclase (An69) compositions were calculated. According to the model, titanomagnetite starts to crystallize at T < 1133 °C (fO2 = NNO + 0.5), triggering sulfide liquid immiscibility when the silicate magma had 0.15 to 0.1 wt.% S.

  19. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Raiola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

  20. Heavy Metal Distribution in Soils near the Almalyk Mining and Smelting Industrial Area, Uzbekistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obidjon KODIROV; Nosir SHUKUROV

    2009-01-01

    The present study demonstrates distribution and chemical forms of heavy metals in soils of the AImalyk mining and smelting industrial area along five transects. The study area is located in Almalyk, Uzbekistan, where the intensification of industrial enterprises negatively impacts the environment. The distribution of 17 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb,Ba, Th, and U) were studied in 21 sampling locations (21×3=63 soil samples) along five radial transects with a total length of 60 km downwind deposition gradient. Soil samples were collected from the upper layer (0-10 cm) at 4-6 km intervals. As a result of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analyses by using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, Philips Analytical Ink, USA ), a significant decrease in heavy metal (Cn, Zn, Pb) deposition was found going from the source in a downwind direction. Soil samples taken from the first location (near the pollution sources) showed higher concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb, and lower concentrations with increasing distance from the source. Obtained data showed different impact of pollution sources to heavy metal deposition and distribution in soils. The Almalyk mining and smelting complex is the major source of Pb, Zn and Cu enrichment in soils. Distribution of other trace elements does not exceed background content and suggests lithogenic background. This allowed us to divide these elements into two groups: (1) technogenic (Cu, Zn and Pb); and (2) iithogenic (Sc, V, Cr, Co,Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Th and U) origins.

  1. Lindqvist Polyoxoniobate Ion-Assisted Electrodeposition of Cobalt and Nickel Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YuPing; Guo, Si-Xuan; Ding, Liang; Ohlin, C André; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-08-01

    A method has been developed for the efficient electrodeposition of cobalt and nickel nanostructures with the assistance of the Lindqvist ion [Nb6O19](8-). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and a range of electrochemical techniques have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, catalytic water oxidation activity and stability of the films in alkaline solution. SEM images show that films consisting of nanoparticles with diameters of ca. 30 to 40 nm are formed after 40-50 potential cycles of deposition. Nb and Co/Ni are detected in the films by EDX. ICP-MS results show an elemental ratio of 1:1 for Co:Nb and 1:3 for Ni:Nb, respectively. Raman spectra reveal the presence of both [Nb6O19](8-) and Co(OH)2/Ni(OH)2. The films exhibit excellent stability and efficiency for electrocatalytic water oxidation in alkaline solution. Turnover frequencies of 12.9 and 13.2 s(-1) were determined by rotating ring disk electrode voltammetry at an overpotential of 480 mV for Co and Ni films, respectively. Fourier transformed large amplitude alternating current (FTAC) voltammetry reveals an additional underlying oxidation process for Co under catalytic turnover conditions, which indicates that a Co(IV) species is involved in the efficient catalytic water oxidation reactions. FTAC voltammetric data also suggest that the Ni films undergoes a clear phase transformation upon aging in aqueous 1 M NaOH and the electrogenerated higher oxidation state Ni from β-NiOOH is the more active form of the catalyst.

  2. Problem un ou deux phonèmes? w języku polskim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Wągiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The un ou deux phonèmes? problem in Polish The paper deals with the so-called un ou deux phonèmes? problem in Modern Polish. The framework adopted by the author is the theory and methodology of Axiomatic Functionalism, i.e., a functional semiotic approach developed by Jan W. F. Mulder in association with Sándor G. J. Hervey which is mainly based on linguistic ideas of André Martinet. The analysis focuses on the phonological interpretation of sequences of palatalized labials and [j], nasal diphthongs, and affricates in Polish. The author argues that nasal diphthongs and palatal and retroflex affricates should be interpreted monophonematically, whereas it is both adequate and economical to interpret sequences of palatalized labials and [j] and alveolar affricates as realizations of sequences of two separate phonemes.   Problem un ou deux phonèmes? w języku polskim Niniejszy artykuł poświęcony jest tzw. problemowi un ou deux phonèmes? we współczesnej polszczyźnie. Aparatem pojęciowym wykorzystanym przez autora jest teoria i metodologia funkcjonalizmu aksjomatycznego, tj. funkcjonalnego opisu semiotycznego opracowanego przez Jana W. F. Muldera we współpracy z Sándorem G. J. Herveyem, który bazuje na koncepcjach lingwistycznych André Martineta. Analiza skupia się na interpretacji fonologicznej sekwencji spalatalizowanych spółgłosek labialnych oraz [j], dyftongów nazalnych, a także afrykat w języku polskim. Autor argumentuje, że dyftongi nazalne oraz afrykaty palatalne i retrofleksyjne powinny być interpretowane monofonemicznie, natomiast interpretacja sekwencji spalatalizowanych spółgłosek labialnych i [j] oraz afrykat alweolarnych jako realizacji sekwencji dwóch niezależnych fonemów jest zarówno adekwatna, jak i ekonomiczna.

  3. Sûreté et sécurité d'accès au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; CERN. Geneva. ST Division

    2002-01-01

    L'identification des besoins, des contraintes et des performances pour le projet des sysètmes d'accès du LHC étant pratiquement achevée, la phase de design est actuellement en cours et elle mènera á la rédaction des spécifications techniques. L'objet de ce document consiste á présenter les aspects principaux (fonctions, composantes, caractéristiques, phases) des systèmes d'accès du LHC. Ces aspects découlent notamment de l'analyse des besoins requis et identifiés lors des études et des discussions au sein du LHC-AIWG. Les directives issues de la norme IEC 61508 concernant l'élaboration de systèmes électriques et électroniques dédiées á la sureté ont été considérées. La méthode d'évaluation (préconisée par la norme) des différents paramètres de sureté (disponibilité, défaillance, SIL) est brièvement rappelée et, plus concrètement, les valeurs obtenues pour la fonction de sureté principale des systèmes d'accès du SPS sont présentées.

  4. High-Tc Superconductivity and Raman Scattering Study of the phonon properties of electron doped (transition metal, rare-earth) - Oxygen-Free CaFeAsF and compared with RFeAsO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Kalyan; Hadjiev, Viktor; Chu, C. W.(Paul)

    Quaternary CaFeAsF has ZrCuSiAs-type structure,(RO)δ+ layer in RFeAsO replaced by (CaF)δ+ layer,with tetragonal (P4/nmm)-orthorhombic (Cmma) phase transition at 134K,while magnetic order,SDW sets in at 114K. Partial replacement of Fe with Co/Ni is direct electron doping to (FeAs)δ+ layer.Tc ~15K in CaFe0.9Ni0.1AsF.Substitution of rare earth metal for alkaline earth metal suppresses anomaly in resistivity & induces superconductivity.Tc ~52K in Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Characterized by resistivity, susceptibility,XRD & EDX-SEM.Upper critical field estimated from magneto resistance.Bulk superconductivity proved by DC magnetization. Hall coefficient RH revealed hole-like charge carriers in parent compound CaFeAsF, while electron-type (RH in normal state is -Ve) for Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Evolution of Raman active phonons of Ca1-xPrxFeAsF measured with polarized Raman spectroscopy at room temperature from absurfaces of impurity-free microcrystals.Spectra exhibit sharp phonon lines on very weak electronic scattering background.Frequency and symmetry of Raman phonons involving out-of-plane atomic vibrations are found at 162.5 cm-1 (A1 g, Pr), 201 cm-1 (A1 g, As), 215.5 cm-1 (B1 g, Fe), 265 cm-1 (Eg, Fe) and 334 cm-1 (B1 g, F) for Ca0.5Pr0.5FeAsF.Observations are compared with RFeAsO unconventional superconductors also possibly related to magnetic fluctuations

  5. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  6. Epidemiology of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taj; Eldin; Mohammedein; Abdallah; Fatah; Elrahman; Mohmmed; Toum; Osman; Habeeb; Bashir; Tajedin; Ibrahim; mansoor; Mona; Mamoun; Yuosif; Mustafa; Awad-Elseed; Elkhawad; Idris; Osman; Okud; Abbashar; Osman; Mohammed; Abdel; Aziem; Abdalla; Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological factors associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis(EPTB) in Kassala, Eastern Sudan.Methods: Patients infected with TB(pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) documented at the hospital were interviewed with a structured questionnaire used to gather socio-demographic information. The diagnosis of EPTB cases was based on presence of tuberculous granulomas in the histological samples, positive PCR to DNA of mycobacterium tuberculosis, radiological i ndings and l uid analysis suggestive of EPTB and clinical diagnosis with adequate response to anti-tuberculous therapy.Results: A total of 985 patients with TB were enrolled in the study, including 761(77.3%) with PTB and 224(22.7%) with EPTB. The mean age(SD) of patients with PTB and EPTB was 33.2(15.4) and 34.7(14.6) years respectively. The prevalence of EPTB was at(22.7%), with TB lymphadenitis 79(35.3%), marking the frequent form of EPTB followed by peritoneal TB 27(12.05%). While residence and occupation were not associated with EPTB, those with lower level of education(OR = 0.3; coni dence intervals(CI) = 0.2-0.5; P < 0.001), female(OR = 8.7, CI = 4.9-15.1, P < 0.001), non vaccination(OR=70.3, CI = 34.2-144.3, P < 0.001), and non smoker(OR = 0.1; CI = 0.06-0.20; P < 0.001), were associated with high prevalence of EPTB. Conclusions: Around one quarter of patients with TB in this study were more likely to have EPTB. Therefore, ef ective strategic plans regarding diagnostic procedures and control measures are needed to reduce the burden of the disease in Sudan.

  7. Koniec eschatologii? Poszukiwania modus existendi w świetle (ponowoczesnych apokryfów bułgarskich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Drzewiecka

    2014-11-01

    Celem artykułu jest ukazanie postępującego procesu uwewnętrzniania źródeł zbawienia, powodującego zanikanie perspektywy eschatologicznej. W konsekwencji, po skrótowej prezentacji apokryfów judeochrześcijańskich i gnostyckich z pierwszej połowy XX wieku, w których to obiet­nica (jakiegoś zbawienia jest wciąż aktualna, pokazane jest, że większość apokryfów napisanych po 1989 roku tworzy przekaz absolutnie nihilistyczny, ponieważ za pomocą wzoru pozytywnego oferują radykalnie negatywne ujęcie świata i tak w istocie głoszą kompletny brak nadziei na jego poprawę. Paradoksalnie, jednak poprzez stworzenie świata bez dobrego końca, poprzez ujaw­nianie mechanizmu osuwania się w światopogląd neognostycka (oparty o odwrócony gnostycki monizm spirytualistyczny, apokryfy bułgarskie ilustrują potrzebę ponownego zdynamizowania sfery aksjologicznej, potrzebę odbudowania wielkowymiarowości egzystencji. W konsekwencji, wskazany jest związek – w myśl Taubesa – między kondycją człowieka eschatologicznego, który lokuje swą nadzieję w przyszłości, a mesjaniczną potrzebą afirmacji ontologicznego odstępu.

  8. Quantitative Methods in Economics. Didactic and Cognitive Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Buga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Od wielu lat metody ilościowe są stałym przedmiotem wykładanym na uczelniach ekonomicznych. Są co najmniej dwie obiektywne przesłanki uzasadniają- ce taki stan rzeczy. Pierwsza, to wspłczesny rozwj teorii ekonomii i dyscyplin z nią związanych, ktre nie tylko w badaniach podstawowych, ale także w zastosowaniach coraz częściej wykorzystują wiedzę matematyczną. Trudno obecnie zrozumieć wiele zagadnień ekonomicznych, a szczeglnie podstaw teoretycznych, bez posiadania określonej wiedzy natury ilościowej. Druga, to intelektualny rozwj człowieka, w ktrym żelazne prawa logiki wspłkształtują jego zdolność do poprawnego odczytywania rzeczywistości. A podstawowe zależności logiczne znajdujemy właśnie w matematyce, ktrej odnośny dział jest nazywany wstępem do matematyki lub logiką matematyczną. Można zatem powiedzieć, że wspłcześnie wykształcony człowiek, człowiek kreatywny, a nie tylko konsumujący, powinien posiąść znajomość określonego zakresu wiedzy ilościowej. W szczeglności dotyczy to ekonomistw zarwno trudzących się badaniem i analizą teorii gospodarowania, jak i (może w mniejszym zakresie jej stroną praktyczną.

  9. Magnetism in Ca2CoOsO6 and Ca2NiOsO6: Unraveling the mystery of superexchange interactions between 3d and 5d ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Ryan C.; Samanta, Kartik; Dasgupta, Tanusri Saha; Xiong, Jie; Freeland, John W.; Haskel, Daniel; Woodward, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    In order to rationalize and predict the behavior of compounds containing 5d transition metal ions, an understanding of the local moments and superexchange interactions from which their magnetic properties are derived is necessary. The magnetic and electrical properties of the ferrimagnetic double perovskites Ca2CoOsO6 and Ca2NiOsO6 studied here provide critical insight toward that goal. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate, and experimental measurements confirm, that the Os(VI) moments are directed antiparallel to the Co/Ni moments. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements reveal that the orbital moment on osmium has a magnitude that is approximately 30% of the spin moment, and the two contributions oppose each other. Both the size and direction of the orbital moment are confirmed by the DFT calculations. The size of the Os(VI) total moment is predicted to be 0.6-0.7 μB by DFT calculations. The ferrimagnetic ground state is stabilized by strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the d2 Os(VI) ion and the d8/d7 Ni(II)/Co(II) ion. Not only does the observation of antiferromagnetic coupling violate the Goodenough-Kanamori rules, but also it is unusual in that it becomes stronger as the Os-O-Co/Ni bond angle decreases. This unusual behavior is shown to arise predominantly from coupling between Os t2g orbitals and Ni/Co eg orbitals, mediated by the intervening oxide ion. We further find that both compounds are spin-orbit assisted Mott insulators.

  10. DOWNSIZED CHELATING RESIN-PACKED MINICOLUMN PRECONCENTRATION FOR MULTIELEMENT DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS BY ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinna Rahmi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chelating resin-packed minicolumn preconcentration was used for multielement determination of trace metals inseawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The chelating resin-packed minicolumn wasconstructed with two syringe filters (DISMIC 13HP and Millex-LH and an iminodiacetate chelating resin (Chelex 100,200-400 mesh, with which trace metals in 50 mL of original seawater sample were concentrated into 0.50 mL of 2 Mnitric acid, and then 100-fold preconcentration of trace metals was achieved. Then, 0.50 mL analysis solution wassubjected to the multielement determination by ICP-MS equipped with a MicroMist nebulizer for micro-samplingintroduction. The preconcentration and elution parameters such as the sample-loading flow rate, the amount of 1 Mammonium acetate for elimination of matrix elements and the amount of 2 M nitric acid for eluting trace metals wasoptimized to obtain good recoveries and analytical detection limits for trace metals. The analytical results for V, Mn, Co,Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and U in three kinds of seawater certified reference materials (CRMs; CASS-3, NASS-4, andNASS-5 agreed well with their certified values. The observed values of rare earth elements (REEs in the aboveseawater CRMs were also consistent with the reference values. Therefore, the compiled reference values for theconcentrations of REEs in CASS-3, NASS-4, and NASS-5 were proposed based on the observed values and referencedata for REEs in these CRMs

  11. Advanced bifunctional electrocatalyst generated through cobalt phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate intercalated Ni2Fe-layered double hydroxides for a laminar flow unitized regenerative micro-cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haihong; Tian, Ran; Gong, Xiaoman; Li, Dianqing; Tang, Pinggui; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas; Feng, Yongjun

    2017-09-01

    We fabricated a NiFeOx/CoNy-C nanocomposite derived from CoPcTs-intercalated Ni2Fe-layered double hydroxides (Ni2Fe-CoPcTs-LDH), which served as high-efficiency, low-cost, and long-durability bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst in half-cell, and a H2-O2 laminar flow unitized regenerative micro-cell (LFURMC) in alkaline media. Based on the synergistic effect between Co-Ny and NiFeOx centers, the non-noble hybrid catalyst NiFeOx/CoNy-C achieves a ΔE (η@jOER,10 - η@jORR,-3) = 0.84 V in alkaline solution, outperforming the commercial Pt/C, and very close to that of IrOx/C. In the fuel cell mode, the performance of NiFeOx/CoNy-C with the maximum power density of 56 mW cm-2 is similar to that of Pt/C (63 mW cm-2) and IrOx/C (58 mW cm-2); in the electrolysis mode, the calculated maximum electrical power consumed on NiFeOx/CoNy-C (237 mW cm-2) is more than 3 times that on Pt/C (73 mW cm-2), similar with that of IrOx/C. More importantly, the NiFeOx/CoNy-C shows a remarkable stability in alternating modes in a LFURMC system.

  12. Comparative study of electroless Co-Ni-P plating on Tencel fabric by Co0-based and Ni0-based activation for electromagnetic interference shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siyi; Zhao, Hang; Hou, Lei; Lu, Yinxiang

    2017-10-01

    The primary objective of this research work was to develop high-performance conductive fabrics with desired electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE), excellent durability and improved corrosion resistance. Such conductive fabrics were fabricated by combining an ultra-low-cost electroless plating method with an alkoxy silane self-assembly technology, which involved successive steps of modification, activation, Co-Ni-P coating deposition and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) thin coatings assembling. Malic acid (MA) was selected to modify the pristine Tencel (TS) substrates, and the probably interaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR measurement. Co0 and Ni0 nanoparticles (NPs) were used as the activators to initiate electroless plating, respectively, and thereby two categories of Co-Ni-P coatings with different Co/Ni atomic ratio were obtained. Both of them presented compact morphologies and preferential (1 1 1) crystal orientation, which were validated by FE-SEM and XRD measurements. Owing to the lower square resistance and higher magnetic properties, the Co-Ni-P coated fabric activated by Co0 activator showed a higher EMI SE (18.2-40.1 dB) at frequency of 30-1000 MHz. APTMS thin coatings were then assembled on the top of alloy coated fabrics to act as anti-corrosion barriers. Electrochemical polarization measurement in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution showed that top-APTMS coated conductive fabric exhibited a higher corrosion resistance than the one in absence of APTMS assembly. Overall, the whole process of fabrication could be performed in several hours (or less) without any specialized equipment, which shows a great potential as EMI shielding fabrics in mass-production.

  13. Studies on metal catalysts and carbon materials for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaixia

    the fact that the intensities of those species varied unpredictably with treatment time, especially in the early stages, rather than constantly increasing with time. Even with the functionalization of the CNTs to increase the mass activity of the catalyst, there is still a significant fraction of Pt that is isolated from the external circuit and/or the PEM, resulting in low Pt utilization. Growing CNTs directly on carbon fiber paper, followed by Pt deposition, however, ensures that all the Pt nanoparticles are in electrical contact with the external electrical circuit, improves Pt utilization and could potentially decrease Pt usage. In order to synthesize controlled, uniform CNTs, it is necessary to manage the size and density of the deposited CNT growth catalyst. We have studied Co nanoparticles and Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles, deposited onto carbon material supports. We found that these nanoparticles are quite reactive, not only with the carbon substrate but, also, with residual gas, even in ultra-high vacuum, to form surface carbides and oxides. This surface contaminant layer prevents further nanoparticle coalescence and helps to stabilize them. AFM shows that the surface layer helps to maintain nanoparticle dimensions that are essentially independent of the amount of Co/Ni deposited. By analyzing the Co/Ni nanoparticles, we also demonstrated that Co is more reactive than Ni. In addition to enhancing the adhesion of the Pt nanoparticles to the carbon supports, the synthesis of specific platinum nanostructures has become an area of considerable interest, since catalytic efficiency and selectivity are highly dependent on the size and shape of the platinum material. Here, we have synthesized, for the first time, several novel nanostructures, such as 3D Pt nanoflowers and the single-crystalline Pt nanowire (NW)--CNT heterojunctions, via simple chemical reduction reactions, at room temperature, without templates or surfactants. Electrodes modified with these novel Pt

  14. Public Private Partnerships and the Public Interest: A Case Study of Ottawa’s Lansdowne Park Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stoney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly advocated as beneficial for the delivery of public services, facilities, and infrastructure for municipal governments. However, such partnerships often raise serious concerns about transparency and accountability. While municipal governments across Canada have tried to increase public participation in local affairs, PPPs can impede such efforts. This article presents a case study of the Lansdowne Park PPP redevelopment in the City of Ottawa. We focus on how transparency and citizen engagement have been compromised and circumvented and link to broader issues of how to balance the privileged status of business and the demands for commercial confidentiality with the public interest, transparency, and citizen engagement in projects that use PPPs. The article concludes by arguing that some projects and some conditions can render the use of PPPs inappropriate and counterproductive in terms of both effectiveness and the basic principles of good governance. / Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont de plus en plus préconisés par les municipalités comme étant une solution avantageuse pour la prestation de services publics ainsi que la réalisation de projets d’installations et d’infrastructures publiques. Toutefois, de tels partenariats soulèvent souvent d’importantes préoccupations quant à la transparence et la reddition de compte en lien avec ce processus. Plusieurs municipalités canadiennes ont fait de grands progrès pour accroître la participation des citoyens aux affaires municipales, mais les PPP peuvent représenter un obstacle important à de tels efforts. Cet article présente une étude de cas sur le réaménagement du parc Lansdowne dans le cadre d’un PPP à la Ville d’Ottawa. L’article se concentre sur la façon dont la transparence et l’engagement des citoyens ont été compromis et contournés dans ce processus. Cette analyse est liée à des considérations sur la

  15. Conséquences écologiques des introductions dans les hydrosystèmes : essai de synthèse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAURY J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Un essai de bilan des effets écologiques des introductions d'espèces est présenté à partir des exposés des orateurs de ce colloque et de la bibliographie. L'aspect inéluctable de la dispersion des espèces au cours du temps et l'efficacité toute relative des barrières intracontinentales qui s'y opposent sont soulignés. Les mécanismes en cause - vagilité et fécondité des espèces introduites, efficacité des barrières, structure des réseaux trophiques récepteurs, degré de saturation de leurs niches écologiques - sont étudiés en regard du fonctionnement des hydrosystèmes, montrant la complexité du problème. Des effets écologiques très variés sont décrits, dont beaucoup sont non intentionnels et inattendus ; un exemple bibliographique est développé, mettant en évidence la diversité des effets de la même introduction selon le milieu récepteur. Il en ressort la nécessité préliminaire absolue d'examiner à la fois la biologie des espèces à introduire et le fonctionnement de l'écosystème récepteur. Un principe de précaution est préconisé face à toute introduction volontaire, et une réglementation sévère et efficace face aux introductions involontaires. Le besoin d'une permanence d'agents de terrain pour établir une veille écologique est souligné. Face au manque de données objectives, des recherches scientifiques sur les effets écologiques des introductions passées ou possibles doivent être initiées ou poursuivies dans un cadre écosystémique, impliquant au minimum un suivi des écosystèmes risquant d'être colonisés.

  16. Effect of Co on the Electrochromic Properties of NiO Film%钴掺杂对氧化镍薄膜电致变色性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景; 苏革; 曹立新; 柳伟; 董征; 赵莉丽; 宋美芹

    2011-01-01

    采用恒电位法在FTO玻璃上沉积Co与Ni摩尔比为O.16∶1的薄膜,用X射线衍射仪,扫描电镜和能谱仪分析了膜的成分、结构和形貌,用紫外-可见分光光度计表征了膜的透光性能,用循环伏安法表征了膜的电化学稳定性和可逆性,用双电位阶跃法表征了膜的开关响应时间,研究了钴掺杂对氧化镍薄膜电致变色性能的影响.结果表明,钴掺杂使NiO薄膜颗粒更加细小和均匀,提高了薄膜在可见光波段着色态与消色态之间的透光率差值,降低了电致变色反应的工作电压,有利于薄膜在电致变色过程的可逆性,缩短了着色响应时问.%The film of Co/Ni molar ratio of 0.16:1 was electrode posited on FTO glass by potentiostatic technique. XRD, SEM and EDS were employed to analyze the morphology composition, structure of the film; Uhraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy was applied to measure transmittance of the films. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the electrochemical stability and reversibility of the film. And switch response time was measured by double potential step technique. The Effect of Co on the electrochromic properties of NiO film was investigated. The results show that Co can make the particles of NiO film tiny and even, raise visible light transmittance difference between bleached and colored states,lower the working voltage of eleetroehromic reaction, improve eleetroehromic reversibility and shorten the time of colored processes.

  17. PPARα gene variants as predicted performance-enhancing polymorphisms in professional Italian soccer players

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    Proia P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Proia,1 Antonino Bianco,1 Gabriella Schiera,2 Patrizia Saladino,2 Valentina Contrò,1 Giovanni Caramazza,3 Marcello Traina,1 Keith A Grimaldi,4 Antonio Palma,1 Antonio Paoli5 1Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, 2Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Regional Sports School of CONI Sicilia, Sicily, Italy; 4Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Background: The PPARα gene encodes the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor alpha, a central regulator of expression of other genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of G allele of the PPARα intron 7 G/C polymorphism (rs4253778 in professional Italian soccer players. Methods: Sixty professional soccer players and 30 sedentary volunteers were enrolled in the study. Samples of venous blood were obtained at rest, in the morning, by conventional clinical procedures; blood serum was collected and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An aliquot of anticoagulant-treated blood was used to prepare genomic DNA from whole blood. The G/C polymorphic site in PPARα intron 7 was scanned by using the PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol with TaqI enzyme. Results: We found variations in genotype distribution of PPARα polymorphism between professional soccer players and sedentary volunteers. Particularly, G alleles and the GG genotype were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with healthy controls (64% versus 48%. No significant correlations were found between lipid profile and genotype background. Conclusion: Previous results

  18. Wskazania wychowawcze dla polskich rŚląsku katolickiego czasopisma „Monika” w drugiej połowie XIX wieku/ Educational Guidelines for Polish Families in Silesia of Catholic Journal “Monica” in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRZEGORZ MICHALSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Szczególną rolę w rozwijaniu zainteresowania sprawami narodowymi i problemami życia społecznego odegrały wśród diaspory polskiej na Górnym Śląsku w drugiej połowie XIX wieku czasopisma wydawane w języku polskim, które były tematycznie sprofilowane i przekazywały odbiorcom, z jednej strony, wyspecjalizowaną wiedzę,z drugiej – podpowiadały, jak i w jaki sposób mogą oni rozwiązywać codzienne problemy. Do takich pism należał tygodnik „Monika”, który przez cały okres ukazywania się był wyłącznie poświęcony chrześcijańskiemu wychowaniu dzieci. Udzielając w każdym numerze szczegółowych rad pedagogicznych, rozwijano u rodziców, szczególnie matek, przekonanie o związku między wyznawaną przez nich wiarą katolicką i wynikającymi z niej obowiązkami wychowawczymi. Na łamach czasopisma przekonywano, że najwaniejsżą powinnością rodziców wobec dzieci jest dbałość o takie ukształtowanie relacji między poszczególnymi członkami rodziny, aby składały się one na wzorowe ognisko domowe, w którym dzieci nie tylko doświadczają danej od Boga prawdziwej miłości, ale otrzymują także, wynikające z Dekalogu, przykłady zachowań religijnych i moralnych oraz postępowania w stosunkach z innymi osobami. Przyjmując taką perspektywę pojmowania rodziny, jako środowiska wychowawczego, ukazywano cechy matki w roli pierwszej i najważniejszej wychowawczyni, podpowiadano, jakie powinna stosować metody i środki oddziaływania, opisywano typowe błędy wychowawcze, aby przestrzec ją przed ich popełnianiem.

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of monomeric mercury(II) selenolate complexes derived from 2-phenylbenzamide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saket; Meenakshi; Hodage, Ananda S; Verma, Ajay; Agrawal, Shailendra; Yadav, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-03-07

    Monomeric Hg(II) selenolate complexes derived from 2-phenylbenzamide ligands were prepared by oxidative addition of diselenides [{C6H4(CONR2)Se}2, R = Me, Et, iPr] to elemental Hg and reductive cleavage of the Se–N bond of isoselenazolone derivatives [(NO2)C6H3(CONSe)R, (R = allyl, nbutyl)] followed by the treatment with HgCl2. The complexes have been characterized by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C and 77Se) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry which suggest the monomeric form of these in solution. The molecular structures of diselenides [C6H4(CONR2)Se]2 and mercury selenolates [Hg{(NO2)C6H3(CONH-C3H5) Se}2], [Hg{C6H4(CONiPr2)Se}2] and [Hg{C6H4(CONMe2)Se}2] were established by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Diselenides show strong intramolecular non-bonded Se⋯O interactions, which are influenced by the nature of C(O)NR̲2 and decrease with the sterically bulky alkyl substituent (Se⋯O =2.823 Å for R = di-Me, 2.760 Å for R = allyl, and 3.157 Å for R = di-iPr). Mercury complexes derived from less bulky 2-phenyl-N,N-dialkylbenzamide ligands associated with poor or no intramolecular nonbonded Hg⋯O interactions (4.91 Å for R = di-Me, 4.199 Å for R = allyl) and instead strong intermolecular Hg⋯O [2.792(3) and 2.820(4) Å] for di-Me and allyl and Hg⋯Se [3.3212(5) and 3.4076(8) Å] interactions were observed which lead to a dimeric form in the crystals. On the other hand, the mercury complex derived from the sterically bulky diisopropyl amide ligand shows a strong intramolecular non-bonded Hg⋯O (2.860 Å) interaction, adopts linear geometry and exists as a monomer. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the mercury selenolate complexes revealed two-step decomposition which leads to the formation of HgSe. The mercury selenolate complex 3c derived from the sterically bulky 2-phenyl-N,Ndiisopropylbenzamide ligand decomposed to give HgSe in the range of 220-300 °C.

  20. Fistules scrotales révélant un adénocarcinome mucineux du scrotum: à propos d’un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alaoui, Abdelilah; El Boté, Hicham; Ziouani, Oussama; Dembele, Oussman; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2017-01-01

    Les fistules scrotales sont rares, et souvent secondaires à des lésions de tuberculose. Les adénocarcinomes mucineux sont des tumeurs qui renferment au moins 50% de mucus extracellulaire, et siègent préférentiellement sur le recto sigmoïde, la localisation scrotale est inhabituelle. Nous rapportons un cas d’adénocarcinome mucineux secondaire du scrotum révélé par des fistules scrotales, chez un patient âgé de 54 ans, sans antécédents pathologiques notables, qui présente depuis deux ans des fistules scrotales à répétition, sans autres signes associés. L’examen trouve de multiples fistules scrotales avec issue de pus épais, le toucher rectal est normal. Les explorations urologiques (UIV, UCRM, Cystoscopie, …) sont normales, le bilan infectieux ainsi que la recherche de BK dans les urines et le crachat sont négatives. La biopsie de la peau scrotale est revenue en faveur d’un adénocarcinome mucineux moyennement différencié, dont l’étude immun histochimique est en faveur d’une origine primitive colorectale. L’évolution a été marqué par l’apparition de fistules anales complexes, ayant a l’IRM une caractéristique active, alimentant plusieurs collections pelvi périnéales comportant des bourgeons charnus. Sur le plan thérapeutique et vu la rareté de ce cancer, il n’y a pas de consensus. La résection chirurgicale reste le traitement de choix pour cette affection. La radio chimiothérapie pré opératoire est préconisée pour ce type de cancer mais son rôle n’est pas bien établi. Chez notre patient on a opté pour une radio chimiothérapie néo adjuvante première, avant la réalisation d’une amputation abdomino- périnéale. PMID:28674583

  1. Ideación suicida en la adolescencia: Una explicación desde tres de sus variables asociadas en Bogotá, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Carvajal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre desesperanza, soledad y grado de salud familiar en adolescentes escolarizados, cony sin ideación suicida, para profundizar en el conocimiento del fenómeno desde la disciplina de enfermería y plantear opcionesde promoción y prevención en Bogotá, Colombia.Métodos: Se utilizó el estudio cuantitativo descriptivo correlacional comparativo de corte transversal. La muestra seseleccionó en el período comprendido entre febrero y abril de 2009, a través de un muestreo mixto y estuvo constituida por482 adolescentes escolarizados entre 14 y 17 años. A través del empleo de análisis estadísticos de tipo univariado, bivariadoy multivariado se describió el comportamiento de cada una de las variables, se exploraron las relaciones y contrastes entreéstas y se estimó el efecto de las variables independientes en la presencia de ideación suicida. Se siguieron todas lasconsideraciones éticas para el desarrollo de investigaciones con seres humanos.Resultados: Entre los adolescentes investigados 20% de la muestra informó presencia de pensamientos o deseos suicidasde variada intensidad. Todas las variables estudiadas influyen la presencia de ideación suicida en los adolescentes a excepciónde edad, estrato socioeconómico, localidad y tipo de colegio. Sin embargo a partir de la construcción de modelos de regresiónlogística se observó que las variables que mejor explican la presencia de ideación suicida son: antecedente de intento desuicidio, baja autoestima, depresión y pertenecer a una familia poco saludable.Conclusiones: Los datos sobre ideación e intento suicida obtenidos en este estudio apoyan la idea de implementar mayoresesfuerzos preventivos al interior de las familias y las escuelas. Identificar los adolescentes en riesgo de suicidio o dealteraciones de la salud mental y construir programas efectivos de prevención y programas de tratamiento es una prioridad.

  2. Electrocatalysts with platinum, cobalt and nickel preparations by mechanical alloyed and CVD for the reaction of oxygen reduction; Electrocatalizadores a base de platino, cobalto y niquel preparados por aleado mecanico y CVD para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M. A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this research, the molecular oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated on electrocatalysts of Co, Ni, Pt and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi and PtCoNi by using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 and KOH 0.5 M solutions as electrolytes. The electrocatalysts were synthesized by Mechanical Alloying (MA) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) processes. For MA, metallic powders were processed during 20 h of milling in a high energy SPEX 8000 mill. For CVD, a hot-wall reactor was utilized and Co, Ni and Pt acetilactetonates were used as precursors. Films were deposited at a total pressure of 1 torr and temperatures of 400-450 C. Electrocatalysts were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Electrocatalysts prepared by mechanical alloying showed a homogeneously dispersed agglomeration of particles with nano metric size. Electrocatalysts obtained by CVD showed, in some cases, non uniform films, with particles of nano metric size, as well. The electrocatalytic performance was evaluated by using the Rotating Disk Electrode technique (RDE). Electrocatalysts prepared by MA showed higher activity than those obtained by CVD. All electrocatalysts were evaluated in alkaline media. Only electrocatalysts containing Pt were evaluated in acid media, because those materials with Co, Ni and their alloys showed instability in acidic media. Most electrocatalysts followed a mechanism for the ORR producing a certain proportion of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. All electrocatalysts, exhibited a fair or good electrocatalytic activity in comparison with other similar reported materials. It was found that MA and CVD are appropriate processes to prepare electrocatalysts for the ORR with particles of nano metric size and performing with an acceptable catalytic activity. PtCoNi 70-23-7% by MA and PtCoNi-CVD electrocatalysts showed the highest activity in alkaline media, while in acidic

  3. 1例阿德福韦酯致范可尼综合征并继发低磷性骨软化症的药学监护%Pharmaceutical Care of One Case of Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia Secondary by Fanconi Syndrome Caused by Adefovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊; 辛晓玮; 赵杉杉; 姚文; 隋忠国

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the feature of one case of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia secondary to Fanconi syndrome caused by adefovir and discuss the key points of pharmaceutical care of these patients.Methods:The correct phosphorus supplement and monitoring of relevant indexes in patients with hypophosphatemic osteomala-cia caused by adefovir were guided by combination of the clinical situation of a patients and the relevant data in re-cent years.Results:The patient got eusemia after withdrawal of adefovir or substitution with other antiviral drugs as well as symptomatic treatment including the supplements of phosphorus, calcium and vitamin D.Conclusion:All the patients receiving adefovir ester, regardless of the dosage, needed the relevant inspection regularly. Once Fan-coni syndrome occurred, other antiviral drugs should be used immediately instead of adefpvor ester.%目的:对1例阿德福韦酯致范可尼综合征并继发低磷性骨软化症患者的病例特点进行总结,并结合文献资料,探讨该类患者的药学监护要点。方法:检索近年来国内外有关阿德福韦酯引起低磷性骨软化症的相关文献,并结合临床中1例患者的诊疗情况,指导该类患者进行正确的补磷以及相关指标的监测。结果:通过停用阿德福韦酯或换用其他抗病毒药物,并予以补磷、补钙、补维生素D等对症治疗,可以达到良好的预后。结论:凡服用阿德福韦酯的患者,无论剂量大小,均需定期进行相关检查,以监测是否发生范可尼综合征。一旦发生,应立即换用其他抗病毒药物。

  4. Synthesis and characterization of novel coatings for corrosion protection and hydrogen embrittlement inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajan, Anand

    parameters controlling hydrogen permeation have been obtained by applying a mathematical model to experimental results. Molten carbonate fuel cells fall in the class of high temperature fuel cells with operating temperatures ranging from 600°C to 700°C. They offer many advantages over the other low temperature systems. However, corrosion of NiO cathode and SS current collector limit the commercialization of this technology. Electroless deposition of cobalt and Co-Ni alloys has been adopted as method to improve the stability of these MCFC components. These surface modified components have been studied using a variety of electrochemical and physical characterization methods proving their superior performance than the state-of-the-art components.

  5. Faire du business au bas de la pyramide : la réalité des marches émergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Le rôle du business a été traditionnellement ignoré dans les débats internationaux portant sur le développement économique et la lutte contre la pauvreté. Toutefois, le succès mondial récent du secteur de la téléphonie mobile et son essor rapide sur les marchés émergents au cours des deux dernières décennies ont imposé une remise en question. Au lieu de stratégies de développement descendantes, orientées sur l’aide, les débats portent à présent davantage sur la fourniture de biens et de services rentables à la base de la pyramide économique (BOP, comme le font les entreprises de téléphonie mobile. Des équipes de recherche du CEMS (Centre for Emerging Markets Solutions  ont découvert que, bien qu’il soit possible de desservir de façon rentable les marchés BOP, cela exige de s’écarter des stratégies préconisées dans les publications ordinaires sur la BOP. Cette approche oblige notamment à aborder des questions liées au climat macroéconomique et commercial du pays, aux erreurs d’appréciation du risque, à l’esprit d’entreprise. Elle implique également une réorientation, afin de s'éloigner des multinationales et de se rapprocher du secteur des petites entreprises, avec les coûts de transaction qui le minent. Ce document examine également quelques modèles d’entreprise durables qui ont fonctionné sur ces marchés et analyse quelques secteurs que les capitaux commerciaux trouveront extrêmement intéressants et dignes d’investissements. Enfin, nous étudierons comment structurer et exploiter les énormes opportunités commerciales générées par le traitement du manque d'organisation des marchés BOP, à l’aide d’une combinaison de modèles d’entreprise innovants (en particulier autour de structures à coût réduit, de recherche, d’esprit d’entreprise et de capitaux patients.

  6. Changes in spinal range of motion after a flexibility training program in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Battaglia,1,2 Marianna Bellafiore,1,2 Giovanni Caramazza,2 Antonio Paoli,3 Antonino Bianco,1,2 Antonio Palma1,2 1Department of Law, Society, and Sport Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 2Sicilian Regional Sports School of Italian National Olympic Committee (CONI, Sicily, Italy; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Background: Aging-related reduced spinal mobility can interfere with the execution of important functional skills and activities in elderly women. Although several studies have shown positive outcomes in response to spinal flexibility training programs, little is known about the management of sets and repetitions in training protocols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week specific and standardized flexibility training program on the range of spinal motion in elderly women. Methods: Participants were recruited in a senior center of Palermo and randomly assigned in two groups: trained group (TG and control group (CG, which included 19 and 18 women, respectively. TG was trained for 8 weeks at two sessions/week. In particular, every session included three phases: warm up (~10 minutes, central period (~50 minutes, and cool down (~10 minutes. CG did not perform any physical activity during the experimental period. Spinal ranges of motion (ROM were measured from neutral standing position to maximum bending position and from neutral standing position to maximum extension position before and after the experimental period, using a SpinalMouse® device (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland. Results: After the training period, TG showed an increase in spinal inclination by 16.4% (P<0.05, in sacral/hip ROM by 29.2% (P<0.05, and in thoracic ROM by 22.5% (P>0.05 compared with CG from maximum extension position to maximum bending position. We did not observe any significant difference in TG's lumbar ROM compared with CG after the training period (P>0.05. Conclusion

  7. 用N235从大洋多金属结核萃铜余液中萃取钴%Study on Selective Extracting Co with N235 from Cu Extraction Raffinate of Ocean Polymetallic Nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 叶绍龙; 周一华; 张茂

    2011-01-01

    研究了用N235从大洋多金属结核熔炼-锈蚀-萃取工艺中所产出的萃铜余液中萃取分离钴的方法.实验结果表明,N235萃取钴效果明显,负载有机相中的钴能被稀酸反萃完全.采用N235萃取和稀酸反萃方法可以把Co(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)分离开.从含钴0.85g/L的料液中,按相比VO/VA=1/2,经四级逆流萃取,二级反萃可将钻富集到15.20g/L,萃余液中含钴0.0055g/L,萃余液中Ni/Co高达1 838,反萃液中Co/Ni=1 520,产品质量符合优质工业氯化钴质量要求,钴镍萃取分离效果甚佳,钴的回收率大于98%.%The extraction of Cobalt from the Cu extraction raffinate from melting-rusting-solvent extraction circuit with N235 for Ocean Polymetallic Nodules was studied. The experimental results demonstrate an excellent performance of N235 for Cobalt extraction, while Cobalt can be completely reverse extracted from loaded organic phase by dilute acid. Cobalt ( Ⅱ ) and Ni( Ⅱ ) can be separated from each other by the processes of extraction with N235 and re-extraction with dilute acid. The solution containing 0. 85 g/L of Co at a phase ratio Vo/VA = 1/2 was processed by four-stage coun tercurrent extraction and two-stage re-extraction, cobalt can be concentrated to be 15. 20 g/L. While the extraction raffi nate containing 0.0055 g/L of Co. Ni/Co in the extraction raffinate is up to 1 838 and Co/Ni in re-extraction solution is 1 520. The recovery rate of Co is more than 98% , indicating a good separating result for Co and Ni. The product also meets the standard for high-quality cobalt chloride for industry.

  8. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/{Delta}E{approx}-10{sup 6} in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  9. Geochemistry of magnetite from Proterozoic Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian metallogenic province, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei Terry; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Hu, Ruizhong

    2015-10-01

    -sulfide stage have slightly higher Cu, Zn, and Mn and are thought to have crystallized from relatively low-temperature and Cu-Zn-Mn-rich fluids evolved from the fluids of the early Fe-oxide stage. Our results show that magnetite from the Fe-Cu deposits in the Kangdian Province, banded iron formation, Fe skarn deposits, diabase-hosted hydrothermal Fe deposits, and magmatic deposits has significantly different compositions. We propose that covariations of Co-Ni, Zn-Sn, and Co/Ni-Mn can be used to effectively discriminate different deposit types.

  10. Selected Abstracts of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 26-31, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2015-10-01

    (Italy ABS 30. Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP as a family-centred supportive intervention • N. Bertoncelli • Modena (Italy ABS 31. From adult to pediatric radiology. Entropy-based imaging algorithms for applications in Pediatric Medicine • A. Casanova, C. Cabula, L. Barberini, L. Tusa, M. Puddu, V. Ruggiero • Cagliari (Italy ABS 32. NCAM is expressed in the metanephric mesenchyme undergoing mesenchymal epithelial transition in the developing human kidney • E. Di Felice, D. Fanni, G. Senes, M. Fanos, R. Aprile, M. Piras, C. Gerosa • Cagliari and Ravenna (Italy ABS 33. Primary HCMV infection in pregnancy: preliminary metabolomic data on amniotic fluid • M. Zavattoni, F. Palmas, C. Fattuoni, M. Casu, A. Noto, A. Dessì, L. Barberini, D. Grapov, A. Casanova, V. Fanos • Cagliari and Pavia (Italy, and Ballwin (MO, USA ABS 34. NMR-based metabolomics analysis of urinary changes in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis • A. De Magistris, S. Corbu, F. Cesare Marincola, M. Gueye, B. Pastor-Diez, A. Dessì, A. Noto, A. Reali, V. Fanos, M. Puddu, J.-C. Picaud • Cagliari (Italy and Lyon (France ABS 35. Promoting the consumption of fish in children: a proposal from San Benedetto del Tronto • I. Farnetani • Milan (Italy ABS 36. New diagnostic algorithm for the diagnosis of the α-1-antitripsin deficit • M. Pautasso, A. Gigante, G. Orrù, G. Serreli, S. Farci, G. Pichiri, P. Coni, F. Coghe • Cagliari (Italy ABS 37. What neonatologists can expect from laboratory medicine: the example of cystic fibrosis • V. Raia • Naples (Italy ABS 38. Listeriosis-related necrotizing enterocolitis: a case report in a preterm newborn • G. Locci, E. Obinu, V. Marinelli, F. Birocchi, F. Cioglia, A. Dessì, E. Coni, R. Ambu • Cagliari (Italy ABS 39. Treating pain in neonates: history yet to be written • E. Bernabei • Aversa (Italy ABS 40. What is the functional background of filigree extracellular matrix and cell-cell connections

  11. Selected Abstracts of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 22-25, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2014-06-01

    (Italy ABS 9. Traffiking of thymosin beta-4 in the cellular compartments of HepG2 cells at different conditions • M. Piras, M. Piludu, G. Pichiri, P. Coni, T. Cabras, R. Ambu, M. Castagnola; Cagliari and Rome (Italy ABS 10. Thyroid carcinoma in sardinian children and adolescents is often associated with autoimmune thyroiditis • P. Coni, E. Tamponi, A. Lampis, G. Pinna, A.M. Nurchi, S. Farci, M.L. Lai; Cagliari (Italy ABS 11. Prolonging nephrogenesis in preterm infants: a new approach for the prevention of renal disease in adulthood? • A. Sanna, C. Gerosa, D. Fanni, P. Van Eyken, M. Castagnola, R. Ambu; Cagliari, Rome (Italy and Leuven (Belgium ABS 12. Human adrenal gland development: morphogenesis and molecular mechanisms • E. Obinu, V. Fanos, A. Dessì, R. Ambu; Cagliari (Italy ABS 13. Biometrics application for newborns safe identification in Neonatal Intensive Care Units • A. Casanova, S. Barra, M. De Marsico, D. Riccio, L. Barberini, M. Puddu, V. Fanos; Cagliari, Rome and Naples (Italy ABS 14. Metabolomics in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE: a proposal for a european multicenter study • P. Gancia, G. Pomero, A. Delogu, C. Dalmazzo, G. Palmas, V. Fanos; Cuneo and Cagliari (Italy ABS 15. Longitudinal evaluation of myocardial function in infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE: preliminary data • F. Vitali, S. Galletti, A. Aceti, L. Ridolfi, G. Aquilano, M. Fabi, G. Faldella; Bologna (Italy ABS 16. Changes in podocyte number during intrauterine development • M. Desogus, A. Crobe, A. Sanna, C. Gerosa, C. Fanni, C. Loddo, M. Puddu, G. Ottonello, D. Fanni; Cagliari (Italy ABS 17. Efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin in anemic pregnant women with heterozygous beta-thalassemia • S. Angioni, V. Mais, G.B. Melis; Cagliari (Italy ABS 18. WT1 expression in ontogenesis of human fetus • R. Ambu, L. Vinci, C. Gerosa, D. Fanni, E. Obinu, A. Faa, V. Fanos; Cagliari (Italy ABS 19. Brain hypothermia in perinatal arterial ischemic

  12. Des relations plus humaines ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Ricciardi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une approche sociohistorique, cet article s’intéresse aux effets de la croissance économique sur l’identité des cadres, en l’occurrence les groupements de cadres et patrons italiens qui, au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, essaient de conjuguer les principes du catholicisme social dont ils se réclament dans l’arène publique avec les logiques issues du productivisme managérial américain qui s’impose en Europe occidentale. Le prisme des méthodes de « relations humaines » pour la gestion des salariés est ici utilisé pour rendre compte des modes de construction d’une identité professionnelle prise entre l’« esprit du religieux » et l’« esprit du capitalisme ». La déclinaison des « relations humaines » en fonction du projet de justice sociale préconisé par la doctrine sociale de l’Église en ressort amendée, car elles sont perçues moins comme un levier pour l’intégration des salariés que comme un instrument au service du contrôle politique de ceux-ci.Are the relations more human? Catholic executives and the employers facing the managerial productivism (Italy, ‘50s-‘60sThis article deals with the effects of economic growth on the identity of managers and the employers, especially the Italian ones who, after the World War II, try to combine their catholic principles with the issues of the managerial productivism spreading in the Western Europe. Adopting a socio-historical framework, the article analyses the implementation of the human relations techniques for the management of personnel in order to grasp a split professional identity between the ‘spirit of religious’ and the ‘spirit of capitalism’. The declination of the human relations theories according to the principles of social justice advocated by the social doctrine of the Church has been amended, because of the perception of the human relations as a means for political control of workers rather than an

  13. Contemporary Slavery and the Struggle for Self-Determination: The Case of the Guaraní People from the Bolivian Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bergier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Slavery and the Struggle for Self-Determination: The Case of the Guaraní People from the Bolivian Chaco For over a century, the Bolivian Guaraní people have been subjected to infrahuman treatment which involved practices such as slavery, forced labor and servitude. The new agrarian legislation, aimed at reversing the concentration of the economic and social power in the hands of a small regional elite, represented a shift in a state policy, facilitating the access of indigenous peoples to collective land property and thereby enabling them to break away from the conditions of debt bondage and forced labor. The article examines the current situation of the Guaraní and focuses on the changes and challenges that have been introduced to their way of life due to the implementation of the clearing title process which brought about a partial reconstitution of their territory. It presents the recent data on their struggle to redefine and reconstruct their cultural identity and places emphasis on specific cultural elements considered valuable by the Guaraní society: territorial management, native language, customary law and wider inclusion of women in decision-making structures within the indigenous political organization.   Współczesne niewolnictwo i walka o autodeterminację: casus kultury Guaraní z boliwijskiego Chaco Przez ponad stulecie boliwijscy Indianie Guaraní byli przedmiotem nieludzkiego traktowania z powodu praktyk takich jak niewolnictwo, praca przymusowa oraz poddaństwo. Reformy agrarne, których celem była redystrybucja władzy ekonomicznej i społecznej, skoncentrowanej w rękach niewielkiej regionalnej elity, spowodowały zmianę w polityce rządowej, gwarantując dostęp ludów tubylczych do kolektywnej własności ziemi. Proces ten umożliwił przedstawicielom kultury Guaraní zerwanie zależności wynikających z systemu pracy przymusowej i więzienia za długi. Niniejszy artykuł jest poświęcony obecnej

  14. Konstruowanie „ja” w twórczości Franciszka Karpińskiego na tle epoki i jej tendencji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Górecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructing the self in the literary work of Franciszek Karpiński against the background of the Enlightenment and its tendencies The presented paper provides analysis of the notion ‘autobiographism’ contextualised in the literary output of the Polish poet of the enlightenment, Franciszek Karpiński. The question of autobiographism is presented in terms of the literature and philosophy of Jean Jacques Rousseau. This analysis of the phenomena of authenticity and autobiographicality is concerned with constructing oneself in literature as illustrated by certain works, with the primacy of the mundane The History Of My Age And People With Whom I Lived. The essay draws on The Confessions by Rousseau with a view to specifying the connections between these two novels. The consciousness of the impact Rousseau had on the European sense of literature breaks new ground in the interpretation of the legacy of Karpiński. It also enables the recognition of the complete and compact project situated on the verge of literature and philosophy. The breakthrough of this project is contained in the priority given to the Polish historical literary process and the novelty of the autobiographical attitude, which is considered through the application of basic conceptions concerning autobiographism and the modern identity project of the aesthetic human.   Konstruowanie „ja” w twórczości Franciszka Karpińskiego na tle epoki i jej tendencji Szkic poświęcony jest zagadnieniu autobiografizmu w twórczości Franciszka Karpińskiego ujmowanemu pod kątem jego związków z twórczością i filozofią Jana Jakuba Rousseau. Analiza zjawisk autentyczności i autobiograficzności dotyka kwestii konstruowania siebie w literaturze na przykładzie konkretnych utworów, z których najważniejszym jest przełomowa dla historii polskiej literatury powieść Karpińskiego Historia mego wieku i ludzi z którymi żyłem. Przedmiotem analizy są m.in. jej związki z Wyznaniami

  15. Technical Features of the Architecture of an Electronic Trilingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorii Chetverikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technical Features of the Architecture of an Electronic Trilingual Dictionary This article is devoted to the development of the software system used to create an English-Russian-Ukrainian terminological dictionary. Scanned and recognized documents in MSWord format were the input data for the dictionary. Issues which appeared during the parsing of the input data are analyzed and solutions using regular expressions are identified. This article also describes the scheme of the dictionary’s lexicographical database, and its classes of models, views and view models. In addition, a detailed description of the software system from a user’s perspective is included, the prospects for the usage of the dictionary are discussed, and the methods used during the development of the system are described. The software system is built using the design pattern Model-View-View-Model. Through the use of this pattern, internal logic is separated from user interface, thus changes made in different parts of the software may be independent. The developed software system allows users to edit, to fill, and thus to create new thematic transferable electronic dictionaries. The main advantage of the system is the equality of languages, i.e. each user can decide which language is to be major.   Opracowanie oprogramowania trzyjęzycznego słownika elektronicznego Artykuł jest poświęcony opracowaniu oprogramowania rosyjsko-ukraińsko-angielskiego słownika terminologicznego. Za wejściowe dane autorzy przyjęli zeskanowane i rozpoznane dokumenty w formacie MSWord. Błędy powstałe w czasie analizy składniowej wejściowych danych zostały przeanalizowane, a autorzy wskazali drogę ich likwidacji za pomocą regularnych wyrażeń. W pracy została dokładnie opisana baza leksykograficzna danych słownika, zostały opisane klasy modelu danych i klasy modelu prezentacji systemu. Oprogramowanie jest zbudowane w taki sposób, aby można było wykorzystać szablon

  16. Accentuation récente de la vulnérabilité liée à la mobilité du trait de côte et à la salinisation des sols dans l'archipel de Kerkennah (Tunisie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Lucile

    2014-10-01

    L'archipel de Kerkennah, situé dans le Golfe de Gabès en Tunisie, est composé d'une dizaine de petites îles dont le relief est très plat et la lithologie meuble et fragile. Les espaces les plus bas sont occupés par des sebkhas, espaces salés et stériles. L'évolution du climat et l'élévation relative du niveau de la mer ainsi que les Évolutions importantes des modes de vie et de production locaux ont conduit à des changements majeurs dans l'occupation du sol. Dans ce contexte, cette thèse vise à comprendre l'évolution de la vulnérabilité liée à la mobilité du trait de côte et à la salinisation des sols depuis les années 1960. Des études diachroniques de photo-interprétation et télédétection ont été réalisées afin d'observer et mesurer l'évolution de l'occupation du sol, du trait de côte et de l'extension des surfaces de sebkhas. Grâce à ces études et à des relevés de terrain, il est apparu que les côtes subissent majoritairement une érosion significative (0,12m/an) et que les surfaces de sebkhas s'étendent. Ces phénomènes physiques, associés aux évolutions de l'occupation des sols et aux modes de gestion parfois peu adaptés, ont conduit à une augmentation de la vulnérabilité liée à la mobilit:é du trait de côte et à la salinisation des sols. Les résultats d'un questionnaire, proposé à 139 personnes, laissent penser que la population locale perçoit le retrait de la côte et la salinisation des sols comme étant des phénomènes préoccupants et dangereux. Ainsi le contexte local est plutôt cohérent avec des phénomènes dommageables réels et une population qui semble les connaître. Cependant, la gestion littorale dans l'archipel ne semble prendre en compte ni la vulnérabilité existante, ni la perception et les connaissances de la population locale. Même si la gestion intégrée des zones côtières est préconisée en Tunisie, elle n'est pas mise en place dans l'archipel de Kerkennah.

  17. Le projet de loi antiterroriste canadien : une sélection sécuritaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Dominique-Legault

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La manière dont est défini le terrorisme en tant que problème public détermine la manière de concevoir les solutions à ce problème. Ainsi, la perception que des mesures sécuritaires sont adéquates, nécessaires, efficaces, proportionnelles ou, au contraire, qu’elles sont abusives ou déséquilibrées, est largement tributaire d’un processus définitionnel. Dans cet article, nous identifions comment les parlementaires canadiens ont défini le problème du terrorisme dans le cadre des débats sur le projet de loi antiterroriste canadien, qui ont eu lieu du 15 octobre 2001 au 18 décembre 2001. Plus encore, nous examinons l’impact que ces différentes constructions discursives a eu sur ce que les solutions préconisées par les parlementaires, solutions qui transparaissent dans les mesures proposées par et dans le projet de loi. Cet article traite ainsi de la sélection sécuritaire qui s’est opérée dans le projet de loi C-36, c’est-à-dire de la stratégie sécuritaire générale qui a été priorisée. Nous qualifierons la forme particulière que prend cette sélection en la situant au sein des alternatives proposées qui ont été écartées, avec pour objectif de mieux comprendre ce choix sécuritaire et ses implications. Au final, seront proposées des pistes de réflexion sur les effets de pouvoir des discours sélectionnés et institués dans le projet de loi antiterroriste canadien.The way in which terrorism is defined as a public problem determines how solutions are designed to address this problem. Thus, the perception that security measures are adequate, necessary, effective, proportional or how they are perceived unfair or unbalanced, is largely dependent on a definitional process. In this paper, we identify how Canadian parliamentarians have defined the problem of terrorism in the context of the discussions on the proposed Canadian Anti-Terrorism Bill, which took place from October 15th, 2001 to December 18th

  18. Powieść historyczna pod czujnym okiem cenzora – analiza tekstów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Deleixhe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The historic novel under the vigilance of the censor – analysis of texts This article focuses on the relation that Jacek Bochenski’s historical novel entitled The poet Naso published in 1969 presents towards the concept of censorship. In the article the author aims at proving that the understanding of censorship by Bochenski is similar to the observations of the Hungarian essayist Mikos Haraszti. Tracking the allegoric references scattered through the novel, the author of the article reconstructs Bochenski’s reflection about this internalized censorship and checks its convergence with Haraszti’s remarks. From this exercise emerges a definition of the role of the artist that seems to be inherited from the romantic period: an artist as a person that subordinates himself unconditionally to art, and not to the temporal power. The author of the article then interrogates the respect which Bochenski has been showing to his definition in his literary work. It appears that the writer has been prone to make bigger concessions in order to soften the reception of his book by the censors than he advises his writing colleagues. However, the literary strategies deployed by Bochenski operate on two levels: creating an overall ambiguity about the guilt of its main protagonist, they tend to soften its reception by the censorship; while at the same time, rendering this overall atmosphere of ambiguity, they give a literary form to the spectral character of the guilt of the artist, who – as in Ovidius’ case – is permanently accountable for what he has not yet done in the building of communism.   Powieść historyczna pod czujnym okiem cenzora – analiza tekstów Artykuł poświęcony jest  powieści historycznej Jacka Bocheńskiego pt. Nazo poeta z roku 1969 i jego rozumieniu pojęcia cenzury uwewnętrznionej. Autor artkułu udowadnia, że ujęcie problemu cenzury przez Bocheńskiego jest zbliżone do konstatacji węgierskiego eseisty Mikl

  19. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  20. Języki zachodniosłowiańskie wobec pożyczek angielskich w ostatnim dwudziestoleciu – gramatyka, leksyka, pragmatyka, uwarunkowania społeczno-kulturowe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Smółkowa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available West Slavic languages and English loanwords in the last two decades – an overview of grammar, lexicon, pragmatics and the socio-cultural contex The recent decades, as is generally acknowledged, have been a period of profound changes in Central and Eastern Europe. These changes are reflected in the lexicon. Nominative needs have caused a remarkable vocabulary growth, with loanwords constituting a numerous and still growing group. The main research goal of the authors of the monograph project introduced in this article is to look into the influence of the English language upon West Slavic languages. The effect of Anglicisms on the phonetic, morphological and lexical subsystems will be subject to an in-depth examination. Of particular importance will be the adaptative processes affecting these loanwords in Czech, Polish and Slovak. The authors will also take into account the prag­matic aspect of borrowings as well as their functioning in the social and cultural context. This contrastive approach will make it possible to indicate similarities and differences in the process of assimilating English borrowings into West Slavic languages.   Języki zachodniosłowiańskie wobec pożyczek angielskich w ostatnim dwudziestoleciu – gramatyka, leksyka, pragmatyka, uwarunkowania społeczno-kulturowe Artykuł jest poświęcony omówieniu planowanej monografii na temat nowszych i najnowszych pożyczek angielskich w językach: czeskim, polskim i słowackim. Ostatnie dziesięciolecia były, jak wiadomo, okresem zasadniczych zmian w Europie środkowo-wschodniej. Zmiany te odzwierciedla leksyka. Potrzeby nominatywne spowodowały ilościowy wzrost słownictwa, w którym odrębną grupę – liczną i ciągle rosnącą – stanowią pożyczki. Zasadniczym celem badaw­ czym autorów monografii jest odpowiedź na pytanie, jaki jest wpływ języka angielskiego na języki zachodniosłowiańskie. Przedmiotem szczegółowych rozważań będzie oddzia

  1. Caractérisation rhéologique et modélisation structurelle des systèmes argile-polymère. Application aux fluides de forage Rheometry and Structural Modelling of Clay-Polymer Systems. Application to Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartalos U.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le comportement rhéologique des systèmes argile-polymère couramment utilisés dans les formulations des fluides de forage est examiné dans cet article. Un protocole d'essai adapté à leur nature thixotrope qui permet d'effectuer des mesures reproductibles est mis au point. Les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau sont ainsi déterminées sur toute la gamme de sollicitations : du comportement solide aux faibles déformations au comportement fluide aux taux de déformations intenses. Il est montré que ces systèmes sont caractérisés par des temps de restructuration longs, par des rhéogrammes en régime permanent présentant un minimum de contrainte et par des dépassements importants de la contrainte lors des essais transitoires. Ces effets peuvent être complètement masqués par des procédures d'essai préconisés par les normes en vigueur dans le forage. Une loi de comportement structurelle récente qui relie les propriétés thixotropes et viscoélastiques du matériau aux mécanismes de création et de rupture des flocs peut reproduire l'ensemble des phénomènes observés. Sa capacité de décrire le changement de structure au sein du fluide sous écoulement ou au repos et les variations associées de la contrainte permet d'envisager une meilleure modélisation de l'hydraulique du forage. The rheological behaviour of clay-polymer systems that are currently used in the formulation of drilling fluids was studied. A specific experimental procedure was used to account for thixotropic effects and obtain, thus, reproducible results. In this way it was possible to determine intrinsic properties in the whole range, from solid behaviour below the yield stress to liquid behaviour at very high shear. These systems are shown to be characterised by very long time scales of structure recovery, by the existence of a minimum shear stress in the steady state flow curve and by important stress overshoots in transient flows. These effects can be

  2. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Case study and scenarios on copper and cobalt in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Report 3.2); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Fallstudie und Szenarien zu Kupfer und Kobalt in der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (Teilbericht 3.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The Democratic Republic of Congo has enormous economic potential thanks to its raw material wealth. However, since 1996 (if not before) DR Congo has been seen as a classic example of the linkage between the exploitation of raw materials and the financing of war. The UN Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources in DR Congo points out that the history of Congo since colonial times has been marked by systematic abuse of natural and human resources (UN Panel 2002). The UN Panel of Experts and the work of NGOs have helped to reveal rebels, senior military figures and private companies as profiteers from the exploitation of raw materials and to identify channels of financing the violent conflict in Congo since 1996 (see reports from the UN Panel, Pole Institute, Global Witness, HRW). Foreign companies mining, trading in or processing raw materials in DR Congo have also been regularly criticised as sharing responsibility for the ongoing violence, principally in the eastern Congo (UN Panel 2002, Cuvelier/Raeymaekers 2002, RAID 2004). Practically every major escalation in conflict in recent years between the various players in Congo has been connected to the management of, or the (legal or illegal) revenues from, natural resources, particularly from mining. This observation was also backed by data from the HIIK's CONIS information system. In 2008, eight of nine conflicts in Congo related at least in part to resources - five being violent and three non-violent (HIIK 2008). Following the coltan boom of 2000/2001, it now primarily profits from the mining and sale of the tin oxide ore cassiterite which continue to serve as the key means of financing violence (see Garrett 2008).1 In DRK it is not only the mining and sale of coltan and cassiterite which represents a nexus of conflict and resources however. Alongside timber, diamonds, oil and gold, it is above all the mining and sale of copper and cobalt from the so-called copper belt in the south

  3. Cu isotope variability in Bavariás largest Cu-Zn deposit in Kupferberg (NE Bavaria, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Debaille, Vinciane; Debouge, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    Kupferberg, a small town c. 15 km northeast of Kulmbach, owns its existence to Bavaria's largest Cu-Zn deposit, which was mined intermittently from the 13th to the 19th century. The deposit is located in the Saxothuringian Zone of the Variscan basement in northeastern Bavaria. It is positioned between the allochthonous Münchberg metamorphic complex in the east and a major northwest-southeast tending regional fault zone, the "Franconian Lineament", in the west. The deposit is hosted by an Early Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary succession of the Randschiefer Formation (RF) and consists of a northwest-southeast directed string of several stratiform, sulfide-rich ore lenses. These lenses show a remarkably simple mineralogy dominated by quartz, carbonate, pyrite and chalcopyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite and chlorite. The genesis of the Cu-Zn mineralization has remained speculative. A purely syngenetic model, supported by the generally laminated appearance of the ore, has to be questioned because of the ore lenses occurring in different tectonic units. Urban & Vaché (1972) proposed supergene enrichment between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary as most critical. To test such a supergene versus hypogene Cu-mineralization, we investigated the Cu isotopic composition of primary and secondary Cu phases as well as the trace element distribution in three pyrite generations. The pyrite generation that is coeval with the principal Cu-mineralization in the form of chalcopyrite has Co/Ni ratios (on average 35) typical of hydrothermal, possibly metamorphic, formation. Chalcopyrite, present at highly variable modal proportions, yielded a narrow range in δ65Cu from -0.26 to 0.36 ‰Ḃoth the absolute values and the narrow range are similar to the δ65Cu range known for hydrothermal chalcopyrite in crustal rocks (Markl et al. 2006). Metamorphism has been shown to further restrict the range in δ65Cu (Ikehata et al. 2011) - an effect that might be applicable to Kupferberg. In

  4. Lésions bulleuses et purpuriques unilatérales: pathomimie cutanée

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoun, Mouna; Chiheb, Soumia; Marnissi, Farida; Kadiri, Nadia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2015-01-01

    La pathomimie cutanée est une forme particulière de troubles factices relativement rare, et constitue l'un des problèmes les plus complexes pour le dermatologue. Nous rapportons un cas de pathomimie révélée par des lésions cutanées unilatérales, mimant une brûlure. Une jeune femme de 27 ans, était suivie depuis 4 ans pour une dépression. Elle a présenté 15j avant sa 1ère hospitalisation un placard inflammatoire du sein gauche compliqué de lésions bulleuses et d’érosions superficielles. La biopsie cutanée avait montré une dermite non spécifique. Une cicatrisation rapide sous traitement local a été notée. Elle a présenté 10 jours plus tard de nouvelles lésions similaires étagées au membre inférieur gauche, évoluant vers le décollement bulleux spontané. La biopsie cutanée avait montré un décollement bulleux jonctionnel et des foyers de nécrose ischémique. L'IFD était négative. Devant les données anamnestiques, cliniques, la négativité du bilan paraclinique, et la guérison des lésions sous pansements occlusifs seuls, le diagnostic de pathomimie a été évoqué et retenu. La patiente a été adressée en psychiatrie où une thérapie cognitivo-comportementale a été préconisée. Notre observation correspond à un tableau de pathomimie de présentation clinique particulière par sa localisation unilatérale et son caractère bulleux. Chez notre patiente qui est droitière, la localisation unilatérale gauche sur des zones accessibles, l'absence de lésions spécifiques à l'examen histologique, la cicatrisation rapide des lésions sous traitement local occlusif seul et leur récurrence malgré des soins adaptés étaient en faveur d'une pathologie factice. Néanmoins, la localisation au niveau des seins peut être très déroutante. Le caractère bulleux des lésions dans le cadre d'une pathomimie a été rarement rapporté. Dans notre cas, la pathomimie s'associe à des troubles anxieux et dépressifs très importants

  5. Ecologia dello Scoiattolo comune (Sciurus vulgaris in boschi alpini di conifere: relazioni spaziali e trofiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scoiattolo comune è una specie generalista, legata per l?alimentazione principalmente alla disponibilità di semi di latifoglie o conifere. Numerosi fattori che influiscono sulla condizione individuale e sulla dinamica di popolazione (massa corporea, sopravvivenza invernale, successo riproduttivo sono correlati con la produttività dei boschi. Queste relazioni non sono mai state verificate per le foreste alpine di conifere, habitat dove lo scoiattolo comune sembra ben adattato. Per tale motivo è stato avviato uno studio sulla specie nel Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso. La ricerca è stata condotta in due aree: una in foresta mista di conifere (Cogne, 50 ha, Picea abies 45%, Larix decidua 54%, alberi morti 1%, l?altra in pecceta (Rhemes, 69 ha, Picea abies 85%, Larix decidua 11%, alberi morti 4%. La produzione energetica dei boschi (semi delle conifere è stata valutata moltiplicando il n. di piante/ha x il n. coni/pianta (contati su 60 alberi campione x il n. semi/cono x il peso medio dei semi, trasformando poi la biomassa in Mj. Le catture sono state effettuate tre volte l?anno, da agosto 2000 a ottobre 2002 con trenta trappole modello Tomahawk 201. Dopo la cattura e il rilascio degli animali, la trappola era ispezionata e le feci raccolte e conservate in etanolo 70% per la ricerca di spore fungine. Diciotto scoiattoli nel 2001 e 13 nel 2002 sono stati dotati di radiocollare (PD- 2C Holohil Systems Ltd. e seguiti in estate e autunno. La densità autunnale post-riproduttiva è stata di 0,30-0,35 animali/ha-1 a Rhemes e 0,27-0,45 animali/ha-1 a Cogne. La densità autunnale dei maschi è risultata correlata con la produzione di semi dell?anno precedente (r = 0,96, g.l. = 4, P = 0,003, mentre per le femmine è emersa una correlazione positiva confrontando le densità estive delle femmine nel 2000 con la produzione di semi di conifere nel 1999 e le densità del 2001 e del 2002 con la

  6. Gorycz zatrzymanego czasu. "Mirra, kadzidło i złoto"

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    Patrycjusz Pająk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness of suspended time. "Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh"  This article discusses the Croatian film "Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh", directed by Ante Babaja (1971. The film is a response to the unrealised vision of a communist utopia. It is set on a Dalmatian island during the era of real socialism. According to communist propaganda, real socialism is the fulfilled utopia, meaning the end of history. In Babaja’s interpretation, the end of history does not involve the victory of communism, but rather its defeat and the return of Catholic tradition as the only unquestionable value making sluggish, socialist everyday life possible to accept, since it gives sense and order to an axiologically degraded and alienated world. In this insular world, it is the traditional past and not the communist future which becomes an eternal present. Remaining outside of time among the relics of tradition is the only option in a situation where communist progress fails to produce the desired results. Tradition does not promise a new wonderful world and does not fix the current world, but it ensures balance between its contradictions. This situation leads to bitterness, since accepting it requires the acceptance of its dark side. The ironic attitude towards the Catholic tradition which is predominant in the first half of the film, turns into bitter affirmation of tradition in the second.   Gorycz zatrzymanego czasu. "Mirra, kadzidło i złoto" Artykuł poświęcony jest chorwackiemu filmowi "Mirra, kadzidło i złoto", wyreżysero­wanemu przez Ante Babaję w 1971 roku. Film stanowi odpowiedź na niespełnioną wizję utopii komunistycznej. Jego akcja rozgrywa się na dalmatyńskiej wyspie w okresie realnego socjalizmu. Wedle komunistycznej propagandy realny socjalizm to urzeczywistniona utopia, co oznacza, że historia się skończyła. W interpretacji Babai koniec historii nie wiąże się ze zwycięstwem komunizmu, lecz z jego klęską i powrotem tradycji

  7. 利用糠醛废水生产环保融雪剂的工艺研究%Research on the Process of Producing Environmentally-friendly Snowmelt Agent with Furfural Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国明; 于广军

    2012-01-01

    To protect environment and public facilities from damage of the pollution of furfural water and chlorate snowmelt agent, we come up with the new craft, which produce environmentally-friendly snowmelt agent-calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) from the acetic acid reaction of limestone, magnesium oxide and furfural water. First we make concentrate by double-effect evaporating neutralized furfural water, then produce calcium magnesium acetate in high concentration by adsorpting the concentrate with active carbon, and deliver the evaporated condensated water back to the furfural production, as a result the reusing of furfural water and zero discharge conies true. This article researches the process and parameters of producing environmentally-friendly snowmelt agent-calcium magnesium acetate with furfural water, which are based on experiments. The purity of the calcium magnesium acetate reached 92%, which well conforms to the quality specification of environmentally-friendly snowmelt agent. It accomplishes the efficient resources utilization of the furfural water by solving the bottleneck problem of non-environmentally-friendly producing the furfural, and lower the production cost by leaps aiid bounds. Finally the reusing of furfural water transfers from absolute investment to earning industry.%为解决目前糠醛废水产生的污染以及氯盐融雪剂对环境和公共设施造成的危害,提出采用新工艺,用石灰石、氧化镁等和糠醛塔底废水中的醋酸反应,直接制取环保型融雪剂醋酸钙镁(CMA)技术,并将中和后的废水经双效蒸发得到浓缩液,将浓缩液使用活性炭吸附得到纯度较高的醋酸钙镁,蒸发冷凝水回用糠醛生产,从而实现糠醛废水的资源化利用,达到污水的零排放.本论文通过实验研究确定利用糠醛废水生产环保融雪剂醋酸钙镁的工艺流程及参数,使生产的醋酸钙镁纯度达到92%,完全符合环保融雪剂的质量标准,既解决了制约糠醛

  8. 胶东金青顶金矿床成矿流体来源的黄铁矿微量元素及He-Ar同位素证据%Trace element and He-Ar isotopic evidence of pyrite for the source of oreforming fluids in the Jinqingding gold deposit, eastern Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运强; 李胜荣; 陈海燕; 张秀宝; 周起凤; 崔举超; 宋玉波; 郭杰

    2012-01-01

    The Jinqingding gold deposit with identified reserves of more than 50t is currently the largest lode gold deposit in terms of single vein gold resources and is also a superlarge gold deposit located in the middle part of the Muping- Rushan gold belt in Jiaodong; nevertheless, the genetic type and source of ore-forming fluids in the gold deposit constitute a problem that needs urgent solution. A study of trace elements and REE compositions and features of gold-bearing pyrite from No. II ore body of the Jinqingding gold deposit reveals that the pyrite displays hydrothermal characteristics with Co/Ni ratios from 2.317 to 11.734 (7.17 on average). The HFSE indicates that the ore-forming fluid originally belonged to the F-rich system and generally evolved into the Cl- rich system at the chief metallogenic stage, and the distribution patterns of REE shows that the source of matallogenic materials was not mainly from Mesozoic Kunyunshan monzonitic granite. According to an analysis of the characteristic parameters (3He/4He =0.1-2.2 Ra (0.60 Ra on average)),40Ar/36Ar =462.7-1507.5 (831 on average), it is considered that the source of matallogenic materials was mainly derived from the lower crust and was contaminated by meteoric water during the intrusion, and the mantle fluids were involved in the metallogenic process.%金青顶金矿床是目前国内最大的石英单脉型金矿,其金储量超过50 t,规模为大型.对该矿床成矿流体性质和来源的研究十分必要.笔者通过Ⅱ号矿体主要载金矿物黄铁矿微量元素的研究发现,其Co/Ni为2.317~11.734(平均7.17),显示主要为热液成因;高场强元素(HFSE)特征显示,成矿早期以富F流体为主,主成矿期以富C1流体为主;稀土配分模式显示成矿物质并不是直接来源于围岩昆嵛山二长花岗岩.对黄铁矿流体包裹体He、Ar同位素特征的研究表明,3He/4He、40Ar/36Ar分别为0.1~2.2 Ra(平均值0.60 Ra),462.7~1 507.5(平均值831),显示成

  9. Étude du profil cytokinique de patients atteints d’hydatidose : une possible application en matière d’immunosurveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezioug D.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’hydatidose est une zoonose endémique en Algérie et dans les pays du Maghreb. L’objectif de notre travail a porté sur l’exploration des cytokines exprimées dans le parcours des réponses immunitaires au cours de l’infection par Echinococcus granulosus. Cette étude a été réalisée en vue de situer l’implication du rapport Th1/Th2 dans l’évolution de la pathologie en fonction de la localisation anatomique du kyste, le stade et l’évolution clinique. Un dosage de l’interféron-γ (IFN-γ, de l’interleukine-12 (Il-12, de l’interleukine-16 (Il-16, de l’interleukine-18 (Il-18, de l’interleukine-4 (Il-4, de l’interleukine-5 (Il-5, de l’interleukine-10 (Il-10 et de l’interleukine-13 (Il-13 dans les sérums de patients algériens (n = 177 porteurs de kystes hydatiques au niveau hépatique, pulmonaire, hépatique et pulmonaire associés, splénique, rénale, osseux, cardiaque et multiples a été entrepris. L’analyse du profil des cytokines a été également réalisée chez les patients présentant des formes à complication (fissuration du kyste, rupture, calcification du kyste et les patients en phase de récidive et selon le stade clinique (pré- et post-opératoire. L’identification et l’évaluation des activités des cytokines considérées ont été réalisées par un dosage immuno-enzymatique (ELISA sandwich selon les méthodes préconisées par immunotech (France. Des teneurs significatives en IFN-γ, Il-12, Il-16, Il-18, Il-4, Il-5, Il-10 et Il-13 ont été détectées dans les sérums des patients en comparaison aux sujets “contrôles” (p < 0,001, suggérant la coexistence des deux voies Th1 et Th2 dans le mécanisme de défense mis en jeu par l’homme au cours de l’évolution de la parasitose. La comparaison des niveaux de production de ces médiateurs en fonction de la localisation anatomique des kystes montre que les teneurs sériques en IFN-γ, Il-12, Il-16 et Il-18, mesurées chez

  10. Studies on the Biology and Control of Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)%银合欢豆象生物学特性及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃新导; 周祥; 王涛; 陈秀龙; 宋付平; 虞道耿; 陈青

    2011-01-01

    The leucaena bruchid beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer, 1907), is an important insect of leucaena seeds and Falcataria moluccana was also used by the larva in China. Among RH75% and 20-35 ℃, The eggs hatch about 4~12 days after they are laid. The young larva comes out from the egg and then enters into and chews the pod. The larva feeds and grows, moults and pupates generally within a single seed. There is usually but not always only one bruchid in each seed. The larva overwinters in the seed. The larva pupates after it conies out from the egg about 18~37 days. And then after 5~11 days, it emerges into the adult. The adults can last about 17~31 days, and the sex ratio of female to male was 1:1. It takes 44~48 days for the bruchid beetle to complete its lifecycle under 26 ℃ and RH 80% . Averagely, A kind of parasitic wasp Pediobius sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is found parasitising the immature stages of A. Macrophthalmus. Among RH75%~80% and 25~30℃, all the adults, larva, and pupae died after treated 48~72 hours with aluminium phosphating (56% tablet) at the dose of 7~9 g/m3.%银合欢豆象象[canthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer,1907)]是银合欢属Leucae植物种子上的重要害虫,除银合欢外,也可蛀食南洋楹(Falcataria moluccana)种子.在75%RH及20~35℃的条件下,卵期为4~12d.幼虫期为18~37 d,蛹期为5~11 d.成虫寿命17~31 d,雌雄性别比约为1∶1.在75%RH及26℃条件下,银合欢豆象完成1个世代需要44~48 d.在野外,银合欢豆象在幼龄阶段常被一种姬小蜂科(Eulophidae)的柄腹姬小蜂属(Pediob ius Walker)寄生.在75%~80% RH及25~30℃条件下,使用56%磷化铝片剂对银合欢豆象进行熏蒸,用药量7~9 g/m3,熏蒸时间48~72h,成虫、幼虫及蛹死亡率100%.

  11. Solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique Solubilizing Coal in an Organic Environment

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    Lahaye Ph.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La solubilisation du charbon en milieu organique constitue une des voies préconisées pour la valorisation des houilles sous forme de combustibles liquides. Dans le cas d'extractions simples, conduites à des températures inférieures à 150-200' C, on obtient des rendements pondéraux en extrait qui varient, pour un même solvant, dans une large mesure selon les conditions opératoires du traitement et la nature du charbon utilisé. C'est ainsi que le rendement en extrait augmente, d'une part, avec le temps d'extraction, pour atteindre après 48 h une valeur maximale dans les conditions opératoires retenues, et, d'autre part, avec la température d'extraction. De plus, ce même rendement diminue plus ou moins régulièrement depuis les charbons gras jusqu'aux anthracites avec le degré de carbonisation des houilles. Par ailleurs, la nature physico-chimique des solvants d'extraction influe fortement sur les rendements pondéraux en extrait obtenus, dans des conditions opératoires identiques, à partir d'un même charbon. En règle générale, à température d'extraction comparable, le rendement en extrait s'avère d'autant plus important que la basicité du solvant est plus marquée. A cet égard, les composés azotés basiques apparaissent comme des solvants de grande efficacité. En outre, les mélanges binaires de composés basiques manifestent le plus souvent un pouvoir solvant supérieur à celui de leurs constituants engagés à l'état pur. Les principales conclusions dégagées de l'étude des charbons sont susceptibles d'être généralisées à l'extraction de la matière organique contenue dans les roches sédimentaires. Cool solubilisation in an organic environment is one of the recommended ways of upgrading cool in the form of liquid fuels. For simple extractions performed at temperatures lower thon 150-200° C, the weighted extract yields obtained with the same solvent vary to a large extent, depending on the operating

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hector Colonmer; Prabhu Ganesan; Nalini Subramanian; Dr. Bala Haran; Dr. Ralph E. White; Dr. Branko N. Popov

    2002-09-01

    This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three

  13. Discovery of double-peaking potassic volcanic rocks in Langshan Group of the Tanyaokou hydrothermal-sedimentary deposit, Inner Mongolia, and its indicating significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Runmin; ZHAI; Yusheng; WANG; Zhigang; HAN; Xuefeng

    2005-01-01

    It is revealed that the protolith of gray-light brown potash-feldspar-leucogranulites and granulites in the 2nd formation of the LG in Tanyaokou deposit are quartz kerotophyre of synsedimentary eruption based on the following facts and features: (1) The rocks look compact and homogeneous without obvious crystals with naked eyes; (2) they contain blastoporphyritic or glomeroporphyritic and blasto-crystalloclastic crystals consisting of quartz with wavy extinction and albite with obvious alteration and deformation; (3) they also contain radiated and fibrous blasto-microspherulitic texture and swallow-tailed bifurcate and blasto-hollow-skeleton crystal texture, representing the rapid cooling characteristic of the magma during submarine volcanic eruption; (4) the major chemical compositions of the rocks are: SiO2 = 70.80%―76.00%, K2O (4.83%―6.22%)>Na2O(2.78%―3.80%), and K2O+Na2O = 8.63%―9.00%; and (5) their petrochemical diagrams indicate that they are volcanic rocks. Together with the characteristic that they occur in the same sequence with potassic spilite (SiO2 = 46.12%―50.68%, K2O = 4.23%―5.93%>Na2O = 2.15%―3.14%, K2O+Na2O = 6.51%―8.08%), it can be confirmed that the volcanics occurring in the 2nd Formation of the LG in Tanyaokou district are double-peaking potassic volcanic rocks. The discovery, together with the tuffs with ore minerals and the distribution of lead isotopic as well as the value of Co/Ni of pyrites >1 showing the obvious endogenic metalization, can prove that the Tanyaokou deposit is an untypical SEDEX-type deposit formed in the extension fault basin in the Mesoproterozonic aulacogen of the northern margin of the North China Platform, and its metallogenesis is related to the synsedimentary volcanic activities and the hydrothermal exhalation, and both the ore-forming material source and volcanics came from mantle or lower crust. These facts mentioned above, together with the meta-volcanic rocks (double-peaking) found in the

  14. Orthographe & grammaire à l’université. Quels besoins ? Quelles démarches pédagogiques ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Boch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’étude prend appui sur une analyse statistique de 82 textes produits par des étudiants entrants dans la filière sciences du langage à l’université en septembre 2010. Cette typologie des erreurs (inspirée de  MANESSE ; COGIS, 2007 permet d’identifier les principaux besoins de ce public dans le champ de la langue écrite : morphologie verbale et usage des temps verbaux, accords, ponctuation, orthographe lexicale (double consonnes, accents, formation des adverbes. Cette étude a jeté les bases d’une formation spécifique destinée aux étudiants de Licence première et deuxième année désireux d’améliorer leurs performances en langue. La démarche pédagogique préconisée pour cette formation prend centralement en compte les spécificités du public jeune adulte, caractérisé en particulier par un déficit de confiance en soi lié à des difficultés en langue inscrites dans la durée. Afin de faire évoluer les représentations souvent inhibantes vis-à-vis de leurs propres capacités à progresser à l’écrit, la démarche adoptée cherche à placer les étudiants dans une posture réflexive (LAURENT, 2004, 2009 rompant ainsi avec une attitude passive consistant à recevoir et à (plus ou moins bien utiliser une norme trop peu questionnée (cf. MILLET et al., 1990, groupe RO, 2011. L’enjeu d’une telle formation nous semble résider essentiellement dans ce changement de posture, les contenus proposés (du niveau de l’école primaire et du collège ne présentant aucune difficulté intrinsèque. Dans cette perspective, nous adoptons une démarche résolument inductive, dont la caractéristique principale est de placer les apprenants en situation de chercheur (ici, linguiste, cf. BARTH, 2001, condition sine qua non pour qu’ils prennent réellement et activement en charge leurs apprentissages. Notre contribution présentera dans un premier temps les résultats de l’enquête puis développera la r

  15. Inhibitory Activities and Application of Four Plant Essential Oils%4种植物精油的抑菌活性及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓业成; 宁蕾

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory activities of four plant essential oils against eleven animal pathogenic bacteria and environmental mould were determined using broth dilution method and gaseous fumigation. The results showed that The MICs of oils from Litsea mollis , Citrus reticulata, Erigeron acer and Ageratum cony-zoides to the tested animal pathogenic bacteria were 0. 062 5Z~0. 5,0. 125~1 >2~4 and 0- 062 5~0. 125 mL/L,respectively. The inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis,C. reticulata and E. acer were high, and that of A. coNryzoides oil was relatively low. At a dose of 16 μ.L per utensil,the four plant essential oils had inhibition against environmental mould,and the inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis and C. reticulata were higher than that of another two oils. The oils of L, mollis and C. reticulata also had inhibitory effect on mould growth of bread at 27 °C and RH 80%. By studying the formulation of mouth-wash of plant essential oil,the optimum proportion of all components in the mouthwash was confirmed, and the mouthwash of L. mollis essential oil prepared. The removing rate of mouth bacteria by the new mouthwash reached 39. 96% , which was similar to the removing rate by commercial mouthwash and met the demand of industrial product. The principal compounds of four plant essential oils were also identified using GC/MS technique.%采用液体培养基稀释法测定4种植物精油对11种动物病原细菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC),山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油、飞蓬精油和胜红蓟精油的MIC分别为0.062 5~0.5、0.125~1、2~4和0.062 5~0.125mL/L;山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油和胜红蓟精油对供试病原细菌的抑菌活性好,飞蓬精油的抑菌活性相对较差.采用气态熏蒸法测定4种植物精油对环境常见霉菌的抑菌效果,当精油剂量为16μL/皿时,4种植物精油对环境霉菌有抑制作用,山苍子精油和南丰蜜橘精油的抑制效果较好(此2种精油在27℃下对面包霉变

  16. De didata de méritos reconhecidos a representative-man da escola tradicional: as interlocuções do educador paulista João Toledo - Of recognized merit taught a representative-man of traditional school: the dialogues of the educator of São Paulo João Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pinheiro, Brasil

    2012-07-01

    guided by models of lesson. Complementarism formed when the emphasis on primary teacher training was based on the pedagogy of teaching seen as art, João Toledo was adept at Herbartian conceptions and not joined the proposed new school. In the backdrop of decades of 20 and 30 figured as the author of books and magazine articles, is considered by some to be taught the merits recognized by others as representative of the traditional school-man.Keywords: João Toledo, education of São Paulo, teachers' formation. DU MÉRITE RECONNU ENSEIGNÉ UN REPRÉSENTANT-MAN DE L'ÉCOLE TRADITIONNELLE: LES DIALOGUES DE L'ÉDUCATEUR DE SÃO PAULO JOÃO TOLEDORésuméPour une discussion d'une donnée moment de l'éducation de São Paulo (1925-1934, l'article met en lumière un éducateur qui a préconisé une proposition de l'éducation pour une école brésilienne guidée par des modèles de leçon. Complémentarisme formé lorsque l'accent sur la formation des enseignants du primaire a été basée sur la pédagogie de l'enseignement considéré comme l'art, João Toledo a été habile à des conceptions de Herbart et de ne pas rejoint l'école proposée. Dans le contexte des décennies 20 et 30 figurait comme l'auteur de livres et d'articles de magazines, est considéré par certains d'être enseigné les mérites reconnus par les autres comme représentant de l'école traditionnelle homme.Mots-clé: João Toledo, São Paulo éducation, la formation des enseignants.

  17. Ariowie i Turańczycy. Poglądy Franciszka H. Duchińskiego na temat rasy i cywilizacji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wrzesińska

    2015-12-01

    should avoid to evaluate them as better or worse.   Ariowie i Turańczycy. Poglądy Franciszka H. Duchińskiego na temat rasy i cywilizacji Tekst jest poświęcony teorii niesłowiańskiego pochodzenia Rosjan. Jej autor, Franciszek H. Duchiński (1816-1893, uzasadniał odmienność cywilizacyjną Rosjan ich innym od pozostałych ludów Europy pochodzeniem rasowym. Ono, jak uważał, zadecydowało o powstaniu funkcjonujących w opozycji dwóch cywilizacji: wschodniej, stworzonej poprzez pierwiastek mongolski, gdzie dominowało bezprawie i despotyzm, oraz zachodniej, powstałej jako wytwór ludów indoeuropejskich, które respektowały wolność i godność człowieka. Duchiński uzasadniał różnice między nimi w większym stopniu czynnikami zewnętrznymi i mentalnymi niż biologicznymi. Nie wartościował ras i cywilizacji, a pojęcia „rasa” nie definiował. Brak ścisłości w tym względzie był charakterystyczny dla XIX-wiecznego piśmiennictwa. Często stosowano zamiennie pojęcia „rasa”, „naród”, „plemię”, „szczep”. Nie uważano też za naganne hierarchizowania ras. Opinie Duchińskiego na temat azjatyckiej despotii nie odbiegały od powszechnie przyjętych w piśmiennictwie polskim XIX w. Dominujący w nim wątek stanowiło przekonanie o odmienności cywilizacyjnej Rosji i Europy i o trwałym pomiędzy nimi antagonizmie. Działalność Duchińskiego miała służyć uświadomieniu opinii zachodnioeuropejskiej zagrożenia jakie płynęło dla Europy ze strony cywilizacji wschodniej oraz roli Polski na przedmurzu chrześcijaństwa łacińskiego. Spostrzeżenia na temat antynomii wspomnianych cywilizacji są i dziś aktualne. Współcześni badacze problemu przeczą rzecz jasna związkom pomiędzy rasą i cywilizacją. Kładą za to nacisk na różnice w sferze wartości, wierzeń, instytucji i struktur społecznych, które decydują o tożsamości cywilizacyjnej. O ile więc można nie godzić się z argumentacją Duchińskiego, to w sferze

  18. Selected Abstracts of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 23-26, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2013-06-01

    . Soddu, A.M. Paoletti, G.B. Melis, A. Meloni; Cagliari (Italy ABS 30. An unexpected case of GBS early-onset meningo-sepsis • D. Olla, A.R. Denotti, E. Coni, G. Ottonello; Cagliari (Italy ABS 31. Relevant hystological alterations in neonatal kidney: 5 case reports • C. Loddo, M. Puddu, S. Puddu, C. Gerosa, D. Fanni, C. Fanni, G. Ottonello, E. Trudu, P. Van Eyken, V. Fanos, G. Faa; Cagliari (Italy and Leuven (Belgium ABS 32. Variability in drug use among newborns admitted to NICUs: a proposal for an European multicentre study • L. Cuzzolin; Verona (Italy ABS 33. Gastrointestinal disorders in the newborn: proposal of a practical flow-chart • A. De Magistris, M.A. Marcialis, M.C. Pintus, A. Reali, S. Puddu, V. Fanos; Cagliari (Italy ABS 34. Sudden infant death syndrome and the right sleep position: an irrational information strategy on a very serious issue • S. Mouskou, C. Varakis, E. Ioannidou, P. Troizos-Papavasileiou, N. Varakis, N. Iacovidou; Athens and Rethymno (Greece ABS 35. Attenuation measurements of infant incubators in radiological practice • A. Bernardini, V. Del Rio, V. Fanti, L. Satta, E. Tumminia, M. Puddu, V. Fanos; Cagliari (Italy ABS 36. In vitro kidney embryonic cell proliferation during indomethacin and ibuprofen administration • G. Pichiri, E. Di Felice, A. Sanna, A. Dessì, M. Puddu, E. Puxeddu, G. Faa, V. Fanos, P.P. Coni; Cagliari (Italy ABS 37. Congenital syphilis in Brazil: A preventive challenge • M. Valverde Pagani, R. Leandro de Souza; Rio de Janeiro (Brazil ABS 38. Relationship between Infections and the invasive procedure in VLBW premature: the role of the nurse • G. Cruccu, P. Casula; Cagliari (Italy ABS 39. Right sided pulmonary agenesis • C. Fanni, M.A. Marcialis, M.C. Pintus, M. Testa, A. De Magistris, C. Loddo, R. Irmesi, E. Coni, G. Secci, S. Puddu, M. Puddu; Cagliari (Italy ABS 40. Enteral nutrition in preterm infants: current practical issues for the daily practice • R. Örs; Konya (Turkey ABS 41. Erythropoietin

  19. A Few Observations on the Distinctive Features of the Greek Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Sucharski

    2015-07-01

    The article is devoted to one of the most interesting features of the Greek culture in antiquity, namely for an almost total insensitivity of the Hellenes to sounds and colours of any other language. It is no coincidence that the once-non-pejorative word βάρβαρος over time acquired its current meaning of ‘barbaric/barbarian’, shared by probably all modern languages which take inspiration from classical antiquity. The Greeks, however, were not racist in the contemporary meaning of the word: regardless of origin, (she who takes the Hellenic culture, and above all language, for his/her own, becomes Greek. We may find an excellent illustration of this in the life and fortunes of Lucian of Samosata. The spreading of Greek culture to the entire Mediterranean and further east – as a consequence of the conquests of Alexander the Great – brought with it the appearance of a new type of books written in Greek and for Greeks. These works presented the rich, and often ancient, heritage of the cultures and peoples subjugated by Hellenic expansion. And although their authors were ‘barbarians’, it was essential that the books themselves be written in Greek. This was so not only because the Hellenes would not understand them otherwise, but probably also due to the fact that it was only the Hellenes who could be considered bearers of the ideal, of kalòs kẚgathós, the notion – fundamental to Greek competitive culture – combining moral goodness, righteousness of the spirit and beauty and vigour of the body (often backed by material wealth. However, despite its exclusivity, Greek culture was capable of both attracting others and adapting to them: as is best proven by the history of European culture. Kilka luźnych uwag co do specyfiki greckiej kultury Artykuł jest poświęcony jednej z najbardziej charakterystycznych cech starożytnej kultury greckiej – brakowi umiejętności Hellenów do zauważenia piękna i kolorytu języków innych niż grecki. Nie

  20. Библейски топоси за изобразяване на жени-светици в южнославянските литератури през Средновековието

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Радослава [Radoslava] Станкова [Stankova

    2016-10-01

    w literaturach południowosłowiańskich okresu średniowiecza Temat świętości kobiet w średniowiecznych słowiańskich tekstach prawosławnych nie jest częstym przedmiotem badań. Artykuł poświęcony jest specyficznej naturze świętości kobiet w hagiografii i hymnografii literatur południowosłowiańskich. Analizie poddane zostały teksty poświęcone św. Paraskewie Tyrnowskiej, św. Filotei i św. księżniczce Teofano, których relikwie zostały w XIII wieku przeniesione do ówczesnej stolicy Bułgarii – Tyrnowa. Św. Paraskewa i św. Filotea zostały kanonizowane jako „wielebne święte”, a księżniczka Teofano, w związku z tym, że nie była zakonnicą, jest czczona jako pustelniczka. Użycie tego samego modelu enkomiastycznego, a mianowicie interpretacji archetypowego chrześcijańskiego kultu Bogurodzicy jako patronki miasta, ma kluczowe znaczenie dla kształtowania liturgicznego kultu trzech świętych. Z jednej strony jest to interpretacja kultu Bogurodzicy jako gloryfikacji łona matki, z drugiej zaś, ukazuje święte jako „niepokalane oblubienice Chrystusa”. We wszystkich przypadkach występują także uniwersalne toposy reprezentujące świętość (m.in. kaganek, słońce i gwiazdy. Druga istotna grupa toposów jest szczególnie ważna dla przedstawienia świętości kobiet: lilie, gołąb, jaskółka itp. Trzeci krąg toposów jest związany z „męskim zachowaniem w żeńskim ciele”. W tekście zostały przedstawione przykłady typowe dla wszystkich tych kręgów. Wśród popularnych toposów używanych dla „wielebnych świętych” (mężczyzn i kobiet pojawiają się także cechy anielskie. Biblijne symbole bardzo jasno wyrażają hierarchię w przedstawianiu typu świętości. W reprezentacjach świętych uwagę zwraca także topos Niebieskiego Oblubieńca i świętych kobiet jako Jego niepokalanych Oblubienic, strażniczek czystości, sprawiedliwości i niepokalania.

  1. St Maxim the Greek: Some notes on his understanding of the sacred time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neža Zajc

    2016-10-01

    language of St Maxim the Greek can we arrive at a definition of his Theology.   Św. Maksym Grek. Kilka uwag o jego rozumieniu czasu świętego Artykuł poświęcony jest specyficznemu rozumieniu związku języka i tradycji biblijnej w manuskrypcie św. Maksyma Greka. Proponuje odpowiedzi na pytania dotyczącego jego teologii, jakie zostały zawarte w jego liturgicznym doświadczeniu świętego czasu, które nie polega na odtwarzaniu ekscerpcji z autorów patrystycznych, lecz jest przede wszystkim oparte na właściwym odczytaniu i dogłębnym rozumieniu Biblii. Maksym Grek, który w swoich pismach osobistych wykazuje szczegółową wiedzę na temat zarówno Starego Testamentu, jak i słowiańskich tekstów biblijnych, posiada umiejętność oddzielenia nie tylko tekstów kanonicznych od niekanonicznych, ale także z powodzeniem klasyfikuje nauki chrześcijań­skie zgodnie z ich wartością etyczną, od proroków Starego Testamentu do apostołów i Ojców Kościoła. Hierarchią tą nadaje także znaczenie wymiarowi ontologiczno-eschatologicznemu (trzy poziomy – właściwe Świętej Trójcy ich wysiłków duchowym. Wiedza, która ujawnia się również w precyzyjnym rozumieniu decyzji dogmatycznych pierwszych ekumenicznych sobo­rów Kościoła, sytuuje najwyżej bezpośrednią naukę płynącą od Syna Bożego, której Maksym Grek doświadczył dzięki teologiczno-liturgicznej praktyce modlitewnej. W bizantyńskiej hymnografii odnajduje on jednoznaczne sformułowania teologicznie, poświęcone Matce Boskiej, które najdobitniej określają specyfikę jego osobistej teologii. Wszystkie wspomniane fakty wiodą do dalszych badań jego charakterystycznego języka staro-cerkiewno­-słowiańskiego, w którym stara się zachować nie tylko wczesną mentalność chrześcijańską, lecz także teologiczno-liturgiczne cechy ascetycznej, a później monastycznej, dyscypliny, której nauczył się w monastyrze Vatopedi na Świętej Górze Atos. Artykuł stawia tezę, że tylko

  2. Białoruskie elementy językowe w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w regionie suwalsko-augustowskim

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    Dorota Angelika Paśko-Koneczniak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elements of the Belarusian language in the Russian dialect used by the Old Believers living in the Suwałki-Augustów region The article deals with the Belarusian elements in the Russian dialect of the Old Believers living in Poland. The Old Believers arrived in Poland in the second half of the 18th century. At present they live in the Suwałki-Augustów region in the north-eastern Poland. They inhabit mostly two villages in the county of Suwałki, namely Gabowe Grądy and Bór, which are very close to each other, and three towns: Augustów, Suwałki and Sejny. The dialect used by the Polish Old Believers represents the western Central Great Russian dialects characterized by akanie, the so-called Pskov group. They share features which are typical of Pskov. The dialect was also influenced by other north-eastern Belarusian dialects, that is, the ones which were closest to the areas originally inhabited by Old Believers, who migrated in phases. After each phase, their dialect came to reflect some new linguistic influences. A large number of lexemes directly borrowed from Polish, or via the Belarusian language, are found in this dialect, which is also characterized by other features common in Belarusian dialects or the Bulgarian language. By way of illustration, they include the following features: the prosthetic j-, prosthetic v-, the occurrence of the endings –im and –ym in the case of singular masculine adjectives in the locative, promotion of the endings –i and –y in the case of the plural masculine and neutral nouns in the nominative, and the occurrence of lexemes borrowed from the Belarusian language.   Białoruskie elementy językowe w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w regionie suwalsko-augustowskim Artykuł poświęcony jest problematyce białoruskich elementów językowych w rosyjskiej gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w Polsce. Staroobrzędowcy pojawili się na terytorium Polski w drugiej połowie XVIII

  3. Source of Ore-Forming Materials of Tongchang Copper Ore Deposit in Southern Shaanxi Province, China%陕南铜厂铜矿床成矿物质来源探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶霖; 杨玉龙; 高伟; 刘铁庚

    2012-01-01

    albite rocks in the mine. There are two kinds of chalcopyrites with different REE patterns, one is enriched in LREE and the other has relatively flat REE pattern. The pyrite grains hosted in internal and external contact zones of the diorite intrusion have different Co/Ni ratios, suggesting multiple sources of ore-forrning materials. Analyzing on the background values of those ore-forming elements in various geological bodies indicates that ore-forming material is mainly from the spilite and minor from the diorite. Secondly, the chalcopyrite is characterized by obvious negative Eu anomalies and its δEu value is much lower than those of the diorite and spilite. The depletion of Eu is likely related to greisenization and albitization caused by volatile fluids during mineralization. Furthermore, Y/Ho ratios of the chalcopyrite are similar to those of albite rocks, implying the close relationship between copper mineralization and Na replacement. Thirdly, due to the inheritance of the trace elements feature from source of ore-forming mineralizing materials, the Ni and Co content in the chalcopyrite is n-n×10 times than in the pyrite, corresponding to that in Cu - Ni sulfide type deposit and different from that in skarn-type, porphyry-type, volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal type as well as VMS Cu deposit. The metallogenic model of Tongchang copper deposit can be listed as following. During the Hercynian period, with the closure, subduction and collision of Mian-Lue ancient oceanic basin, the dutile-brittle thrusting nappe structure and strike-slip fault were formed in Mian-Lue-Ning area. The metasomatism of mixed hydrothermal by regional metamorphic fluid and rainwater, which rich in Na+ , K+ and CO2, resulted in the translation of ore-forming materials (e. G. Cu and Ni) from strata of Guojiagou Group and spilite (and diorite) to form the metallogenic hydrothermal fluid. The hydrothermal fluid was characterized by low temperature and salinity, and enriched in ore

  4. Estimation of the Cost of Equity for Mining Companies Using the P-Lefac Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranosz, Robert

    2014-03-01

    This article describes one of the methods of estimating the cost of equity, namely the LEFAC method. The name of the method is an acronym of the names of individual financial categories: L - Liquidity, E - Earnings, F - Franchise, A - Assets, C - Capital. It is a scoring method similar to the way used by ING Financial Markets to estimate share prices. A review of literature shows that this method is not widely known and used by enterprises, but it has certain advantages which justify its use. Its main advantages include its easy use and the stability of the results obtained: the calculated cost of equity is never lower than the adopted risk-free rate. The method is particularly useful for companies (enterprises) not listed on stock exchanges. This article is divided into five parts: an introduction, the LEFAC method, the parameterization of the LEFAC method (P-LEFAC), an example calculation and a summary. The second part of this article characterises the LEFAC method. In the third part, the method is parameterized to obtain a function described by formula 22. The following section contains an example calculation for KGHM S.A. and also presents results which mining companies would achieve if they used the discussed method to calculate the cost of their equity. The calculations were performed for mining companies listed on the Warsaw Stocks Exchange and unlisted ones. This part of the article also contains a short comparison of results obtained using the CAPM method and the discussed model. The last section consists of a summary presenting final conclusions. The article ends in a list of the literature referred to. Niniejszy artykuł został poświęcony jednej z metod szacowania kosztu kapitału własnego, a mianowicie metodzie LEFAC. Nazwa metody pochodzi od pierwszych liter wyrazów z języka angielskiego, które określają poszczególne kategorie finansowe: L - Liquidity (płynność), E - Earnings (zyski), F - Franchise (strategia), A - Assets (aktywa), C

  5. “Playing catch up”. The notion of needing to accelerate a country’s progress towards a civilised paradise – the Bulgarian version (a proposed entry for a dictionary of peregrinating ideas

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    Grażyna Szwat-Gyłybowa

    2014-11-01

    cultures which indulged in it, only to become doomed to dull, infantile repetition.   "Doganianie". Idea przyspieszonego rozwoju w drodze do cywilizacyjnego raju. Wersja bułgarska Artykuł poświęcony jest prezentacji głównych etapów procesu inkorporowania w tkankę bułgarskiej idei narodowej pojęcia doganiania (przyspieszonego rozwoju, które od połowy XIX wieku pozostaje narzędziem konceptualizacji przez Bułgarów ich (różnie wartościowanego miejsca wśród „narodów cywilizowanych”. „Doganianie” rozumiem jako kulturowo i politycz­nie funkcjonalny wzór rzeczy, który jest konceptem niesamodzielnym, należącym do różnych systemów idei, mającym swój aspekt ekonomiczny, geopolityczny, religijny, psychologiczny, kulturowy. Formuła opóźnienia, zintegrowana z ideą doganiania zagościła w dyskusjach nad statusem Bułgarów jeszcze przed zaistnieniem narodu politycznego. Wraz z rozwojem ruchu narodowego kompleksy otrzymały swój rewers w postaci wiary w możliwość zrównania poziomu cywilizacyjnego z europejskim. Ta linia rozumowania prowadziła od pierwszych fascynacji dorobkiem „oświeconych narodów” w ramach tzw. oświecenia prawosławnego, przez odwzorowywanie dyskursu rosyjskiego po myśl marksistowską (z jej propagandową dominantą w latach 1945–89 i polityki perswazyjne po 1989 roku. Wydaje się, że współcześnie mamy do czynienia z podzwonnym dla związanej z czasowością idei doganiania, która wyczerpała swój potencjał agoniczny a może nawet przyczyniła się do „samozatrucia” absorbujących ją kultur, skazujących się na infantylizację i nudę powtórzeń.

  6. RECOVERY OF THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF ANGUILLICOLA CRASSUS (NEMATODA : DRACUNCULOIDEA FROM THE FLESH OF FISHES : ASSESSMENT OF A DIGESTIVE MEDIUM AS A TOOL FOR THE STUDY OF FISH PARATENIC HOSTS. EXTRACTION DE LARVES DE TROISIÈME STADE D'ANGUILLICOLA CRASSUS (NEMATODA : DRACUNCULOIDEA DANS LA CHAIR DE POISSONS : MISE AU POINT D'UNE MÉTHODE PAR DIGESTION POUR L'ÉTUDE DU PORTAGE PARASITAIRE PAR LES POISSONS HÔTES PARATÉNIQUES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGOULON A.

    2008-05-01

    digestion plus poussée de la chair d'anguille après 12 heures de contact. (3 Les larves L3 ont survécu plus longtemps à pH 1,8 qu'à pH 1,5. La digestion de la chair a été plus rapide à pH 1,8. (4 Les larves L3 ont survécu beaucoup plus longtemps à 20°C qu'à 30°C, mais l'efficacité de la digestion à 20°C était limitée. Pour l'application pratique dans un contexte d'enquête épidémiologique, un compromis économique a du être trouvé entre, d'une part, une bonne digestion des chairs pour une récupération importante de larves L3 et, d'autre part, une bonne intégrité des larves afin de pouvoir les identifier. Les paramètres optimaux suivants sont préconisés : concentration en pepsine = 10 g/l ; pH = 1,8 ; température = 20-22°C.

  7. Environmental degradation of oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings for fuel-flexible gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Prabhakar

    O 5 mixture (50-50 mol. %) demonstrated that Na2SO4 itself did not degrade the YSZ, however, in the presence of V2O 5, Na2SO4 formed vanadates such as NaVO3 that degraded the YSZ through YVO4 formation at temperature as low as 700°C. The APS YSZ was found to react with the P2O 5 melt by forming ZrP2O7 at all temperatures. This interaction led to the depletion of ZrO2 in the YSZ (i.e., enrichment of Y2O3 in t'-YSZ) and promoted the formation of the fluorite-cubic ZrO2 phase. Above 1250°C, CMAS deposits were observed to readily infiltrate and significantly dissolve the YSZ coating via thermochemical interactions. Upon cooling, zirconia reprecipitated with a spherical morphology and a composition that depended on the local melt chemistry. The molten CMAS attack destabilized the YSZ through the detrimental phase transformation (t' → t → f + m). Free standing APS CoNiCrAlY was also prone to degradation by corrosive molten deposits. The V2O5 melt degraded the APS CoNiCrAlY through various reactions involving acidic dissolution of the protective oxide scale, which yielded substitutional-solid solution vanadates such as (Co,Ni) 3(VO4)2 and (Cr,Al)VO4. The molten P2O5, on the other hand, was found to consume the bond coat constituents significantly via reactions that formed both Ni/Co rich phosphates and Cr/Al rich phosphates. Sulfate deposits such as Na2SO 4, when tested in encapsulation, damaged the CoNiCrAlY by Type I acidic fluxing hot corrosion mechanisms at 1000°C that resulted in accelerated oxidation and sulfidation. The formation of a protective continuous Al 2O3 oxide scale by preoxidation treatment significantly delayed the hot corrosion of CoNiCrAlY by sulfates. However, CoNiCrAlY in both as-sprayed and preoxidized condition suffered a significant damage by CaSO4 deposits via a basic fluxing mechanism that yielded CaCrO4 and CaAl2O4. The CMAS melt also dissolved the protective Al2O3 oxide scale developed on CoNiCrAlY by forming anorthite platelets and

  8. Improving the Modeling of Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Oil Cuts Using an Augmented Grayson Streed (AGS Approach Modélisation améliorée de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des coupes lourdes par l’approche de Grayson Streed Augmenté (GSA

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    Torres R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Grayson Streed (GS method [Grayson H.G. and Streed C.W. (1963 6th World Petroleum Congress , Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 19-26 June, pp. 169-181] is often used by the industry for calculating hydrogen solubility in petroleum fluids. However, its accuracy becomes very bad when very heavy fluids are considered. An improvement is proposed in this work, based on a Flory-augmented activity coefficient model. Hydrogen solubilities in n-alkanes from n−C7 up to n−C36 have been investigated and a decreasing Henry constant with molecular weight is evidenced. The analysis of the Henry constant behaviour with molecular weight suggests a simple improvement to the model, using a Flory entropic contribution, thus keeping its predictive character. This improvement led to the necessity of refitting a number of fundamental hydrogen parameters. The resulting model behaves better for heavy components and for aromatics. The petroleum fractions evaluated with the Augmented Grayson-Streed (AGS model are taken from Cai et al. [Cai H.Y. et al. (2001 Fuel 80, 1055-1063] and Lin et al. [Lin H.M. et al. (1981 Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 20, 2, 253-256]. The importance of the petroleum fluid characterization is stressed. A sensitivity analysis has shown that the solubility parameter has a much larger effect than the other parameters: great care must be taken at calculating that property. The predictions of hydrogen solubility in petroleum fractions and in coal liquids were improved compared with the Grayson Streed model, resulting in an Absolute Average Deviation (AAD of 30% for AGS model compared to 55% for Grayson-Streed model, in the range of 80-380°C and 6.3-258.9 bar. La méthode de Grayson Streed (GS [Grayson H.G. and Streed C.W. (1963 6th World Petroleum Congress, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 19-26 June, pp. 169-181] est souvent préconisée dans l’industrie pour calculer la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des coupes pétrolières. Il se fait

  9. Composition of the Cayley formation at Apollo 16 as inferred from Impact Melt Splashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; See, Thomas H.; Hörz, Friedrich

    1986-01-01

    Chemical data for impact melt splashes (IMS) collected at the Apollo 16 landing site show that Ni concentrations and FeO-Ni, Cr-Ni, and Co-Ni correlations are consistent with a chondritic meteoritic component present at levels between approximately 1.5 and 11 wt%. Like Apollo 16 soils, the IMS are intermediate in composition to Apollo 16 rocks. The chemical data for the IMS are consistent with two main compositional groups. The Group A IMS (28 samples) are chemically The Group A IMS (28 samples) are chemically distinct from local Apollo 16 soils and are very similar to mixtures of anorthosite and low-Sc VHA (LScVHA) impact melt rocks. Calculated to a meteorite-free basis, their average Sc concentration, La/Sc, MgO/Sc, and TiO2/MgO ratios, and mg' value are 6.1 ug/g, 1.94, 9800, 0.066, and 0.74, respectively. The Group B IMS (seven samples) have chemical equivalents among the soils. Five samples are chemically very similar to mature Apollo 16 soils from the central and southern parts of the landing site; two are more similar to soils 67601 and 67941 from North Ray Crater. Generally, the Group B IMS and soils are enriched in a anorthosite as compared to the Group AIMS. THe average Sc concentration, La/Sc, MgO, and TiO2/MgO ratios, and mg' value for the subgroup of five are 9.3 ug/g, 1.41, 5780, 0.124, and 0.66, respectively. The corresponding values for the subgroup of two are 7.5 ug/g, 1.04, 7400, 0.090, and 0.71, respectively. The Group BIMS (and most soils) have a minor high-Ti component not present in the Group AIMS. If this component is high-Ti mare basalt, its average concentration is approximately 1.6 wt%. The seven Group AIMS that have been dated by rare gas methods all have approximately 2 m.y. exposure ages, an age generally associated with South Ray Crater. These seven and potentially most Group AIMS are likely quenched samples of the melt volume produced by the South Ray impact. The chemical signature of the impacting projectile is chondritic, and its

  10. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

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    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    . Thanks to both these studies it was possibile to confirm the etiologic links between the syndrome and EBV or other herpesviruses or other persistent infectious agents. The mechanisms of EBV latency have been carefully examined both because they represent the virus strategy to elude the response of the immune system of the host, and because they are correlated with those oncologic conditions associated to the viral persistence, particularly lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Just these malignancies, for which a pathogenetic role of EBV is clearly documented, should represent the main clinical expression of a first group of chronic EBV infections characterized by a natural history where the neoplastic event aroused from the viral persistence in the resting B cells for all the life, from the genetic predisposition of the host and from the oncogenic potentialities of the virus that chronically persists and incurs reactivations. Really, these oncological diseases should be considered more complications than chronic forms of the illness, as well as other malignancies for which a viral – or even infectious - etiology is well recognized. The chronic diseases, in fact, should be linked in a pathogenetic and temporal way to the acute infection, from whom start the natural history of the following disease. So, as for the chronic liver diseases from HBV and HCV, it was conied the acronym of CAEBV (Chronic Active EBV infection, distinguishing within these pathologies the more severe forms (SCAEBV mostly reported in Far East and among children or adolescents. Probably only these forms have to be considered expressions of a chronic EBV infection “sensu scrictu”, together with those forms of CFS where the etiopathogenetic and temporal link with the acute EBV infection is well documented. As for CFS, also for CAEBV the criteria for a case definition were defined, even on the basis of serological and virological findings. However, the lymphoproliferative disorders are

  11. Determination of the contents of mental elements and total fiavone in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi%中药黄芩中金属元素与总黄酮含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军民; 韩丽琴; 董顺福

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has clear efficacy and fewer side effects, because of its own pharmacological action, as well as the trace elements in it.OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of metal elements and their total flavone in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG).DESIGN: Repeated measurement trial.SETTING: Jilin Medical College, Affiliated Hospital of Jilin Medical College.MATERIALS: SBG was bought on the market. Rutoside sample(F 20050930, Sinopharm Group Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd.).METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Trace Element in Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jilin Medical College from April to July in 2006. SBG samples were dried and powdered then digested with nitric acid-perchloric acid wet method. And 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately, 3 portions were used for each kind of sample, placed in 25 mL coni cal flask, 10 mL concentrated HNO3 was added, then sealed for overnight.10 mL concentrated HNO3 and 5 mL HClO4 were added respectively on the next day, and slowly heated on the electric hot plate; when only about 1 mL left, 20 mL concentrated HNO3 and 5 mL HC1O4 were added for continuous digestion till the solution was colorless and clearing and almost dried. It was diluted and dissolved with 30 g/L nitric acid, then transferred to 50 mL volumetric flask, evenly mixed for measurement. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to detect macroelement Na, Ca, Mg, K and trace element Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn. Alcohol extraction method was applied to extract the total flavone of SBG while UV spectrophotometry for the content of total flavone.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The contents of metal elements and their total flavone.RESULTS: The contents of metal elements and total flavone in SBG were detected as follows: K (1 098.516 8±2.731 9) μg/g; Ca (6 561.552 6±78.716 7) μg/g; Na (9 530.491 2±44.176 6) μg/g; Mg (6 555.442 8±36.860 3) μg/g; Fe (512.075 0±5.135 9) μg/g; Cu (2.905 0±0.134 2) μg/g;Zn (30.081 0±0.740 0)

  12. 蒙古高原东南缘现代灌丛沙丘的发育过程及其对沙漠化的指示意义%NEBKHA FORMATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO DESERTIFICATION RECONSTRUCTIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN MONGOLIA PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽丽; 王训明; 花婷; 哈斯

    2013-01-01

    The nebkhas( coppice dunes) have extensively been developed in the south eastern Mongolia Plateau,the agro-pastoral transitional zones of semi-arid Northern China.Due to its accumulation characteristics the nebkha formation processes can be taken as highly reliable indicators of regional wind erosion and land degradation.The nebkha that we selected for sampling was located in the Huade County, Inner Mongolia(42°11.325 'N, 114°26.740'E; 1360m a.s.l.) ,and the underlying landforms are denuded hills with gentle slopes.From the crest towards the bottom of the dune,we vertically excavated and collected the sediments at 1-cm interval throughout the profile.In total 140 nebkha and 20 underlying sediment samples were acquired.Compared the nebkha sediments with the underlying sediments, the latter were richer in clay and silt and even mixed with some gravels.After the samples were air dried we sieved them to acquire fractions of < 2mm in diameter for geochemical analyses.The macroelements ( mostly represented by their oxide forms) we measured included SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO , CaO , Na2O , K2O , and Ti; and the microelements included P, V ,Cr,Mn ,Co,Ni ,Cu ,Zn,Ga, As , Rb,Sr, Y ,Zr, Nb,Ba, Ce and Pb were measured.For most elements we measured the analytic uncertainty was less than ±5%, except for Cr,Co,V and Pb.In addition,using the seed and Caragana microphylla litter buried in the nebkha sediments at the dune height of 10cm and 60cm(from the bottom of dune towards the crest) we also performed accelerator mass spectrometry( AMS) 14C dating.Based on these analyzed results, the desertification and wind activity fluctuation in the south eastern Mongolia Plateau have been reconstructed.For instance, dating results showed that although there were nearly five centuries for the origination of the sampling nebkha, it only rapidly developed after this region was reclaimed in the late 1930s.The Zr/Rb ratio trends of the sediments in different layers showed that during the dune

  13. Modification of Wax Crystallization in Petroleum Products Modification de la cristallisation des paraffines dans les produits pétroliers

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    Denis J.

    2006-11-01

    type polyacrylate d'alkyle, est illustrée dans la table 2. Pour les gazoles le problème principal concerne le colmatage des filtres du circuit d'alimentation des moteurs Diesel, pour lequel les méthodes actuelles d'essai de laboratoire ne semblent pas satisfaisantes et font l'objet d'études dans plusieurs groupes de recherches. Les additifs préconisés sont soit des copolymères d'éthylène et d'acétate de vinyle, soit des formules complexes de plusieurs types de produits polymères ou non, à longues chaînes agissant sur la nucléation et la croissance des cristaux. Quant aux huiles lubrifiantes, elles nécessitent l'utilisation d'additifs d'une part en raffineries dans l'étape de déparaffinage, ce sont des copolymères acryliques, d'autre part dans les formulations pour abaisser le point d'écoulement de - 9 °C à - 30 °C, ce sont soit des copolymères acryliques de longueurs de chaîne moyennes dont l'efficacité est donnée dans les tables 3 et 4, soit des copolymeres d'acétate de vinyle et de dialkylfumarates, soit des polyalkylstyrènes ; tous ces produits présentent une bonne efficacité.

  14. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

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    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    clinical expression of a first group of chronic EBV infections characterized by a natural history where the neoplastic event aroused from the viral persistence in the resting B cells for all the life, from the genetic predisposition of the host and from the oncogenic potentialities of the virus that chronically persists and incurs reactivations.

    Really, these oncological diseases should be considered more complications than chronic forms of the illness, as well as other malignancies for which a viral – or even infectious - etiology is well recognized. The chronic diseases, in fact, should be linked in a pathogenetic and temporal way to the acute infection, from whom start the natural history of the following disease. So, as for the chronic liver diseases from HBV and HCV, it was conied the acronym of CAEBV (Chronic Active EBV infection, distinguishing within these pathologies the more severe forms (SCAEBV mostly reported in Far East and among children or adolescents. Probably only these forms have to be considered expressions of a chronic EBV infection “sensu scrictu”, together with those forms of CFS where the etiopathogenetic and temporal link with the acute EBV infection is well documented. As for CFS, also for CAEBV the criteria for a case definition were defined, even on the basis of serological and virological findings. However, the lymphoproliferative disorders are excluded from these forms and mantain their nosographic (e.g. T or B cell or NK type lymphomas and pathogenetic collocation, even when they occur within chronic forms of EBV infection. In the pathogenesis, near to the programs of latency of the virus, the genetic and environmental

  15. Development of Methods for Gaseous Phase Geochemical Monitoring on the Surface and in the Intermediate Overburden Strata of Geological CO2 Storage Sites Développement de méthodes de suivi géochimique en phase gazeuse à la surface et dans la couverture intermédiaire des sites de stockage géologique du CO2

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    Pokryszka Z.

    2010-03-01

    detecting and monitoring gas leaks through intermediate cap rock strata. This system will largely comprise conventional industrial gas sensors which are available off the shelf. The direct measurement of gas flows emanating from the ground is one of the most effective ways to monitor a storage site. The INERIS accumulation chamber method has been improved to measure low and very low CO2 flux rates. It can now be used to measure a wide range of CO2 flux rates, from very low emission levels of 0.05 to 0.2 cm3.min−1.m−2 up to extremely high flux rates of some 3000 cm3.min−1.m−2. The accuracy and operational characteristics of chamber method have been checked and validated by tests performed in a laboratory and on a test rig, as well as through field measurements taken under real conditions at sites that naturally release CO2. These tests have shown that the method has reached full technical maturity and that it can be applied on a practical level to detect and monitor CO2 and methane emissions on the ground’s surface. The two methods which have been tested are now operational and ready for integration into the surveillance strategy applied at future CO2 storage sites. They can be used at every stage of a storage site’s life: site reconnaissance, definition of the initial state, injection, post-injection phase, and residual monitoring after the site has been abandoned. Les développements et les résultats présentés sont issus des travaux réalisés dans le cadre du programme Géocarbone-Monitoring cofinancé par l’Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR. Une partie importante de ce programme a porté sur des méthodes de suivi géochimique en phase gazeuse à la surface et dans la couverture intermédiaire des sites de stockage géologique du CO2. Le travail effectué par l’INERIS a été ciblé sur deux approches particulières, souvent préconisées comme incontournables dans la surveillance des futurs sites de stockage : une détection précoce (pr

  16. Selected Abstracts of the 8th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 24-27, 2012

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    --- Various Authors

    2012-10-01

    non epileptic: a metabolomics point of view • C. Serci et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 12. Early cessation and derangement of nephrogenesis in the preterm human kidney following ibuprofen treatment • C. Gerosa et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 13. Thymosin beta-4 translocation from the trans-Golgi network to the nucleus in kidney proximal tubule cell line LLC-PK1 under starvation • P. Coni et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 14. hCTR1 expression in the developing kidney: how copper is involved in human nephrogenesis • E. Di Felice et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 15. Ultrastructural analysis of the early stages that characterize cap mesenchymal induction and ureteric bud growing in the developing NOD mouse kidney • M. Piludu et al.; Athens (Greece, Cagliari (Italy ABS 16. The syndrome of the Emilatus • S. Vendemmia et al.; Aversa, Caserta (Italy ABS 17. Birth in Italy: 2011 trends and 2012 forecasts • I. Farnetani et al.; Milan, Rome (Italy ABS 18. Neonatal transport in Italian regions • I. Farnetani et al.; Milan, Rome (Italy ABS 19. Grandparents in eight provinces in Sardinia • I. Farnetani et al.; Milan, Rome (Italy ABS 20. Ibuprofen versus indomethacin for patent ductus arteriosus: practice attitude variations among Europe and United States • M.A. Marcialis et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 21. Fast recovery following severe acetaminophen-induced liver disease in a newborn: a case report • A.P. Pinna et al.; Rome, Cagliari (Italy ABS 22. Immunoreactivity for S100B: a new marker of hypoxia-related cardiac damage in newborn piglets • A. Faa et al.; Athens (Greece, Cagliari (Italy ABS 23. Coping and parental role competence of mothers of the preterm infant • G. Perricone et al.; Palermo (Italy ABS 24. Rehabilitative training of preterm children’s attention: a study on sustainability • G. Perricone et al.; Palermo (Italy ABS 25. Interindividual variability in oocyte burden at birth • S. Soddu et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 26. Undifferentiated neuroblastoma with

  17. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of the Dissolution of Quartz-Kaolinite Mixtures by Alkalis Aspects thermodynamiques et cinétiques de la dissolution des mélanges quartz-kaolinite par les alcalis

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    Labrid J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mineral-alkali interactions have received considerable attention in the recent literature dealing with enhanced oil recovery techniques and clay stabilization treatments. One of the critical factors to be considered is alkali consumption. Alkalinity decrease occurs through several mechanisms, which are ion exchange, precipitation, reaction with crude oil components, and dissolution of minerals. This paper describes the dissolution process. An original kinetic model is proposed to describe the alkaline dissolution of a clayey sandstone. This model is based first on results concerning quartz dissolution/condensation processes. It is also based on new experimental data, which demonstrate the inhibiting effect of aluminum and, as the reaction proceeds, the precipitation of an aluminosilicate whose the chemical composition has been determined. From these data, a kinetic scheme has been conceived in which adsorption of different chemical species is assumed to occur onto solid surfaces. These species play a more or less important role according to the extent of the reaction. In the mechanisms considered, the argillaceous fraction of the rock provides silicon and aluminum which inhibit the dissolution of the matrix while silicon coming from quartz interferes with clay attack. The kinetic model depicts the coupling of elementary dissolution processes and calculates dissolved silicon and aluminum. It has been tested for various operating conditions, providing initial reaction rates for quartz and clay. Results emphasize the definitive advantage of carbonate compared to other alkaline chemicals owing to the relative low pH of solutions, which is particularly favorable for promoting inhibition by aluminum and, as a general rule, for reducing mineral dissolution. Ce résumé contient des formules (*** qui ne peuvent s'afficher à l'écran L'emploi des agents alcalins pour améliorer la récupération du pétrole a été préconisé à l'origine dans le but

  18. Karakterizacija vakuum plazma naprskane kobalt-nikal-hrom-aluminijum-itrijum prevlake

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    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2013-12-01

    estica u direktnoj vezi sa vrednostima čvrstoće spoja prevlaka, to izmerene vrednosti za prevlaku deponovanu sa najmanjim plazma sprej odstojanjem ukazuje da je njihov udeo najmanji u odnosu na druge dve prevlake. Ove vrednosti su potvrđene analizom mikrostrukture prevlaka na svetlosnom mikroskopu. Kvalitativna analiza je pokazala da na interfejsu između substrata i deponovanih prevlaka nisu prisutni defekti kao što je diskontinuitet deponovanih slojeva na supstratima, mikropukotine, makropukotine i odvajanje prevlaka od osnove. Na slici 5. su prikazani slojevi Co32Ni21Cr8Al0.5Y prevlake deponovane sa najboljom strukturnim i mehaničkim karakteristikama. Prevlaka je gusta i kroz slojeve se ne uočavaju mikropore, što nije slučaj za druge dve prevlake. Ti slojevi su deponovani na supstrat sa plazma sprej odstojanjem od 270mm kontinualno bez prekida i bez prisustva mikropukotina. U slojevima nisu prisutne nestopljene čestice i precipitati. Prevlake deponovane sa većim plazma sprej odstojanjem u strukturi pokazuju prisustvo mikropora sfernog i lamelarnog oblika. Na slikama 8 i 9 su prikazane, sa svetlosnog mikroskopa, mikrostrukture Co32Ni21Cr8Al0.5Y prevlake, deponovane sa plazma sprej odstojanjem od 270mm u nagrizenom stanju sa najboljim mehaničkim i strukturnim karakteristikama. U mikrostrukturi prevlake se uočavaju dve faze γ + β koje se razlikuju po boji (Poza,Grant, 2006, pp.2887-2896 (Achar, et al., 2004, pp.272-283. γ faza je svelto sive boje a β faza tamno sive boje. Na SEM mikrofotografiji jasno se uočavaju dve različite faze koje su obeležene crnim strelicama. Mikrostrukturu slojeva Co32Ni21Cr8Al0.5Y prevlake čini osnovni γ čvrst rastvor Co,Ni i Cr svetlo sive boje u kome je ravnomerno raspoređena β (Co, Ni Al faza tamno sive boje. β faza  bogata Al je formirana iz β - CoAl i β - NiAl faza (Poza, Grant, 2006, pp.2887-2896 (Achar, et al., 2004, pp.272-283 , (Czech, et al., 1995, pp.28-33. U strukturi prevlake nisu prisutne neistopljene