WorldWideScience

Sample records for convulsants

  1. Isoniazid-induced convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, J R; Nicholson, D P

    1976-03-01

    Acute isoniazid overdose and toxicity may be complicated by convulsions and death. Six patients are reported, one of whom ingested simultaneously 15 gm of isoniazid and 5 gm of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6); no convulsions resulted. In the light of this and other experience, suggestions are made for the use of pyridoxine in the treatment and prevention of acute isoniazid poisoning.

  2. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  3. Convulsive status epilepticus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžek-Mudrinić Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Convulsive status epilepticus is the most urgent neurological medical emergency in children. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus is the most common and life-threatening type of status epilepticus. It is not a syndrome in the same sense as febrile convulsions, benign rolandic epilepsy, and infantile polymorphic epilepsy. These latter disorders have a tight age frame, seizure semiology, and a reasonably predictable outcome. Episodes of convulsive status epilepticus can occur in each: occasionally in symptomatic and febrile convulsions, and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, rarely in benign rolandic epilepsy, and West syndrome. Etiology of convulsive status epilepticus. Status epilepticus has many causes, which vary depending on the age and patient population. Convulsive status epileptucus continues to be associated with significant neurological morbidity and mortality, with different hazards and outcome. Although the outcome is dependent on etiology, it is known that appropriate early management may reduce mortality and some of the morbidity associated with convulsive status epilepticus. Discussion. Status epilepticus is a disorder in which the mechanisms attempting at terminating the seizure fail. Continued convulsive activity in convulsive status epilepticus results in decompensation of all organs and systems, thus being life threatening. Seizure activity in convulsive status epilepticus is associated with neuronal damage. The aim should be to halt this activity urgently, using, ideally, a 100% effective drug, administered quickly, without compromising the consciousness level or producing other negative effects on cardiovascular, respiratory function or other unexpected effects.

  4. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  5. Management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Rogers, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Biswajit

    2015-05-01

    The causes of febrile convulsions are usually benign. Such convulsions are common in children and their long-term consequences are rare. However, other causes of seizures, such as intracranial infections, must be excluded before diagnosis, especially in infants and younger children. Diagnosis is based mainly on history taking, and further investigations into the condition are not generally needed in fully immunised children presenting with simple febrile convulsions. Treatment involves symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Nevertheless, febrile convulsions in children can be distressing for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced emergency department (ED) nurses. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs. It also includes a reflective case study to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals who manage children who present with febrile convulsion.

  6. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Convulsive Condition Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Rene Navarro Machado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Convulsive Condition Management. It has been redefined as the occurrence of two or more successive convulsions without conscience recuperation between them; or the occurrence of convulsive uninterrupted activity for more than 5 minutes, including focal crisis. This document includes a review and update of conceptual, etiological and classification aspects for diagnosis and treatment, stressing the various therapy trends. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  7. Phosphorylation of brain proteins in generalized convulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horan, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphorylation of neuronal proteins is being proposed as a modulating influence on several aspects of neuronal function. By labeling proteins with radioactive phosphorus (/sup 32/P) and then separating these proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the author can determine what factors change the phosphorylation of these proteins. They have used such a system to analyze the effects of generalized convulsions on protein phosphorylation. Electroshock (ES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were utilized to produce generalized convulsions. Brain membranes, taken from rats immediately after a convulsion, exhibited an increase in protein phosphorylation in vitro. The most noticeable change took place in proteins in the 18,000-20,000 MW range. They have designated these proteins as the low molecular weight (LMW) proteins. The change in phosphorylation was basically the same after one convulsions as after six daily convulsions. Twenty-four hours after a single convulsion no change in phosphorylation was observed. When rat membranes are exposed to PTZ in vitro, phosphorylation is increased at 20 sec but has returned to control level at 90 sec of incubation. This effect is produced without a convulsion. In general, as the concentration of magnesium is increased from 5 mM to 10 mM phosphorylation is increased. Increasing the incubation time from 20 sec to 90 sec and increasing the calcium concentration to 10 mM both decrease phosphorylation of the LMW proteins. Human temporal cortex samples present with phosphorylated proteins having patterns very similar to those in rat membranes.

  8. Convulsions as primary manifestation of nutritional rickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Karunakara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rickets is diagnosed based on classical clinical features like craniotabes, rachitic rosary, widening of wrist joints, pot belly, hypotonia, bowed legs and supported by the laboratory evidence of hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and raised alkaline phosphatase. Hypocalcemic convulsions are a rare manifestation of nutritional rickets. Decline in the magnitude of the rickets requires high index of suspicion to identify this treatable condition. Herewith presenting retrospective study of twelve cases of rickets who presented with hypocalcemic seizures as primary manifestation. Materials and methods: A detailed retrospective analysis of diagnosed cases of rickets presenting with convulsions was done. Children who were admitted with hypocalcemic convulsion and subsequently diagnosed to have rickets were included in the study. Children who did not fulfill the criteria for diagnosis of rickets either clinically or biochemically or radiologically were excluded from the study. Details including age at presentation, weight, sex, gestational age and other associated diseases were collected and analyzed. Rickets was diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, biochemical parameters (serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and radiological findings. Results: A Total of 12 children; 8 male and 4 females constituted the study subjects. Mean age of presentation was 6 months. All children had presented with preceding convulsions or active convulsions. One child who presented with active convulsions was treated with parenteral phenobarbitone. All 12 of them were evaluated for the cause and found to have hypocalcemia without any other cause for convulsions. Further clinical examination revealed features of rickets and were subjected to radiological and biochemical investigations. The mean calcium value was 6.3mg/dl, phosphorus -5.35mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase-890.13 units. All the cases had radiological features of rickets. All 12 were

  9. WHICH CASE OF GASTROENTERITIS ENDS IN CONVULSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Armin MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGastroenteritis has a diverse etiology; many pathogens can cause this condition. Of the extraintestinal manifestations, one is convulsions, which may be  attributable to fever, type of bacteria, or electrolyte imbalance. To assess the risk of occurrence of convulsions, in this study we investigated the association between the paraclinical and clinical findings of children with gastroenteritis and the risk of occurrence of convulsions.Materials & MethodsIn this prospective study, conducted between March 2004 and February 2005, we studied 50 patients admitted to the Mofid Childrens' Hospital, with gastroenteritis and convulsions.Stool samples were obtained for investigations of electrolyte imbalances and type of gastroenteritis. A control group consisting of patients admittedsimultaneously with gastroenteritis but no convulsions was selected as well.They were matched with the case group in terms of age, sex, and monthof admission and number. Data was collected using a specific checklist.ResultsThe stool exam (SE showed 31 cases (62% had inflammatory diarrhea and 19 (38% had the non-inflammatory type. In the control group, 21 cases(42% had inflammatory and 29 (58% had non-inflammatory diarrhea. Stool culture (SC results showed 11 (22% subjects had Shigella, 27 (54% revealedno organism, and 12 (24% did not have SCs in their medical records. In the control group SC results revealed Shigella in 2 cases (4%, 38 patients(76% showed no organism, and 10(20% did not have SCs. Six cases (12% had hyponatremia ranging between 125-130meq/lit. In the control group,4 (8% had electrolyte imbalances, 3 had hyponatremia ranging between 125-130meq/lit, and 1 had hypokalemia.ConclusionNo significant relation was found between inflammatory gastroenteritis and the incidence of convulsion (P value=0.0716 Although a significant relationwas found between Shigella and convulsion (P value=0.0113, no significant relation existed between electrolyte imbalance and

  10. Convulsion following gastroenteritis in children without severe electrolyte imbalance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Nezami, Nariman; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Ghorashi, Sona

    2010-01-01

    .... Neurologic signs including convulsion are seen in some cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, risk factors and short-term prognosis of gastroenteritis with convulsion...

  11. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  12. Hypothermia for Neuroprotection in Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Lemiale, Virginie; Schenck, Maleka; Chelly, Jonathan; Laurent, Virginie; Daviaud, Fabrice; Srairi, Mohamed; Hamdi, Aicha; Geri, Guillaume; Rossignol, Thomas; Hilly-Ginoux, Julia; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Louart, Benjamin; Malissin, Isabelle; Mongardon, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Thirion, Marina; Merceron, Sybille; Canet, Emmanuel; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Azoulay, Elie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain

    2016-12-22

    Background Convulsive status epilepticus often results in permanent neurologic impairment. We evaluated the effect of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcomes in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Methods In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 270 critically ill patients with convulsive status epilepticus who were receiving mechanical ventilation to hypothermia (32 to 34°C for 24 hours) in addition to standard care or to standard care alone; 268 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 (range, 1 to 5, with 1 representing death and 5 representing no or minimal neurologic deficit). The main secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, progression to electroencephalographically (EEG) confirmed status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus on day 1, "super-refractory" status epilepticus (resistant to general anesthesia), and functional sequelae on day 90. Results A GOS score of 5 occurred in 67 of 138 patients (49%) in the hypothermia group and in 56 of 130 (43%) in the control group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.99; P=0.43). The rate of progression to EEG-confirmed status epilepticus on the first day was lower in the hypothermia group than in the control group (11% vs. 22%; odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.79; P=0.009), but there were no significant differences between groups in the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were more frequent in the hypothermia group than in the control group. Conclusions In this trial, induced hypothermia added to standard care was not associated with significantly better 90-day outcomes than standard care alone in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; HYBERNATUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01359332 .).

  13. Role of viruses in febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H M; Parry, J V; Parry, R P; Davies, H A; Sanderson, P J; Tyrrell, D A; Valman, H B

    1979-11-01

    A disseminated viral illness was demonstrated by isolating a virus from the CSF, blood or urine in 27% of 73 children who were admitted to hospital after a first febrile convulsion. However, a viral aetiology could be implicated for 86% of the children after combining results of tissue culture, electron microscopy, mouse inoculation, complement fixation tests, and interferon assay. Parallel bacterial cultures showed a possible pathogen in 29% of children, but in only 4% was the pathogen isolated from the CSF, blood, or urine. No correlation was found between the nature of the pathogen (or evidence of its dissemination) and the severity of the convulsion, degree of fever, CSF protein, CSF white cells, or the WBC. The results suggest that a febrile convulsion could be a response to invasion of the blood stream or central nervous system by a micro-organism which is usually a virus. Invasion may be of such brief duration that successful isolation of the virus from the blood, CSF, or urine in not more commonly achieved.

  14. Recognition and management of febrile convulsion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Shirt, Bethany

    2015-08-26

    Febrile convulsion is characterised by convulsion associated with fever in an infant or child aged between six months and six years. The febrile illness causing the convulsion should not be secondary to an intracranial infection (meningitis or encephalitis) or acute electrolyte imbalance. Most cases of febrile convulsion are short lived and self-terminating. However, a few cases of prolonged febrile convulsion may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Management is mainly symptomatic, although anticonvulsants may have a role in a small number of children with complex or recurrent febrile convulsion. Referral to paediatric neurologists may be necessary in cases of complex or recurrent febrile convulsion, or in those where a pre-existing neurological disorder exists. One third of children will develop a further febrile convulsion during subsequent febrile illness. Nurses have a vital role in managing children with febrile convulsion, educating parents about the condition and dispelling myths. This article outlines the presentation, management, investigations and prognosis for febrile convulsion, indicating how nurses working in different clinical areas can help to manage this common childhood condition.

  15. Convulsion following gastroenteritis in children without severe electrolyte imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Nezami, Nariman; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Ghorashi, Sona

    2010-01-01

    Three to five million children from among one billion with gastroenteritis die annually worldwide. The etiologic agent in developed countries is viral in 15-60% of cases, while in developing countries, bacteria and parasites are frequently reported as the etiologic factors. Neurologic signs including convulsion are seen in some cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, risk factors and short-term prognosis of gastroenteritis with convulsion. During a case-control study, 100 patients with gastroenteritis were enrolled into the case and control groups on the basis of convulsion or no convulsion development, respectively. This study was conducted in Tabriz Children's Hospital from March 2004 to March 2007. The age of patients ranged from 2 months to 7 years, and the groups were age- and sex-matched. Body temperature (BT), severity and type of dehydration, stool exam and culture, past history of convulsion in the patient and first-degree relatives, electrolyte imbalance, and short-term prognosis were studied and compared. The mean weight of groups was not different, while the frequency of fever at the time of admission, past history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives and severity of dehydration were significantly higher in the case group (p convulsion in the patient, shigellosis and antibiotic usage were also significantly higher in the case group (p = 0.025, p = 0.014 and p = 0.001). Convulsion mostly occurred in mild gastroenteritis accompanied with fever and positive history of febrile convulsion in first-degree relatives. History of febrile convulsion in the patient and shigellosis were associated with development of convulsion in patients with gastroenteritis. No significant electrolyte imbalance was observed in patients with gastroenteritis experiencing febrile convulsion.

  16. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan AFSHARKHAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Afsharkhas L, Tavasoli A. Renal Function in Children with Febrile Convulsions.Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4:57-61.AbstractObjectiveFebrile convulsions (FC are the most frequent seizure disorder in children.Some studies have detected serum electrolyte disturbances in patients with FC.This study determines serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and frequency of urinary tract infection in hospitalized children with FC.Materials & MethodsIn this descriptive, cross sectional study, we evaluated 291 children with FC admitted to the Neurology ward of Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital from 2008–2013. Data was recorded on age, sex, type (simple, complex, and recurrence of seizures, family history of FC and epilepsy, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, and urinary tract infections.ResultsA total of 291 patients with diagnosis of FC were admitted to our center. Of these 291 patients, 181 (62.2% were male. The mean age was 24.4 ± 14.6 months.There were simple, complex, and recurrent FCs in 215 (73.9%, 76 (26.1% and 61 (21% of patients, respectively. Urinary tract infections (UTI were found in 13 (4.5% patients, more present in females (p-value = 0.03 and under 12 months of age (p-value = 0.003. Hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia was detected in 32 (11%, 16 (5.5%, and 4 (1.4% of cases, respectively. Twentyfour (8.2% patients had a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2.There were no abnormalities in serum magnesium, BUN, and creatinine levels.ConclusionDuring FCs, mild changes may occur in renal function but a serum electrolyte evaluation is not necessary unless patients are dehydrated. In children with FC, urinary tract infections should be ruled out. ReferencesGhofrani M. Febrile Convulsion: Another look at an old subject. Iran J Child Neurology 2006 June:1(1:5-9.Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero D, Schor N. Swaiman’s Pediatric Neurology: Principles and Practice. 5th edition

  17. Intracerebroventricular administration of kappa-agonists induces convulsions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansinath, M; Ramabadran, K; Turndorf, H; Shukla, V K

    1991-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of kappa-agonists (PD 117302, U-50488H and U-69593) induced convulsions in a dose-related manner in mice. The dose at which 50% of animals convulsed (CD50) was in nmol ranges for all opioids. Among the opioids used, PD 117302 was the most potent convulsant. ICV administration of either vehicle alone or U-53445E, a non-kappa-opioid (+) enantiomer of U-50488H did not induce convulsions. The convulsive response of kappa-agonists was differentially susceptible for antagonism by naloxone and/or MR 2266. Collectively, these findings support the view that convulsions induced by kappa-agonists in mice involve stereospecific opioid receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, the convulsant effect of kappa-agonists could not be modified by pretreatment with MK-801, ketamine, muscimol or baclofen. It is concluded that kappa-opioid but not NMDA or GABA receptor mechanisms are involved in convulsions induced by kappa-agonists. These results are the first experimental evidence implicating stereospecific kappa-receptor mechanisms in opioid-induced convulsions in mice.

  18. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was the clinical validation of an automated algorithm based on surface electromyography (EMG) for differentiation between convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Forty-four consecutive episodes with convulsive events were automatically analyzed...... with the algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96......%) and 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  19. Effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Wei-Cheng; Hou, Ben-Chao; Huang, Jian; Zhan, Yan-Ping; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of dexmedetomidine priming on convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine.The New Zealand white rabbits were applied for the mechanism study of dexmedetomidine priming for preventing convulsion reaction induced by lidocaine. The influence of dexmedetomidine priming with different doses on the time for convulsion occurrence and the duration time of convulsion induced by lidocaine, as well as contents of excitatory amino acids (aspartate [Asp], glutamate [Glu]) and inhibitory amino acids (glycine [Gly], γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) in the brain tissue were investigated.With 3 and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine priming, the occurrence times of convulsion were prolonged from 196 seconds to 349 and 414 seconds, respectively. With dexmedetomidine priming, the contents of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu) were much reduced at occurrence time of convulsion comparing with that without dexmedetomidine priming, while content of inhibitory amino acids Gly was much enhanced.The application of dexmedetomidine before local anesthetics can improve intoxication dose threshold of the lidocaine, delay occurrence of the convulsion, and helped for the recovery of convulsion induced by lidocaine. The positive effect of dexmedetomidine on preventing convulsion would owe to not only the inhibition of excitatory amino acids (Asp, Glu), but also the promotion of inhibitory amino acids Gly secretion.

  20. Febrile Convulsions: Their Significance for Later Intellectual Development and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that intellectual and behavioral outcomes in children who have had febrile convulsions are dependent on preseizure status, unilaterality of the initial fit, recurrent febrile seizures, continued neurological abnormalities, the advent of fits when afebrile, and socioeconomic status. Suggests that a febrile convulsion should be followed up…

  1. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiraghdar Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pe-diatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis re-vealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with ne-phritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lympho-penia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neuro-logical status assessment may be needed in this situation.

  2. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Maddani, Abbas; Taheri, Saeed; Sharifi-Bonab, Mir Mohsen; Esfahani, Taher; Panahi, Yunes; Einollahi, Behzad

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation.

  3. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  4. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuli

    2014-12-01

    Altered mental state is a very common presentation in the elderly admitted to the emergency department. It has been determined that about 16% of patients aged 60 or older with confusion of unknown origin have non-convulsive status epilepticus. The diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus is difficult in the elderly because possible aetiologies of confusion may present with the same clinical picture. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly carries major morbidity and mortality, attributable primarily to aetiology, and treatment is complex, involving treatment of the aetiology and concomitant medical illnesses, whilst balancing the side effects and drug interactions of antiepileptic drugs.

  5. Convulsive seizures with a therapeutic dose of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Ikematsu, Yuuki; Hashisako, Mikiko; Harada, Eiji; Miyagi, Hiroto; Fujisawa, Nobumitsu

    2014-01-01

    An 86-year-old woman who had been treated for tuberculous peritonitis and pulmonary tuberculosis, exhibited a disturbance of consciousness and tonic-clonic convulsions seven days after the administration of the antituberculous drug isoniazid. As her serum vitamin B6 level was remarkably low, she was diagnosed with convulsive seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency associated with isoniazid treatment. Seizures refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy were controlled with the administration of pyridoxine. Most reported cases of isoniazid-induced convulsive seizures occurred as a result of an overdose due to attempted suicide. This report presents a case of convulsive seizures that occurred in association with the short-term administration of a therapeutic dose of isoniazid.

  6. Etiology of convulsions in neonatal and infantile period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, T; Yokata, K; Takashima, S; Nambu, Y; Hanai, T

    1976-01-01

    1) Etiology of convulsions starting prior to two years of age was discussed in 418 cases. Neonatal seizures before 30 days old appeared in 86 cases (53 boys and 33 girls). Three hundred and thirty-two patients (172 boys and 160 girls) had convulsions in infancy. Twelve patients (9 boys and 3 girls) suffered from convulsions both in neonatal and infantile period. 2)Etiology of convulsions was prenatal in 67 cases (16%), natal in 49 cases (12%), postnatal in 158 cases (38%) and unknown in 144 cases (34%). Prenatal factors consisted of cerebral malformation (23 cases, 6%), associated physical minor anomaly such as cataracta or finger abomaly (11 cases, 3%), abnormal pernatal history (8 cases, 2%), congenital heart disease 3) cases, 1%), tuberose scleorsis (7 cases, 2%) and positive family history (13 cases, 3%). Postnatal causes included hypocalcemia or hypoglycemia (7 cases, 2%), brain tumors (3 cases, 1%), breath-holding spells (21 cases, 5%), febrile convulsion (44 cases, 11%), bathing (3 cases, 1%), afebrile colds (3 cases, 1%), purulent meningitis (17 cases, 4%), DPT immunization (10 cases 2%), vaccination (7 cases, 2%) and acute hemiplegia (10 cases, 2%). The group of unknown etiology were as fns (38 cases, 9%), epilepsy associated with interictal signs (23 cases, 6%), benign infantile convulsions (57 cases, 14%), neonatal convulsion of unknown etiology (12 cases, 3%) and miscellaneous categories (4%). 3) Pregnancy was abnormal in 53% of cases with cerebral malformation. Asphyxia at birth was noted in 43% of patients with tuberose sclerosis and in 35% of congenital cerebral abomaly. 4) Pneumoencephalographic examinations revealed midline anomaly in 50% of cerebral malformation. It was abnormal in all cases with tuberose sclerosis, head injury and epilepsy with interseizure neurological signs. 5) There were no correlations between the seizure pattern and the etiology in neonatal convulsion. In infancy, focal-unilateral convulsions and infantile spasms were

  7. DIAZEPAM IN PEDIATRIC CONVULSION MANAGEMENT: RECTAL VS INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    T MAHMOUDIAN

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Convulsion is a dangerous occurrence in pediatric disease that requires immediately intervention. It is one of the common causes of referring children to emergency room and must be controlled as soon as possible for prevention of systemic complications and the brain damages. We compared the effect of intravenous (IV) versus rectal diazepam in control of convulsion in c...

  8. Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-12-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man who developed acute onset of cognitive decline and convulsion due to Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

  9. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Soo Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsion in infants has been examined in several studies with conflicting results. Therefore, the authors aimed to evaluate the precise relationship involved. Methods : In this case-control study, the authors assessed 100 children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsion, aged between 9 months and 2 years, during January 2007 to July 2009. The control group consisted of 100 febrile children without convulsion; controls were closely matched to the cases by age, gender, and underlying disease. Results : The mean ages of the febrile convulsion and control group were 16.3¡?#?.4 ;and 15.8¡?#?.1 ;months, respectively, and the two groups had no differences in clinical features. Iron deficiency anemia (Hb <10.5 gm/dL was more frequent in the febrile convulsion group than in the control group, although there was no statistical significance. Unexpectably, the RDW (red blood cell distribution width was significantly lower and the MCNC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher among seizure cases than among the controls (P<0.05. There is no statistical difference between simple and complex febrile groups in the clinical and laboratory profiles. On multiple logistic regression analysis, iron deficiency anemia was more frequent, but the RDW was lower, among the cases with febrile convulsion, compared with the controls. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the iron deficiency anemia is associated with febrile convulsion, and screening for iron deficiency anemia should be considered in children with febrile convulsions.

  10. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanikgil, Yigit; Cavusoglu, Turker; Balcıoglu, Huseyin A; Gurgul, Serkan; Solmaz, Volkan; Ozlece, Hatice K; Erten, Nilgun; Erbas, Oytun

    2016-09-01

    The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A), which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  11. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigit Uyanikgil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A, which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni, on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  12. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p .05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  13. Concussive convulsions as differential diagnosis of posttraumatic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Nikola M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Concussive convulsions are motor manifestations in acute head injury. This clinical phenomenon should be distin- guished from epileptic seizures. We present two young men with motor and convulsive manifestations in acute head injury. Patient 1. A18-year old basketball player felt on the parquet during a game. Initially he was struck on the right shoulder which caused brief and vigorous twitch of the head towards the ground and additional temporal impact. At the moment of impact he lost consciousness and developed tonic leg and arm posturing with both clenched fists. His legs were extended during next 20 seconds. Thereafter he was still and his loss of consciousness lasted 3 minutes. Patient 2. A 26-year old man felt on the wooden ground from a 4 m high ferry. He got head impact and lost consciousness. In a few seconds he had tonic/clonic convulsions for the next 10-15 seconds. Ten minutes later he awaked. Results of subsequent neurological examination, electroencephalography and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging studies were normal in both patients. They returned to their occupations after four weeks without problems for a further one year. Conclusion. Described motor manifestations present concussive convulsions. These clinical features are due to transient functional decerebration and corticomedullary dissociation during cerebral concussion. Concussive convulsions are a non-epileptic phenomenon, they are not associated with structural brain injury and have good prognosis. Antiepileptic treatment is not indicated.

  14. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  15. PRRT2 phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Rianne; Breedveld, Guido; de Rijk-van Andel, Johanneke; Brilstra, Eva; Verbeek, Nienke; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien; Boon, Maartje; Samijn, Johnny; Diderich, Karin; van de Laar, Ingrid; Oostra, Ben; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Maat-Kievit, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotypes and penetrance of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), a movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements occurring after sudden movements, infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome, and benign familial infantile convulsions

  16. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  17. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT.…

  18. CONVULSIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO TREATMENT WITH KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEITH, HADDOW M.

    WRITTEN FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, THIS BOOK PROVIDES INFORMATION ON CHILDHOOD CONVULSIONS (EPILEPSY) AND METHODS OF TREATMENT. VARIOUS CONVULSIVE DISORDERS, INCLUDING HYPSARHYTHMIA, AUTONOMIC SEIZURES, SYMPTOM COMPLEXES, FEBRILE CONVULSIONS, AND "PHOTOGENIC" DISORDERS, ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT.…

  19. DIAZEPAM IN PEDIATRIC CONVULSION MANAGEMENT: RECTAL VS INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T MAHMOUDIAN

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Convulsion is a dangerous occurrence in pediatric disease that requires immediately intervention. It is one of the common causes of referring children to emergency room and must be controlled as soon as possible for prevention of systemic complications and the brain damages. We compared the effect of intravenous (IV versus rectal diazepam in control of convulsion in children.
    Methods. Study group included eighty patients with seizure (from 3 months to 12 years old. Forty patients received rectal diazepam and other ones received diazepam intravenously.
    Results. The convulsion was controlled with rectal diazepam in less than 5 minutes (N diazepam less than 2 minutes and this method was not difficult even for parents.
    Discussion. Control of convulsion less than one minute has no relation to the route of diazepam administration. The important factors for control of seizure are dose of diazepam and the prompt use of it after seizure.

  20. Nicotine Elicits Convulsive Seizures by Activating Amygdalar Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iha, Higor A.; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Ikeda, Akio; Ito, Hidefumi; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders; however, the mechanisms of nACh receptors in seizure generation remain unknown. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies in mice and rats to clarify the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced seizures. Treatment of animals with nicotine (1–4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced motor excitement in a dose-dependent manner and elicited convulsive seizures at 3 and 4 mg/kg. The nicotine-induced seizures were abolished by a subtype non-selective nACh antagonist, mecamylamine (MEC). An α7 nACh antagonist, methyllycaconitine, also significantly inhibited nicotine-induced seizures whereas an α4β2 nACh antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine, affected only weakly. Topographical analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a convulsive dose (4 mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically activated neurons in the piriform cortex, amygdala, medial habenula, paratenial thalamus, anterior hypothalamus and solitary nucleus among 48 brain regions examined, and this was also suppressed by MEC. In addition, electric lesioning of the amygdala, but not the piriform cortex, medial habenula and thalamus, specifically inhibited nicotine-induced seizures. Furthermore, microinjection of nicotine (100 and 300 μg/side) into the amygdala elicited convulsive seizures in a dose-related manner. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits convulsive seizures by activating amygdalar neurons mainly via α7 nACh receptors.

  1. Kluver-Bucy syndrome developed after convulsion: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okur, Mesut; Yılmaz, Cahide; Epçaçan, Serdar; Üstyol, Lokman; Kaya, Avni; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Kluver-Bucy syndrome is characterized by increased appetite, hypersexuality, hypermetamorphosis, memory disorders, visual agnosia, stagnancy, aphasia, bulimia, polyuria, and polydipsia. A 14 year old girl had generalized tonic-clonic convulsions at admission, and an incomplete Kluver-Bucy syndrome with hypersexuality, recent memory disturbance, hypermetamorphosis, speech disturbance, hyperactivity, agitation, aggressiveness, and hallucinations, developed the following day. Here in, ...

  2. Treatment of 40 Cases of Infantile Convulsion by Tuina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Jie; ZHUANG An-shi; CUI Yi-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infantile convulsion is a common disease in infants and babies and often caused by scare and improper nursing. Its main clinical manifestations are fright,crying and waking up with a start, etc. Since 1998, we have treated 40 cases by Tuina. It is summarized as follows.

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  4. Transient hyperammonemia associated with postictal state in generalized convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that transient hyperammonemia was noted after generalized convulsion. This study was undertaken to analyze the association between postictal state and serum ammonia levels. Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures were included. Serum ammonia and other blood tests were compared between patients with full recovery of consciousness after generalized convulsion and those who had not completely regained consciousness. Patients who had not completely regained consciousness (7 of 7, 100% had higher rate (p=0.035 of hyperammonemia compared with patients who had fully regained consciousness (4 of 10, 40% and higher level of serum ammonia (246±96 μg/dL vs. 102±99 μg/dL, p=0.006. All patients who showed postictal consciousness level impairment on arrival at the emergency department had elevated serum ammonia at that time. Transient hyperammonemia is associated with postictal confusion.

  5. Convulsive Movements in Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic and Midbrain Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yamashiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although some previous reports have described convulsive movements in bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction, little is known about their nature. A 71-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and clonic movements of both arms. Each series of movements lasted 10 to 20 s and occurred at 2- to 3-min intervals, which disappeared after intravenous administration of diazepam and phenytoin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute bilateral paramedian thalamic and midbrain infarction. A review of the literature revealed that convulsive movements were observed mostly at the onset of infarction. Clonic movements appeared frequently in the limbs, particularly in both arms. Clinical observations and results of animal experiments suggest that these seizures might originate from the mesencephalic reticular formation. Physicians should recognize this condition, because not only seizure control but also early management of ischemic stroke is required.

  6. Convulsions in early post-partum period, a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil H. Inamdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic (tapeworm infection of the brain worldwide. It presents as hydrocephalus and acute onset seizures. A 28-year-old para 3 live 3 [P3L3], post-partum [day 7], resident of Arvi, presented in casualty during emergency hours with headache and fever since 7 days. She presented with h/o convulsions 2 episodes, one on day 5 and one on day 7 of her full term vaginal home delivery. She presented to the Emergency Department on day 7 with generalised tonic-clonic seizures preceded by nausea and headache. All her blood investigations were within normal limits except an extremely surprising finding on CT scan. 40% of patients having postpartum convulsions do not experience preeclampsia, clinical awareness is essential for early treatment and care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 231-233

  7. Pediatric convulsive status epilepticus in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Marco R; Holden, Kenton R; Rodriguez, Luis C; Collins, Julianne S; Samra, Jose A; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2009-10-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in children is an important public health problem, particularly in low-resource countries. A surveillance study was performed with consecutive enrollment of all children presenting with convulsive SE to Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil Emergency Department in Tegucigalpa, Honduras over a 13-week period in 2003. In the 47 children with SE, the mean age was 4.5 years and the median seizure duration was 95 min. Mortality and morbidity were higher in children from rural locations, with all six deaths and three cases of new neurologic abnormalities occurring in rural children who had acute symptomatic SE. We conclude that childhood SE is common in the low-resource developing country of Honduras. Given the long delays in obtaining initial treatment in pediatric emergency facilities, availability of prehospital treatment may be of particular importance in this setting.

  8. Transient hyperammonemia associated with postictal state in generalized convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Ting; Yang, Shih-Chia; Yeh, I-Jeng; Lin, Tzeng-Jih; Lee, Chi-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies revealed that transient hyperammonemia was noted after generalized convulsion. This study was undertaken to analyze the association between postictal state and serum ammonia levels. Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures were included. Serum ammonia and other blood tests were compared between patients with full recovery of consciousness after generalized convulsion and those who had not completely regained consciousness. Patients who had not completely regained consciousness (7 of 7, 100%) had higher rate (p=0.035) of hyperammonemia compared with patients who had fully regained consciousness (4 of 10, 40%) and higher level of serum ammonia (246 ± 96 μg/dL vs. 102 ± 99 μg/dL, p=0.006). All patients who showed postictal consciousness level impairment on arrival at the emergency department had elevated serum ammonia at that time. Transient hyperammonemia is associated with postictal confusion.

  9. Pre-hospital treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei TIAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is the most serious seizure type in status epilepticus (SE, which may cause irreversible damage of brain and other vital organs without prompt and effective treatment, and result in a high mortality. Therefore, effective pre-hospital drug therapy can ensure the success of treatment for CSE. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.004

  10. Sociodemographic profile of normal EEG-dissociative disorder (convulsion) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P; Ghosh, S; Nayak, A; Das, P; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2009-08-01

    Few Indian studies have explored the sociodemographic variables of dissociative disorder (convulsion), which may be dramatic in presentation causing significant socio-economical and emotional difficulties to patients and care-givers. This prospective study hopes to explore the sociodemographic variables in normal EEG-disssociative disorder (convulsion). The study was conducted from January 2004 to September 2004 in the psychiatry outpatients department (OPD) of Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. After screening by history, astute clinical examination and application of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criterion, 41/52 patients were finally selected for the study. Written consent was taken from all the patients. They were then evaluated to elicit necessary information required in the semistructured proforma. Data were analysed by using appropriate statistical method ie, Z-test. The present study suggested that dissociative disorder (convulsion) predominantly affected females, mostly housewives and students, coming from rural, low socio-economic conditions with poor educational background. Majority of the patients presented acutely. Depressive disorder was the most common comorbid psychiatric abnormality. The findings of the present study were in tune with the findings of the few earlier studies available.

  11. [Non-thermal electromagnetic fields and estimation of the convulsive syndrome probable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Sidorenko, A V

    2010-01-01

    There are cases of development of a convulsive syndrome at influence of electromagnetic field (EMF) in physiotherapy practice, and in conditions of a professional work. There is a point of view that EMF can render medical effect at treatment of a epilepsy syndrome. Some publications specify on develop of epilepsy convulsions in experiment at EMF of various frequencies exposure. Four conditions which can promote development of convulsions at EMF exposure are considered.

  12. Strychnine poisoning as an unusual cause of convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, D. J.; Tomson, C. R.; Seviour, J.; Dale, G.

    1989-01-01

    A fatal case of strychnine poisoning is presented. The patient vomited then suffered a series of tonic convulsions which were triggered by tactile stimulation. In between paroxysms he was initially alert. Eventually the patient became comatosed due to anoxia and had a cardiac arrest. He presented with a marked metabolic acidosis and rapidly developed renal failure caused by acute rhabdomyolysis. This clinical picture is classical for strychnine poisoning and the complications which the intoxication produces. Attention is drawn to the fact that survival can even follow the ingestion of very large doses of strychnine providing there is no delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2602253

  13. Misoprostol Induced Convulsion-A Rare Side Effect of Misoprostol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh; Reddy, Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 has wider application in obstetrics gynaecology. It has been recommended in the prophylaxis and treatment of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) by Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO), World Health Organisation (WHO) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG). It is a very safe drug associated with transient side-effects like fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. In the present case report patient had an unusual side effect of hyperpyrexia and convulsion after use of misoprostol for prophylaxis against PPH.

  14. Non-convulsive status epilepticus presenting with Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Mashael; Khan, Sonia A; Kabiraj, Mohammed; Khoja, Waleed A

    2009-07-01

    Ictal aphasia in adults is a rare phenomenon. Most reported cases manifest with non-fluent (Broca) aphasia. Ictal fluent (Wernicke) aphasia is less common. We report a 47-year-old, right-handed woman that presented with recurrent episodes of non-convulsive seizures in the form of Wernicke's aphasia for 2 weeks. An MRI of the brain showed an old cerebral infarction in the left parieto-occipital area. Scalp EEG revealed continuous periodic sharp waves at the left temporal regions with diffusion to the whole left hemisphere and at occasions to the right. This is followed by variable periods of post ictal slowing. Recurrence of the described ictal pattern was noted. Management of status epilepticus was started in the form of intravenous diazepam and a loading dose of phenytoin and phenobarbitone. After treatment, she improved clinically and the EEG improved with disappearance of the left temporal ictal rhythm and normalization of the EEG background. Thus, establishing the diagnosis of non-convulsive partial status epilepticus manifesting as ictal aphasia.

  15. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors.

  16. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Blouki Moghaddam; Bidabadi; Hassanzadeh Rad; Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Sh...

  17. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  18. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  19. Predictors of Outcome of Convulsive Status Epilepticus Among an Egyptian Pediatric Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Eman F; Draz, Iman; Ahmed, Dalia; Shaheen, Hala A

    2015-11-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in pediatrics. We aimed to study the etiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors among pediatric patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Seventy patients were included in this cohort study from pediatric emergency department of the specialized Children Hospital of Cairo University. The outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Acute symptomatic etiology was the most common cause of convulsive status epilepticus. Refractory convulsive status epilepticus was observed more significantly in cases caused by acute symptomatic etiologies. The outcome was mortality in 26 (37.1%) patients, severe disability in 15 (21.4%), moderate disability in 17 (24.3%), and good recovery in 12 (17.1%) patients. The significant predictor of mortality was lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, whereas lower modified Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission and refractory convulsive status epilepticus were the significant predictors for disability and mortality.

  20. Baccoside A suppresses epileptic-like seizure/convulsion in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rakesh; Gupta, Shipra; Tandon, Sudeep; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio; Gupta, Shailendra K

    2010-09-01

    The 1 mm long Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the prime research tools to study different human neurodegenerative diseases. We have considered the case in which increase in the surrounding temperature of this multicellular model leads to abnormal bursts of neuronal cells that can be linked to seizure or convulsion. The induction of such seizure/convulsion mechanism was done by gradually increasing the temperature with 1x buffer (100 mM NaCl, 50 mM MgCl(2)) in adult C. elegans. In the present experiment it is demonstrated that Baccoside A can significantly reduce the seizure/convulsion in C. elegans at higher temperatures (26-28+/-1 degrees C). Furthermore, in T-type Ca(2+) channel cca-1 mutant worms, no convulsion was recorded. Our experimental results suggest that plant molecules from Bacopa monnieri may be useful in suppressing the seizure/convulsion in worms.

  1. Cholinergic and noradrenergic triggers' in soman induced convulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipley, M.T.; Zimmer, L.; Ennis, M.; Etri, M.

    1993-05-13

    Considerable evidence suggests that soman induced seizure's are initiated in the piriform cortex (PC). Consistent with this, PC is the most frequent site of neuropathology in soman treated rats and other species. Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that convulsive doses of soman cause the rapid induction of the immediate early gene protein product, Fos, in piriform cortex (PC). Fos is known to be expressed when neurons undergo sustained excitatory activity. Following soman, Fos is selectively expressed by neurons in layers II Ill of PC. These neurons are known to send excitatory projections to the hippocampus and to thalamus and neocortex. Thus, we have suggested that soman may initially cause seizure activity in layer II-III PC neurons; this seizure activity could then spread to the hippocampus and neocortex. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have observed that Fos is expressed in hippocampus, thalamus and neocortex subsequent to its expression in PC.

  2. [Management of convulsive status epilepticus in infants and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, P; Parain, D; Vallée, L

    2009-04-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus in childhood is a life threatening condition with serious risk of neurological sequelae which constitutes a medical emergency. Clinical and experimental data suggest that prolonged seizures can have immediate and long-term adverse consequences on the immature and developing brain. So the child who presents with a continuous generalized convulsive seizure lasting greater than five minutes should be promptly treated. The outcome is mainly determined by the underlying etiology, age and duration of status epilepticus. In children the mortality from status epilepticus ranges from 3 to 5% and the morbidity is two-fold higher. Mortality and morbidity are highest with status epilepticus associated with central nervous system infections, which is the most important cause of status epilepticus. There are few evidence-based data to guide management decisions for the child with status epilepticus. Immediate goals are stabilization of airways, breathing and circulation and termination of seizures. Benzodiazepines remain the first-line drugs recommended for prompt termination of seizures. As intravenous lorazepam is not available in France, we suggest clonazepam as the best choice for initial therapy. Rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam remain important options. Intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin and phenobarbital are the second-line drugs. Phenytoin is being increasingly substituted by fosphenytoin, but pediatric data are scarce and fosphenytoin is not authorized for use in France below five years old. In children, phenytoin is often preferred to phenobarbital, even though no comparative studies have demonstrated a better efficacy. To manage status epilepticus refractory to a benzodiazepine and administration of phenytoin and/or phenobarbital, many pediatricians today prefer high-dose midazolam infusion rather than thiopental to minimize serious side effects from barbiturate anesthesia. There is no benefit/risk ratio to support the use of propofol

  3. Effects of midazolam and phenobarbital on brain oxidative reactions induced by pentylenetetrazole in a convulsion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yukiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Shimada, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2012-04-01

    Brain oxidative reactions are involved in epilepsy as well as neurodegenerative diseases. In animal convulsion models, some anticonvulsants have been found to suppress oxidative reactions associated with convulsions. However, the effect of anticonvulsants on brain oxidative reactions has not fully been clarified. Midazolam and phenobarbital are often used as an intravenous anesthetic, and are known to have anticonvulsive effect, but antioxidative effect of these drugs has rarely been studied. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on the degree of convulsions and brain oxidative reactions in an animal convulsion model. In order to evaluate brain oxidative reactions, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA) level and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA expression level in the brain of mice in a convulsion model generated by a single injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). We evaluated the effects of midazolam and phenobarbital on the degree of PTZ-induced convulsions and on the changes in brain MDA level and HO-1 mRNA expression level. After PTZ injection, severe convulsions were observed in all mice. MDA level was increased in the whole brain, while HO-1 mRNA expression level was increased only in the hippocampus. Both midazolam and phenobarbital prevented the convulsions and suppressed the increase in both MDA level and HO-1 mRNA expression level in the brain. In this study, both midazolam and phenobarbital suppressed PTZ-induced MDA and HO-1 reactions in the brain, suggesting that these drugs inhibit brain oxidative reactions in a convulsion model.

  4. Paraquat-induced convulsion and death: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changbao; Zhang, Xigang; Jiang, Yun; Li, Guang; Wang, Haochun; Tang, Xueping; Wang, Qunli

    2013-09-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a potent toxicant for humans, and poisoning with PQ is associated with high mortality. Patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning may die of multiple organ failure involving the circulatory and respiratory systems. Death resulting from epilepsy-like convulsions, which are infrequently noted reported with PQ poisoning, is observed clinically with this condition. This study presents the clinical data of five patients with severe PQ-induced poisoning who died of epilepsy-like convulsions, and related publications were reviewed in order to investigate the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of these convulsions. Our results may help prevent this event and improve the success of treatment.

  5. Dexmedetomidine controls twitch-convulsive syndrome in the course of uremic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Koichi; Scurlock, Corey; Bronster, David

    2011-12-01

    An 85 year old man with a history of chronic renal insufficiency was admitted to the cardiothoracic intensive care unit after aortic valve replacement. His postoperative course was marked by acute oliguric renal failure for high blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and acute hyperactive delirium. At this time he also developed tremors with muscle twitching; he received no other form of sedatives. A neurology consult made the diagnosis of twitch-convulsive syndrome associated with uremic encephalopathy. While the patient was receiving the dexmedetomidine infusion, the signs of the twitch-convulsive syndrome, particularly the twitching and tremors, disappeared. Within 30 minutes of the end of the dexmedetomidine infusion, symptoms of the twitch-convulsive syndrome returned, manifesting as acute tremulousness. After several dialysis treatments, his BUN decreased and the dexmedetomidine was weaned, without return of the symptoms of twitch-convulsive syndrome. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. L. Dadali; A. A. Sharkov; I. V. Sharkova; I. V. Kanivets; F. A. Konovalov; I. A. Akimova

    2016-01-01

    The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations...

  7. Mothers’ Experiences about Febrile Convulsions in Their Children: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Sajadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile convulsion in children is a frightening experience for the mothers. This experience may have unknown aspects, which must be investigated in order to plan better support for the mothers and children. This study is conducted with the aim of exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffer from febrile convulsion. Methods: This study was based on a qualitative content analysis. 12 mothers in Amir Kabir hospital of Arak city participated in the study and shared their experiences through semi-structured interviews. The gathered data were analysed using Graneheim and Lundman’s (2004 method. Results: Exploring the experiences of mothers whose children suffered from febrile convulsion reflected three themes: perceived threat, seeking solution, and difference in adaptation. Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study, comprehensive supportive care plans can be designed for enabling the mothers to better cope with their children’s febrile convulsion.

  8. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between...... convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. METHODS: In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized...... tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) from 14 patients with epilepsy, and 18 convulsive PNES from 12 patients (one patient had both GTCS and PNES). The healthy controls were simulating GTCS. To quantitatively characterize the signals we calculated the following parameters: root mean square (RMS) of the amplitude...

  9. The overlooked side of convulsion: bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet; Yaman, Asli; Yigit, Eda; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Injuries after an epileptic convulsion have been seen commonly such as burns, head injury and dislocation of the extremities. But fractures of the extremities due to convulsion are rare. External trauma mechanism is not necessary for extremity fractures. Muscle contractions can cause increased load on the skeleton and it can be complicated by dislocation andor fracture of extremities. Almost 1-4% of all the shoulder dislocations are posterior. In this case report we present a 32 year old male patient who had bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus after convulsion. We would like to emphasize that it is so important to make systemic examination and evaluation of the patients who were admitted to emergency department after epileptic convulsion.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents of children with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.

  11. Ictal pain in focal non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciato, Sara; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Fanella, Martina; Albini, Mariarita; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2017-06-09

    We report an adult with acute unilateral pain as isolated manifestation of acute symptomatic focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. Pain is rarely a manifestation of epileptic seizures. Traditionally, painful seizures have been thought to originate in either the parietal or temporal lobes, but their localising value is debatable. Recent functional neuroimaging studies and electrophysiological findings obtained by using intracerebral recordings have shown the involvement of the insular cortex along with several other brain structures in the processing of painful inputs, comprising a more widespread anatomo-functional network. Despite their rarity as a distinct clinical entity, especially in adults, painful somatosensory seizures can be disabling and misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis is common; it is therefore essential to consider epilepsy as a possible cause of paroxysmal pain to ensure proper assessment and appropriate treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Etiology and prognosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Su; Jhang, Yunsook; Kim, Young-Soo; Moon, Jangsup; Shin, Jung-Won; Moon, Hye Jin; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-11-01

    Although non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an important type of epilepsy, it is not often recognized. In order to analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome in patients with NCSE, we examined the medical records of patients with NCSE admitted to the Seoul National University Hospital between June 2005 and October 2008. The clinical details and electroencephalography records of 34 adult NCSE patients (aged over 16 years) were collected. Their mean age was 47 years (standard deviation 20 years, range, 16-87 years), and 20 were female. Twenty-seven patients (79.4%) showed decreased awareness with acute onset, and seven (20.6%) were obtunded or comatose. Ten patients (29.4%) had a history of epilepsy, and four (11.8%) had a history of stroke. NCSE was etiologically attributed to acute medical or neurological problems in 25 patients (73.5%), was cryptogenic in three (8.8%), and was secondary to underlying epilepsy in six (17.7%). Acute symptomatic etiology was associated with poor recovery (p=0.048), with all unresponsive patients in this acute symptomatic group. Eight (23.5%) of the 34 NCSE patients did not recover or died, whereas nine (26.5%) recovered. Our study shows that the presence of acute symptoms or central nervous system infection is associated with poor outcome, suggesting that a high level of vigilance is required to identify and prevent complications.

  13. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  14. PRRT2 links infantile convulsions and paroxysmal dyskinesia with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloarec, Robin; Bruneau, Nadine; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Massacrier, Annick; Salmi, Manal; Bataillard, Marc; Boulay, Clotilde; Caraballo, Roberto; Fejerman, Natalio; Genton, Pierre; Hirsch, Edouard; Hunter, Alasdair; Lesca, Gaetan; Motte, Jacques; Roubertie, Agathe; Sanlaville, Damien; Wong, Sau-Wei; Fu, Ying-Hui; Rochette, Jacques; Ptácek, Louis J; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2012-11-20

    Whole genome sequencing and the screening of 103 families recently led us to identify PRRT2 (proline-rich-transmembrane protein) as the gene causing infantile convulsions (IC) with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) (PKD/IC syndrome, formerly ICCA). There is interfamilial and intrafamilial variability and the patients may have IC or PKD. Association of IC with hemiplegic migraine (HM) has also been reported. In order to explore the mutational and clinical spectra, we analyzed 34 additional families with either typical PKD/IC or PKD/IC with migraine. We performed Sanger sequencing of all PRRT2 coding exons and of exon-intron boundaries in the probands and in their relatives whenever appropriate. Two known and 2 novel PRRT2 mutations were detected in 18 families. The p.R217Pfs*8 recurrent mutation was found in ≈50% of typical PKD/IC, and the unreported p.R145Gfs*31 in one more typical family. PRRT2 mutations were also found in PKD/IC with migraine: p.R217Pfs*8 cosegregated with PKD associated with HM in one family, and was also detected in one IC patient having migraine with aura, in related PKD/IC familial patients having migraine without aura, and in one sporadic migraineur with abnormal MRI. Previously reported p.R240X was found in one patient with PKD with migraine without aura. The novel frameshift p.S248Afs*65 was identified in a PKD/IC family member with IC and migraine with aura. We extend the spectrum of PRRT2 mutations and phenotypes to HM and to other types of migraine in the context of PKD/IC, and emphasize the phenotypic pleiotropy seen in patients with PRRT2 mutations.

  15. Effect of Brewer's Yeast-Induced Pyrexia on Aminophylline-Elicited Convulsions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki,Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline-associated convulsions have been observed most frequently in children with fever, but the mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the basic mechanism of aminophylline [theophylline-2-ethylenediamine]-induced convulsions and the effects of Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Diazepam (5-10mg/kg, i.p., a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, significantly prolonged the onset and significantly decreased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline (350mg/kg, i.p.. However, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (1-4mg/kg, i.p., the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (2-4mg/kg, i.p. and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist dizocilpine (0.1-0.3mg/kg, i.p. failed to protect against the convulsions. 20% Brewer's yeast (0.02ml/g, s.c. increased body temperature by 1.03, and also significantly shortened the onset and significantly increased the incidence of convulsions induced by aminophylline. The anticonvulsant action of diazepam (2.5-10mg/kg, i.p. on the convulsions induced by aminophylline was reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia. The proconvulsant actions of the GABAA receptor antagonists picrotoxin (3-4mg/kg, i.p. and pentylenetetrazol (40-60mg/kg, i.p. were enhanced by Brewer's yeast. These results suggest that the anticonvulsant action of diazepam against aminophylline is reduced by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia, and that GABAA receptors are involved in the aggravation of the convulsions by Brewer's yeast in mice.

  16. Study of recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Qin Meng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods:A total of 92 cases of children with febrile convulsion who received treatment in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 46 cases. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received levetiracetam combined with conventional therapy, and then differences in recurrence of febrile convulsion, cranial nerve-related factors, contents of trace elements and iron as well as humoral and cellular immune function of two groups were compared.Results:Average number of fever, frequency of recurrence of convulsion and the proportion of developing to epilepsy of observation group after treatment were less than those of control group, and the time from the end of treatment to the first convulsive seizure was longer than that of control group; serum NSE, S-100β and BDNF levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum Ca2+, P, SI and SF levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ALP level was lower than that of control group; serum IgA, IgM, IgG and CD8+ levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and levels of CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Levetiracetam therapy for children with febrile convulsion reduces convulsive seizure and meantime can optimize children’s microenvironment and enhance immune function.

  17. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We conducted a quality assurance project of The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in the Capital Region of Denmark when dispatched to febrile convulsions. The study focuses on prehospital treatment, comparison between prehospital and in-hospital diagnoses and parents' perceptions...... of their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded...... should still be dispatched primarily to febrile convulsions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  18. Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger 3 is Downregulated in the Hippocampus and Cerebrocortex of Rats with Hyperthermia-induced Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Sun; Jun-Hua Xiao; Yan Bai; Mo-Si Chen; Jia-Sheng Hu; Ge-Fei Wu; Bing Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) plays a crucial role in pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion.However, it is unclear whether NCX is critically involved in hyperthermia-induced convulsion.In this study, we examined the potential changes in NCX3 in the hippocampus and cerebrocortex of rats with hyperthermia-induced convulsion.Methods: Twenty-one Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control group, convulsion-prone group and convulsion-resistant group (n =7 in each group).Whole-cell patch-clamp method was used to record NCX currents.Both the Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence labeling techniques were used to examine the expression of NCX3.Results: NCX currents were decreased in rats after febrile convulsion.Compared to the control group, NCX3 expression was decreased by about 40% and 50% in the hippocampus and cerebrocortex of convulsion-prone rats, respectively.Furthermore, the extent of reduction in NCX3 expression seemed to correlate with the number of seizures.Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in NCX3 expression in rats with febrile convulsions.Our findings also indicate a potential link between NCX3 expression, febrile convulsion in early childhood, and adult onset of epilepsy.

  19. Quantitative analysis of surface electromyography during epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai; Jennum, Poul; Fabricius, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina; Andersen, Noémi; Hjalgrim, Helle; Wolf, Peter

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of sustained muscle activation during convulsive epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), as compared to voluntary muscle activation. The main goal was to find surface electromyography (EMG) features that can distinguish between convulsive epileptic seizures and convulsive PNES. In this case-control study, surface EMG was recorded from the deltoid muscles during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring in 25 patients and in 21 healthy controls. A total of 46 clinical episodes were recorded: 28 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) from 14 patients with epilepsy, and 18 convulsive PNES from 12 patients (one patient had both GTCS and PNES). The healthy controls were simulating GTCS. To quantitatively characterize the signals we calculated the following parameters: root mean square (RMS) of the amplitude, median frequency (MF), coherence, and duration of the seizures, of the clonic EMG discharges, and of the silent periods between the cloni. Based on wavelet analysis, we distinguished between a low-frequency component (LF 2-8 Hz) and a high-frequency component (HF 64-256 Hz). Duration of the seizure, and separation between the tonic and the clonic phases distinguished at group-level but not at individual level between convulsive PNES and GTCS. RMS, temporal dynamics of the HF/LF ratio, and the evolution of the silent periods differentiated between epileptic and nonepileptic convulsive seizures at the individual level. A combination between HF/LF ratio and RMS separated all PNES from the GTCS. A blinded review of the EMG features distinguished correctly between GTCS and convulsive PNES in all cases. The HF/LF ratio and the RMS of the PNES were smaller compared to the simulated seizures. In addition to providing insight into the mechanism of muscle activation during convulsive PNES, these results have diagnostic significance, at the individual level. Surface EMG features can accurately distinguish

  20. Evaluation of Serum Selenium Levels in Children with Recurrent Febril Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Berk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The febrile convulsion (FC occurs in neurologically normal children aged between six months and five years and it is defined as convulsions occurred during fever and in the absence of central nervous system (CNS infection, electrolyte imbalance, diseases affecting directly CNS, and history of afebrile convulsion. The aims of this study were to determine the serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC and to compare them with those of healthy children. Materials and Methods: The study included 61 pediatric patients diagnosed with recurrent FC. At the same session, 54 healthy children who admitted to our pediatric clinic for routine controls without history of fever and convulsion, are assigned as control group. The serum level of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometric method (hydride technique.Results: Mean level of selenium was determined as 67.10±8.87 µg/L in patients and 81.99±13.13 µg/L in control group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Discussion: The lower serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC may be the cause of triggering of convulsion or may contribute to its recurrence. Further studies are necessary to clarify this relationship. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2011; 9: 110-5

  1. Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälviäinen, Reetta; Eriksson, Kai; Parviainen, Ilkka

    2005-01-01

    The patient with status epilepticus has continuous or rapidly repeating seizures. Generalised convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is the most common form of the disorder and is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical management. Status epilepticus that does not respond to first-line benzodiazepines (lorazepam or diazepam) or to second-line antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital or valproate) is usually considered refractory and requires more aggressive treatment. The optimal treatment of refractory GCSE has not been defined, but patients should be treated in an intensive care unit, as artificial ventilation and haemodynamic support are required. Invasive haemodynamic monitoring is often necessary and EEG monitoring is essential. The drug treatment of refractory GCSE involves general anaesthesia with continuous intravenous anaesthetics given in doses that abolish all clinical and electrographic epileptic activity, often requiring sedation to the point of burst suppression on the EEG. Barbiturate anaesthetics, pentobarbital in the US and thiopental sodium in Europe and Australia, are the most frequently used agents and are highly effective for refractory GCSE both in children and adults. Indeed, they remain the only way to stop seizure activity with certainty in severely refractory cases. Other options are midazolam for adults and children and propofol for adults only.Regardless of the drug selected, intravenous fluids and vasopressors are usually required to treat hypotension. Once seizures have been controlled for 12-24 hours, continuous intravenous therapy should be gradually tapered off if the drug being administered is midazolam or propofol. Gradual tapering is probably not necessary with pentobarbital or thiopental sodium. Continuous EEG monitoring is required during high-dose treatment and while therapy is gradually withdrawn. During withdrawal of anaesthetic therapy, intravenous phenytoin/fosphenytoin or valproate should

  2. [A case of tyrosinemia type II with convulsion and EEG abnormality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Suzuki, N; Koeda, T

    1993-11-01

    A 10-year-old boy with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and keratitis was reported. His physical development was normal and mental development was lower limit. He had also convulsions with low grade fever several times, and his EEG showed paroxysmal discharges. The plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were 5 to 10 times higher than those of controls. Tyrosinemia II was diagnosed on the low level of cytosol tyrosine aminotransferase in biopsied liver. The cases of tyrosinemia II were reviewed on the symptoms of the central nervous system. Two of twelve cases had convulsions. Adult cases demonstrated nystagmus, tremor, ataxia, and convulsion. Hyperkeratosis and corneal lesions were characteristic in symptoms of tyrosinemia II, but attention should be paid to the symptoms of the central nervous system.

  3. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate induced convulsions by 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnick, P.; Marvizon, J.C.G.; Jackson, B.W.; Monn, J.A.; Rice, K.C. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Lewin, A.H. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid is a potent and selective ligand for the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This compound blocks the convulsions and deaths produced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid does not protect mice against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole, strychnine, bicuculline, or maximal electroshock, and does not impair motor performance on either a rotarod or horizontal wire at doses of up to 2 g/kg. The methyl- and ethyl- esters of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid are 5- and 2.3-fold more potent, respectively, than the parent compound in blocking the convulsant and lethal effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate. However, these esters are several orders of magnitude less potent than 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid as inhibitors of strychnine-insensitive ({sup 3}H)glycine binding, indicating that conversion to the parent compound may be required to elicit an anticonvulsant action.

  4. Effects of ganglion blocking agents on nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479

  5. Reduced Penetrance of PRRT2 Mutation in a Chinese Family With Infantile Convulsion and Choreoathetosis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L M; An, Y; Pan, G; Ding, Y F; Zhou, Y F; Yao, Y H; Wu, B L; Zhou, S Z

    2015-09-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a rare episodic movement disorder that can be isolated or associated with benign infantile seizures as part of choreoathetosis syndrome. Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have been recently identified as a cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA). We reported a PRRT2 heterozygous mutation (c.604-607delTCAC, p.S202Hfs*25) in a 3-generation Chinese family with infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. The mutation was present in 5 family members, of which 4 were clinically affected and 1 was an obligate carrier with reduced penetrance of PRRT2. The affected carriers of this mutation presented with a similar type of infantile convulsion during early childhood and developed additional paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia symptoms later in life. In addition, they all had a dramatic clinical response to oxcarbazepine/phenytoin therapy. Reduced penetrance of the PRRT2 mutation in this family could warrant genetic counseling.

  6. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Merdin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  7. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally (i.p. and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1, i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg-1, i.p. and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg-1, i.p. were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced seizures (75 mg kg-1, i.p.. The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  8. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    "Ethnopharmacological" use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound "liriodendrin" in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures (75 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  9. Review of non-convulsive status epilepticus and an illustrative case history manifesting as delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel; Diu, Eric; Abeysekera, Tamara; Kam, Daniel; Chan, Yin

    2009-09-01

    Non-convulsive status epilepticus can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The condition can be difficult to recognise, and can mimic delirium due to other underlying pathologies. There are several clinical subtypes, although these can be difficult to distinguish by their clinical features alone. Electroencephalogram is the key diagnostic tool to making the diagnosis, but this investigation is a limited resource in many institutions. In this review, we present a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus, manifesting as delirium, and then proceed to a literature review on this important diagnosis.

  10. Efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate versus phenobarbital in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Ghaempanah, Mahdieh; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Nikkhah, Ali; Bavarian, Behrouz; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza

    2012-09-01

    Status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures are the most commonly occurring neurological emergencies in children. Such events have high morbidity and mortality rates along with poor long-term outcomes, depending on their duration and causes. Therefore, such seizures warrant urgent treatment using appropriate doses of anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are the most commonly used anticonvulsants for controlling status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. However, these medications have several well-known adverse effects. Previous studies on both adults and children have shown the efficacy and safety of rapid infusion of valproate in controlling status epilepticus. However, few well-designed randomised trials have been carried out in children, and there remains a paucity of data regarding intravenous sodium valproate use in children. Therefore, our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of rapid loading of valproate with those of intravenous phenobarbital in children with status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures. Sixty children (30 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either valproate or phenobarbital. The main outcome variable was termination of all convulsive activity within 20 min of starting anticonvulsant infusion. Intravenous rapid loading of valproate was successful in seizure termination in (27/30, 90%) of patients compared to phenobarbital (23/30, 77%) (p = 0.189). Clinically significant adverse effects occurred in 74% patients of the phenobarbital group and 24% patients of the valproate group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, rapid loading of valproate is effective and safe in controlling convulsive status epilepticus and acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children. Intravenous valproate should be considered as a suitable choice for terminating status epilepticus and acute prolonged seizures in children. Copyright

  11. Benign familial infantile convulsions: A clinical study of seven Dutch families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.C. Callenbach (Petra); R.R. Frants (Rune); O.F. Brouwer (Oebele); R.F. de Coo (René); A.A. Vein (Alla); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); G.S. Hageman (Gregory); R. ten Houten (Robert); G.M. Terwindt (Gisela); D. Lindhout (Dick)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBenign familial infantile convulsions (BFIC) is a recently identified partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between 3 and 12 months of age. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of 43 patients with BFIC from six Dutch families and one Dutch-Canadian family and the

  12. Benign familial infantile convulsions : a clinical study of seven Dutch families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, Petra; De Coo, René F.M.; Vein, Alla A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Hageman, Gerard; ten Houten, Robert; Terwindt, Gisela M.; Lindhout, Dick; Frants, Rune R.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2002-01-01

    Benign familial infantile convulsions (BFIC) is a recently identified partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between 3 and 12 months of age. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of 43 patients with BFIC from six Dutch families and one Dutch-Canadian family and the encountered

  13. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hsien-Yang; Huang, Yong; Bruneau, Nadine; Roll, Patrice; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Hermann, Mark; Quinn, Emily; Maas, James; Edwards, Robert; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Baykan, Betul; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan; Bruno, Michiko K.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Caraballo, Roberto; Echenne, Bernard; Fejerman, Natalio; Frucht, Steve; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hirsch, Edouard; Houlden, Henry; Jankovic, Joseph; Lee, Wei-Ling; Lynch, David R.; Mohammed, Shehla; Mueller, Ulrich; Nespeca, Mark P.; Renner, David; Rochette, Jacques; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Saiki, Shinji; Soong, Bing-Wen; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Tucker, Sam; Wood, Nicholas; Hanna, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptacek, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majorit

  14. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hsien-Yang; Huang, Yong; Bruneau, Nadine; Roll, Patrice; Roberson, Elisha D. O.; Hermann, Mark; Quinn, Emily; Maas, James; Edwards, Robert; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Baykan, Betul; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan; Bruno, Michiko K.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Caraballo, Roberto; Echenne, Bernard; Fejerman, Natalio; Frucht, Steve; Gurnett, Christina A.; Hirsch, Edouard; Houlden, Henry; Jankovic, Joseph; Lee, Wei-Ling; Lynch, David R.; Mohammed, Shehla; Mueller, Ulrich; Nespeca, Mark P.; Renner, David; Rochette, Jacques; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Saiki, Shinji; Soong, Bing-Wen; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Tucker, Sam; Wood, Nicholas; Hanna, Michael; Bowcock, Anne M.; Szepetowski, Pierre; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptacek, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majorit

  15. A Patient with Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Convulsive Seizure Alone as the Initial Symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuma, Atsushi; Goto, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takizawa, Shunya; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old Japanese woman with Sjögren syndrome, Hashimoto's disease and a 6-month history of cognitive impairment was admitted to our hospital because of consciousness disturbance and convulsion. Her convulsive seizure disappeared by intravenous administration of diazepam following carbamazepine, and conscious level became alert the next day. But, her cognitive function was persistently deteriorated, and a score of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was 17/30 points. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain did not show any abnormal findings. The electroencephalogram showed increased slow waves in bilateral parieto-occipital regions. Serum anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were elevated (1780 U/ml), but thyroid function was within the normal range. In addition, anti-NAE (NH2-terminal of α-enolase) antibodies were positive. We diagnosed Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and started steroid therapy. Her cognitive function gradually improved after steroid therapy, and convulsive seizure did not recur until 3 months later. We emphasize that Hashimoto's encephalopathy should be considered even in patients with convulsive seizure of adult onset without thyroid dysfunction.

  16. Relationship between Febrile Convulsion (FC and Serum Level of Magnesium (Mg In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza Saddinejad

    2006-02-01

    Conclusion: There is a relationship between serum level of magnesium and the presence of febrile convulsion in children. It can be said that the deficiency of magnesium may be one of causes of FC in children. So, it is suggested to use supplements of magnesium in diet of affected children.

  17. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G.E.; Gils, van Stephan A.; Putten, van Michel J.A.M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalam

  18. Treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures in children; a single centre, retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, Danique R. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate treatment of children with Prolonged Convulsive Seizures (PCS) at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Material and methods: PCS were identified from an UMCG database of children with epilepsy aged = 10 mm and occurred between January 2000 and October 2012 in child

  19. Evaluation of Serum Sodium Levels in Simple, Multiple and Recurrent Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Razieh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizure is the most common form of childhood seizures that occur in 2-5% of them. The purpose of this study was to compare serum sodium level in first simple, multiple and recurrent febrile con-vulsions to answer whether serum sodium levels can predict febrile seizure recurrence in 24 hours and in other febrile episodes? In a retrospective study, sodium serum levels of all children aged 6 months to 6 years with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure admitted between March 2004 and August 2005 to Yazd Shaheed Sadoughi Hospital, were compared in simple, multiple and recurrence febrile convulsions. 139 cases with final diagnosis of first febrile seizure found among whom serum sodium checked in 112.54 girls and 58 boys with mean age of 2.01 ± 1.2 years evaluated. Type of febrile convulsions was complex in 36.6% of them. 18% had multiple (occurrence of more than one seizure during the febrile illness seizures and 35.7% showed seizure recurrence in other fever episodes among whom 88% occurred in first year. Mean survival recurrence rate was 6.7 ± 5.9 months. There is no significant differences in age and serum sodium level among the three groups. Association of relative hyponatremia and febrile seizure recurrence was not confirmed. These findings reaffirm the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to not routinely obtain electrolytes in febrile convulsion unless clinically indicated.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of the Salzburg EEG criteria for non-convulsive status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitinger, Markus; Trinka, Eugen; Gardella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Several EEG criteria have been proposed for diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), but none have been clinically validated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the EEG criteria proposed by a panel of experts at the fourth London–Innsbruck Colloquium on Status...

  1. Acute isoniazid intoxication: an uncommon cause of convulsion, coma and acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzman, Sinan; Uludağ Yanaral, Tümay; Toptaş, Mehmet; Koç, Alparslan; Taş, Aytül; Bican, Gülşen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use, suicidal ingestion of isoniazid is a rare condition in Turkey. We reported a case of acute isoniazid intoxication associated with alcohol intake presenting with convulsion, coma and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous pyridoxine administration. Early recognation and appropriate treatment in the intensive care unit is very important to prevent mortality in patients with acute isoniazid toxicity.

  2. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Modarresi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS. Results Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups. Conclusion Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.

  3. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Mat

  4. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae) in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Ajao, Mutiu Y; Aigbe, Flora R; Enumah, Uchenna S

    2013-09-01

    Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that preparations of the plant are used in the treatment of central nervous system-related disorders including convulsion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression. The strychnine and isoniazid convulsion, traction and climbing muscle relaxation, and forced swim and tail suspension depression tests were used in this study. The extract was administered orally (p.o.) at dose range of 25-800 mg/kg while distilled water (10 mL/kg p.o.) served as negative control. Diazepam (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as positive control in the convulsion and muscle relaxation models while imipramine (64 mg/kg p.o.) served the same purpose in the depression tests. T. occidentalis significantly increased the onset (Pconvulsion (P<.05, .01) in the strychnine test and increased the time to death (P<.05, .01, .001) in the isoniazid model. The extract insignificantly increased the reaction time in the traction test while it significantly increased the time in the climbing test (P<.001). In the forced swim and tail suspension models, T. occidentalis significantly (P<.001) and dose-dependently increased the duration of immobility. The results obtained in this study suggest that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis possesses anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, thus justifying its folkloric use.

  5. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and biphenyl acetic acid in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Sandrine; Pariat, Claudine; Bouquet, Serge; Courtois, Philippe; Couet, William

    2000-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are associated with a low incidence of central nervous system (CNS) side effects, possibly leading to convulsions, especially when co-administered with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Although the in vivo pro-convulsant activity of NSAIDS is essentially unknown, the convulsant potential of FQs is traditionally evaluated by in vitro γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding experiments in the presence of 4-biphenyl acetic acid (BPAA), the active metabolite of fenbufen.The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the BPAA-norfloxacin convulsant interaction in vivo.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=27) were given BPAA orally, at various doses 1 h before norfloxacin infusion, which was maintained until the onset of maximal seizures, when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were collected for analysis.An inhibitory Emax effect model with a baseline effect parameter was fitted to the norfloxacin versus BPAA concentrations in the CSF, previously shown to be part of the biophase. This model includes three parameters: the concentrations of norfloxacin in the absence of BPAA (CCSF0, Nor), and when BPAA concentration tends toward infinity (CCSFbase, Nor), and the BPAA concentration for which half of the maximal effect is observed (CCSF50, BPAA). The maximal proconvulsant effect of BPAA is given by the CCSF0, Nor / CCSFbase, Nor ratio, estimated to approximately 6 in this study.Derived models were developed in plasma to account for the non-linear CSF diffusion of norfloxacin and protein binding of BPAA.In conclusion this study has shown that the convulsant interaction between norfloxacin and BPAA in rats, can be adequately characterized by modelling of the CSF concentrations of the two drugs at the onset of activity, following their administration in various proportions. PMID:10780965

  6. The Relationship between Zinc Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion in Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MODARRESI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Febrile convulsion (FC is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition and infections,FCs are generally thought to be induced by metabolic and elemental changes during fever such as Zinc (Zn deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile convulsions and the role of Zn deficiency, we investigated the role of Zn in FC patients in Isfahan, Iran.  Materials and Methods  In a controlled cross sectional study, 90 patients aged 9 months to 5 years were studied in a period of 12 months. They were assigned to three groups. Thirty patients were included in the Febrile Seizure group, thirty febrile children without convulsion or previous history of convulsion were included in the febrile group and thirty afebrile healthy ones were enrolled as controls. Venous blood was obtained and Zn concentration in serum was measured using Graphite Furnance Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometering (GF-AAS.  Results  Patients and the control groups had no difference in either mean age or sex distribution. No significant relationship was observed between serum Zn level and age or sex among patients in the FC group and two other control groups.   Conclusion  Our findings showed that Zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to two other groups. We tried to categorize various conditions in a more practical form. Also, Zinc is in close relationship with socioeconomic level of the individuals which was well considered in the current survey.  Keywords: Zinc; Zinc deficiency; Febrile Convulsion.

  7. 幼儿急疹合并热性惊厥的临床特征%Clinical characterstics of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云峰; 周忠蜀

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of roseola infantmn with febrile convulsions.Methods All cases with roseola infantum or with febrile convulsions were retrospectively collected who were confirmed during January 2005 to February 2008. There were 31 cases of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions. Their clinical features were compared with cases of roseola infantum without febrile convulsions and eases of other febrile convulsions,respectively, and further analyzed with literature. Results There were 17.1% (3 1 / 181 ) roseola infantum with febrile convulsions among febrile convulsions and 24.4% (31/127)among febrile convulsions less than 2 years;The incidence of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was 15.7% (31/198) among roseola infantum. The median age of roseola infantum with febrile convulsions was less than that of other febrile convulsions. There were no significant differences in sex, age, maximum body temperature, duration of fever and day of rash onset between roseola infantum with and without febrile convulsions ( P > 0.05 ), but the frequency of family history of febrile convulsions was significantly higher in roseola infantum with febrile convulsions than in those without febrile convulsions ( P 0.05),而热性惊厥家族史有显著差别(P<0.05).结论 遗传因素是导致幼儿急疹并热性惊厥发作的一个危险因素;幼儿急疹并热性惊厥时一般预后良好,但要警惕发生严重中枢神经系统损伤的可能性,如癫痫.对于1岁内初次发热并出现热性惊厥的患儿要注意幼儿急疹的可能.

  8. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  9. Evidence for involvement of the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor in the mechanism of action of convulsant and anticonvulsant drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, A.S.; Hertz, L.

    1988-01-01

    The anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, phenobarbital, trimethadione, valproic acid and ethosuximide at pharmacologically relevant concentrations inhibit (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to astrocytes in primary cultures but have much less effect on a corresponding preparation of neurons. Phenytoin as well as pentobarbital (which is not used chronically as an anticonvulsant) are equipotent in the two cell types. The convulsants picrotoxinin and pentylenetetrazol, the convulsant benzodiazepine RO 5-3663 and the two convulsant barbiturates DMBB and CHEB similarly inhibit diazepam binding to astrocytes but have little effect on neurons. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that these convulsants and anticonvulsants owe at least part of their effect to an interaction with the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor, perhaps by interference with a calcium channel.

  10. On the Nursing of Children with Febrile Convulsion%关于小儿热惊厥护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷婷

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the nursing of children with febrile convulsion, including the causes, treatment, family nursing and post-illness observation of febrile convulsion. Ob-jective:The nursing of children with febrile convulsion. Method:The obtained data and materials. Reason: To strengthen child nursing. Result: The process of the nursing of children with febrile convulsion is obtained.%关于小儿热惊厥的护理,其中包括小儿热惊厥的病因、治疗、家庭护理以及病后观察。研究目的:小儿热惊厥的护理。研究方法:已经得出的数据资料。研究原因:加强对小儿的护理。研究结果:得出小儿热惊厥的护理过程。

  11. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations. The paper sets forth the possibilities and limitations of using current methods for the molecular genetic diagnosis of idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies. The most effective and less expensive technique of molecular genetic analysis is shown to be an exome sequencing test using the panels of genes responsible for the occurrence of diseases with simi1ar clinical symptoms. The paper also presents the structure of the panel of genes responsible for the occurrence of monogenic epilepsies, which has been designed at the Genomed Clinic and includes 448 genetic variants. It also determines the significance of using a chromosomal microarray analysis to diagnose both chromosomal and monogenic diseases accompanied by convulsions

  12. Convulsion-related activities of Scutellaria flavones are related to the 5,7-dihydroxyl structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Young; dela Peña, Ike Campomayor; Shin, Chan Young; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Yong Soo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2011-06-01

    We screened the major bioactive flavones isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis (baicalin, baicalein and oroxylin A) for their convulsion related activities. In electrogenic response score system and the pentylenetetrazole seizure model, baicalein but not oroxylin A and baicalin exhibited anticonvulsant effects. In vitro studies also revealed that baicalein induced intracellular Cl(-) influx, whereas oroxylin A blocked muscimol- and baicalein-induced intracellular Cl(-) influx. The anticonvulsant effect of baicalein was inhibited by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine(BZD) receptor antagonist. Therefore, anticonvulsive effect of baicalein was mediated by the BZD binding site of GABA(A) receptor. The 5, 7-dihydroxyl group is present in the structure of the three flavones. It is postulated that this group played a key role in inducing convulsion-related activities.

  13. Acceptability – a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers’ and clients’ understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. Methods The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88 and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135. Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. Results The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with ‘evil eye and sorcery’, 3 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 416% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. Conclusion As an important dimension

  14. Acceptability--a neglected dimension of access to health care: findings from a study on childhood convulsions in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillip, Angel; Alba, Sandra; Mshana, Christopher; Hetzel, Manuel W; Lengeler, Christian; Mayumana, Iddy; Schulze, Alexander; Mshinda, Hassan; Weiss, Mitchell G; Obrist, Brigit

    2012-05-09

    Acceptability is a poorly conceptualized dimension of access to health care. Using a study on childhood convulsion in rural Tanzania, we examined social acceptability from a user perspective. The study design is based on the premise that a match between health providers' and clients' understanding of disease is an important dimension of social acceptability, especially in trans-cultural communication, for example if childhood convulsions are not linked with malaria and local treatment practices are mostly preferred. The study was linked to health interventions with the objective of bridging the gap between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions. The study combined classical ethnography with the cultural epidemiology approach using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) tool. EMIC interviews were conducted in a 2007/08 convulsion study (n = 88) and results were compared with those of an earlier 2004/06 convulsion study (n = 135). Earlier studies on convulsion in the area were also examined to explore longer-term changes in treatment practices. The match between local and biomedical understanding of convulsions was already high in the 2004/06 study. Specific improvements were noted in form of (1) 46% point increase among those who reported use of mosquito nets to prevent convulsion (2) 13% point decrease among caregivers who associated convulsion with 'evil eye and sorcery', 3) 14% point increase in prompt use of health facility and 4)16% point decrease among those who did not use health facility at all. Such changes can be partly attributed to interventions which explicitly aimed at increasing the match between local and biomedical understanding of malaria. Caregivers, mostly mothers, did not seek advice on where to take an ill child. This indicates that treatment at health facility has become socially acceptable for severe febrile with convulsion. As an important dimension of access to health care 'social acceptability' seems relevant in studying

  15. [Patient with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with prolonged disturbance of consciousness and convulsion after cerebral aneurysm surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Hoshi, Takuo; Yorozu, Shinko; Okazaki, Junko; Motomura, Yuji; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Tanaka, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    A 73-year-old patient developed convulsion and prolonged disturbance of consciousness after clipping surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm. The patient's consciousness improved four days after surgery, and radiological findings suggested posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The cause of PRES is thought to be dysfunction of blood brain barrier by a sudden increase in blood pressure. In case of unexplained convulsion and decreased level of consciousness, PRES should be considered with radiographic examinations including CT and MRI.

  16. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeep Kaur; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2011-01-01

    “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. A...

  17. The effect of ivermectin on convulsions in rats produced by lidocaine and strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, S M; Varagić, V M

    2007-10-01

    Ivermectin is one of the most commonly used drugs in pharmacotherapy of parasitic diseases in domestic and wild animals caused by parasitic nematodes and arthropods. However, ivermectin and other avermectins very often produce side-effects in hosts. The most dominant clinical symptom of ivermectin toxicity in domestic and wild animals is CNS depression. In nematodes, the target site of ivermectin's action is glutamate-gated chloride-channel receptor and GABA receptor. The depressive effect of ivermectin in mammals might include more than one mechanism; therefore, the anticonvulsive effect of ivermectin against convulsions caused by lidocaine and strychnine was evaluated. Ivermectin antagonized lidocaine- and strychnine-induced convulsions in rats, although these have different mechanisms. In the present study, the anticonvulsive ED50 ofivermectin for lidocaine-induced convulsions was 2.44 mg/kg (95% CL 1.67 to 3.57 mg/kg), whereas for convulsions induced by strychnine it was higher at 4.25 mg/kg (95% CL 2.32 to 3.78 mg/kg). At the same time, both anticonvulsive doses are significantly lower then the observed LD50 of ivermectin (18.20 mg/kg). Furthermore, flumazenil (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors, antagonizes just one part of these anticonvulsive effects of ivermectin. Our results show the significant anticonvulsive properties of ivermectin and support the findings that ivermectin in the CNS of mammals produces multiple inhibitory effects, probably through participation in the function of GABA-sensitive and GABA-insensitive chloride channels.

  18. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting with Acute Cognitive Dysfunction and Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Woo-Hyuk; Na, Ju-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by acute or subacute encephalopathy related to increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy may include stroke-like episodes, altered consciousness, psychosis, myoclonus, abnormal movements, seizures, and cognitive dysfunction. Acute cognitive dysfunction with convulsion as initial clinical manifestations of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is very rare. We report a 65-year-old man wh...

  19. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Loretta; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8-88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4-99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design.

  20. A screening questionnaire for convulsive seizures: A three-stage field-validation in rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Gómez, Elizabeth Blanca; Padilla, Sandra; Bruno, Elisa; Camargo, Mario; Marin, Benoit; Sofia, Vito; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in Latin American Countries (LAC) and epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures is the most frequent type. Therefore, the detection of convulsive seizures is a priority, but a validated Spanish-language screening tool to detect convulsive seizures is not available. We performed a field validation to evaluate the accuracy of a Spanish-language questionnaire to detect convulsive seizures in rural Bolivia using a three-stage design. The questionnaire was also administered face-to-face, using a two-stage design, to evaluate the difference in accuracy. Methods The study was carried out in the rural communities of the Gran Chaco region. The questionnaire consists of a single screening question directed toward the householders and a confirmatory section administered face-to-face to the index case. Positive subjects underwent a neurological examination to detect false positive and true positive subjects. To estimate the proportion of false negative, a random sample of about 20% of the screened negative underwent a neurological evaluation. Results 792 householders have been interviewed representing a population of 3,562 subjects (52.2% men; mean age 24.5 ± 19.7 years). We found a sensitivity of 76.3% (95% CI 59.8–88.6) with a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI 99.4–99.8). The two-stage design showed only a slightly higher sensitivity respect to the three-stage design. Conclusion Our screening tool shows a good accuracy and can be easily used by trained health workers to quickly screen the population of the rural communities of LAC through the householders using a three-stage design. PMID:28301557

  1. Differential effects of petit mal anticonvulsants and convulsants on thalamic neurones: GABA current blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    COULTER, D. A.; Huguenard, J. R.; PRINCE, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Currents evoked by applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to acutely dissociated thalamic neurones were analysed by voltage-clamp techniques, and the effects of the anticonvulsant succinimides ethosuximide (ES) and alpha-methyl-alpha-phenylsuccinimide (MPS) and the convulsants tetramethylsuccinimide (TMS), picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and bicuculline methiodide were assessed. 2. TMS (1 microM-10 microM) reduced responses to iontophoretically applied GABA, as did picrotoxin ...

  2. EEG disorder in patients with complex febrile convulsion and underlying risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hemmati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are the most common convulsion disorder in childhood. The possible risk of developing epilepsy in febrile seizures is about 2-10%. EEG is helpful to diagnose epilepsy; however, there are controversies about the abnormal EEG and associated risk factors .The aim of this study was to determine EEG abnormality and effective risk factors in patients with complex febrile seizures. Methods: This study was conducted on the patients with complex febrile seizures in 2009-2010.EEG was performed on all children 6 to 10 days after seizure and reported by a neurologist. Demographic data and risk factors, including age, sex, family history of epilepsy and febrile convulsions, presentation of seizure, postictal neurological disorder were documented by a checklist and their association with EEG was analyzed. Results: 111 patients with complex febrile seizure, 70 girls and 41 boys, with the mean age of 3.4±20 months were studied. EEG was abnormal in 37.8% of patients, 9% were epileptic form abnormality and 28.8% were nonspecific abnormal. There was a statistically significant association between EEG abnormality in patients with focal seizures, family history of febrile seizures and postictal neurologic disorder (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed abnormality of EEG in complex febrile convulsions in 37.8% of patients, which was significantly higher in patients with postictal neurological disorder, focal seizures and family history of febrile seizure.

  3. Automatic detection of non-convulsive seizures: A reduced complexity approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeem Fatma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz is a challenging task because they lack convulsions, meaning no physical visible symptoms are there to detect the presence of a seizure activity. Hence their diagnosis is not easy, also continuous observation of full length EEG for the detection of non-convulsive seizures (NCSz by an expert or a technician is a very exhaustive, time consuming job. A technique for the automatic detection of NCSz is proposed in this paper. The database used in this research was recorded at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. 13 EEG recordings of 9 subjects consisting of a total 23 seizures of 29.42 min duration were used for analysis. Normalized modified Wilson amplitude is used as a key feature to classify between normal and seizure activity. The main advantage of this study lies in the fact that no classifier is used here and hence algorithm is very simple and computationally fast. With the use of only one feature, all of the seizures under test were detected correctly, and hence the median sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.21% were achieved respectively.

  4. [Convulsive seizures and polyneuritis in a patient with lupus treated with metronidazole (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, G; Krainik, F; Betous, F; Nicolas, M O; Mundler, B

    1981-01-01

    A 20-year-old patient with biologically-confirmed lupus developed a perirenal abscess following puncture biopsy of the kidney. Postoperative treatment included metronidazole at a mean dose of 2.5 g daily for 68 days (total dose : 165 g). Generalised convulsive seizures occurred on four occasions, associated with paresthesia of the four limbs, but without loss of motor or reflex activity, though some distal hypoesthesia was detected. An acute lupus attack was eliminated, the convulsive seizures not recurring after discontinuation of treatment, and the paresthesias diminishing progressively over a period of three months. Electrical investigations showed lack of motor anomalies but a marked reduction in sensory conduction. This is the 13th reported case of polyneuritis due to metronidazole, the 4th case of convulsive seizures, and the first case in which both manifestations occurred. The plasma concentration curve after oral administration of 1 g of the product to this patient demonstrated that the product was not being metabolised in a pathological manner.

  5. The novel anticonvulsant, gabapentin, protects against both convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W P; Robinson, E; Little, H J

    1997-10-01

    The effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, were investigated, in mice, on the withdrawal convulsive behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour that are produced by cessation of prolonged intake of ethanol. When given at 50 or 100 mg/kg, this compound decreased the rise in handling-induced hyperexcitability which occurs during the withdrawal period; the effects were most pronounced for the first 4 hr after administration. Gabapentin also decreased the convulsive response to an audiogenic stimulus during the withdrawal period. The elevated plus-maze, with both traditional and ethological indices of activity was used as a test of anxiety-related behaviour after cessation of chronic ethanol treatment. Gabapentin, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, was found to decrease some, although not all, of the signs of withdrawal-induced anxiety. At doses up to and including 200 mg/kg, gabapentin had no effect on motor co-ordination or spontaneous locomotor activity in control animals. The results demonstrated that gabapentin has a selective action in decreasing both convulsive and anxiety-related aspects of withdrawal behaviour after chronic ethanol treatment. It is possible that further studies with this compound may shed further light on the mechanisms involved in the withdrawal syndrome.

  6. [Characteristics of the audiogenic convulsive crisis in mice made sensitive by magnesium deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, P; Tran, G; Paris, M; Binet, P

    1993-07-01

    Mice of the OF1, C57BL/6, AKR, C3H/He, DBA/2, BALB/C, B6D2F1 and CBA strains are susceptible to audiogenic seizures after 40 or 20 days of acute magnesium deficiency. The duration of the various phases of the audiogenic seizure response (at 100 dBA) (wild running latency period, convulsions latency period and the clonic and tonic convulsions) among these mice was measured. Using the Kruskall-Wallis test, no difference was recorded using these measurements and those obtained for genetically audio-susceptible animals. This shows that acute magnesium deficiency-induced audiogenic seizures develop in exactly the same way as in genetically audio-susceptible animals (21-days-old DBA/2 mice). Lower intensity (60 and 80 dBA) produced only audiogenic seizures in magnesium deficient mice. Repeated auditory stimulation caused an increase in the number of lethal seizures. Sound-induced seizures in magnesium deficient mice provide a sensitive screening test for anti convulsive drug, and for drugs use in magnesium depletion.

  7. Investigation of phytochemicals and anti-convulsant activity of the plant Coleus amboinicus (lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study has been designed to evaluate the comparative anticonvulsant activity of different parts of Coleus amboinicus as it has been mentioned in the various literatures regarding the use of this plant in the treatment of epilepsy, but no specific scientific reports are available in this regard. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anticonvulsant activity of leaf, stem and roots of C. amboinicus has been evaluated by maximal electric shock-induced seizures (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures models in Swiss albino mice. The drug/extracts were administered through intra-peritoneal route (100 mg/ml, in both experimental models and the effect was compared with Phenytoin in MES and PTZ-induced convulsion. Results: All the three studied extracts have shown significant anticonvulsant activity in both the models. However, the alcoholic leaf extract has shown highest activity by abolishing the MES-induced convulsions after 60 minutes of drug administration. The duration of convulsions in PTZ model was also significantly reduced (P < 0.001 compared to the control group. Conclusion: The alcoholic leaf extract of the C. amboinicus has shown the significant anticonvulsant activity in both the studied models, followed by stem and root extracts. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in these extracts may be responsible for this activity.

  8. [Prolonged convulsion after intoxication of alachlor herbicide (Lasso): a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiromichi; Nagae, Masaharu; Okahara, Shuji; Maeyama, Hiroki; Okada, Daisuke; Hagioka, Shingo; Morimoto, Naoki

    2011-03-01

    We experienced a case of alachlor herbicide (Lasso) intoxication. A 57-year-old man was transported to our hospital by ambulance after ingesting 450 mL of Lasso. He was unconscious and had difficulty in breathing. Gastric lavage was performed after tracheal intubation and the patient was placed on mechanical ventilation. Activated charcoal and laxative were administrated. Even after admission, disturbance of consciousness persisted. He had liver and kidney disorders but these did not progress to multiple organ failure. He experienced convulsions from day 4 and was administered anticonvulsants. Convulsion was intractable and needed long-term treatment. His general condition improved until discharge. He was weaned from mechanical ventilation and recovered consciousness, but he still displayed tremors. The herbicide (Lasso) is a combination of alachlor and monochlorobenzene. Studies have shown that alachlor is neurotoxic and monochlorobenzene accumulates in the brain. In case of intoxication with the herbicide Lasso, treatment is required for ameliorating neurotoxic effects and intractable convulsion as well as liver and kidney disorders, gastrointestinal mucosal damage, hematopoietic disorder, and acute circulatory failure.

  9. Factors influencing mothers' role in convulsion treatment among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezenwa E; Awomoyi, Aanuoluwayomi O

    2009-01-01

    Convulsion among children between six months and five years is a major contributor to childhood mortality in less-developed societies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies on under-five deaths have ignored the influence of socio-demographic and environmental factors as they relate to causes of the thematic health condition and available therapies. This study investigated mothers' perception of convulsion causation, relevant signs and symptoms, and the influence of socio-economic status on mothers' choice of remedies. The research was conducted in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria, which is densely populated with mainly Yoruba-speaking people. The study population comprised mothers who, at the time of fieldwork for the present analysis, had at least one under-five child. Five hundred questionnaire respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique, and 14 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among different categories of women identified through the snowball technique. Voluntary Social Action Theory and the Health Belief Model were used in explaining the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The findings show that the remedies mothers chose were strongly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as marriage type, religion, level of education, occupation and place of residence. It is strongly suggested that interventions, health policies and programs should focus on how best to empower women to effectively utilize medical information that will enable them recognize symptoms of this common health condition and/or undertake preliminary therapies that contribute positively to convulsion prevention or treatment.

  10. Efficacy of buccal midazolam compared to intravenous diazepam in controlling convulsions in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Bibek; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2009-11-01

    A study was done to examine the efficacy of buccal midazolam in controlling convulsion in children by comparing it with intravenous diazepam, a standard mode of treating convulsions. One hundred and twenty cases presenting with convulsions to emergency were treated randomly with either buccal midazolam (in a dose of 0.2mg/kg) or intravenous diazepam (in a dose of 0.3mg/kg). Partial seizures, generalized tonic, clonic and tonic-clonic convulsions were included irrespective of duration or cause. One episode per child only was included. The frequency of overall control of convulsive episodes within 5 min were 85% and 93.3% in buccal midazolam and intravenous diazepam groups, respectively; the difference was, however, not statistically significant (p=0.142). The mean time needed for controlling the convulsive episodes after administration of the drugs was significantly less with intravenous diazepam (p=diazepam (p=0.004) that is likely to be due to longer time needed for initiating treatment with intravenous diazepam in preparing the injection and establishing an IV line. There was no significant side effect in both the groups. The findings suggest that buccal midazolam can be used as an alternative to intravenous diazepam especially when getting an IV line becomes difficult. In situations where establishing an IV line is a problem, buccal midazolam may be the first choice.

  11. Effect of Amlodipine and Indomethacin in electrical and picrotoxin induced convulsions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagathi Devi N, Prasanna V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are the drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy. Many AEDs have been developed, but the ideal AED which can not only prevent but also abolish seizures by correcting the underlying pathophysiology is still not in sight. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs may form such a group, as the initiation of epileptogenic activity in the neuron is connected with a phenomenon known as “intrinsic burst firing” which is activated by inward calcium current. In this study, Amlodipine, a CCB of the dihydropyridine class was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity in mice. It was compared with Phenytoin sodium, one of the oldest anti epileptic drugs. Amlodipine was also combined with Indomethacin, a conventional NSAID, to look for any potentiating effect of this prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 20-30 G were used for this study; 48 were divided into 8 groups, each group containing 6 mice. Group 1-4 MES (50 m Amp for 0.1 secs induced convulsion method, Group 5-8 evaluated by using the chemo-convulsant, picrotoxin (0.7 mg / kg. Group 1, 5 are controls of MES, Picrotoxin (without treatment. Group 2 &6 administered standard drug phenytoin (0.5mg/100mg i.p, Group 3 & 7: Amlodipine group (8 mg / kg i.p and Group 4 & 8: Amlodipine (8 mg/kg and Indomethacin group (20 mg / kg. In MES method Duration of tonic hind limb extension, Clonic convulsions, Recovery period were studied. In Picrotoxin method Latent period before onset of convulsions, severity of convulsions assessed. Results: In electrically induced seizures, the 3 parameters compared are duration of tonic hind limb extension, THLE, (P0.05; duration of recovery phase (P<0.0001 and in picrotoxin-induced seizures, the 2 parameters are onset of seizures (P<0.05 and severity of seizures (P<0.05. Conclusion: The combination of Amlodipine and Indomethacin showed a superior

  12. Differences between physiological and pathological convulsive thresholds in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Liu; Leiyu Geng; Jiali Xu; Mingzheng Wang; Ce Zhang; Yu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological convulsive thresholds degrade when the brain is in some pathologic states; thus, a level of stimulus that cannot provoke a convulsion may evoke a seizure or epileptic seizure.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes that occur in the brain when the physiological convulsive threshold becomes pathological, and to determine what differences occur in pathological and physiological convulsive thresholds during the development of epilepsy.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Research Institute of Epilepsy of Shanxi Medical University; Department of Neurology, The Third Hospital of Shanxi Medical University; Research Institute of Function of Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS: Thirty-six female Wistar rats were selected for this study. The rats were obtained from the experimental animal center of Shanxi Medical University. All laboratory procedures complied with animal ethical standards. The animals were randomly divided into three groups: a strong current group, a weak current group and a control group, with 12 rats in each group. An automatic determinator of seizure threshold was made at Shanxi Medical University and Taiyuan University of Technology. Two bipolar stainless steel stimulating electrodes and an electrode connector (diameter 1.2 mm) were made at Taiyuan University of Technology.METHODS: This study was performed in the laboratory of Research Institute of the Epilepsy of Shanxi Medical University between December 2005 and August 2006. The threshold of localized seizures was measured by performing direct cortical stimulation in rats under anesthesia. After 1 week of post-operative recovery, electric stimulation was started with three different kinds of stimulation. Seizure activity was induced by a ramp-shaped single train of biphasic pulses (50 Hz, total pulse duration of 2 ms, increasing from 0 to 2 000 μA in 15 seconds). The threshold of localized seizures (TLS) has been defined as the minimum current intensity

  13. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  14. Convulsions and inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massieu, L; Rivera, A; Tapia, R

    1994-02-01

    We have previously shown that in the adult rat the inhibition of brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity by pyridoxal phosphate-gamma-glutamyl hydrazone (PLPGH) administration does not result in convulsions, whereas in the adult mouse intense convulsions invariably occur. In the present study we report that, surprisingly, immature rats from 2 to 20 days of age treated with PLPGH (80 mg/kg) showed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, whereas no convulsions at all were present in 30 days-old or older rats. GAD activity, measured by enzymic determination of GABA formed in forebrain homogenates, was inhibited by about 60% at the time of convulsions in 15 days-old and younger rats, whereas the inhibition was between 40 and 50% in older animals. The addition of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to the incubation medium completely reversed this inhibition. In all treated animals GABA levels were lower compared to controls. The results indicate that the susceptibility of GAD in vivo to a diminished cofactor concentration decreases with age. It seems possible that changes in the expression of enzyme forms are reflected in developmental variations in the susceptibility to seizures induced by vitamin B6 depletion, but alterations of other B6-dependent biochemical pathways cannot be discarded.

  15. 小儿高热惊厥的护理体会%Nursing Experience of Febrile Convulsion in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟芬芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热性惊厥的原因及急救措施和护理。方法对我院儿科2014年1月~2015年1月收治的30例高热性惊厥患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果30例小儿高热惊厥的快速抽搐,及时冷却,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监控等一系列综合治疗和护理后全部转危为安。结论对高热惊厥患儿的治疗关键是高热,惊厥,迅速控制迅速冷却,加强综合护理。%Objective To investigate the cause of febrile convulsion in children and the emergency treatment and nursing. Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of febrile convulsion in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results 30 cases of children with febrile convulsion of fast twitch, timely cooling, maintain respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen, strengthen monitoring and so on a series of comprehensive treatment and nursing after turning the corner. Conclusion The key to the treatment of children with high fever convulsion is high fever, convulsion, rapid control rapid cooling, strengthen comprehensive nursing.

  16. The diagnostic value of oral lacerations and incontinence during convulsive "seizures".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Megan; Pattison, Claire; Carino, John; Roten, Annie; Matkovic, Zelko; O'Brien, Terence J

    2008-06-01

    Oral lacerations and urinary incontinence have long been considered useful clinical features for the diagnosis of epileptic seizures; however, both are also reported in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The aims of the study were (1) to investigate whether the presence and nature of oral lacerations or incontinence during convulsive seizures of patients with epilepsy differed from those with PNES, and (2) whether the side of the oral laceration has any correlation with the epilepsy syndrome or lateralization. Eighty-four consecutive patients who experienced at least one convulsive event during video-EEG monitoring (VEM) were questioned and examined for oral lacerations and incontinence. Seizure classification was determined by a team of epileptologists based on the VEM findings and other clinical and investigational data, blinded to the oral laceration and incontinence information. The presence of oral lacerations among patients with epileptic seizures was 26% (17/66), in contrast it was 0% (0/18) with PNES (p = 0.01). Of the oral lacerations sustained by patients during an epileptic seizure, 14 were to the side of the tongue, one to the tip of the tongue, two to the cheek, and three to the lip. No significant relationships were observed between seizure lateralization and oral lacerations. Incontinence occurred in 23% (15/66) of epilepsy patients and 6% (1/18) of PNES patients (p = 0.09). There was no relationship between epilepsy type or lateralization and the prevalence of incontinence. Despite frequent reports of oral lacerations and incontinence by patients with PNES, objective evidence for this is highly specific to convulsive epileptic seizures.

  17. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  18. Clavulanic acid does not affect convulsions in acute seizure tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid (CLAV) inhibits bacterial β-lactamases and is commonly used to aid antibiotic therapy. Prompted by the initial evidence suggestive of the potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of CLAV, the present study was undertaken to systematically evaluate its acute effects on seizure thresholds in seizure tests typically used in primary screening of potential antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the present study, 6-Hz seizure threshold, maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (i.v. PTZ) seizure tests were used to determine anticonvulsant effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered CLAV in mice. Acute effects on motor coordination and muscle strength were assessed in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. Doses of CLAV studied in the present study were either comparable or extended the doses reported in the literature to be effective against kainic acid-induced convulsions in mice or behaviorally active in rodents and monkeys. CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds in the 6-Hz (64 ng/kg to 1 mg/kg) and MEST (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) seizure tests. Similarly, CLAV had no effect on seizure thresholds for i.v. PTZ-induced myoclonic twitch, clonic convulsions, and tonic convulsions (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg). Finally, CLAV (64 ng/kg to 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the motor performance and muscle strength in the chimney and grip-strength tests, respectively. In summary, CLAV failed to affect seizure thresholds in three seizure tests in mice. Although the results of the present study do not support further development of CLAV as an AED, its beneficial effects in chronic epilepsy models warrant further evaluation owing to its, for example, potential neuroprotective properties.

  19. Proconvulsant effects of high doses of venlafaxine in pentylenetetrazole-convulsive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Santos Junior

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Venlafaxine, an atypical antidepressant drug, has been used to treat several neurological disorders, presenting excellent efficacy and tolerability. Clinical seizures after venlafaxine treatment have occasionally been reported when the drug was used at very high doses or in combination with other medications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the convulsant effects of venlafaxine in rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Adult male Wistar rats (8 per group receiving venlafaxine or saline at the doses of 25-150 mg/kg were subjected 30 min later to injections of pentylenetetrazole at the dose of 60 mg/kg. The animals receiving 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg venlafaxine presented increased severity of convulsion when compared to controls (P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.0004, respectively. Indeed, an increased percentage of death was observed in these groups (50, 38, and 88%, respectively when compared to the percentage of death in the controls (0%. The group receiving 150 mg/kg showed an reduction in death latency (999 ± 146 s compared to controls (1800 ± 0 s; cut-off time. Indeed, in this group, all animals developed seizures prior to pentylenetetrazole administration. Surprisingly, the groups receiving venlafaxine at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg showed a tendency towards an increase in the latency to the first convulsion. These findings suggest that venlafaxine at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg has some tendency to an anticonvulsant effect in the rat, whereas doses of 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg presented clear proconvulsant effects in rats submitted to the pentylenetetrazole injection. These findings are the first report in the literature concerning the role of venlafaxine in seizure genesis in the rat under controlled conditions.

  20. Nursing Experience of Infantile Convulsion%小儿惊厥的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2012-01-01

      Objective Research and Discussion on the causes and nursing  of infantile convulsion. Methods Retrospective analysis of children convulsion cases in Third People's Hospital emergency department in recent years. Results Cases of Infantile convulsion are multiple in infants and young children age group. Common etiology with febrile seizures, epilepsy, hypocalcemia, meningitis and brain trauma .Conclusion Infantile convulsion is a common emergency in emergency department,mainly with febrile convulsions,a timely manner to identify the reasons, timely communication with children and parents, and correct and effective emergency care can reduce the occurrence of convulsions, reducing infantile convulsion in children with damage.%  目的研究与探讨小儿惊厥的相关病因及护理。方法 回顾性分析我院急诊科近年来小儿惊厥的病例。结果 小儿惊厥病例中以婴幼儿为高发年龄组。常见的病因有高热惊厥、脑膜炎、癫痫、低血钙、脑外伤等。结论 小儿惊厥是急诊科常见的急症,以高热惊厥为主,及时查明原因,及时与患儿及家长沟通,并进行正确有效的急救护理可以减少惊厥的发生,降低小儿惊厥对患儿的伤害程度。

  1. Convulsive and Neurodegenerative Effects in Rats of Some Isolated Toxins from the Tityus bahiensis Scorpion Venom

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Despite Tityus bahiensis being one of the most dangerous scorpions in Brazil, there are few studies about the effects of its venom, which acts mainly on the central nervous system. Previous studies demonstrated the convulsive ability of this venom. The present work aimed to study the hippocampal effects in rats of some toxins isolated from pool V, which induces a pronounced epileptogenic effect. The pool was separated by reverse-phase HPLC, and the peaks with higher yield (Tb V-1, V-5, V-24, ...

  2. Diagnosis and interpretation of EEG on non-convulsive status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-gang KANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to diagnose non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE clinically because of the complicated etiology and various clinical and electroencephalographic features of NCSE without a universally accepted definition. Although the diagnosis of NCSE relies largely on electroencephalogram (EEG findings, the determination of NCSE on EEG is inevitably subjective, and the EEG changes of most patients is lack of specificity. As the diagnosis of NCSE is related to clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations, diagnostic criteria for NCSE should take into account both clinical and electroencephalographic features, and their response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.005

  3. Pharmacokinetics and clinical effect of phenobarbital in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokwaro, Gilbert O; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Muchohi, Simon N; Otieno, Godfrey O; Newton, Charles R J C

    2003-01-01

    Aims Phenobarbital is commonly used to treat status epilepticus in resource-poor countries. Although a dose of 20 mg kg−1 is recommended, this dose, administered intramuscularly (i.m.) for prophylaxis, is associated with an increase in mortality in children with cerebral malaria. We evaluated a 15-mg kg−1 intravenous (i.v.) dose of phenobarbital to determine its pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in children with severe falciparum malaria and status epilepticus. Methods Twelve children (M/F: 11/1), aged 7–62 months, received a loading dose of phenobarbital (15 mg kg−1) as an i.v. infusion over 20 min and maintenance dose of 5 mg kg−1 at 24 and 48 h later. The duration of convulsions and their recurrence were recorded. Vital signs were monitored. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phenobarbital concentrations were measured with an Abbott TDx FLx® fluorescence polarisation immunoassay analyser (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Simulations were performed to predict the optimum dosage regimen that would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 15 and 20 mg l−1 for 72 h. Results All the children achieved plasma concentrations above 15 mg l−1 by the end of the infusion. Mean (95% confidence interval or median and range for Cmax) pharmacokinetic parameters were: area under curve [AUC (0, ∞) ]: 4259 (3169, 5448) mg l−1.h, t½: 82.9 (62, 103) h, CL: 5.8 (4.4, 7.3) ml kg−1 h−1, Vss: 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) l kg −1, CSF: plasma phenobarbital concentration ratio: 0.7 (0.5, 0.8; n = 6) and Cmax: 19.9 (17.9–27.9) mg l−1. Eight of the children had their convulsions controlled and none of them had recurrence of convulsions. Simulations suggested that a loading dose of 15 mg kg−1 followed by two maintenance doses of 2.5 mg kg−1 at 24 h and 48 h would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 16.4 and 20 mg l−1 for 72 h. Conclusions Phenobarbital, given as an i.v. loading dose, 15 mg kg−1

  4. Vertebral Artery Dissection Associated with Generalized Convulsive Seizures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohammad Amin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD. The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances of posterior circulation after epileptic seizures, VAD should be considered.

  5. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  6. Case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with convulsion, gait disturbance, facial palsy and with multifocal CT lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Tetsu; Kurihara, Eiji; Mizuno, Yoshihiko; Tamagawa, Kimiko; Komiya, Kazuhiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi.

    1988-07-01

    A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was presented. The patient was a 4-year-old boy with convulsion, ataxic gait, facial palsy. It was postulated that the influenza vaccine might induce the disease in this case. Cranial CT showed a low density arease in the right temporal lobe, which disappeared afterwards when other low density areas appeared in the right cerebellar hemisphere and in inner portion of the body of the left lateral ventricle. All symptoms disappeared without therapy and the CT findings improved within three months after onset.

  7. Effects of differential modulation of mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid systems on bicuculline-induced convulsions in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Y; Narita, M; Takahashi-Nakano, Y; Misawa, M; Nagase, H; Mizoguchi, H; Tseng, L F; Suzuki, T

    2000-04-17

    The present study investigated the effects of micro-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists on seizures produced by blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated synaptic transmission in the mouse. The selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (1.25-3 mg/kg) given subcutaneously caused dose-dependent clonic-tonic convulsions. These convulsions were potentiated by the prototypic mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine given subcutaneously 20 min prior to a subconvulsive dose of bicuculline. The potentiation by morphine was completely reversed by pretreatment intraventricularly with the selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (0.5 microgram/mouse). Pretreatment intraventricularly with the selective delta-opioid receptor agonists 2-methyl-4aalpha-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,12, 12abeta-octahydro-quinolino[2,3,3-g]isoquinoline ((-)TAN-67) or [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE) showed a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of convulsions. Pretreatment with naltrindole (2 mg/kg, s.c.), a selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist, abolished the enhancement of the bicuculline-induced convulsions by DPDPE. In contrast, pretreatment with the selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50,488H (0.6-80 mg/kg, subcutaneously or 25-100 microgram/mouse, intraventricularly) produced a dose-dependent suppression of the bicuculline-induced convulsions. The inhibitory effect of U-50,488H was completely blocked by pretreatment subcutaneously with nor-binaltorphimine (5 mg/kg), a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist. This study demonstrates that activation of both mu- and delta-opioid receptors increases the incidence of convulsions produced by blockade of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission, while stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors has an anticonvulsive effect.

  8. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo; Filippo Maggi; Marcello Nicoletti; Philippe Rasoanaivo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus (M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses (0.1–0.8 mL/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route. Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded. Results: The essential oil at 0.8 mL/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pen-tylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100%within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100%died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil. Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  9. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Randrianarivo; Filippo Maggi; Marcello Nicoletti; Philippe Rasoanaivo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the essential oil of Myrothamnus moschatus(M. moschatus) in convulsion induced by pentylenetetrazole and picrotoxin in rodent models.Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of M. moschatus was extracted by steam distillation. Thereafter, it was injected subcutaneously to rats and mice at escalating doses(0.1–0.8 m L/kg). Ten minutes after drug injection, pentylenetetrazole was injected intraperitoneally to rats and picrotoxin was administered to mice by the same route.Diazepam served as the positive control. Every single animal was placed into transparent cage and observed for convulsive behavior for 30 min by using ordinary security cameras connected to a video recorder. Death occurring for a period of 24 h was also recorded.Results: The essential oil at 0.8 m L/kg completely arrested the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion without any sedative effect and delayed its appearance at lower doses, but showed moderate activities on picrotoxin-induced convulsion. For the rats treated with pentylenetetrazole alone, the mortality was 100% within 1 h, but for the rats pre-treated with the essential oil, the mortality was 0%. For the mice treated with picrotoxin, the mortality rate was also 100%, while 20%–100% died in those that had been pre-treated with the oil.Conclusions: The results confirmed at least partly the traditional uses of the smoke of M. moschatus for the management of convulsion, and implied that the essential oil may inhibit the convulsion by GABAergic neuromodulation.

  10. Identification of compounds with anti-convulsant properties in a zebrafish model of epileptic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Baxendale

    2012-11-01

    The availability of animal models of epileptic seizures provides opportunities to identify novel anticonvulsants for the treatment of people with epilepsy. We found that exposure of 2-day-old zebrafish embryos to the convulsant agent pentylenetetrazole (PTZ rapidly induces the expression of synaptic-activity-regulated genes in the CNS, and elicited vigorous episodes of calcium (Ca2+ flux in muscle cells as well as intense locomotor activity. We then screened a library of ∼2000 known bioactive small molecules and identified 46 compounds that suppressed PTZ-inducedtranscription of the synaptic-activity-regulated gene fos in 2-day-old (2 dpf zebrafish embryos. Further analysis of a subset of these compounds, which included compounds with known and newly identified anticonvulsant properties, revealed that they exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of both locomotor activity and PTZ-induced fos transcription, confirming their anticonvulsant characteristics. We conclude that this in situ hybridisation assay for fos transcription in the zebrafish embryonic CNS is a robust, high-throughput in vivo indicator of the neural response to convulsant treatment and lends itself well to chemical screening applications. Moreover, our results demonstrate that suppression of PTZ-induced fos expression provides a sensitive means of identifying compounds with anticonvulsant activities.

  11. Continuous EEG monitoring in the evaluation of non-convulsive seizures and status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-convulsive seizures (NCSzs and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute brain injury. These acute seizure disorders are often unrecognized and under-diagnosed. Seizure semiology of NCSz is too subtle clinically to be noticed. Most often, mental status impairment is the presenting feature. Changes in the functions of the thalamo-cortical system in patients with impaired consciousness can be detected by continuous EEG (cEEG monitoring. cEEG monitoring allows detection of the changes at a reversible stage, often when there are no clinical indications of such phenomena. In addition EEG provides reasonable spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution. This makes cEEG an excellent method for supplementing single or serial recordings in the detection of NCSzs and NCSE. Recent advances in digital EEG have made cEEG monitoring in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU technically feasible. Current evidence suggests that the common clinical denominator associated with electrographic seizures or NCSzs is mental status impairment. In NCSE, the duration of ictal activity and the time of delay to diagnosis are independent predictors of poor outcome. It will be prudent to do cEEG monitoring in any patient with impaired consciousness either in the setting of acute brain injury or with no clear explanation to detect NCSzs/NCSE. Early recognition and timely intervention is likely to be associated with good outcomes.

  12. Cannabinoid antagonist SLV326 induces convulsive seizures and changes in the interictal EEG in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natasja; Heijink, Liesbeth; Kruse, Chris; Vinogradova, Lyudmila; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; van Rijn, Clementina M.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists have been investigated for possible treatment of e.g. obesity-related disorders. However, clinical application was halted due to their symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition to these adverse effects, we have shown earlier that chronic treatment with the CB1 antagonist rimonabant may induce EEG-confirmed convulsive seizures. In a regulatory repeat-dose toxicity study violent episodes of “muscle spasms” were observed in Wistar rats, daily dosed with the CB1 receptor antagonist SLV326 during 5 months. The aim of the present follow-up study was to investigate whether these violent movements were of an epileptic origin. In selected SLV326-treated and control animals, EEG and behavior were monitored for 24 hours. 25% of SLV326 treated animals showed 1 to 21 EEG-confirmed generalized convulsive seizures, whereas controls were seizure-free. The behavioral seizures were typical for a limbic origin. Moreover, interictal spikes were found in 38% of treated animals. The frequency spectrum of the interictal EEG of the treated rats showed a lower theta peak frequency, as well as lower gamma power compared to the controls. These frequency changes were state-dependent: they were only found during high locomotor activity. It is concluded that long term blockade of the endogenous cannabinoid system can provoke limbic seizures in otherwise healthy rats. Additionally, SLV326 alters the frequency spectrum of the EEG when rats are highly active, suggesting effects on complex behavior and cognition. PMID:28151935

  13. ucb L059, a novel anti-convulsant drug: pharmacological profile in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, A J; Noyer, M; Verloes, R; Gobert, J; Wülfert, E

    1992-11-10

    The anticonvulsant activity of ucb L059 ((S)-alpha-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide) was evaluated in a range of animal models. ucb L059 was active after oral and intraperitoneal administration in both rats and mice, with a unique profile of action incorporating features in common with several different types of antiepileptic drugs. The compound was active, with ED50 values generally within the range of 5.0-30.0 mg/kg, in inhibiting audiogenic seizures, electrically induced convulsions and convulsions induced chemically by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), bicuculline, picrotoxin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). ucb L059 retarded the development of PTZ-induced kindling in mice and reduced PTZ-induced EEG spike wave discharge in rats. The R enantiomer, ucb L060, had low intrinsic anticonvulsant activity, showing the stereospecificity of action of the molecule although the actual mechanism of action remains unknown. Neurotoxicity, evaluated with an Irwin-type observation test, the rotarod test and open-field exploration, was minimal, with only mild sedation being observed, even at doses 50-100 times higher than the anticonvulsant doses; at pharmacologically active doses, the animals appeared calm but slightly more active. ucb L059 thus presents as an orally active, safe, broad-spectrum anticonvulsant agent, with potential antiepileptogenic and anti-absence actions.

  14. Differentiation between eclampsia and cerebrovascular disorders by brain CT scan in pregnant patients with convulsive seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Katsuto; Lin, Yaw-Tyng; Noda, Kiyofumi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Yonezawa, Masaru; Sekiba, Kaoru; Ochiai, Youji

    1987-06-01

    Six pregnant women with convulsions between 25 to 40 weeks of gestation were experienced. Among them, 4 patients were diagnosed as having intracranial hemorrhage and two as simple eclampsia. With the aid of brain CT scan, one case of arteriovenous malformation was detected and treated surgically with good prognosis for both the mother and the fetus. Two patients were diagnosed to have cerebral hemorrhage with subsequent penetration into the lateral ventricles and were treated conservatively. Their fetuses were delivered alive by cesarean section, but the mothers expired. The other patient with cerebral hemorrhage was treated surgically, and both the mother and the fetus survived. One of the simple eclampsia patients was noted to have a growth retarded fetus at 32 weeks of pregnancy with subsequent intra-uterine death, but the mother recovered after conservative treatment. Another patient at 40 weeks of pregnancy was also treated conservatively and both the fetus and the mother survived. Brain CT scan findings differed between these two eclampsia patients; local brain edema for the second patient and generalized brain edema for the first patient. Thus more active application of brain CT scan is recommended in managing pregnant patients with convulsions.

  15. Acute fracture of the acetabulum secondary to a convulsive seizure 3 years after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Bulent; Caglar, Omur; Akgun, Rahmi Can

    2008-03-01

    While aseptic loosening, osteolysis, and infection are the most common causes of failure after total hip arthroplasty (THA), late hip pain can also be the result of acetabular fracture related to trauma and resultant prosthetic failure. However, atraumatic fracture of the acetabulum around a well-fixed acetabular component is unusual. We present a patient with an acetabular fracture resulting from a generalized convulsive attack 3 years after an uncomplicated primary THA. A 33-year-old man presented with acute left hip pain. He had chronic renal insufficiency and had undergone bilateral THA due to avascular necrosis. The night prior to his admission, he suffered a generalized convulsive attack with severe extremity contractions. Afterwards, he had acute left groin pain and had difficulty walking. Physical examination revealed moderate left hip pain as well as a 1-cm shortening of the affected limb. Radiological examination demonstrated an acetabular fracture with medial wall comminution. The acetabular component had migrated medially and rotated horizontally. Revision of the acetabular component with a reinforcement ring and implantation of a cemented acetabular component was realized. Severe muscle spasms during generalized seizures are known to lead to various musculoskeletal injuries (fractures of the proximal humerus, femur, acetabulum, and dislocation of the shoulder). Seizures could also lead to acute periprosthetic fracture of the acetabulum in patients with osteopenia. Therefore careful reaming is required to avoid overmedialization of the acetabular component in those patients.

  16. Leukocyte Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate as Diagnostic Factors in Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nFebrile convulsion (FC is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC, aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001 in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113 between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test.

  17. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  18. Effect of electrical convulsions on uridine labeling and activity pattern in nerve cells in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkenberg, H.; Pakkenberg, B.; Fog, R.

    1985-07-01

    Male white mice were exposed to electroshock and then injected intravenously with 5-(3H)uridine immediately after the shock. After 5, 30, or 60 min or 6, 12, or 24 h, the mice were killed, microautoradiographs were prepared, and grains were counted in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. The results of the grain counts were compared with grain counts in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia of mice exposed to anoxia for 25 s and then treated in the same manner as the first groups. After electroshock the grain count decreased to 25% of that in control animals in the hippocampus and to 50% in the cortex but was normal in the basal ganglia. The counts returned to normal values within 6 h in the hippocampus, and within 1 h in the cortex. After anoxia, the grain counts were normal in the cortex and hippocampus but increased in the basal ganglia. The distribution of cells with a high or low grain count in vertical and horizontal columns of the cortex in control and convulsion animals was analyzed. There were random variations from column to column in both control and convulsion animals. In some anatomic layers there were significantly different grain counts, indicating differences in functional activity.

  19. [Brain abscess due to Fusobacterium necrophorum in a patient with convulsion and no signs of meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimohata, Mitsuteru; Naruse, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Koyama, Miyako; Ito, Yasushi; Tanaka, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report brain abscess due to Fusobacterium necrophorum (F. necrophorum) in a 78-year-old healthy man. He developed convulsion and did not have any signs of meningitis. Although the brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of the left occipital lobe were typical of a brain abscess, his cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed only slight pleocytosis and mild increase in protein levels. Thus, it was difficult to rule out the possibility of metastatic brain tumor; the patient's condition was provisionally diagnosed as symptomatic epilepsy secondary to brain abscess. His convulsion disappeared soon after administration of antiepileptic, antibacterial, and steroid agents. A craniotomy was performed to evacuate the abscess, and F. necrophorum was identified by culturing the abscess contents. After the operation, he was treated with appropriate antibacterial agents, which resulted in resolution of the brain abscess. Although Fusobacterium species are gram-negative anaerobic bacilli commensal of the human oropharynx, we need to recognize that Fusobacterium species can be a primary pathogen causing brain abscesses and may leave residual neurological sequelae without early appropriate treatment.

  20. Cerebral blood perfusion in febrile convulsions with sup 123 -IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michihiro, Narumi; Ariizumi, Motomizu; Shiihara, Hiroaki; Suemitsu, Tomoko; Kurosawa, Yumiko; Egami, Yuriko (Dokkyo University Hospital, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    Twenty-five pediatric patients with febrile convulsions underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. Nineteen patients (76%) had a localized, decreased blood flow on early images, 12 of whom had it in the temporal region. According to seizure type, the abnormality was seen in 85% (17/20) for complex type, in contrast to 40% (2/5) for simple type. This finding has implications for pathological similarities between epilepsy and febrile convulsion. Delayed imaging performed on 12 patients showed redistribution in 5 of 9 patients having a decreased blood flow on early images. In the other 3 patients having normal findings on early images, however, different findings were seen on delayed images - normal, increased or decreased blood flow. There was no correlation between SPECT and encephalographic findings. A localized, decreased blood flow on SPECT seemed to reflect the risk for developing epilepsy. A follow-up care for preventing epilepsy is mandatory when there are abnormal findings on SPECT. (N.K.).

  1. Involvement of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion by use of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ryo; Kaneko, Erina; Tanaka, Yusuke; Honda, Kenji; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Komuro, Issei; Kita, Satomi; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takano, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    Involvement of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsion by use of NCX knockout mice and the selective ligand SEA0400 to NCX was examined. In the SEA0400-administered group, the latency to clonic convulsion was extended into 210 s, although the latency to clonic convulsion was observed until 100 s in control group. SEA0400 had little effect on bicuculline-induced clonic seizure nicotine-induced wild running and 4-aminopyridine-induced tonic flexion, respectively. Tonic flexion convulsion was occurred three fifth in the wild type mice group by administration of PTZ, but tonic flexion was not observed in NCX1 knockout mice groups. These results suggest that NCX is involved in inhibitory action in PTZ-induced convulsion.

  2. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthik G

    2012-01-31

    We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  3. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of kappa opioid receptors: effects on cocaine- and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions and seizure kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Rafal M; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2007-03-01

    The present study used pharmacological and gene ablation techniques to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) in modulating the convulsant effects of two mechanistically different drugs: cocaine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; GABA-A receptor antagonist) in mice. Systemic administration of the selective KOPr-1 agonist, U69593 (0.16-0.6mg/kg; s.c.), failed to modify cocaine-evoked convulsions or cocaine kindling. Similarly, no alteration in responsiveness to cocaine was observed in wild-type mice that received the selective KOPr-1 antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 5mg/kg) or in mice lacking the gene encoding KOPr-1. In contrast to cocaine, U69593 attenuated the seizures induced by acute or repeated PTZ administration. Nor-BNI decreased the threshold for PTZ-evoked seizures and increased seizure incidence during the initial induction of kindling relative to controls. Decreased thresholds for PTZ-induced seizures were also observed in KOPr-1 knock out mice. Together, these data demonstrate an involvement of endogenous KOPr systems in modulating vulnerability to the convulsant effects of PTZ but not cocaine. Furthermore, they demonstrate that KOPr-1 activation protects against acute and kindled seizures induced by this convulsant. Finally, the results of our study suggest that KOPr-1 antagonists will not have therapeutic utility against cocaine-induced seizures, while they may prove beneficial in attenuating several actions of cocaine that have been linked to its abuse.

  4. Delayed development of spontaneous seizures and prolonged convulsive state in rats after massed stimulation of the anterior piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, O A; Peterson, G M

    1997-04-18

    We studied the short- and long-term epileptogenic effects of massed stimulation (MS) of the piriform cortex. Sprague-Dawley rats with electrodes implanted bilaterally in the anterior piriform cortex and the dorsal and ventral hippocampi underwent MS: electrical stimulation of the left piriform cortex every 5 min for 6 h (afterdischarge threshold, 60 Hz, 1 ms, 1 s). Animals were retested (5 stimulations) 3-4 times later at different time points to check for the kindled state. Our data showed that MS resulted in delayed development of severe epilepsy. The interval between MS and the first appearance of convulsive response (2 weeks) was characterized by deep refractoriness to seizure (silent period). Unexpectedly, dramatic seizure activity occurred 4-7 weeks after MS. This was manifested by (1) generalized tonic-clonic convulsions with multiple failings, which were elicited repeatedly during retest; (2) frequent progression of elicited generalized convulsions into a prolonged (> 8 min) postictal convulsive state expressed mainly by continuous partial seizures and even new bouts of generalized seizures, and (3) development of mild spontaneous seizures. We found that epileptiform activity predominated in the ventral hippocampus. Mossy fiber sprouting was also most pronounced in this area. We propose that the MS resulted in formation of pathological circuits which involve both piriform cortex and ventral hippocampus and lead to severe epilepsy.

  5. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum.In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion was evaluated for detecting HHV-6 DNA by PCR. All of them were referred to emergency ward in Pediatric Medical Center from March 2010 to March 2011. General information, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and outcomes were collected in the questionnaires.One hundred children including 59 males and 41 females were evaluated. HHV-6 was detected from CSF in six patients (6% by PCR. Mean age was 8 months old. All children were younger than 12 months old. The most common primary manifestation was fever alone. None of them had rash. Majority of cases occurred in winter. All patients recovered without any encephalitis.These findings showed that primary infection with HHV-6 is frequently associated with febrile convulsion in infants which may be at risk for subsequent development of epilepsy.

  6. Characteristics of Children Admitted to the Emergency Department with Convulsive Epileptic Seizures: A Single-Center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ataş Berksoy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the etiology and characteristics of children admitted to the emergency department with an acute convulsive epileptic seizure. Methods: Data of patients who were admitted to the emergency department with a convulsive epileptic seizure were reviewed. The patients were divided into febrile seizure, first idiopathic non-febrile seizure, idiopathic epilepsy, symptomatic epilepsy, and symptomatic seizure groups. Results: A total of 335 children were included in the study. Febrile seizures were the most common cause of convulsive seizure (38.5% of all visits, followed by idiopathic epilepsy-related seizures (35.8%, symptomatic epilepsy-related seizures (8.1%, first non-febrile seizures (17.6%, and symptomatic seizures (1.5%. The mean age of the patients was 4.73 years, and it was significantly lower in patients with febrile seizures when compared to the other groups (p<0.001. Conclusion: Knowing the characteristics of children admitted to the emergency department with a convulsive epileptic seizure is important to guide appropriate management and individualized follow-up.

  7. Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik G Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.

  8. Convulsion during intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwama, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of convulsion and associated factors were retrospectively analyzed in 23 patients with symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent a total of 31 intra-arterial infusion of fasudil hydrochloride (IAFH) procedures in 49 vessels. Fasudil hydrochloride was administered by superselective infusion via a microcatheter positioned at the proximal portion of the affected artery. Thirteen procedures were performed by manually controlled infusion of 30-75 mg fasudil hydrochloride (1.2-3.75 mg/ml) for approximately 10 minutes. Eighteen procedures were performed by continuous infusion of 60 mg fasudil hydrochloride (1.2 mg/ml) by infusion pump at a constant rate of 3 mg/min. Neurological improvement was observed after 18 of 22 procedures in patients with neurological deterioration due to vasospasm. Convulsion during IAFH developed in 4 patients, all treated by manual infusion (p convulsion during IAFH. IAFH was effective for treating cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH. IAFH at a constant rate of 3 mg/min delivered by infusion pump improved the symptoms of cerebral vasospasm and prevented convulsions during IAFH.

  9. Progress in studies on the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in convulsion: a short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-fang; LIU Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    Convulsion is the medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly,resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.The impaired inhibition of electrical activity in the brain is one of leading causes of convulsion.y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neuronal processes.GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is the most important inhibitory receptor,and is the target receptor of anticonvulsant drugs in the clinic.In this review,we describe GABAergic signaling mediated by GABAAR,the mechanisms of GABAAR and their expression,and the progress being made on understanding the role of GABAAR in convulsion with emphasis on the association between GABAAR mutations or GABAAR subunit expression and convulsion.We also describe progress of anticonvulsant drugs based on the GABAAR.

  10. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Peter; Riviello, James

    2011-02-01

    Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) has a high morbidity and mortality, such that the rapid delivery of anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated within minutes of seizure onset to prevent permanent neuronal damage. GCSE is not a specific disease but is a manifestation of either a primary central nervous system (CNS) insult or a systemic disorder with secondary CNS effects. It is mandatory to look for an underlying cause. First-line therapies for seizures and status epilepticus include the use of a benzodiazepine, followed by an infusion of a phenytoin with a possible role for intravenous valproate or phenobarbital. If these first-line medications fail to terminate the GCSE, treatment includes the continuous infusion of midazolam, pentobarbital, or propofol.

  11. Convulsion due to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Düger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Axillary brachial plexus block is an effective method of anaesthesia for the surgeries performed on the hand, forearm and distal third of the arm. However it has the risk of serious complications such as cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Levobupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic used for epidural, caudal, spinal, infiltration and peripheral nerve blocks. Levobupivacaine is the S (- isomer of racemic bupivacaine and has a lower risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine. However central system toxicity cases due to absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation has been reported. Here, we report a case having no vascular puncture during axillary brachial plexus block performance but developing convulsion due to levobupivacain after the intervention.

  12. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by mutation in KCNQ3, exon 6: a European case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Petja; Soltirovska-Salamon, Aneta; Debeljak, Marusa; Paro-Panjan, Darja

    2013-05-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare, clinically and genetically heterogenous epileptic disorder. Two voltage gated potassium genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified as genes responsible for BFNC1 and BFNC2 respectively. While as many as 73 mutations of KCNQ2 have been described up to date, only 4 mutations in KCNQ3, 3 of them appearing in exon 5, have been identified. Mutation in exon 6 was found for the first time in a Chinese family, and here we report the same missense mutation of KCNQ3 within exon 6 in a Caucasian family, whose history and clinical picture were in accordance with BFNC. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Meijer, Hil G E; van Gils, Stephan A; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2013-01-01

    The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalamo-cortical system that these spikes are phase-locked to the delta oscillations. We subsequently describe the physiological mechanism underlying this observation as suggested by the model. It is suggested that the spikes reflect inhibitory stochastic fluctuations in the input to thalamo-cortical relay neurons and phase-locking is a consequence of differential excitability of relay neurons over the delta cycle. Further analysis shows that the observed phase-locking can be regarded as a stochastic precursor of generalized spike-wave discharges. This study thus provides an explanation of intermittent spikes during delta oscillations in NCSE and might be generalized to other encephathologies in which delta activity can be observed.

  14. Efficacy of sublingual lorazepam versus intrarectal diazepam for prolonged convulsions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Célestin Kaputu Kalala; Kahamba, Daniel Mukeba; Walker, Timothy David; Mukampunga, Caritas; Musalu, Eric Mafuta; Kokolomani, Jacques; Mayamba, Richard Mukendi Kavulu; Wilmshurst, Jo M; Dubru, Jean-Marie; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, intrarectal diazepam is the first-line anticonvulsant mostly used in children. We aimed to assess this standard care against sublingual lorazepam, a medication potentially as effective and safe, but easier to administer. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency departments of 9 hospitals. A total of 436 children aged 5 months to 10 years with convulsions persisting for more than 5 minutes were assigned to receive intrarectal diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, n = 202) or sublingual lorazepam (0.1 mg/kg, n = 234). Sublingual lorazepam stopped seizures within 10 minutes of administration in 56% of children compared with intrarectal diazepam in 79% (P efficacious in stopping pediatric seizures than intrarectal diazepam, and intrarectal diazepam should thus be preferred as a first-line medication in this setting.

  15. Mutations in the Gene PRRT2 Cause Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25 of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.

  16. [Analysis of the blood and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuko; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed the blood cell count and serum biochemistry findings in patients demonstrating convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (CwG). As a control group, age matched patients presenting with only gastroenteritis during the same period were compared. The results showed significant differences between the two groups regarding such factors as the sex ratio, serum uric acid, and serum chloride levels. All CwG patients showed hyperuricemia (10.0 +/- 2.2 mg/dL, mean +/- SD). The patients in both groups showed similar levels of metabolic acidosis. The patients with CwG therefore have both hyperuricemia and metabolic acidosis, which may contribute to the pathogenic mechanism of CwG.

  17. Gentianine protects hippocampal neurons in a rat model of recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewei Liu; Shumin Liu; Na Wang; Fang Lu; Min Cao

    2011-01-01

    Gentianine has been shown to have a protective effect on hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion (FC).The present study sought to explore the possible mechanism of gentianine by intraperitoneally injecting gentianine into rats with warm water-induced FC.The results revealed that neuronal organelle injury was slightly ameliorated in the hippocampal CA1 region.The level of glutamate was decreased,but the level of γ-aminobutyric acid was increased,as detected by ninhydrin staining.In addition,glutamate acid decarboxylase expression in hippocampal CA1 was increased,as determined by immunohistochemistry.The results demonstrated that gentianine can ameliorate FC-induced neuronal injury by enhancing glutamate acid decarboxylase activity,decreasing glutamate levels and increasing γ-aminobutyric acid levels.

  18. Clinical and genetic analysis of two Chinese families with benign familial neonatal convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haiyan; TANG Beisha; XIA Kun; CAO Guifang; SHEN Lu; JIANG Hong; PAN Qian; SONG Yanmin; CAI Fang

    2005-01-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited epilepsy syndrome. Two voltagegated potassium channel genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified as the genes responsible for BFNC. Here we report two Chinese families with clinical histories of typical BFNC. Using six microsatellite markers, two located at KCNQ2 locus and four at KCNQ3 locus, linkage analysis was performed in the two families, which excluded the linkage of BFNC to KCNQ3, but could not exclude the linkage to KCNQ2. Direct DNA sequencing of the KCNQ2 gene in the two families was performed, and two formerly unknown polymorphisms were identified, but no KCNQ2 mutation was found in the two families. Our study suggests the genetic heterogeneity in Chinese families with BFNC and proves the existence of a new gene locus for BFNC.

  19. Base deficit and serum lactate concentration in patients with post traumatic convulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Parchani, Ashok; Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Alajaj, Raghad; Elazzazy, Shereen; Latifi, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and has been reported to be one of the risk factors for epileptic seizures. Abnormal blood lactate (LAC) and base deficit (BD) reflects hypoperfusion and could be used as metabolic markers to predict the outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic value of BD and LAC levels for post traumatic convulsion (PTC) in head injury patients. Materials and Methods: All head injury patients with PTC were studied for the demographics profile, mechanism of injury, initial vital signs, and injury severity score (ISS), respiratory rates, CT scan findings, and other laboratory investigations. The data were obtained from the trauma registry and medical records. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: Amongst 3082 trauma patients, 1584 were admitted to the hospital. Of them, 401 patients had head injury. PTC was observed in 5.4% (22/401) patients. Out of the 22 head injury patients, 10 were presented with the head injury alone, whereas 12 patients had other associated injuries. The average age of the patients was 25 years, comprising predominantly of male patients (77%). Neither glasgow coma scale nor ISS had correlation with BD or LAC in the study groups. The mean level of BD and LAC was not statistically different in PTC group compared to controls. However, BD was significantly higher in patients with associated injuries than the isolated head injury group. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation amongst the two groups as far as LAC levels are concerned. Conclusion: Base deficit but not lactic acid concentration was significantly higher in head injury patients with associated injuries. Early resuscitation by pre-hospital personnel and in the trauma room might have impact in minimizing the effect of post traumatic convulsion on BD and LAC. PMID:27057221

  20. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8–10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30–40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Results: Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Conclusion: Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery.

  1. Automated Video Detection of Epileptic Convulsion Slowing as a Precursor for Post-Seizure Neuronal Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitzin, Stiliyan N; Bauer, Prisca R; Lamberts, Robert J; Velis, Demetrios N; Thijs, Roland D; Lopes Da Silva, Fernando H

    2016-12-01

    Automated monitoring and alerting for adverse events in people with epilepsy can provide higher security and quality of life for those who suffer from this debilitating condition. Recently, we found a relation between clonic slowing at the end of a convulsive seizure (CS) and the occurrence and duration of a subsequent period of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES). Prolonged periods of PGES can be predicted by the amount of progressive increase of interclonic intervals (ICIs) during the seizure. The purpose of the present study is to develop an automated, remote video sensing-based algorithm for real-time detection of significant clonic slowing that can be used to alert for PGES. This may help preventing sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The technique is based on our previously published optical flow video sequence processing paradigm that was applied for automated detection of major motor seizures. Here, we introduce an integral Radon-like transformation on the time-frequency wavelet spectrum to detect log-linear frequency changes during the seizure. We validate the automated detection and quantification of the ICI increase by comparison to the results from manually processed electroencephalography (EEG) traces as "gold standard". We studied 48 cases of convulsive seizures for which synchronized EEG-video recordings were available. In most cases, the spectral ridges obtained from Gabor-wavelet transformations of the optical flow group velocities were in close proximity to the ICI traces detected manually from EEG data during the seizure. The quantification of the slowing-down effect measured by the dominant angle in the Radon transformed spectrum was significantly correlated with the exponential ICI increase factors obtained from manual detection. If this effect is validated as a reliable precursor of PGES periods that lead to or increase the probability of SUDEP, the proposed method would provide an efficient alerting device.

  2. Binding interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant gamma-butyrolactones and gamma-thiobutyrolactones with the picrotoxin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, K.D.; McKeon, A.C.; Covey, D.F.; Ferrendelli, J.A. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Alkyl-substituted gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) and gamma-thiobutyrolactones (TBLs) are neuroactive chemicals. beta-Substituted compounds are convulsant, whereas alpha-alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs are anticonvulsant. The structural similarities between beta-alkyl GBLs and the convulsant picrotoxinin suggested that alkyl substituted GBLs and TBLs act at the picrotoxin receptor. To test this hypothesis we examined the interactions of convulsant and anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs with the picrotoxin, benzodiazepine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding sites of the GABA receptor complex. All of these convulsants and anticonvulsants studied competitively displaced 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS), a ligand that binds to the picrotoxin receptor. This inhibition of 35S-TBPS binding was not blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline methobromide. The convulsant GBLs and TBLs also partially inhibited (3H)muscimol binding to the GABA site and (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the benzodiazepine site, but they did so at concentrations substantially greater than those that inhibited 35S-TBPS binding. The anticonvulsant GBLs and TBLs had no effect on either (3H)muscimol or (3H)flunitrazepam binding. In contrast to the GBLs and TBLs, pentobarbital inhibited TBPS binding in a manner that was blocked by bicuculline methobromide, and it enhanced both (3H)flunitrazepam and (3H)muscimol binding. Both ethosuximide and tetramethylsuccinimide, neuroactive compounds structurally similar to GBLs, competitively displaced 35S-TBPS from the picrotoxin receptor and both compounds were weak inhibitors of (3H) muscimol binding. In addition, ethosuximide also partially diminished (3H)flunitrazepam binding. These data demonstrate that the site of action of alkyl-substituted GBLs and TBLs is different from that of GABA, barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

  3. Effect of Allopregnenalone (AP and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′CD on the Lindane-induced acute and chronic convulsive behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Tanwar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids (NS are considered important modulators of brain functions. Lindane a pesticide has been shown to affect the nerv-ous system adversely. The present study was designed to explore the modulation of the effects of lindane on convulsions by Allopregnenalone (AP, and 4′-Chlorodiazepam (4′-CD, in both acute and chronic seizure models using Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. We used acute and chronic models. In the acute model, seizures were induced by PTZ 90mg/kg, intra-peritoneal (i.p. injection, while in the chronic model, kindling was induced by injecting PTZ 30 mg/kg sub-cutaneous(s.c on alternate days three times in a week. Lindane produced augmented effect on convulsions by decreasing the onset of preclonic convulsions and increased duration of clonic convulsions. AP (2.5mg/kg, i.p and 4′-CD (0.5mg/kg, i.p were able to attenuate the effect of acute as well as chronic exposure of lindane. They significantly increased the onset and decreased the duration of convulsions in lindane-treated rats. These results conclusively demonstrate the efficacy of the neurosteroids in lindane-induced convulsions in both acute as well as chronic models. Thus, NS have a potential role as anticonvulsant in treatment of convulsions produced by pesticides like lindane.

  4. Nursing Analysis of 57 Cases of Infantile Convulsion%57例小儿惊厥的护理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的:分析小儿惊厥护理的临床经验,使因惊厥给患儿带来的损伤降低,改善患儿的预后。方法:对本院2010年6月-2011年6月收治的57例惊厥患儿的护理进行回顾性分析,采取保持呼吸道畅通,吸氧,口腔、皮肤护理,高温护理,心理护理等护理措施。结果:57例患儿中,病毒性脑炎、高热、低钙伴惊厥者无一例并发症发生,全部治愈出院;缺血缺氧性脑病伴惊厥的患儿病情得到及时控制,好转出院。结论:护理操作规范、重视基础护理、保证营养供给、及时供氧、认真观察病情变化能够有效提高治愈率,改善患儿预后,减少并发症。%Objective:To analyze seizures on children nursing clinical experience,and reduce the damage caused to the children because of convulsions,and improve the prognosis of infantile convulsion.Method:Nursing care of 57 cases of children with infantile convulsion in our hospital from June 2010 to June 2011 were analyzed retrospectively,the nursing measures include taken to keep the airway open,oxygen,mouth,skin care,high temperature care,psychological care and so on.Result:In the 57 cases of children with infantile convulsion,the concomitant by viral encephalitis,fever and hypocalcaemia in patients without complications occurred,and all cured.The children of Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with convulsion receive timely control condition,cured and discharged from hospital.Conclusion:Nursing practice,timely attention to primary care,ensure the supply of nutrients,oxygen therapy,and careful observation of the disease changes are the effectively measures to improve cure rates and the prognosis of children with convulsion,reduce complications.

  5. Electroencephalographic and behavioral convulsant effects of hydrobromide and hydrochloride salts of bupropion in conscious rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Henshall

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available David C Henshall1, Nick Dürmüller2, H Steve White3, Robert Williams4, Paul Moser2, Mark Dunleavy1, Peter H Silverstone51Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 2Porsolt and Partners Pharmacology, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France; 3NeuroAdjuvants, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Biovail Technologies, Ltd., Dublin, Ireland; 5Biovail Corporation, Mississauga, ON, Canada Abstract: A novel bromide salt of the antidepressant bupropion (bupropion HBr has recently been developed and approved for use in the United States. Given previous use of bromides to treat seizures, and that the existing chloride salt of bupropion (HCl can cause seizures, it is important to determine if the HBr salt may be less likely to cause seizures than the HCl salt. In the present animal studies this was evaluated by means of quantified electroencephalogram (EEG, observation, and the rotarod test in mice and rats. Both bupropion salts were tested at increasing equimolar doses administered intraperitoneally. The results in mice showed that bupropion HCl 125 mg/kg induced a significantly higher ten-fold increase in the mean number of cortical EEG seizures compared to bupropion HBr (7.50 ± 2.56 vs 0.75 ± 0.96; p = 0.045, but neither drug caused any brain injuries. In rats bupropion HBr 100 mg/kg induced single EEG seizure activity in the cortical and hippocampal (depth electrodes and in signifi cantly (p < 0.05 fewer rats (44% compared to bupropion HCl, which induced 1 to 4 convulsions per rat in all rats (100% dosed. The total duration of cortical seizures in bupropion HCl-treated rats was significantly longer than the corresponding values obtained in bupropion HBr-treated rats (424.6 seconds vs 124.5 seconds respectively, p < 0.05. Bupropion HCl consistently induced more severe convulsions at each dose level compared to bupropion HBr. Both treatments demonstrated a similar dose-dependent impairment of rotarod

  6. Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on gerbil behavior after hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang Zhou; Changyun Liu; Yiqun Fang; Yingqi Zhou; Erli Xu; Jingchang Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor can prolong the latency of hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsion (HBOC). However, there are very few reports addressing the influence of NOS inhibitor on mental behavior.OBJECTIVE: To investigate behavioral changes after HBOC in gerbils, as well as the influence of NOS inhibitor.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Hyperbaric Pressure and Diving Physiology, Naval Medical Research Institute of Chinese PLA (Shanghai,China) from March 2005 to June 2007.MATERIALS: Forty male gerbils were randomly divided into five groups: HBOC, saline control, NOS inhibitor, pressure control, and normal control. Each group contained eight animals.METHODS: In the HBOC group, once depression induction ended, animals were removed from the chamber five minutes after the first appearance of generalized convulsion induced by 0.5 MPa hyperbaric oxygen. Ten minutes before entering the chamber, saline control and NOS inhibitor animals were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL saline and 20 mg/kg NG-nitro-L-arginine, respectively. The pressure control group was only exposed to 0.5 MPa. The remaining procedures in these three groups were identical to the HBOC group. The normal control group received no intervention.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Open field test scores in gerbils prior to HBOC, as well as immediately,24 hours, and 72 hours after decompression ended.RESULTS: HBOC was not detected in either the normal control or the pressure control group, and there were no significant differences in opcn field test scores prior to and after HBOC (P > 0.05). HBOC occurred in the HBOC, saline control, and NOS inhibitor groups, with significant differences in open field test scores after decompression ended compared to normal control and pressure control groups (P < 0.05-0.01).Compared to the HBOC and saline control groups, the NOS inhibitor group exhibited a significantly lower score in

  7. Relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rate and convulsion as an adverse effect chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Andid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on the relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rale and convulsion as an adverse effect of chemotherapy was conducted in leukemia patients of the hematology-oncology subdivision, Departmenl of Child Health, Medical School, University of North Sumatra, Medan. Of 114 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 81 (71.05% received chemotherapy, 31 patients among them was in good general condition. Remission rate of the 31 patients was 80.6% (25 children. Whereas in the remaining 50 patients, the remission rate among them was 84% (42 patients. There was no significant relationship between their general condition to the recurrence rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients who had been administered chemotherapy during induction phase. Convulsion was found In 2 cases, due to CNS leukemia.

  8. [Prehospital management of febrile convulsions by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekaer, A.L.; Nielsen, S.L.; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2008-01-01

    of their child's febrile convulsions and their satisfaction with the MECU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The period of investigation was from March 1st 2004 to March 31st 2005. Children with a diagnosis of febrile convulsions or relevant differential diagnoses were eligible for inclusion. Children were excluded...... if they had already been included, if their parents had no Danish address or if the questionnaire was not returned after a reminder was sent. RESULTS: In the period of investigation, 333 children were eligible for inclusion, 290 questionnaires were sent, and 235 were returned, giving a response rate of 81......%. The median age was 1 year (range: 0-7 years). In general, parents were satisfied with the MECU. Reasons of dissatisfaction are described. Most children (76%) were admitted without physician escort. A total of 37 children (16%) received diazepam therapy, of whom 15 (6%) were given intravenous diazepam. In 90...

  9. Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

    OpenAIRE

    Glauser, Tracy; Shinnar, Shlomo; Gloss, David; Alldredge, Brian; Arya, Ravindra; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bare, Mary; Bleck, Thomas; Dodson, W. Edwin; Garrity, Lisa; Jagoda, Andy; Lowenstein, Daniel; Pellock, John; Riviello, James; Sloan, Edward

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized cont...

  10. Parent and caregiver knowledge, beliefs, and responses to convulsive seizures in children in Kingston, Jamaica - A hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Parkinson, Debra; Tapper, Judy; Melbourne-Chambers, Roxanne

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs about seizures and actions during seizures of parents/caregivers of Jamaican children hospitalized for convulsive seizures. This was a cross-sectional study of parents and caregivers of children with acute convulsive seizures hospitalized at the Bustamante Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica between May 1 and October 31, 2013. Subjects were identified by admission records. Parents/caregivers were invited to participate. A questionnaire on the demographics, knowledge, beliefs, and response of parents/caregivers during the child's current seizure episode was administered face to face. Data were analyzed for frequencies: groups were compared using chi-square analysis for categorical variables, Student's t-test for normally distributed data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test for data not normally distributed. There were fifty participants: 39 (78%) mothers, mean (SD) age - 33.8 (10.1) years. All sought medical care first. Twenty-two (44%) had plausible beliefs about the cause of seizures. Twenty-seven (54%) knew of appropriate actions during a seizure, 10 (20%) knew of appropriate precautions, and 11 (22%) responded appropriately during the seizure. Eleven (22%) reported receiving seizure education. Witnessing a previous seizure, education level, and seizure education were associated with knowledge of seizures (pSocioeconomic status was higher in those with plausible beliefs about seizures and lower in those who took appropriate action during a seizure (pParents/caregivers of children with convulsive seizures have appropriate health-care seeking behavior, but most do not have appropriate knowledge about seizures. Few take appropriate action during the episode. A public education program is needed to improve parental knowledge of and response to convulsive seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byarugaba Justus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments. In addition, seizures in malaria have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. The management of seizures in malaria is sometimes complicated by the refractory nature of these seizures to readily available anti-convulsants. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence after initial control among children with malaria. Methods In a previous study, the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam was compared to that of rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in children aged three months to 12 years in Kampala, Uganda. For this study, predictive models were used to determine risk factors for anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence among the 221 of these children with malaria. Results Using predictive models, focal seizures (OR 3.21; 95% CI 1.42–7.25, p = 0.005, cerebral malaria (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.20–4.91, p = 0.01 and a blood sugar ≥200 mg/dl at presentation (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.11–7.20, p = 0.02 were independent predictors of treatment failure (seizure persistence beyond 10 minutes or recurrence within one hour of treatment. Predictors of seizure recurrence included: 1 cerebral malaria (HR 3.32; 95% CI 1.94–5.66, p Conclusion Specific predictors, including cerebral malaria, can identify patients with malaria at risk of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence.

  12. Convulsions induced by centrally administered NMDA in mice: effects of NMDA antagonists, benzodiazepines, minor tranquilizers and anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.; Prud'hon, B.

    1989-01-01

    1. Convulsions were induced reproducibly by intracerebroventricular injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to conscious mice. 2. Competitive (carboxypiperazine-propylphosphonic acid, CPP; 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, AP7) and non-competitive (MK801; phencyclidine, PCP; thienylcyclohexylpiperidine, TCP; dextrorphan; dextromethorphan) NMDA antagonists prevented NMDA-induced convulsions. 3. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists and partial agonists (triazolam, diazepam, clonazepam, Ro 16-6028), classical anticonvulsants (diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbitone, sodium valproate) and meprobamate were also found to prevent NMDA-induced convulsions. 4. Flumazenil (a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist) and the GABA agonists THIP and muscimol (up to subtoxic doses) were without effect. 5. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant action of diazepam, but not that of MK801. 6. Results obtained in this model differ somewhat from those described in a seizure model with systemic administration of NMDA. An explanation for this discrepancy is offered. 7. This model is a simple test for assessing the in vivo activity of NMDA antagonists and also expands the battery of chemically-induced seizure models for characterizing anticonvulsants not acting at NMDA receptors. PMID:2574061

  13. The experience of nursing for infantile convulsion%小儿惊厥50例护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析小儿惊厥的护理过程,总结护理体会。方法:对我院儿科2012年1月至2012年11月收治的50例惊厥患儿进行积极抢救、严密的病情观察及细致的基础护理。结果:本组50例患儿经过积极的救治和精心的护理,治愈47例(94.0%),好转2例(4.0)%,无效1例(2.0%)。结论:抢救和治疗处理恰当,护理措施科学严谨是保证惊厥患儿救治成功的关键。%Objective:To study the methods and effect of nursing for infantile convulsion. Methods:Choosed 50 infantile convulsion from Jan. 2012 to Nov. 2012 with positive rescue basis of close observation and careful nursing. Results:There were 47 cases cured (94.0%), 2 cases recovered (4.0%), and 1 cases invalid (2.0%). Conclusion:Emergence care, proper treatment and scientific nursing are important of infantile convulsion.

  14. Generalized Models for the Classification of Abnormal Movements in Daily Life and its Applicability to Epilepsy Convulsion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José R; Vergara, Paula; Menéndez, Manuel; de la Cal, Enrique; González, Víctor M; Sedano, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The identification and the modeling of epilepsy convulsions during everyday life using wearable devices would enhance patient anamnesis and monitoring. The psychology of the epilepsy patient penalizes the use of user-driven modeling, which means that the probability of identifying convulsions is driven through generalized models. Focusing on clonic convulsions, this pre-clinical study proposes a method for generating a type of model that can evaluate the generalization capabilities. A realistic experimentation with healthy participants is performed, each with a single 3D accelerometer placed on the most affected wrist. Unlike similar studies reported in the literature, this proposal makes use of [Formula: see text] cross-validation scheme, in order to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the models. Event-based error measurements are proposed instead of classification-error measurements, to evaluate the generalization capabilities of the model, and Fuzzy Systems are proposed as the generalization modeling technique. Using this method, the experimentation compares the most common solutions in the literature, such as Support Vector Machines, [Formula: see text]-Nearest Neighbors, Decision Trees and Fuzzy Systems. The event-based error measurement system records the results, penalizing those models that raise false alarms. The results showed the good generalization capabilities of Fuzzy Systems.

  15. Diagnosis and emergency treatment of convulsion in children%儿童惊厥的诊断与急救处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建民

    2011-01-01

    Convulsion is a common pediatric emergency and the most frequent clinical feature among the diseases of nervous system in children.Convulsion emergencies are potèntially life-threatening events.Brief convulsions rarely produce lasting effects on the brain.Prolonged convulsions,especially status epilepticus,can lead to permanent neurologic damage.Airway management and timely termination of the convulsion are the initial priorities.Early recognition and accurate diagnosis are crucial for effective emergency treatment of convulsion.%惊厥是常见儿科急症,也是最常见的小儿神经系统症状,有些惊厥可能危及患儿生命.一般短暂的惊厥对大脑几乎没有明显影响,但长程惊厥尤其是癫(痫)持续状态则可能导致神经系统永久损害.气道管理和及时控制惊厥发作是最优先考虑的急救处理措施.小儿惊厥的早期识别和正确诊断是急诊治疗成功的关键.

  16. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Kämppi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE. Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (p=0.027, onset-to-burst-suppression (p=0.005, and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom (p=0.035 delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated.

  17. A tautology in the classification of generalized non-convulsive epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, M; Fujiwara, T; Miyakoshi, M; Yagi, K

    1980-01-01

    Five patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who have shown generalized nonconvulsive seizures were presented. The seizure manifestations which occurred spontaneously were documented by simultaneous recording and analyzed in terms of clinical and electroencephalographic correlates. According to the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification, it was possible, on the one hand, to regard them as "atypical complex absences" in which the impairment of consciousness is accompanied by other symptoms, which tend to dominate the clinical picture. They were: hypotonic, hypertonic, myoclonic and akinetic components, respectively. On the other hand, if we give a special weight to the accompanying symptoms, it is entirely possible that they are at the same time diagnosed atonic, axial tonic, bilateral myoclonic and akinetic seizures. The initial impairment of consciousness is common to all the seizure manifestations, and the ictal and interictal EEG expressions are not of diagnostic significance. A question arises as to whether two different nomenclatures were arbitrarily given to a unique ictal manifestation or not as far as the generalized non-convulsive seizures were concerned.

  18. Topiramate reduces non-convulsive seizures after focal brain ischemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anthony J; Tortella, Frank C; Gryder, Divina; Hartings, Jed A

    2008-01-03

    Acute "silent" seizures after brain injury are associated with a worsening of patient outcome and are often refractory to anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy. In the present study we evaluated topiramate (TPM, 1-30 mg/kg, i.v.) in a rodent model of spontaneous non-convulsive seizure (NCS) activity induced by focal cerebral ischemia. For seizure detection, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was continuously recorded for 24h in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Infarct volume, neurological deficit, and NCS were evaluated by an experimenter blinded to the treatment group. All vehicle treated rats (7/7) exhibited NCS following MCAo. TPM treatment, delivered at 20 min post-occlusion and prior to onset of NCS activity, dose-dependently reduced the incidence of NCS (ED(50)=21.1mg/kg). The highest dose of TPM tested (30 mg/kg) exhibited maximal reductions of 76% in the number of NCS/rat (vehicle=22.1+/-5.3, TPM=4.4+/-3.2, Pseizure treatment, TPM was not effective when delivered immediately following onset of the first NCS event (36+/-5 min post-MCAo). In conclusion, TPM exhibited significant efficacy for the prophylactic treatment of brain-injury induced NCS and represents a novel class of AED for treatment of this type of silent brain seizure.

  19. A novel mutation of KCNQ3 gene in a Chinese family with benign familial neonatal convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Nan; Shen, Lu; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Qian; Song, Yanmin; Guo, Jifeng; Xia, Kun; Pan, Qian; Tang, Beisha

    2008-03-01

    Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC, also named benign familial neonatal seizures, BFNS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited epilepsy syndrome with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Two voltage-gated potassium channel subunit genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, have been identified to cause BFNC1 and BFNC2, respectively. To date, only three mutations of KCNQ3, all located within exon 5, have been reported. By limited linkage analysis and mutation analysis of KCNQ3 in a Chinese family with BFNC, we identified a novel missense mutation of KCNQ3, c.988C>T located within exon 6. c.988C>T led to the substitution Cys for Arg in amino acid position 330 (p.R330C) in KCNQ3 potassium channel, which possibly impaired the neuronal M-current and altered neuronal excitability. Seizures of all BFNC patients started from day 2 to 3 after birth and remitted during 1 month, and no recurrence was found. One family member who displayed fever-associated seizures for two times at age 5 years and was diagnosed as febrile seizures, however, did not carry this mutation, which suggests that febrile seizures and BFNC have different pathogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of KCNQ3 mutation in Chinese family with BFNC.

  20. Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children: Etiology, Associated Risk Factors and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Mohammad; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Galegolab Behbehani, Afshin; Tabrizi, Aidin

    2015-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening disease in children wherein the patient's convulsive seizures do not respond to adequate initial anticonvulsants. RSE is associated with high rate of mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to survey the risk factors leading status epilepticus (SE) to RSE in children, and their early outcome. Patients with SE hospitalized in Tabriz Children's Hospital, Iran were studied during the years 2007 and 2008 with regard to their clinical profile, etiology, the treatment methods available to them and their outcome upon release from the hospital. Among 132 patients with SE, 53 patients (40.15%) suffered from RSE. Acute symptomatic etiology was a risk factor responsible for developing RSE in the patient (P=0.004). Encephalitis was the most common etiology of acute symptomatic SE. There was no significant relationship observed between RSE and the patients' age, gender, date of initial drug intake and type of seizure. The mortality rate was 8.3% and a new neurological deficit occurred in 25.7% of cases. None of RSE with encephalitis returned to the baseline status. Mortality and morbidity rates were significantly higher in children with RSE than in those with SE (P=0.006). Etiology of SE significantly influenced prognosis of it with significant incidence of RSE in acute symptomatic group. Because acute neurological insult such as encephalitis and meningitis are common causes of RSE in children, properly management of them is necessary to avoid permanent brain damage.

  1. Canine parvovirus type 2c infection in a kitten associated with intracranial abscess and convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Greco, Maria Fiorella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-04-01

    A case of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in a 3-month-old feral kitten with a cerebral abscess and neurological disease is reported. The cat displayed ataxia and convulsions together with signs of gastroenteritis and profound alteration of the total and differential white blood cell counts. A parvovirus strain was detected by a TaqMan assay in the blood and faeces of the affected kitten, which was characterised as CPV by means of molecular assays but did not react with any of the CPV type-specific probes. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2-protein gene, the CPV-2c strain displayed a non-coding mutation in the probe-binding region. Although the role of CPV-2c in this particular case is unclear, it is possible that it predisposed the kitten to the clinical signs seen. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor future spreading of this CPV-2c mutant, and any associated clinical signs, in the dog and cat population.

  2. Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas A; Glyn, Sarah E; Akiyama, Satoshi; Hill, Thomas D M; Hill, Andrew J; Weston, Samantha E; Burnett, Matthew D A; Yamasaki, Yuki; Stephens, Gary J; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2012-06-01

    Cannabis sativa has been associated with contradictory effects upon seizure states despite its medicinal use by numerous people with epilepsy. We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole-induced generalised seizures, suggesting that earlier, small-scale clinical trials examining CBD effects in people with epilepsy warrant renewed attention. Here, we report the effects of pure CBD (1, 10 and 100mg/kg) in two other established rodent seizure models, the acute pilocarpine model of temporal lobe seizure and the penicillin model of partial seizure. Seizure activity was video recorded and scored offline using model-specific seizure severity scales. In the pilocarpine model CBD (all doses) significantly reduced the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe seizures. In the penicillin model, CBD (≥ 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the percentage mortality as a result of seizures; CBD (all doses) also decreased the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe tonic-clonic seizures. These results extend the anti-convulsant profile of CBD; when combined with a reported absence of psychoactive effects, this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling acute prolonged convulsive seizures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosroshahi, Nahid; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi; Bavarian, Behrouz; Zarch, Anoushiravan Vakili; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Kompani, Farshid

    2010-09-01

    A Prolonged convulsive seizure is the most common neurological medical emergency with poor outcome. An ideal anticonvulsant should be easy-to-use, effective, and safe, and it should also have a long-lasting effect. Benzodiazepines, give via the intravenous or rectal route have generally been used as first-line drugs. In small children, IV access can be difficult and time consuming. Midazolam is a potent anticonvulsant and is rapidly absorbed from the rectal, nasal, and buccal mucosa. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and usability of buccal midazolam in controlling seizures in children with acute prolonged seizures, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. Ninety-eight patients were enrolled, with 49 patients in each treatment group. In the buccal midazolam group, 42 (88%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min of drug administration, and all of the patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. In the rectal diazepam group, 24 (49%) patients were controlled in less than 4 min and 40 (82%) patients were controlled within 5 min of drug administration. The time for drug administration and drug effect was significantly less with buccal midazolam than with rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam group, 7 (14%) parents were satisfied. Buccal midazolam was significantly more acceptable than rectal diazepam (p valuediazepam but more convenient to use in the controlling acute prolonged seizures in children, especially in situations in which there is a difficulty in gaining IV access, for example, in infants.

  4. Intravenous sodium valproate in mainland China for the treatment of diazepam refractory convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Feng, Peimin; Wang, Jinghua; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Dong

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the short-term safety and efficacy of treating patients with intravenous (i.v.) sodium valproate (VPA) for diazepam (DZP) refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). We prospectively registered 48 patients with refractory CSE who were treated at West China Hospital with i.v. VPA (30mg/kg, 6mg/kg per hour) after a loading dose of i.v. DZP and intramuscular phenobarbitone (PBT) failed. VPA stopped seizures in 87.5% of patients within 1h, and patients regained baseline mental status within 1h of seizure cessation. CSE did not recur in patients within the next 12h, and no significant VPA-related systemic or local side effects were found during their hospital stay. In conclusion, this study suggests that i.v. VPA is a promising option for DZP refractory CSE in mainland China, since i.v. PBT is unavailable in most hospitals, and anesthesia is unacceptable to most of the Chinese population.

  5. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  6. Electroencephalographic features of convulsive epilepsy in Africa: A multicentre study of prevalence, pattern and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; White, Steven; Chengo, Eddie; Wagner, Ryan G.; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A.; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Masanja, Honorati; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Sander, Josemir W.; Neville, Brian G.; Newton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence and pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) features of epilepsy and the associated factors in Africans with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE). Methods We characterized electroencephalographic features and determined associated factors in a sample of people with ACE in five African sites. Mixed-effects modified Poisson regression model was used to determine factors associated with abnormal EEGs. Results Recordings were performed on 1426 people of whom 751 (53%) had abnormal EEGs, being an adjusted prevalence of 2.7 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.5–2.9) per 1000. 52% of the abnormal EEG had focal features (75% with temporal lobe involvement). The frequency and pattern of changes differed with site. Abnormal EEGs were associated with adverse perinatal events (risk ratio (RR) = 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07–1.33)), cognitive impairments (RR = 1.50 (95% CI, 1.30–1.73)), use of anti-epileptic drugs (RR = 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49)), focal seizures (RR = 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.19)) and seizure frequency (RR = 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10–1.26) for daily seizures; RR = 1.22 (95% CI, 1.10–1.35) for weekly seizures and RR = 1.15 (95% CI, 1.03–1.28) for monthly seizures)). Conclusions EEG abnormalities are common in Africans with epilepsy and are associated with preventable risk factors. Significance EEG is helpful in identifying focal epilepsy in Africa, where timing of focal aetiologies is problematic and there is a lack of neuroimaging services. PMID:26337840

  7. Anticonvulsant activity of B2, an adenosine analog, on chemical convulsant-induced seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. However, approximately one-third of epilepsy patients still suffer from uncontrolled seizures. Effective treatments for epilepsy are yet to be developed. N (6-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl adenine riboside (B2 is a N(6-substitued adenosine analog. Here we describe an investigation of the effects and mechanisms of B2 on chemical convulsant-induced seizures. Seizures were induced in mice by administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, picrotoxin, kainite acid (KA, or strychnine. B2 has a dose-related anticonvulsant effect in these chemical-induced seizure models. The protective effects of B2 include increased latency of seizure onset, decreased seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration and reduced mortality rate. Radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays indicated that B2 might be a functional ligand for both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Furthermore, DPCPX, a selective A1 receptor antagonist, but not SCH58261, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, blocked the anticonvulsant effect of B2 on PTZ-induced seizure. c-Fos is a cellular marker for neuronal activity. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses indicated that B2 significantly reversed PTZ-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that B2 has significant anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of B2 may be attributed to adenosine A1 receptor activation and reduced neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. These observations also support that the use of adenosine receptor agonist may be a promising approach for the treatment of epilepsy.

  8. Non-convulsive status epilepticus after ischemic stroke: a hospital-based stroke cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; Vidale, Simone; Gorgone, Gaetano; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Sironi, Luigi; Arnaboldi, Marco; Pisani, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate in the setting of a stroke unit ward the usefulness of a prolonged (>6 h) video-EEG recording (PVEEG) in identifying non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Predictors of NCSE were also evaluated. Patients with an acute ischemic stroke, referred to our unit, were included in this prospective observational study. A PVEEG recording was implemented after stroke in all patients during the first week: (a) promptly in those exhibiting a clear or suspected epileptic manifestation; (b) at any time during the routine activity in the remaining patients. After the first week, a standard EEG/PVEEG recording was hooked up only in presence of an evident or suspected epileptic manifestation or as control of a previous epileptic episode. NCSE was identified in 32 of the 889 patients (3.6 %) included in the study. It occurred early (within the first week) in 20/32 (62.5 %) patients and late in the remaining 12. Diagnosis was made on the basis of a specific clinical suspect (n = 19, 59.4 %) or without any suspect (n = 13, 40.6 %). In a multivariate analysis, a significant association of NCSE was observed with NIHSS score, infarct size and large atherothrombotic etiology. NCSE is not a rare event after an acute ischemic stroke and a delayed diagnosis could worsen patient prognosis. Since NCSE can be difficult to be diagnosed only on clinical grounds, implementation of a prompt PVEEG should be kept available in a stroke unit whenever a patient develop signs, although subtle, consistent with NCSE.

  9. Clinical and neurophysiological features of active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: a population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyoki, Gilbert; Edwards, Tansy; White, Steve; Kwasa, Thomas; Chengo, Eddie; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Odera, Victor Mung’ala; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian George; Newton, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa but is poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and may not reflect the situation in rural areas with limited access to medical care. We examined people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), to determine if the clinical features could help elucidate the causes. Methods We conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of 445 people with ACE identified through a community-based survey of 151,408 people in rural Kenya, including the examination of electroencephalograms. Results Approximately half of the 445 people with ACE were children or adolescents. Seizures began in childhood in 78% of those diagnosed. An episode of status epilepticus was recalled by 36% cases, with an episode of status epilepticus precipitated by fever in 26%. Overall 169 had an abnormal electroencephalogram, 29% had focal features, 34% had epileptiform activity. In the 146 individuals who reported generalised tonic-clonic seizures only, 22% had focal features on their electroencephalogram. Overall 71% of patients with ACE had evidence of focal abnormality, documented by partial onset seizures, focal neurological deficits or focal abnormalities on the electroencephalogram. Increased seizure frequency was strongly associated with age and cognitive impairment in all ages and non-attendance at school in children (p < 0.01). Discussion Children and adolescents bear the brunt of epilepsy in a rural population in Africa. The predominance of focal features and the high proportion of patients with status epilepticus, suggests that much of the epilepsy in this region has identifiable causes, many of which could be prevented. PMID:20608962

  10. PSEUDOTUMORAL FORM OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS WITH SYMPTOMATIC CONVULSIVE SEIZURES (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is prominent among central nervous system diseases. It affects chiefly young people and almost inevitably results in disability. In the past decade, there has been an upward trend for the prevalence of MS worldwide; in particular, the higher prevalence of this disease has been registered in the Moscow Region, which is associated with both an objective increase in its morbidity and improvement of specialized care to the population in the region. MS is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations. However, paroxysmal disturbances are referred to as the rare symptoms of MS: the incidence of epileptic seizures in this condition is 0.89 to 7.5% according to the literature data. In addition to the clinical form of MS, there are its rare malignant atypical forms that also include its pseudotumoral form characterized by intrinsic neuroimaging and clinical signs that are different from the classical form of MS and another abnormality of the central nervous system. The pseudotumoral form of MS is characterized by the development of acute focal demyelination that appears as a large focus of an increased magnetic resonance signal with perifocal edema as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging. A pseudotumoral focus of demyelination can occur both at the onset of MS and during its recurrent course. The atypical onset of MS is a special challenge because of diagnostic problems, which may lead to erroneous therapeutic policy and have a negative impact on the late prognosis of the disease. The authors provide a clinical case of the pseudotumoral form of MS with convulsive seizures at the onset of demyelinating disease. The problems of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  11. The Frequency of Urinary Tract Infection among Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available objectiveThis study was conducted to determine the frequency of urinary tract infection(UTI among children with febrile convulsion (FC.Materials & MethodsWe analyzed the hospital records of 137 children who had been admitted to thepediatric ward from March 2004 to February 2007 because of FC. Informationsuch as age, sex, developmental status, type of FC, family history of seizure,urine sampling method, and the results of antibiograms were recorded.ResultsThe age distribution of 137 patients (82 boys, 55 girls was as follows: 1-6 monthsof age, 1 infant (0.7%; 6-12 months, 21 infants (15.3%; 1-3 years, 75 (54.8%;3-5 years, 30 (21.9%; and more than 5 years, 10 (7.3%. Three out of the 82boys and 6 out of the 55 girls had UTI (3.7% vs. 10.9%, total, 6.6%. The agedistribution of these 9 patients was as follows: 1-6 months, 1 patient (11.1%;7-12 months, 5 (55.6%; and 1-3 years, 3 (33.3%. The relative incidence of UTIwas 6.6%. The most common organisms causing infections were Escherichiacoli in 8 and Proteus spp., in 1 patient (88.8% vs. 11.1%. Simple FC was seenin all 9 patients with UTI.ConclusionIn this study, the relative frequency of UTI among children with FC was 6.6%and this frequency was higher that the incidence of UTI in girls and boys(3-5% and 1%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that UTI should beconsidered as an important cause of FC in children.

  12. Effect of zinc protoporphyrin on carbon monoxide/heme oxygenase-1 system in rats subjected to recurrent febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on febrile convulsion (FC)-caused brain injury are disputed in many aspects.How FC cause nervous system injury in the developmental period and what are the characteristics of these pathological injury are unknown. The current studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-l) exerts effects on brain injury mainly by catalyzing hemoglobin to produce degradation products, and HO-1 not only has neuroprotective effects, but also has neurotoxic effects during the FC-caused brain injury. Study on the effect of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) on brain injury is still in the stage of animal experiment.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of ZnPP on carbon monoxide (CO)/HO-1 system of rats subjected to FC, and to analyze the action pathway of ZnPP in brain protective effect.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital Affiliated to Jiamusi University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five Wistar rats, of either gender, were involved in this study. They were randomized into normal control group( n =14, 37 ℃ water bath) and febrile treatment group (n =51, 44.5 ℃ hot water bath). Febrile treatment group was sub-divided into febrile non-convulsion group (FNC group, n =16) and FC group (n =35). FC group was further sub-divided into simple convulsion group (n =20) and ZnPP treatment group (n =15). HO-1 mRNA in situ hybridization kit was provided by Boster Bioengineering Co.,Ltd. ZnPP(dark brown powder) was the product of Jingmei Bioengineering Company.METHODS: This study was carried out in the postgraduate laboratory of Jiamusi University between January 2004 and January 2007. Rats in the febrile treatment group were placed in the 44.5 ℃ hot water bath box. If rats did not convulse in the water within 5 minutes, they were taken out, namely FNC group (n =16), and those, which were convulsed within 5 minutes, were taken out immediately when they presented such a phenomenon, namely FC group (n =35). Convulsion induction was

  13. Lack of association between TNF-α gene polymorphisms at position -308 A, -850T and risk of simple febrile convulsion in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleman; Habibian, Roya; Nozari, Ahora; Baradaran, Azar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Febrile convulsions (FCs), occurring between 6 months and 6 years of age is the most common seizure disorder during childhood. The febrile response is thought to be mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 (IL-1). There is a significant relationship between genetic components for susceptibility of FCs and different report mutation. We investigated association between two polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoter region (G-308A, C-850T) and FCs in the southwest area of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this matched case–control study, 100 patients with febrile convulsion as case group and 130 healthy children as control group were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected and DNA was extracted by standard phenol–chloroform method. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNF- α polymorphisms in case and control groups were determined by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: The average age of case and control groups were 3.4 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 1.2 years, respectively. There was no significant difference between age and sex in both the groups (P > 0.05). A family history of febrile convulsion was detected in 44% of patients. Moreover, the simple febrile convulsion was detected in 85% of the case group. Conclusion: RFLP analysis of TNF- α promoter region polymorphisms, considering P = 0.146 and P = 0.084 for G-308A and C-850T, respectively, showed no correlation between TNF- α polymorphisms and predisposition to simple febrile, based on the kind of convulsion (atypical and simple febrile convulsion). We found a significant relation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in case group (P = 0.04). A significant correlation between genotype distribution of G-308A and atypical febrile convulsion in the case group was

  14. 小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图分析%Analysis on ambulatory electroencephalogram of children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江涛; 辛翠娟; 梁东; 贾飞勇; 丁臻博

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥的动态脑电图变化.方法:对167例热性惊厥患儿的动态脑电图进行回顾性对比分析.结果:小儿热性惊厥动态脑电图异常改变与年龄、体温、家族遗传史、出生史、发作持续时间、反复发作密切相关,均具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:动态脑电图改变对小儿热性惊厥的预后评价具有重要意义.%Objective: To explore the changes of ambulatory electroencephalogram (AEEG) of children with febrile convulsion. Methods: The AEEG of 167 children with febrile convulsion were compared and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The abnormal changes of AEEG in children with febrile convulsion were related to age, temperature, history of family heredity, history of birth, duration of febrile convulsion and repeated onset closely, there was significant difference (P <0. 0l ) . Conclusion: The changes of AEEG has important value in evaluation of prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  15. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Nahid; Ghadirian, Laleh; Kamrani, Kamyar

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion), Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05). The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively). There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003). There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it's not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely.

  16. The Prehospital Predictors of Tracheal Intubation for in Patients who Experience Convulsive Seizures in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenichiro; Arai, Noritoshi; Omori-Mitsue, Aki; Hida, Ayumi; Kimura, Akio; Takeuchi, Sousuke

    2017-08-15

    Objective To identify the prehospital factors predicting the performance of tracheal intubation (TI) at the emergency department (ED) in patients with convulsive seizure or epilepsy. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of seizure patients who underwent TI at the ED soon after arrival. The clinical variables obtained in the prehospital setting were reviewed. Patients The study population included consecutive adult patients who were transported to an urban tertiary care ED due to convulsive seizure between August 2010 and September 2015. Results Among the 822 eligible patients, 59 patients (7.2%) underwent TI at the ED. Four independent prehospital predictors were identified using multivariate analysis: age ≥50 years (+1 point), meeting the definition of convulsive status epilepticus (+4 points), and an on-scene heart rate of ≥120 bpm (+1 point) led to a higher likelihood of TI, while a higher on-scene (alert or confused) level of consciousness (-3 points) led to a lower likelihood of TI. The derived prediction rule (the sum of all points) had good predictive performance with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.97), a sensitivity of 0.62, a specificity of 0.91, and a positive likelihood ratio of 10.6, when the cut-off value was set to 5 points. Conclusion We constructed a simple prehospital prediction rule to help predict the need for TI in seizure patients, even in the prehospital phase. This may possibly lead to the more effective management of seizure patients in the ED.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Razieh FALLAH; Yaser YADEGARI; Mahdi SALMANI NODOUSHAN

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Yadegari Y, Salmani Nodushan M. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2):39-44. Objective Status epilepticus (SE) is the most common pediatric neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. There is no consensus on the drug of choice in the treatment of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and sa...

  18. Clinical Analysis of 80 Newborn Convulsion%新生儿惊厥80例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰泉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿惊厥的病因、临床表现的特点和急救措施.方法 对我院80例新生儿惊厥的临床资料和急救措施的有效性进行分析总结.结果 新生儿惊厥的病因顺位依次是新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病37例、颅内出血16例、新生儿化脓性脑膜炎13例,此3种病因占全部病例的82.5%.惊厥发作类型以轻微型为主,占61%.结论 减少新生儿惊厥的关键是做好围产期保健,积极防止新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病的发生:新生儿轻微型惊厥在临床上不易被发现,需密切观察,及时诊治;止痉药首选苯巴比妥钠静脉推注,无效者改用苯妥英钠治疗.%Objective Discussing the causes of newborn convulsion, clinical manifestation and emergency rrearment. Method Analyzing and summatizing the clinical data of 80 examples of the newborn suffering from convuisions and the effectiveness of the emergency treatmont. Results The sequence of the newborn convulsion causes is following: the newborn anoxic ischemic encephalopathy is 37 examples: the intracranial hemorrhage is 16 examples: the newborn purulent meningitis is 13 examples. The three above causes count for 82.5 percent of the total examples. The type of convulsion attack remains minimai-orionted, counting for 61 percont. Conclusions The Key point to reducing the condition is serving a good pcrinatal care, try to prevent the attack of the newborn anoxic ischemic encephalopathy. It is difficult to find the newborn minimal convulsion, which needs the close observation and timely diagnose and treament. The first choice for this condition is the Phenobarbital sodium. The non-responder can use dilantin sodium instead.

  19. Clinical features, proximate causes, and consequences of active convulsive epilepsy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M; Matuja, William; Akpalu, Albert; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Chabi, Martin; Wagner, Ryan G; Connor, Myles; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bottomley, Christian; White, Steven; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the clinical features and consequences are poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and few studies have compared different ecological sites in SSA. We described active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) identified in cross-sectional community-based surveys in SSA, to understand the proximate causes, features, and consequences. Methods We performed a detailed clinical and neurophysiologic description of ACE cases identified from a community survey of 584,586 people using medical history, neurologic examination, and electroencephalography (EEG) data from five sites in Africa: South Africa; Tanzania; Uganda; Kenya; and Ghana. The cases were examined by clinicians to discover risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of epilepsy. We used logistic regression to determine the epilepsy factors associated with medical comorbidities. Key Findings Half (51%) of the 2,170 people with ACE were children and 69% of seizures began in childhood. Focal features (EEG, seizure types, and neurologic deficits) were present in 58% of ACE cases, and these varied significantly with site. Status epilepticus occurred in 25% of people with ACE. Only 36% received antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital was the most common drug [95%]), and the proportion varied significantly with the site. Proximate causes of ACE were adverse perinatal events (11%) for onset of seizures before 18 years; and acute encephalopathy (10%) and head injury prior to seizure onset (3%). Important comorbidities were malnutrition (15%), cognitive impairment (23%), and neurologic deficits (15%). The consequences of ACE were burns (16%), head injuries (postseizure) (1%), lack of education (43%), and being unmarried (67%) or unemployed (57%) in adults, all significantly more common than in those without epilepsy. Significance There were significant differences in the comorbidities across sites. Focal features are common in ACE, suggesting identifiable and

  20. Effects of acute hypoxia on lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice%急性缺氧对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉齐; 高学慧; 叶海玲; 张辉; 陈烨; 张莹; 王丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of acute hypoxia on lidocaine -induced convulsion in mice .Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups:a control group (Group C) and an acute hypoxia group (Group H).Lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally in the two groups of mice .Then, the convulsion number, convulsion rate, convulsion latency , convulsion duration , and convulsion level were recorded .Results Compared with Group C , there was no significant change in Group H in the convulsion rate .Group H showed slightly declined convulsion latency and level, which however were not remarkably different from the control .The convulsion duration was markedly reduced in Group H in comparison with Group C (P<0.05).Conclusion Acute hypoxia can shorten the convulsion duration of lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice .%目的:观察急性缺氧对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响。方法将小鼠随机分为两组:对照组(C组)与急性缺氧组( H组),腹腔注射80 mg・ kg-1利多卡因,观察各组小鼠的惊厥只数、惊厥率、惊厥潜伏期、惊厥持续时间及惊厥级数。结果与C组相比,H组小鼠惊厥率无明显改变,惊厥潜伏期略缩短,惊厥级数有所下降,但差异无统计学意义,惊厥持续时间显著缩短(P<0.05)。结论急性缺氧可缩短利多卡因致小鼠惊厥的持续时间。

  1. 中医药防治小儿热性惊厥的研究进展%A review on treating infant febrile convulsions in TCM medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩杰

    2014-01-01

    Febrile convulsions are a common convulsive disease in young children, and also in the pediatric emergency department. In this paper, effects of TCM medicine on febrile convulsions were summarized to apply reference for TCM clinic in the future.%热性惊厥是小儿最常见的惊厥性疾病,也是儿科门急诊常见的急症之一。本文综述了中医药在防治小儿热性惊厥所发挥的作用,为今后中医药处理该疾病提供一定的依据。

  2. 天麻素对利多卡因致惊厥作用的影响%The influence of Gastrodin on lidocaine-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素玲; 胡秋梅; 周新巧; 孙白云; 樊虹; 董娟娟; 李丽娜; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influences ofGastrodin abne and combined with diazepam on lidocaine- induced convulsbn Methods Convulsant dose of lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally l0 minutes after Gas trod in orGastrod in and diazepam had been administered intraperitoneally The convulsion latency, convulsion duration and convulsion numberwere observed R esu lts Gastrodin(100 mg· kg-1, 200 mg· kg-1, 400 mg ·kg-1) could extend the convulsion latency(P <0.05, P <0.05, P <0.01); Gastrodin(50 mg· kg-1) alone could extend the convulsbn latency (P <0.05) , but had no significant differences on the convulsion duration and convulsion number, diazepam(l. 5 mg· kg-1 ) alone had no significant differences on the convulsbn latency, convulsion duratbn and convulsbn number However, Gastrodin combinedwith diazepam could extend the convulsion latency(P <0.01) , shorten the convulsion duration (P <0.01) , and reduce the convulsion number(P <0.01) significantly C onclusion Gastrodin alone can antagonize lidocaine- induced convulsion, and smail does ofGastrodin combined with diazepam reveal a synergistic influence%目的 观察天麻素单用及其与地西泮合用对利多卡因所致惊厥作用的影响.方法 腹腔注射不同剂量天麻素或天麻素和地西泮合用,10 min后,腹腔注射致惊厥剂量的利多卡因,观察小鼠惊厥潜伏期、持续时间和惊厥只数.结果 天麻素100 mg·kg-1、200 mg·kg-1、400 mg·kg-1能延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.05,P<0.05,P<0.01);单独使用天麻素50 mg·kg-1可延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.05),对惊厥持续时间和惊厥只数则无明显影响,单独使用地西泮1.5 mg·kg-1对惊厥潜伏期、持续时间和惊厥只数均无明显影响,二者合用则能明显延长惊厥潜伏期(P<0.01),缩短惊厥持续时间(P<0.01),减少惊厥只数(P<0.01).结论 单用天麻素可拮抗利多卡因的致惊厥作用,小剂量天麻素与地西泮合用能协同拮抗利多卡因所致惊厥作用.

  3. 热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系%Relationship between Febrile Convulsion and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何梅玲; 彭丰

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系。方法检测104例热性惊厥患儿的红细胞计数(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、红细胞平均血红蛋白(MCH)、红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、SI,并以同期98例呼吸道、肠道感染而无惊厥患儿为对照组,分析其结果。结果惊厥组贫血发生率明显高于对照组,且多为小细胞性贫血(符合缺铁性贫血的血液特征)。结论小儿热性惊厥与血清铁有着密切的联系,缺铁性贫血可能是引起小儿热性惊厥的重要原因之一。%Objective To investigate the correlation of febrile convulsion and iron deficiency anemia. Methods Mesured the RBC,Hb,MCV,MCH,MCHC,SI in 104 children of Upper respiratory tract infection, and recorded children of febrile convulsion with Iron deficiency anemia, and children of febrile convulsion without iron deficiency anemia,children of febrile convulsion without deficiency anemia. The rest 2 groups of children are as control group. Results Which is significantly higher than the control group. And anemin in which the average size of erythrocytes is smal er than normal. Conclusion Children febrile convulsion could be highly correlated, and the iron deficiency anemia maybe one of the cause of children febrile convulsion.

  4. 58例小儿高热惊厥的临床治疗体会%Experience in Treatment of 58 Cases of Infantile Hyperpyretic Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伍魁

    2014-01-01

    目的小儿高热惊厥的临床治疗。方法我院儿科2010.3~2012.3收治住院FC患儿58例的诊治体会。结果经过有效治疗58例患儿均痊愈出院,随访1年,1例出院后反复多次抽搐脑电图诊断为癫痫,1例抽搐持续时间较长半小时以上,出院后38摄氏度以内发生多次抽搐出现智力低下,余预后良好。结论在小儿发热还未引发惊厥之前,要密切观察,及时控制体温,防患于未然,一旦出现高热惊厥,给予最及时的抢救,将疾病对小儿大脑的损伤降到最低限度。%Objective The clinical treatment of children with febrile convulsion. Methods The diagnosis and treatment of 58 cases of FC patients who were admit ed to pediatric 2010.3~2012.3. Results After treatment 58 cases were cured, 1 cases were fol owed up for 1 years, after repeated convulsions EEG in diagnosis of epilepsy, 1 cases with convulsions of longer duration more than half an hour, after 38 degrees Celsius occurred repeatedly convulsive mental retardation, Yu good prognosis. Conclusion In children with fever has not initiated before the convulsion, to close observation, timely control of temperature, nip in the bud, once appear, febrile convulsion, to rescue the most timely, the disease on children with brain damage to a minimum.

  5. Clinical Nursing Observation of Children With Febrile Convulsion%小儿高热惊厥临床护理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽密

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察小儿高热惊厥的原因、探求最佳临床护理方法。方法分析我院2014年8月~2015年8月收治的100例小儿高热惊厥护理经验。结果发生小儿高热惊厥的患者年龄以1~3岁居多,占65%;发生支气管炎占15%;呼吸道感染占70%。本组100例患者中,治愈了98例,好转了2例。结论小儿高热惊厥先兆早期发现征兆的话能快速有效的治疗,控制高热、惊厥、保持呼吸道的畅通是治疗小儿高热惊厥的关键。%Objective To observe the cause of the children with febrile convulsion, ifnd the best method of clinical nursing.Methods From August 2014 to August 2015, 100 cases of children with febrile convulsion nursing experience.Results Children with febrile convulsion occurred in patients aged 1 to 3 years old, was 65%. Bronchitis (15%). Respiratory infection (70%). 100 cases of patients, 98 cases cured, 2 cases improved.ConclusionChildren with febrile convulsion aura early detection of signs can fast effective treatment, control of high fever, convulsions, keep respiratory tract clear is the key to the treatment of children with febrile convulsion.

  6. Clinical analysis of 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases%婴幼儿腹泻合并惊厥的26例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the pathogenesis and effective treatment methods of infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions. Methods The clinical data of 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results The main pathogenic factors of the 26 infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions cases included electrolyte disturbance as 34.6%, febrile convulsion as 30.8%, viral encephalitis as 19.2%, toxic encephalopathy as 11.5%, and hypoglycemia as 3.8%. The total effective rate was 96.2%. Conclusion Hyperpyrexia and electrolyte disturbance (hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia) are the main causes of infantile diarrhea complicated with convulsions. Timely clarification of pathogenesis can provide effectively symptomatic treatment for terminating convulsions.%目的:探讨婴幼儿腹泻合并惊厥的发病原因以及有效的治疗方法。方法回顾性分析26例腹泻合并惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果26例腹泻合并惊厥患儿发病因素主要有:电解质紊乱34.6%、热性惊厥30.8%、病毒性脑炎19.2%、中毒性脑病11.5%以及低血糖3.8%等。治疗总有效率为96.2%。结论高热、电解质紊乱(低血钙、低血镁、低血钠)等是导致婴幼儿腹泻伴惊厥的主要因素,及时明确病因可有效地对症治疗,终止惊厥发作。

  7. Analysis the Reason of Infantile Diarrhea and Convulsion%小儿腹泻并惊厥病因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红星

    2013-01-01

    Objective to study the reason of disease of children with infantile diarrhea and convulsions. Methods 38 cases of children with both the conventional stool, blood biochemistry, cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram (eeg) examination. Results found tic 13 cases with a high fever, blood sodium reduce 8 cases, blood calcium to reduce the 7 cases, 4 cases were blood magnesium reduce, low blood sugar in 2 cases, 11 cases of abnormal eeg examination, cerebrospinal fluid to check pressure slightly higher in 3 cases, al normal. Conclusion children with infantile diarrhea and convulsion consider related to high fever, electrolyte metabolic disorders, viral encephalitis.%目的:探讨小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿发病原因。方法38例患儿均予大便常规、血生化、脑脊液、脑电图检查。结果发现抽搐时伴高热13例,血钠降低8例,血钙降低7例,血镁降低4例,低血糖2例,11例脑电图检查异常,脑脊液检3例压力稍高外,余均正常。结论小儿腹泻并惊厥患儿考虑与高热、电解质代谢紊乱、病毒性脑炎有关。

  8. Anticonvulsive and convulsive effects of lidocaine: comparison with those of phenytoin, and implications for mechanism of action concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W E; Javid, M J

    1988-09-01

    The anticonvulsive action of lidocaine was tested in mice against a series of convulsants, and its profile of action compared with that of phenytoin. Both agents antagonized seizures induced by ouabain or glutamate (injected i.c.b.), effects attributable to reduction of the sodium conductance of neuronal membranes. Lidocaine and phenytoin were relatively ineffective against convulsants that act on synaptic chloride channels via the GABA-ionophore receptor complex. At higher dose levels, both lidocaine and phenytoin are excitatory within limited ranges. Lidocaine-induced seizures were potentiated by phenytoin, and antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, phenobarbital, valproate, trimethadione and muscimol, but not by ethosuximide. This profile of action is similar to that of bicuculline, suggesting that lidocaine may bind to the GABA recognition site and to another site in the GABA-ionophore receptor complex. Phenytoin-induced excitation was antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, less effectively by phenobarbital or trimethadione, only minimally by valproate, and not by trimethadione or muscimol. Phenytoin is known to bind to picrotoxin and benzodiazepine receptor sites; these findings suggest that it may be excitatory at one or both of these sites.

  9. Drugs indicated for mitochondrial dysfunction as treatments for acute encephalopathy with onset of febrile convulsive status epileptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Taku; Fujii, Katsunori; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi; Murayama, Kei; Takayanagi, Masaki; Muta, Kaori; Kodama, Kazuo; Iida, Yukiko; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-01-15

    We studied the efficacy of drugs indicated for mitochondrial dysfunction in the treatment of 21 patients with acute encephalopathy with onset of febrile convulsive status epilepticus at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2014. Among them, 11 patients had been treated with a mitochondrial drug cocktail consisting of vitamin B1, vitamin C, biotin, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, and l-carnitine (prescription group) and 10 patients were not treated with the cocktail (non-prescription group). We retrospectively reviewed age, trigger, clinical form, treatment start time, and sequelae. Clinical form was classified into a biphasic group presenting acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) and a monophasic group. Sequelae were classified as (A) no sequelae group or (B) sequelae group, and differences in the interval between diagnosis and treatment were also evaluated. The sequelae were not different between the mitochondrial drug cocktail prescription and non-prescription groups, but significantly better in the group administered the mitochondrial drug cocktail within 24h (P=0.035). We expect that early treatment with a mitochondrial drug cocktail could prevent sequelae in acute encephalopathy with onset of febrile convulsive status epilepticus. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conduta no primeiro episódio de crise convulsiva Management of the first convulsive seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nicole-Carvalho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a grande variação dos prognósticos relatados após a primeira crise convulsiva não provocada e dos fatores de risco que são associados com recorrência, estabelecendo uma conduta uniforme. Fontes dos dados: revisão sistemática das citações do banco de dados da Bireme. Síntese dos dados: a taxa de recorrência difere nos estudos de primeira crise em conseqüência dos diferentes critérios de inclusão. O eletrencefalograma (EEG é particularmente útil na determinação da natureza epiléptica de um evento nos pacientes mais jovens e naqueles com crises de origem desconhecida. Um EEG anormal, particularmente com descargas de ponta-onda generalizadas, tem sido relatado como um preditor de recorrência consistente. Embora não seja um substituto para o exame clínico, o EEG é parte integral do processo diagnóstico após a primeira crise afebril, e deve ser solicitado. A decisão quanto tratar ou não os pacientes que apresentaram uma crise única depende fortemente do conhecimento do médico da potencial morbidade de uma outra crise versus a potencial morbidade da terapia com drogas antiepilépticas (DAEs. Conclusões: em crianças, efeitos colaterais das DAEs são comuns, e o risco de injúria após uma crise geralmente é mínimo, já que elas não se expõem a situações de extremo risco, como a condução de automóveis ou a operação de máquinas, além do fato de geralmente estarem em ambiente supervisionado. Em adultos, esta unanimidade é pequena.Objective: to observe the wide variety of reported prognosis after a first unprovoked convulsion and of risk factors that are associated with recurrence, and a uniform conduct. Sources: systematic review of Bireme. Summary of the findings: recurrence rates differ from a first seizure study because of different inclusion criteria. The EEG is particularly helpful to support the epileptic nature of the event in younger patients and in those with seizures of unknown

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh FALLAH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fallah R, Yadegari Y, Salmani Nodushan M. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Sodium Valproate in Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2:39-44. Objective Status epilepticus (SE is the most common pediatric neurologic emergency with high mortality and morbidity. There is no consensus on the drug of choice in the treatment of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug in the treatment of generalized convulsive SE of children. Materials & Methods In a retrospective study, medical records of those children who were admitted to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital of Yazd due to refractory generalized convulsive SE and were treated by intravenous sodium valproate as a third-line drug from 2009 to 2011 were evaluated. Results Six girls and five boys with a mean age of 5.12 ± 1.2 years (range: 3 - 9.6 years were evaluated. Intravenous valproate was effective for cessation of seizures in seven patients (63.6 %. The mean dose of valproate for stopping seizures was 27.1 ± 1.4 mg/kg/day. Children whose seizures were controlled by sodium valproate were older than non- responsive children (mean± SD: 4.8 ± 1.2 years vs. 3.1 ± 0.43 years, p= 0.03 and they also had shorter ICU stay days (mean± SD: 2.6 ± 1.4 days vs. 5.6 ± 2.8 days, p= 0.01. Two children had mild and transient nausea and vomiting. None of them had cardiopulmonary or severe paraclinical side effects. Conclusion Intravenous sodium valproate may be used as an effective and safe third-line antiepileptic drug in the treatment of pediatric generalized convulsive status epilepticus.References Raj D, Gulati S, Lodha R. Status epilepticus. Indian J Pediatr 2011;78(2:219-26. Shearer P, Riviello J. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children: treatment guidelines and protocols. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2011

  12. Loss of consciousness and convulsion induced by a ventricular tachycardia mimicking epilepsy in a patient with noncompaction cardiomyopathy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dello, S. A. W. G.; Kievit, C.; Dunselman, P. H.; Alings, M.

    2014-01-01

    Convulsions and loss of consciousness can be caused by, among other things, arrhythmias, conduction disorders or epilepsy. In clinical practice it can be difficult to distinguish between these causes of syncope, even for well-trained specialists. Patients with cardiac syncope have a substantial risk

  13. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor quinidine decreases the threshold for bupivacaine-induced, but not lidocaine-induced, convulsions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funao, Tomoharu; Oda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Asada, Akira

    2003-10-01

    To examine whether inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity by quinidine affects the central nervous system toxicity of lidocaine and racemic bupivacaine (bupivacaine). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10). Fifteen minutes following administration of 15 mg x kg(-1) of quinidine (QL and QB groups) or saline (L and B groups), lidocaine (L and QL groups, 4 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or bupivacaine (B and QB groups, 1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was infused until convulsions occurred. Concentrations of lidocaine and its primary metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and bupivacaine in plasma and in the brain at the onset of convulsions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no differences in the dose of lidocaine required to induce convulsions between the L and QL groups. There were no differences in the concentrations of total (L = 17.2 +/- 3.5, QL = 16.6 +/- 2.6 micro g x mL(-1)) or unbound lidocaine (L = 7.8 +/- 2.5, QL = 7.3 +/- 2.3 micro g x mL(-1)), total (L = 1.2 +/- 0.5, QL = 1.3 +/- 0.7 micro g x mL(-1)) or unbound MEGX (L = 0.9 +/- 0.5, QL = 0.8 +/- 0.4 micro g x mL(-1)) in plasma, total lidocaine or MEGX in the brain at the onset of convulsions between the L and QL groups. The dose of bupivacaine required to induce convulsions was comparable in the B and QB groups. At the onset of convulsions, plasma concentrations of both total (B = 4.9 +/- 1.1, QB = 4.0 +/- 0.6 micro g x mL(-1), P = 0.03) and unbound bupivacaine (B = 1.4 +/- 0.6, QB = 0.9 +/- 0.2 micro g x mL(-1), P = 0.02) were significantly lower in the QB group than in the B group. There were no differences in concentration of total bupivacaine in the brain between the B and QB groups. These results suggest that quinidine inhibited P-gp activity, resulting in increased brain/plasma concentration ratio of bupivacaine, but not of lidocaine, and decreased the threshold of plasma concentration for bupivacaine-induced convulsions.

  14. Study on Anti - Convulsion and Anti - Inflammatory Effect of Oxysophocarine%氧化槐果碱抗惊厥和抗炎作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晖; 俞佳; 吕良忠

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥、抗炎作用。方法构建异烟肼和尼可刹米致小鼠惊厥模型,观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥作用;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法和角叉菜胶致大鼠足跖肿胀法,观察氧化槐果碱的抗炎作用。结果氧化槐果碱(20,40,80 mg / kg)可显著延长异烟肼所致惊厥小鼠的惊厥潜伏时间( P ﹤0.05),减少惊厥小鼠例数与死亡小鼠例数,对尼可刹米所致的惊厥无对抗作用;氧化槐果碱(40,80 mg / kg)可显著抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳肿胀( P ﹤0.05);氧化槐果碱(60 mg / kg)可显著抑制角叉菜胶所致大鼠足跖肿胀( P ﹤0.01),氧化槐果碱(30 mg / kg)对致炎后2~4 h 的大鼠足跖肿胀有抑制作用。结论氧化槐果碱具有抗惊厥、抗炎作用。%Objective To observe the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory. Methods The effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion was observed by constructing the isoniazide and carrageenin induced convulsion mouse model and the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - inflammation was observed by the xylene - induced mouse ear swelling method and the car-rageenan induced rat toe swelling method. Results Oxysophocarpine (20, 40, 80 mg / kg) could significantly prolong the isoniazide - in-duced latent period of convulsion( P ﹤ 0. 05), reduced the death cases and convulsion cases in mice. Oxysophocarpine had no effect on nikethamide - induced convulsion. Oxysophocarpine (40, 80 mg / kg) could inhibit the xylene - induced ear swelling( P ﹤ 0. 05) . Oxysophocarpine (60 mg / kg) could inhibit the carrageenan - induced mouse toe swelling( P ﹤ 0. 01). Oxysophocarpine (30 mg / kg) had the inhibiting effect on the carrageenan - induced toe swelling at 2 - 4 h after induced inflammation. Conclusion Oxysophocarpine has certain anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory effect.

  15. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon-monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Picchi, Eliseo; Natoli, Silvia; Leonardis, Carlo; Leonardis, Francesca; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions. We describe a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The mechanism, MRI findings and implications are discussed.

  16. Phase-locking of epileptic spikes to ongoing delta oscillations in non-convulsive status-epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikkert eHindriks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The EEG of patients in non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE often displays delta oscillations or generalized spike-wave discharges. In some patients, these delta oscillations coexist with intermittent epileptic spikes. In this study we verify the prediction of a computational model of the thalamo-cortical system that these spikes are phase-locked to the delta oscillations. We subsequently describe the physiological mechanism underlying this observation as suggested by the model. It is suggested that the spikes reflect inhibitory stochastic fluctuations in the input to thalamo-cortical relay neurons and phase-locking is a consequence of differential excitability of relay neurons over the delta cycle. Further analysis shows that the observed phase-locking can be regarded as a stochastic precursor of generalized spike-wave discharges. This study thus provides an explanation of intermittent spikes during delta oscillations in NCSE and might be generalized to other encephathologies in which delta activity can be observed.

  17. The relationship between serum magnesium level and febrile convulsion in 6 months to 6 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhshan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis of febrile convulsion (FC which is the most frequent seizure disorder in childhood isn’t clear but changes in the serum level of neurotransmitters and trace elements such as magnesium are known to contributing risk factors.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study serum magnesium of 32 children with FC and 33 children without FC were compared. Results: 25% of children with FC had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl. In the normal group no one had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl (p=0.05.Conclusion: Decreasing serum level in FC may be one contributing factor in the FC. It does not need to be lower than normal range in these groups of patients

  18. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wang

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min. Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute

  19. The anti-convulsant stiripentol acts directly on the GABA(A) receptor as a positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    Stiripentol (STP) has been used as co-therapy for treatment of epilepsy for many years. Its mechanism of action has long been considered to be indirect, as it inhibits the enzymes responsible for metabolism of other anti-convulsant agents. However, a recent report suggested that STP might also act at the neuronal level, increasing inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. We examined the effect of STP on the functional properties of recombinant GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) and found that it was a positive allosteric modulator of these ion channels. Its activity showed some dependence on subunit composition, with greater potentiation of alpha3-containing receptors and reduced potentiation when the beta1 or epsilon subunits were present. STP caused a leftward shift in the GABA concentration-response relationship, but did not increase the peak response of the receptors to a maximal GABA concentration. Although STP shares some functional characteristics with the neurosteroids, its activity was not inhibited by a neurosteroid site antagonist and was unaffected by a mutation in the alpha3 subunit that reduced positive modulation by neurosteroids. The differential effect of STP on beta1- and beta2/beta3-containing receptors was not altered by mutations within the second transmembrane domain that affect modulation by loreclezole. These findings suggest that STP acts as a direct allosteric modulator of the GABAR at a site distinct from many commonly used anti-convulsant, sedative and anxiolytic drugs. Its higher activity at alpha3-containing receptors as well as its activity at delta-containing receptors may provide a unique opportunity to target selected populations of GABARs.

  20. Early-Onset Convulsive Seizures Induced by Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Aging Mice: Effects of Anticonvulsive Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Justin; Wu, Chiping; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased risk of seizures/epilepsy. Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) and cardiac arrest related brain injury are two major causative factors for seizure development in this patient population. With either etiology, seizures are a poor prognostic factor. In spite of this, the underlying pathophysiology of seizure development is not well understood. In addition, a standardized treatment regimen with anticonvulsants and outcome assessments following treatment has yet to be established for these post-ischemic seizures. Previous studies have modeled post-ischemic seizures in adult rodents, but similar studies in aging/aged animals, a group that mirrors a higher risk elderly population, remain sparse. Our study therefore aimed to investigate early-onset seizures in aging animals using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Male C57 black mice 18-20-month-old underwent a unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery followed by a systemic hypoxic episode (8% O2 for 30 min). Early-onset seizures were detected using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring. Brain injury was assessed histologically at different times post HI. Convulsive seizures were observed in 65% of aging mice post-HI but not in control aging mice following either sham surgery or hypoxia alone. These seizures typically occurred within hours of HI and behaviorally consisted of jumping, fast running, barrel-rolling, and/or falling (loss of the righting reflex) with limb spasms. No evident discharges during any convulsive seizures were seen on cortical-hippocampal EEG recordings. Seizure development was closely associated with acute mortality and severe brain injury on brain histological analysis. Intra-peritoneal injections of lorazepam and fosphenytoin suppressed seizures and improved survival but only when applied prior to seizure onset and not after. These findings together suggest that seizures are a major contributing factor to acute mortality in aging

  1. 232例儿童热性惊厥血清钠浓度临床分析%Clinical Analysis about Concentrations of Natrium in 232 Cases Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of concentrations of natrium and its clinical significance in children with febrile convulsions. Method:Clinical data of 232 children with febrile convulsions who visited Beijing commercial aviation general hospital from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Result:The concentrations of natrium of children with febrile convulsions were diffrently lower than normal,especially in children with recurrent convulsion and status convulsion whose concentrations of natrium were obviously lower than children with simple febrile convulsions. Conclusion:Varying degrees of hyponatremia occur in children with febrile convulsions. It should pay attention to correct hyponatremia in treatmen of febrile convulsions to reduce the relapse frequency and duration of febrile convulsions,so reduce the harm of brain organization.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度变化及临床意义。方法:对北京民航总医院2010-2012年急诊治疗的232例热性惊厥患儿血清钠浓度作回顾性分析。结果:热性惊厥儿童血清钠浓度常有不同程度的降低,且惊厥反复发作及惊厥持续状态患儿的血清钠浓度明显低于单纯性热性惊厥患儿。结论:热性惊厥患儿常存在不同程度的低钠血症,在常规治疗小儿热性惊厥时应注意纠正低钠血症,以减少小儿热性惊厥的发作次数及持续时间,减轻脑组织损害。

  2. Crise convulsive chez les abuseurs de Tramadol et caféine: à propos de 8 cas et revue de la littérature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Djibo Douma; Seyni, Houdou; Sidikou, Amadou; Azouma, Alfazazi

    2012-01-01

    Nous rapportons Huit cas de crises convulsives diagnostiquées comme maladie épileptique après ingestion de Tramadol et d'autres substances psychotropes dont la Caféine dans une région ou maladie épileptique et addiction au café sont fréquentes. L'objectif de ce travail était d'informer les praticiens sur le risque de convulsion lié à la consommation du Tramadol seul ou en association avec d'autres psychotropes en s'appuyant sur les données de la littérature. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et exhaustive de patients vus en consultation ambulatoire pour crise convulsive et consommation de Tramadol et de caféine de janvier à mai 2012. Les données collectées étaient les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et de la consommation de Tramadol. Le diagnostic de crise convulsive a été posé sur les renseignements obtenus à l'anamnèse. Tous les patients ont été soumis à un examen neurologique et aux critères de dépendance du Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV)-R par rapport à leur consommation de Tramadol. Nous n'avons pas trouvé dans la littérature médicale de cas de consommation concomitante de Tramadol et de Caféine. Les données expérimentales suggèrent une action synergique du Tramadol et de la Caféine sur la douleur et le seuil épileptogène. Nos observations plaident également en faveur d'une synergie d'action de ces deux molécules dans la survenue des crises convulsives. La fréquence des crises convulsives suite à une intoxication par le Tramadol et la caféine est susceptible d'augmenter en Afrique en raison du mésusage croissant de ces substances. Une étude comparative usagers de Tramadol associé à la Caféine et usagers du Tramadol seul devrait permettre d’évaluer le risque. PMID:23308329

  3. 小儿惊厥临床因素分析及预防措施%Clinical Factors Analysis and Preventive Measures of Infantile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪贵

    2016-01-01

    目的:探析小儿惊厥的临床因素及预防措施。方法选取我院2014年3月~2015年10月收治的68例小儿惊厥患儿,分析小儿惊厥的相关因素,并提出预防措施。结果高热惊厥40例,占58.82%,低钙惊厥7例,占10.29%,癫痫9例,占13.24%,颅内感染6例,占8.82%,颅内出血3例,占4.41%,中毒2例,占2.94%,诊断不明1例,占1.47%。治愈53例,好转10例,死亡1例,自动出院4例。结论小儿惊厥的临床病因比较复杂,对不同原因给予针对性措施,减少并发症及后遗症的发生。%Objective To explore the clinical factors and preventive measures of infantile convulsions.Methods Selected our hospital in March 2014 to October 2015 treated 68 cases of children with convulsions in children, to analyze the related factors of infantile convulsion, and put forward the preventive measures.ResultsFebrile convulsion in 40 cases, accounting for 58.82%, low calcium convulsion in 7 cases, accounting for 10.29%, 9 cases of epilepsy, accounting for 13.24%, 6 cases of intracranial infection accounted for 8.82%, accounting for 4.41% of the 3 cases of intracranial hemorrhage, 2 cases of poisoning, accounted for 2.94%, 1 cases of unknown diagnosis, accounting for 1.47%. 53 cases were cured, 10 cases improved, 1 cases died, 4 cases were discharged from hospital.Conclusion The clinical causes of infantile convulsions are more complicated, and the corresponding measures are given for different reasons, so as to reduce the incidence of complications and sequelae.

  4. NSE与视频脑电图在儿童热性惊厥的相关研究%THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM NEURON SPECIFIC ENOLASE AND VIDEO EEG IN FEBRILE CONVULSION OF CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀琴; 于树红; 孙若鹏

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum neuron specific enolase and Video EEG in Febrile Convulsion of childen. Method:Serum NSE was detected by RIA on the first day and the seventh day after seizure in 40 children with simple febrile convulsion and 18 with complex febrile convulsion. Video EEG was performed at 1st, 7th and 30th day in all the patients. Results: There were significant differences between NSE levels at 24th hour and on 7th day after convulsion (P<0.01). NSE concentrations in patients with SFC and CFC were also different (P < 0.01). The more slowly NSE restored, the higher the abnormal ratio of EGG was . Conclusion: NSE increased in patients within 24hours after seizure, especially in CFC patients. The abnormal ratio of VideoEEG was related to the change of NSE concentration.

  5. Evaluation of anti-epileptic activity of fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera against maximal electroshock (M.E.S and Picrotoxin (PTX induced convulsions in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quazi Emadoddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (Moringaecea are used in Indian traditional medicine and in folklore for many diseases and extensively used as CNS depressant traditionally. The interesting things of this plant are each part of Moringa oleifera is used as medicines. The present work has been carried out to evaluate the anti-epileptic activity of fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera against maximal electroshock (M.E.S and Picrotoxin (PTX induced convulsions in mice at different dose level (100ml/kg. p.o & 50ml/kg. p.o. Diazepam (5mg/kg. p.o and Phenytoin (25mg/kg. i.p were used as reference standard drugs. The data obtained indicates that the fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera at the dose of (50ml/kg p.o & 100ml/kg p.o shows anticonvulsant activity against Maximal electroshock and Picrotoxin induced convulsion in mice.

  6. Analysis of benign convulsion with gastroenteritis%良性婴儿惊厥伴胃肠炎的临床处治与转归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立纲; 黄龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结良性惊厥伴胃肠炎患儿的治疗及复发情况,以提高对该病的认识.方法 对33例首次发生胃肠炎并良性惊厥患儿的临床表现、诊断治疗及转归进行分析,并对良性惊厥伴胃肠炎患儿的临床诊治方法与效果进行探讨.结果 每例患儿惊厥发作1~5次不等,发生惊厥时给予安定0.3~0.5mg,随访观察两年,转归均良好.结论 伴轻度胃肠炎的小儿良性惊厥,可暂时不采取抗癫痫药物治疗,仅需对症治疗及门诊长期随访,临床转归均良好.%Objective To investigate treatment and recurrence of benign infantile convulsion with gastroenteritis. Methods The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment and outcome of 33 patients with benign convulsion with gastroenteritis were analyzed. Results There were 1 to 5 times convulsion of the patients cured with diazepam (0. 3~ 0. 5mg). The outcomes were good, followed-up for two-year. Conclusion Children with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis need not take temporary anti-epileptic drug treatment. It needs out-patient long-term follow-up.

  7. 儿童无热惊厥的鉴别诊断%Diagnosis of Children’s Non-febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锐; 朱自伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To improve the diagnosis of children’s non-febrile convulsions.Method:5 typical cases were studied to investigate the diagnosis of children’s non-febrile convulsions.Result:All of the 5 cases were correctly diagnosed.Two of them received timely treatment,one gave up the treatment,and two died.Conclusion:Convulsions are severe neurological symptoms common for children,which need timely and correct treatment.The primary of the treatment is to control the convulsions as soon as possible to avoid brain cell damage.Careful analysis of the history,thoroughgoing physical examination,close observation of the changes in patient’s conditions,as well as timely laboratory examinations, are important means for correct diagnosis as well as prognosis improvement.%目的:加强儿童无热惊厥的鉴别诊断。方法:以5例无热惊厥典型病例探讨儿童无热惊厥的鉴别诊断。结果:5例患儿均查明原因,2例得到及时治疗,1例放弃治疗,2例死亡。结论:惊厥是小儿时期神经系统常见的严重症状,需要及时、正确的处理。惊厥的处理首先要尽快控制发作,以避免脑细胞损伤。认真分析病史、仔细体检、严密观察病情变化、及时辅助检查,是明确诊断、改善预后的重要手段。

  8. Children Febrile Convulsion Treatment by Traditional Chinese Medicine%小儿高热惊厥中医证治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑勉; 张鹏; 杨冬妹

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Through the analysis of the children's physical characteristics,the TCM treatment of febrile convulsion in children.Methods:First,according to the physiological characteristics of children:liver is often enough,spleen is often insufficient,infantile period firelight Yi Sheng,pediatric lung often inadequate; and the incidence of febrile convulsion is in the heart,liver two dirty,heart startled,liver wind.Thus combined with clinical TCM syndrome differentiation and analysis of infantile convulsion get the treatment principles.Results:Facilitating lung and regulating qi are the treatment principle of onset period.Invigorating lung and spleen is an important method to prevent the recurrence.Conclusion:Facilitating lung,regulating qi and invigorating lung and spleen are important principle of Chinese medicine treatment for children febrile convulsion.%目的:通过对小儿生理特点的分析,阐述小儿高热惊厥中医证治.方法:针对小儿的生理特点及高热惊厥的病机,结合临床对小儿高热惊厥进行中医辨证分析归纳,得出证治原则.结果:宣肺抑肝,调畅气机是发作期的治疗原则;补益肺脾,平抑肝木是预防复发的重要方法.结论:宣肺抑肝,调畅气机;补益肺脾,平抑肝木是中医治疗小儿高热惊厥的重要原则.

  9. The treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion%小儿惊厥的临床特点及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海英

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To explore the treatment and clinical character of infantile convulsion. Methods:To analyze retrospectively the clinical date of 75 cases of clinical character.Result: The treatment of al patients showed effective. Except of 1 case of complex febrile convulsion and 1 case of non-heat convulsions evolved to epilepsia, the other patients had no obvious sequelae. Conclusion: Induction factors of infantile convulsion are complicated, except of congenital and traumatic factors, the prognosis of the others are good generaly. The recurrent frequent is related on development degree, so, it should on the base of effective treatment, to avoid induction factors and decrease recurrent rate, and make the child grow up and pass the dangerous period smoothly.%  目的探讨小儿惊厥的临床特点和治疗体会。方法回顾性分析75例惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果75例惊厥患儿均治疗有效。除复杂性高热惊厥和无热惊厥患儿各有1例发展成为癫痫,其他患儿均无明显的后遗症。结论小儿惊厥的发病因素较为复杂,但除去先天性或外伤性因素外,一般预后较好。惊厥复发频率与发育程度有关,应该在治疗有效的基础上,避免诱发因素,降低复发率,使之能尽量顺利成长,顺利度过惊厥危险期。

  10. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents.

  11. R-(+)-ABP a novel derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide possesses anti-convulsant and neuroprotective properties in rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ELESTAGE; A.ROGER; L.DANOBER; ERENARD; X-Q.PENG; Z.GUO; J.T.ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    ABP is a novel phthalide derivative of 3-n-butyl-phthalide (NBP) synthesized at the Beijing Institute of Materia Medica.NBP was isolated from several plants including Apium graveolens Linn. The juice squeezed from fresh celery leaves has long been used in Southeastern China for the treatment of epilepsy, and NBP has been reported to possess anti-convulsant properties (Drugs Future 2000; 25: 16-23). The present study

  12. Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimalendu Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p. on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01 by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01 only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg, whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01, whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01 in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg decreased (P < 0.01 the MDA and increased (P < 0.01 both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure.

  13. Correlations of Clusters of Non-Convulsive Seizure and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Case With GAD65-Positive Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rachael; Rangaswamy, Rajesh; Peng, Yen-Yi

    2016-08-01

    With the increased availability of laboratory tests, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-positive limbic encephalitis has become an emerging diagnosis. The myriad symptoms of limbic encephalitis make the diagnosis challenging. Symptoms range from seizures, memory loss, dementia, confusion, to psychosis. We present a case of a 21-year-old female with GAD65 antibody-positive limbic encephalitis. The case is unique because the clinical course suggests that non-convulsive seizures are the major cause of this patient's clinical manifestations. The following is the thesis: systemic autoimmune disease, associated with the GAD65 antibody, gives rise to seizures, in particular, non-convulsive seizures. Temporal lobes happen to be the most susceptible sites to develop seizures. The greater part of these seizures can be non-convulsive and hard to recognize without electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The variable symptoms mirror the severity and locations of these seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormities in the bilateral hippocampus, fornix, and mammillary body correlate with the density of these seizures in the similar manner, which suggests it is secondary to post-ictal edema.

  14. 轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥研究进展%Research advances in benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丙松; 方续兰; 王佐

    2015-01-01

    Benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE),known as convulsions with mild gastroenteritis,is a kind of non-febrile convulsions disease associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis.Patients with BICE often have mild gastroenteritis and tonic-clonic seizure manifestation,but no apparent disturbance of water,electrolyte and acid base was observed.BICE,the main etiological agent of which is Rotavirus,is a kind of self-limited disease with favorable prognosis,and no requiring of continuous anticonvulsant treatment.%轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥又称轻度胃肠炎伴惊厥,是婴幼儿急性胃肠炎相关的一种无热惊厥.患儿表现为轻度胃肠炎,无明显水、电解质、酸碱平衡紊乱,惊厥多以强直-阵挛形式发作.本病多与轮状病毒感染有关,为自限性疾病,预后良好,无需持续抗惊厥治疗.

  15. Assessment of serum zinc, selenium and copper in simple febrile convulsions in children aged 6 to 60 months in Mohammad Kermanshahi Hospital in 2012 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Gheini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some trace elements may play a role in the etiology of febrile convulsions. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between serum zinc, selenium and copper level and febrile convulsion. Methods: In this case – control study, 114 children with febrile disease and 101 children with simple febrile convulsion were selected as control and case groups, respectively. After collecting all samples, serum levels of selenium, zinc and copper were measured and the obtained data were analyzed by Spss software using independent t-test Results: Mean serum zinc level in control group (80.24±10.06 was significantly higher than that of the case group (63.54±6.7 (P<0.001. Mean serum selenium level in control group (80.78±10.12 was significantly higher that that of the case group (59.32±6.92 (P<0.001. Mean serum copper level in the male control group (73.08±9.68 was significantly lower than that of the case group (81.80 ±10.81 (P<0.001. Conclusion: The causal correlation between variables cannot be determined by only one case-control study. Only the differences between groups are reported.

  16. 针灸治疗面肌痉挛的临床研究进展%The Clinical Research Process of Acupuncture for Mimetic Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建兰; 张芸

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the clinical research of acupuncture for mimetic convulsion has been greatly developed. By computer retrieving the VIP full text database, we had got the Chinese literatures about treating mimetic convulsion by acupuncture from 2000 to 2015, and through simply sum-marized these literatures found that the treatment of acupuncture for mimetic convulsion was effective, but was still lack of the support by a large number of repeatable, controlled, randomized evidences.%近年来,针刺治疗面肌痉挛的临床研究取得了较大进展,本文通过对维普期刊全文数据库的计算机检索,获得了2000~2015年有关针灸治疗面肌痉挛的中文文献,并对其进行简单归纳、总结,发现针灸治疗面肌痉挛疗效肯定,但尚缺乏大量重复、对照、随机的证据支持。

  17. Repeated febrile convulsions impair hippocampal neurons and cause synaptic damage in immature rats:neuroprotective effect of fructose-1,6-diphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhou; Fan Wang; Jun Zhang; Hui Gao; Yufeng Yang; Rongguo Fu

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a metabolic intermediate that promotes cell metabolism. We hy-pothesize that fructose-1,6-diphosphate can protect against neuronal damage induced by febrile convulsions. Hot-water bathing was used to establish a repetitive febrile convulsion model in rats aged 21 days, equivalent to 3-5 years in humans. Ninety minutes before each seizure induc-tion, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of low- or high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate (500 or 1,000 mg/kg, respectively). Low- and high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate prolonged the latency and shortened the duration of seizures. Furthermore, high-dose fructose-1,6-di-phosphate effectively reduced seizure severity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that 24 hours after the last seizure, high-dose fructose-1,6-diphosphate reduced mitochondrial swelling, rough endoplasmic reticulum degranulation, Golgi dilation and synaptic cleft size, and increased synaptic active zone length, postsynaptic density thickness, and synaptic interface cur-vature in the hippocampal CA1 area. The present findings suggest that fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a neuroprotectant against hippocampal neuron and synapse damage induced by repeated fe-brile convulsion in immature rats.

  18. Systematic review of fever, febrile convulsions and serious adverse events following administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Kim-Moy, J; Yin, J K; Rashid, H; Khandaker, G; King, C; Wood, N; Macartney, K K; Jones, C; Booy, R

    2015-06-18

    In 2010, increased febrile convulsions (FC) occurred after administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in Australia. We systematically reviewed the rates of fever, FC and serious adverse events (SAEs) after TIV, focussing on published and unpublished clinical trial data from 2005 to 2012, and performed meta-analysis of fever rates. From 4,372 records in electronic databases, 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 14 non-randomised clinical trials, six observational studies and 12 registered trials (five RCTs and seven non-randomised) were identified. In published RCTs, fever ≥ 38 °C rates after first dose of non-adjuvanted TIV were 6.7% and 6.9% for children aged 6–35 months and ≥ 3 years, respectively. Analysis of RCTs by vaccine manufacturer showed pooled fever estimates up to 5.1% with Sanofi or GlaxoSmithKline vaccines; bioCSL vaccines were used in two non-randomised clinical trials and one unpublished RCT and were associated with fever in 22.5–37.1% for children aged 6–35 months. In RCTs, FCs occurred at a rate of 1.1 per 1,000 vaccinated children. While most TIVs induced acceptably low fever rates, bioCSL influenza vaccines were associated with much higher rates of fever in young children. Future standardised study methodology and access to individual level data would be illuminating.

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of sodium valproate in convulsive status epilepticus following to ıschemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is very rarely observed after ischaemic stroke. Sodium valproate (SV is one of the agents used in the treatment of CSE, but its role still controversial, and its degree of efficacy in treating CSE that develops following stroke is unclear. Method : We evaluated 19 patients who were treated with intravenous (IV SV (20 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg/h-12h after diazepam. Patients’ modified Rankin scores (mRS, SE types, and changes in biochemical parameters after treatment were assessed. Results : CSE was successfully treated in 12 (63.15% patients. Side effects such as hypotension and allergic reactions were observed in two patients. Refractory SE development was observed in 5 (29.4% patients with high mRS (˃ 3. No significant deterioration in patients’ laboratory evaluations, conducted before and after status, was observed. Conclusion : SV may be safe and effective in the treatment of CSE observed after ischaemic stroke, especially in patients with low mRS.

  20. Effects of levetiracetam, a novel antiepileptic drug, on convulsant activity in two genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, A J; Hirsch, E; Boehrer, A; Noyer, M; Marescaux, C

    1995-11-01

    The anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam were assessed in two genetic rat models. In the audiogenic-seizure prone rat, levetiracetam, 5.4 to 96 mg/kg i.p. dose-dependently inhibited both wild running and tonic-clonic convulsions. In the GAERS model of petit mal epilepsy, levetiracetam markedly suppressed spontaneous spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) but left the underlying EEG trace normal. The effects were already marked at 5.4 mg/kg and did not increase significantly up to 170 mg/kg although more animals were completely protected. Levetiracetam produced no observable effects on behaviour apart from slight reversible sedation at 170 mg/kg. In contrast, piracetam, a structural analogue of levetiracetam, significantly and consistently suppressed SWD in GAERS rats only at the high dose of 1000 mg/kg with some slight effects at lower doses. The effect of piracetam appeared to be due to increased sleeping rather than to a direct antiepileptic effect. The results with levetiracetam argue for a clinical application in both petit mal, absence epilepsy and in treating generalised tonic-clonic and partial seizures.

  1. 疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作%Vaccination reactions and acute convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is a milestone in the history of modern medicine. It has played a major role to prevent infectious diseases and to reduce mortality. However, the vaccine or vaccination-induced side effects, especially neurological disorders, such as seizures are also increasingly attracted concerns of the community. Seizures and side effects of vaccination are two separate medical problems that are parallel to the occasional cross. This paper will discuss the relationship between vaccine reactions and acute convulsions or seizures based on the latest research results.%疫苗在现代医学发展史上具有里程碑的意义.疫苗接种为预防和控制传染病、降低传染病病死率起了重大的作用.同时由于疫苗或预防接种引起的不良反应也日益受到社会各界的关注,特别是其神经系统不良反应,如惊厥等的发生更是受到普遍关注.惊厥和预防接种不良反应是两个独立的医学问题,平行而偶有交叉.文章结合最新研究,阐述疫苗反应与急性惊厥或癫(癎)发作的相关性.

  2. Long-Term Survival and Outcome in Children Admitted to Kilifi District Hospital with Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Prins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE is high in Africa but the long-term outcome is unknown. We examined the neurocognitive outcome and survival of children treated for CSE in a Kenyan hospital 3 to 4 years after discharge. Methods. The frequency and nature of neurological deficits among this group of children were determined and compared to a control group. The children were screened with the Ten Questions Questionnaire for neurodevelopmental impairment if alive and those that screened positive were invited for further assessment to determine the pattern and extent of their impairment. A verbal autopsy was performed to determine the cause of death in those that died. Results. In the 119 cases followed-up, 9 (8% died after discharge, with the majority having seizures during their fatal illness. The 110 survivors (median age 5 years had significantly more neurological impairments on the screening compared to 282 controls (34/110 (30.9% versus 11/282 (3.9%, OR = 11.0, 95% CI 5.3–22.8. Fifteen percent of the cases had active epilepsy. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the considerable burden of CSE in African children. Strategies to manage children with CSE that are acceptable to the community need to be explored to improve the longer-term outcome.

  3. 热性惊厥导致T细胞功能改变的观察%Immune-Functional Changes of T-lymphocytes in Children with Febrile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈遂 陈遂; 邹峥; 梅魁敏; 陈志军; 徐淑娟

    2000-01-01

    探讨热性惊厥患儿外周血T淋巴细胞免疫功能的变化。方法:应用APSAP法检测82例热性惊厥患儿、40例上呼吸道感染患儿及40例正常小儿T淋巴细胞亚群、CD25抗原在自然状态和PHA激活后的活化状态的百分率。结果:热性惊厥患儿外周血中,CD3、CD4、CD4/CD8比值,均显著低于两对照组;热性惊厥患儿在自然状态下的CD25抗原表达率明显低于两对照组,经PHA刺激后,CD25抗原表达在各组均显著增多,但热性惊厥组仍低于两对照组。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在着细胞免疫损害,这可能是热性惊厥发生和复发的一个重要因素。预防热性惊厥复发,必须从提高细胞免疫功能着手。%To ineestigate the immune-functional changes of T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood in chil dren with febrile convulsions. Methods: Eighty-two children with febrile convulsions, forty with acute upper respiratory tract infection and forty normals were studied. The distribution of T-lymphocytes subsets, the expression of active marker CD25+ before and after PHA stimulation were investigated by APAAP assay. Results:Compared with the other control groups, the percentages of CD3, CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio of T-lymphocytes were all significantly depressed in the peripheral blood in children with febrile convulsions. The expression rate of CD25 antigen before PHA stimulation was significantly lower than those in two control groups. After PHA stimulation, the expression rates of CD25 antigen were all higher than before, but the rate of the febrile convulsion group was still lower than those of the control groups. Conclusion: Impairment of T-lymphocyte s-mediated immune function was associated with febrile convulsion and it might be a important cause of occurrence of febrile convulsion in children. For prevention and reduction of recurrence and subsequent brain damage, it is important to improve the T-lymphocyte s-mediated immune function of the

  4. The neuron-specific enolase levels of the cerebrospinal fluid in children with convulsion%惊厥患儿脑脊液神经元特异性烯醇化酶水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓华; 王继春; 朝鲁门其其格; 杨光路; 任少敏; 付亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the levels of neuron-speciifc enolase (NSE) of the cerebrospinal lfuid (CSF) in children with convulsion. Methods Ninety children with convulsion were enrolled. According to the frequency of convulsion attack, the children were divided into brief convulsion group 51 cases and prolonged convulsion group 39 cases, further, based on the etiology, the children were divided into viral encephalitis (VE) group, idiopathic epilepsy (EP) group, and febrile convulsion (FS) group. CSF was collected within 24-48 h convulsion attack. Twenty-three children with elective surgery were selected as a control group. CSF was collected before surgery. The NSE level of CSF were measured by ELISA method and compared among groups. Results The NSE levels of CSF in prolonged convulsion group and brief convulsion group were signiifcantly higher than that in control group, while the NES levels of CSF in prolonged convulsion group were signiifcantly higher than that in brief convulsion group (all P0.05). Conclusions Convulsion contributed to higher NSE levers of CSF, especially in children with prolonged convulsion attack or with VE. The NSE level of CSF can be regarded as an early objective indicator of brain damage after convulsions.%目的:探讨脑脊液中神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)水平在惊厥性脑损伤中的变化。方法选择90例惊厥患儿,根据惊厥发作的频率和单次惊厥发作的持续时间分为短程惊厥组(51例)和长程惊厥组(39例),再根据病因分为病毒性脑炎组、原发性癫组和热性惊厥组,采集患儿惊厥发作后24~48 h内的脑脊液;以23例外科手术患儿作为对照组,手术前采集脑脊液。采用酶联免疫分析法测定并比较各组脑脊液中NSE水平。结果长程惊厥组及短程惊厥组脑脊液NSE水平均高于对照组,而长程惊厥组更高于短程惊厥组,差异有统计学意义(P均0.05)。结论惊厥发作可导致脑脊液中NSE水平升高,尤

  5. Infantile convulsions with paroxysmal dyskinesia (ICCA syndrome and copy number variation at human chromosome 16p11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Roll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benign infantile convulsions and paroxysmal dyskinesia are episodic cerebral disorders that can share common genetic bases. They can be co-inherited as one single autosomal dominant trait (ICCA syndrome; the disease ICCA gene maps at chromosome 16p12-q12. Despite intensive and conventional mutation screening, the ICCA gene remains unknown to date. The critical area displays highly complicated genomic architecture and is the site of deletions and duplications associated with various diseases. The possibility that the ICCA syndrome is related to the existence of large-scale genomic alterations was addressed in the present study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A combination of whole genome and dedicated oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization coupled with quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. Low copy number of a region corresponding to a genomic variant (Variation_7105 located at 16p11 nearby the centromere was detected with statistical significance at much higher frequency in patients from ICCA families than in ethnically matched controls. The genomic variant showed no apparent difference in size and copy number between patients and controls, making it very unlikely that the genomic alteration detected here is ICCA-specific. Furthermore, no other genomic alteration that would directly cause the ICCA syndrome in those nine families was detected in the ICCA critical area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data excluded that inherited genomic deletion or duplication events directly cause the ICCA syndrome; rather, they help narrowing down the critical ICCA region dramatically and indicate that the disease ICCA genetic defect lies very close to or within Variation_7105 and hence should now be searched in the corresponding genomic area and its surrounding regions.

  6. A preliminary observation of the adverse effects of phenobarbital among patients with convulsive epilepsy in rural West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Liu, Ling; Tian, Linyu; Mu, Jie; Chen, Deng; Chen, Tao; Deng, Ying; He, Jun; Li, You; He, Li; Zhou, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the adverse effect (AE) profile of phenobarbital (PB) among patients with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) from resource-poor areas. Patients with ACE were enrolled into an epilepsy management project in rural West China. Information was obtained from monthly follow-up questionnaires. The demographic and clinical features of the patients with AE were firstly described. After that, the occurrence rate was estimated for each subtype of AE at three different severity levels (mild, moderate, and serious). Survival analysis was used to determine the potential risk factors of AEs. A total of 7231 patients (3780 men) were included in the present cohort. During the follow-up time period (average 33.4months), the most common AEs were drowsiness (moderate: 4.4%, serious: 0.68%), dizziness (moderate: 3.7%, serious: 0.5%), and headache (moderate: 2.9%, serious: 0.41%). In the confirmed AE groups (moderate and serious severity levels), the symptoms tended to be transient, with durations of less than 3months. Polytherapy was an independent risk factor for AEs and had an increasing risk when the severity of the AE increased (Hazard Ratio 1.12, 1.55, and 2.52 for mild AE, moderate AE, and serious AE, respectively). Receiving a high dosage of PB (>180mg/day) indicated a slightly elevated risk (Hazard Ratio 1.22 and 1.27 for mild AE and moderate AE, respectively). Phenobarbital demonstrates overall tolerability, and serious AEs were not common. Patients receiving a high dose of PB or polytherapy are at increased risk of developing AEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ACUTE AND CHRONIC RESPONSES TO THE CONVULSANT PILOCARPINE IN DBA/2J AND A/J MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    WINAWER, M. R.; MAKARENKO, N.; McCLOSKEY, D. P.; HINTZ, T. M.; NAIR, N.; PALMER, A. A.; SCHARFMAN, H. E.

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the responses of different mouse strains to experimentally-induced seizures can provide clues to the genes that are responsible for seizure susceptibility, and factors that contribute to epilepsy. This approach is optimal when sequenced mouse strains are available. Therefore, we compared two sequenced strains, DBA/2J (DBA) and A/J. These strains were compared using the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine, because pilocarpine induces status epilepticus, a state of severe, prolonged seizures. In addition, pilocarpine-induced status is followed by changes in the brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Therefore, pilocarpine can be used to address susceptibility to severe seizures, as well as genes that could be relevant to TLE. A/J mice had a higher incidence of status, but a longer latency to status than DBA mice. DBA mice exhibited more hippocampal pyramidal cell damage. DBA mice developed more ectopic granule cells in the hilus, a result of aberrant migration of granule cells born after status. DBA mice experienced sudden death in the weeks following status, while A/J mice exhibited the most sudden death in the initial hour after pilocarpine administration. The results support previous studies of strain differences based on responses to convulsants. They suggest caution in studies of seizure susceptibility that are based only on incidence or latency. In addition, the results provide new insight into the strain-specific characteristics of DBA and A/J mice. A/J mice provide a potential resource to examine the progression to status. The DBA mouse may be valuable to clarify genes regulating other seizure-associated phenomena, such as seizure-induced neurogenesis and sudden death. PMID:17904758

  8. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers prevent pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and morphological changes in rat brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Aleksey V; Kim, Kira Kh; Vasilev, Dmitry S; Lukomskaya, Nera Ya; Lavrentyeva, Valeria V; Tumanova, Natalia L; Zhuravin, Igor A; Magazanik, Lev G

    2015-03-01

    Alterations in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission play a central role in the etiology of epilepsy, with overstimulation of glutamate receptors influencing epileptic activity and corresponding neuronal damage. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which belong to a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, play a primary role in this process. This study compared the anticonvulsant properties of two NMDA receptor channel blockers, memantine and 1-phenylcyclohexylamine (IEM-1921), in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of seizures in rats and investigated their potencies in preventing PTZ-induced morphological changes in the brain. The anticonvulsant properties of IEM-1921 (5 mg/kg) were more pronounced than those of memantine at the same dose. IEM-1921 and memantine decreased the duration of convulsions by 82% and 37%, respectively. Both compounds were relatively effective at preventing the tonic component of seizures but not myoclonic seizures. Memantine significantly reduced the lethality caused by PTZ-induced seizures from 42% to 11%, and all animals pretreated with IEM-1921 survived. Morphological examination of the rat brain 24 hr after administration of PTZ revealed alterations in the morphology of 20-25% of neurons in the neocortex and the hippocampus, potentially induced by excessive glutamate. The expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 protein was increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rats. However, dark neurons did not express caspase-3 and were immunopositive for the neuronal nuclear antigen protein, indicating that these neurons were alive. Both NMDA antagonists prevented neuronal abnormalities in the brain. These results suggest that NMDA receptor channel blockers might be considered possible neuroprotective agents for prolonged seizures or status epilepticus leading to neuronal damage.

  9. Anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of synergetic combination of phenytoin and gastrodin on the convulsion induced by penicillin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziqi; Lin, Yanzhu; Zheng, Hongyi; He, Yuzhong; Xu, Haohua; Zhang, Siheng; Weng, Wen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is a commonly prescribed first-line antiepileptic drug. However, long-term administration of PHT can cause memory loss and balance disturbance. Gastrodin (GD) is the major bioactive component in Tianma and has sedative, anticonvulsive, memory strengthening, and neuroprotective effects. To combine the two drugs seems attractive; however, little was known about the efficacy of combination therapy. In this study, convulsive attack was successfully induced by penicillin. Isobolographic analysis, memory and balance behavior test, histopathological examination, and Western blot analysis were used to investigate whether the combination therapy of GD and PHT can enhance anticonvulsive effect and reduce the side effects associated with PHT. The GD alone (950.60 mg/kg) and the PHT alone (45.50 mg/kg) could produce an anticonvulsive effect, while comparable effect could be produced by PHT : GD = 1 : 50 (8.59 : 429.27 mg/kg), which reduce the dose of PHT by 81% and GD by 55%. After the chronic anticonvulsive experiments of 16 days, the balance disturbance and short-/long-term memory loss were observed in the PHT group, while the PHT + GD therapy can protect the normal balance and memory function. The neuron morphology of hippocampus was preserved, and the number of surviving neurons after combination therapy was more than the model group. The amount of NF-κB (p65) expression was increased in combination group. All above suggested the potential of the combination of PHT and GD enhances the anticonvulsive effect and the neuroprotective effect and reduces the PHT-associated memory and balance disturbance. The PHT + GD strategy would provide new possibilities as a novel promising methodology to treat epileptic patients.

  10. Hippocampal cell loss and propagation of abnormal discharges accompanied with the expression of tonic convulsion in the spontaneously epileptic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sasa, Masashi; Sugata, Sei; Tokudome, Mai; Serikawa, Tadao; Kurisu, Kaoru; Arita, Kazunori

    2010-04-30

    Spontaneously epileptic rats (SER) are double mutants with both tonic convulsion and absence-like seizures from the age of 8 weeks. Hippocampal CA3 neurons in SER display a long-lasting depolarizing shift accompanied by repetitive firing (attributed to abnormalities of the Ca(2+) channels) with a single stimulation of the mossy fibers. In the present investigation, we examined if the seizure discharges of SER were correlated with the hippocampal abnormality of SER using electrophysiological and histological methods. In CA1 neurons of seizure-susceptible mature SER, higher-voltage (<8-11 V) stimulations induced a long depolarization shift (in 25% of neurons) with repetitive firing (in 12.5% of neurons). However, the tremor rat, one of the parent strains of SER, did not exhibit such abnormal firing in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The number of CA3 neurons in SER was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that in tremor rats and Wistar rats, although no significant difference was established in the hilus. Sprouting of mossy fiber was observed in the dentate of mature SER; however, negligible staining was spotted in the dentate of both mature tremor and Wistar rats. Interestingly, expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor was higher in the hilus, CA3, and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus in SER than normal Wistar rats. The expression levels of TUNEL, bax, and Caspase-3 did not show significant changes between the SER and Wistar rats. SER exhibited hippocampal sclerosis-like changes which did not have enough potential for epileptogenesis. Repetitive tonic seizures and vulnerable CA3 neurons of SER could be involved in the induction of sclerosis-like changes in the hippocampus.

  11. Impacts of Shisiwei Jianzhong Decoction on the Convulsion Latency and the Content of Cytokines in Brain Tissue of the Mice with Oxygen Convulsion%十四味建中汤对氧惊厥小鼠惊厥潜伏期及脑组织炎症细胞因子含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷箴; 王国忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impacts and significance of shisiwei jianzhong decoction on convulsion latency and the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue of the mice with oxygen convulsion. Methods Fifty - six mice were randomized into 7 groups,named an oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(6 h group),a 24 h group,a 48 h group,a shisiwei jianzhong decoction + oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(a therapy 6 h group),a therapy 24 h group,a therapy 48group and a normal control group. In all of the therapy groups, 2 weeks before convulsion induced by oxygen,shishiwei jianzhong decoction was used for gastric perfusion, once every day. The mice in all of the oxygen convulsion groups and the therapy groups were placed in 500 kPa oxygen environment till the seizure so as to prepare the model of oxygen convulsion. The enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue. Results There was no significant difference in convulsion latency between the therapy groups and the oxygen convulsion groups(P ﹥ 0. 05). In the 24 h group and the 48 h group,the content of IL - 1β was higher significantly than that in the normal control group,indicating the significant difference(P ﹤ 0. 05),and that in the therapy 24 h group and the therapy 48 h group was lower significantly than that in the corresponding oxygen convulsion groups of the same time point,indicating the significant difference in the pair comparison(P ﹤ 0. 05). At the same time point,the difference in the content of IL - 10 was not significant among the oxygen convulsion groups,the therapy groups and the normal control group(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion Shisiwei jianzhong decoc-tion does not significantly prolong the latency of oxygen convulsion in the mice,but it effectively reduces the content of IL - 1β,benefits the re - balance of proinflammatory cytokine and anti - inflammatory cytokine and alleviates the convulsive brain damage.%目的:探讨十四味建中汤对氧惊

  12. Observation of curative effect by carbamazepine in the treatment of pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus%卡马西平治疗小儿难治性惊厥持续状态疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐容华; 周江堡

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate effective treatment method for pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus.MethodsA total of 14 children patients with refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus received carbamazepine after failed conventional first and second line drug, and their curative effects were observed.ResultsAmong 14 cases, there were 6 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 24 h of medication and controlled convulsions after 48 h, 6 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 48 h of medication and controlled convulsions after 72 h, and the other 2 cases with obviously reduced convulsions times after 72 h, along with 1 quit case of them due to severe raticide poisoning. There was no case with adverse drug reaction.ConclusionCarbamazepine provides remarkable effect for pediatric refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, especially for refractory partial convulsive status epilepticus. Course of treatment requires further investigation.%目的:探讨小儿难治性惊厥持续状态的有效治疗方法。方法14例难治性惊厥持续状态患儿,在使用常规一线、二线止惊药物失败后,开始采用卡马西平治疗,观察疗效。结果14例患儿中,6例患儿在给药24 h后惊厥次数明显减少,48 h惊厥控制;6例患儿在给药48 h后惊厥次数明显减少,72 h惊厥控制;另2例患儿在给药72 h后惊厥次数明显减少,其中1例灭鼠药中毒后终因病情太重放弃治疗,自动出院。无一例出现药物不良反应。结论卡马西平对小儿难治性惊厥持续状态有明显疗效,尤其对难治性部分性惊厥持续状态效果好,其使用疗程有待进一步探索。

  13. The influence of rotundine on lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice%罗通定对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾佳佳; 朱骏生; 符臻; 谢泽敏; 孙孝雅; 王熙乔; 何婉琛; 薛瑶; 王丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of rotundine on lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice. Methods 40 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =10 each) : normal saline (NS) group, rotundine 10 mg·kg-1, 20 mg ·kg-1, 40 mg·kg-1(R10, R20, F40) group. Convulsant dose of lidocaine was administered intraperitoneally 30 min after normal saline or different doses of rotundine had been administered by gastric lavage . The convulsion number , convulsion latency and convulsion level were observed . Results Compared with NS group, the rate of convulsion in R40 group slightly declined , but there was no statistical significance between them ; the convulsion latency in R40 group extended evidently (P <0.01) ; Rotundine could reduce the convulsion level induced by lidocaine in mice . Conclusion Hotundine can antagonize lidocaine-induced convulsion in mice.%目的 观察罗通定对利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用的影响.方法 将40只昆明种小鼠随机分为4组(每组n=10):生理盐水(NS)组及罗通定10、20、40 mg·kg-1(R10、R20、R40)组.以NS或不同剂量的罗通定灌胃,30min后,各组腹腔注射致惊厥剂量的利多卡因,观察小鼠的惊厥只数、惊厥潜伏期及惊厥级数.结果 与NS组相比,R40组惊厥率略降低,但差异无统计学意义;R40组惊厥潜伏期显著延长(P<0.01);罗通定能降低利多卡因致小鼠惊厥的级数.结论 罗通定能拮抗利多卡因致小鼠惊厥作用.

  14. Convulsant and Subconvulsant Doses of Norfloxacin in the Presence and Absence of Biphenylacetic Acid Alter Extracellular Hippocampal Glutamate but Not Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Conscious Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, I.; Gousseau, C.; Marchand, S.; Couet, W.; Ebinger, G.; Michotte, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are antibiotics with central excitatory side effects. These adverse effects presumably result from inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to GABAA receptors. This GABA antagonistic effect is greatly potentiated by the active metabolite of fenbufen, biphenylacetic acid (BPAA). Nevertheless, it remains questionable whether GABA receptor antagonism alone can explain the convulsant activity potentials of these antimicrobial agents. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of norfloxacin, both in the absence and in the presence of BPAA, on the extracellular hippocampal levels of GABA and glutamate, the main central inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, respectively. This in vivo microdialysis approach with conscious rats allows monitoring of behavioral alterations and concomitant transmitter modulation in the hippocampus. Peroral administration of 100 mg of BPAA per kg of body weight had no effect on behavior and did not significantly alter extracellular GABA or glutamate concentrations. Intravenous perfusion of 300 mg of norfloxacin per kg did not change the rat's behavior or the concomitant neurotransmitter levels in about half of the experiments, while the remaining animals exhibited severe seizures. These norfloxacin-induced convulsions did not affect extracellular hippocampal GABA levels but were accompanied by enhanced glutamate concentrations. Half of the rats receiving both 100 mg of BPAA per kg and 50 mg of norfloxacin per kg displayed lethal seizures, while the remaining animals showed no seizure-related behavior. In the latter subgroup, again no significant alterations in extracellular GABA levels were observed, but glutamate overflow remained significantly elevated for at least 3 h. In conclusion, norfloxacin exerts convulsant activity in rats, accompanied by elevations of extracellular hippocampal glutamate levels but not GABA levels, even in the presence of BPAA. PMID:11796360

  15. Effects of acrous gramimeus and its main component alpha-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold of immature rats to electric stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin Yang; Shulei Li; Yuhong Wang; Yanzhi Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine acrous gramimeus is the dry rhizome of Acrous gramimeus Soland, a kind of Araceae familial perennial herb, which has a sedation action, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic effect. Its effective component has not been known yet, and α-asarone, the major component of the volatile oil extracted from acrous gramineus, has been supposed to play a necessary role in it.OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of acrous gramimeu and α-asarone on the reactivity and convulsive threshold to electric stimulation in immature rats, furthermore, attempt to definitize the anticonvulsant effect of α-asarone.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTINGS: Department of Pediatrics, First Hospital of Jilin University; Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences of Jilin University; Department of Neurology, First Clinical Hospital affiliated to Harbin Medical University; Department of Internal Medicine, Children's Hospital of Changchun City.MATERIALS: Seventy 3-week immature Wistar rats (either males or females) of 34-40 g were used. Acrous gramimeu (1 g/bag, the content of α-asarone was 0.046 26%-0.070 16%) with the batch number of 0307113was provided by Tianjiang Medicine Company Limited, Jiangyin City. Α-asarone tablet (60 mg per tablet) with the batch number of 030219 was provided by Tianwei Pharmaceutical Factory, Shenyang City. Α-asarone injectable preparation (2 mL per piece) with the batch number of 030105 was provided by Shuanghe Medicine Limited Company, Beijing City.METHODS:The experiments were carried out in the Neurological Laboratory of the First Hospital of Jilin University between August and October in 2004. ① The 70 rats were randomly divided into intragastric subset and intraperitoneal subset. The intragastric subset included four groups of control, phenobarbital sodium,acrous gramimeu and α-asarone; the intraperitoneal subset included three groups of control, phenobarbital sodium and

  16. 210例小儿急诊惊厥病因分析%Pathogeny analysis of 210 pediatric convulsions cases in emergency treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永强; 苏艳琦

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿急诊惊厥的病因,为急诊儿科提供诊断思路.方法 采用回顾性分析法,收集210例惊厥患儿的临床资料,并根据病史、性别、初发年龄、脑脊液、脑电图、体温、影像学检查等进行分析.结果 210例患儿中,不伴发热48例(22.86%),伴发热162例(77.14%);伴咳嗽、流涕137例(65.24%),伴腹泻、呕吐26例(12.38%),意识障碍或昏迷12例(5.71%),反复惊厥发作并智力发育迟缓7例(3.33%),惊厥持续状态4例(1.90%),既往已确诊癫痫3例(1.43%).体格检查神经系统阳性体征51例(24.29%).对27例伴有意识障碍疑似颅内感染的患儿进行脑脊液检查,发现其中有8例出现异常;对55例白细胞明显增加的患儿进行血培养检查,发现其中有9例出现细菌生长;对113例患儿进行脑电图检查,发现有61例患儿出现异常.64例患儿行头颅CT检查,9例异常,分别为颅内出血6例、脑干多发低密度灶1例、脑室增宽1例、颅内占位病变1例.210例患儿中最常见症状为热性惊厥、癫痫和颅内感染.其中,1~28 d新生儿惊厥多为颅内出血所致;28 d~3岁婴幼儿期惊厥病因主要为热性惊厥,其次为癫痫和颅内感染;3~6岁学龄前儿童的惊厥仍以热性惊厥为主;>6岁后,病因则以癫痫为主.结论 因儿童发生惊厥的病因呈多样化、复杂化,在对患儿的惊厥病因进行确诊时,不仅需根据患儿的过往病史、年龄段等进行辅助分析,更需要应用诸如头颅CT、脑电图等辅助检查工具,以达到快速确诊、及早治疗、预防复发和减轻患儿脑损伤、杜绝患儿后遗症发生的效果.%Objective To investigate pathogeny of pediatric convulsions in emergency treatment, and to provide diagnosis basis for pediatric emergency treatment.Methods A retrospective analysis was made on clinical data of 210 children with convulsions, along with their medical history, gender, onset age, cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram, body

  17. Benign infantile convulsions (IC) and subsequent paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) in a patient with 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Axel; Köhler, Angelika; Hahn, Andreas; Neubauer, Bernd; Müller, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is caused by mutations in the gene PRRT2 located in 16p11.2. A deletion syndrome 16p11.2 is well established and is characterized by intellectual disability, speech delay, and autism. PKD/IC, however, is extremely rare in this syndrome. We describe a case of PKD/IC and 16p11.2 deletion syndrome and discuss modifiers of PRRT2 activity to explain the rare concurrence of both syndromes.

  18. The Emperor Dom Pedro II: his convulsive seizures when a boy O imperador Dom Pedro II: as suas crises convulsivas quando menino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dom Pedro II, the Prince Heir and Emperor under regency, in a delicate period of the construction of the Brazilian nation, had convulsive seizures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the convulsive seizures and related syndromes of Dom Pedro II and his family, besides the physicians in charge of the health care. METHOD: Narrative review based on primary and secondary sources. CONCLUSION: The scattered and self-limited convulsive seizures associated with physical and mental integrity favored a benign prognosis. Dom Pedro and his family presented rich history of epileptic seizures and febrile convulsion. This variety resembles the diagnosis of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus that seems to be a combination of several syndromes with shared genetic susceptibility.INTRODUÇÃO: Dom Pedro, o príncipe herdeiro e imperador sob regência, em período delicado da formação da nação brasileira, apresentou crises convulsivas que geraram preocupação para o país. OBJETIVO: Investigar a história da epilepsia de Dom Pedro II e da sua família e procurar identificar quais tipos de crises epilépticas estavam presentes, além dos médicos envolvidos com os cuidados de saúde. MÉTODO: Revisão narrativa baseada em fontes primárias e secundárias. CONCLUSÃO: As crises convulsivas esparsas e auto-limitadas associadas a higidez física e mental de Dom Pedro II sugerem um prognóstico benigno. A história de epilepsia idiopática e convulsões febris no imperador e em outros membros da sua família aponta para o diagnóstico mais provável de Epilepsia Generalizada com Convulsões Febris Plus que é determinada por uma combinação de alguns tipos de manifestações epilépticas com suscetibilidade genética compartilhada.

  19. Effect of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside isolated from Eucommia ulmoides male flowers on spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yang, Lipeng; Liu, Shaoyang; Fei, Dongqing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuxian

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside on the neural system. Quercetin-3-O-sambubioside is a monomeric compound found in Eucommia ulmoides male flowers from which it was extracted using a system solvent method. In the experiments, spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice were recorded, and quercetin-3-O-sambubioside shows eminent effects similar to nikethamide on increasing spontaneous activity and stimulating the nerve center to enhance excitement. These findings are indicative of the powerful ability of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside to promote the stimulation of the nerve center.

  20. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15-24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs.

  1. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ABOUT CHANGES OF MYOCARDIAL ENZYME IN 62 CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE CONVULSION%62例小儿热性惊厥心肌酶谱变化临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任莉英; 陈颖; 石霖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过对热性惊厥患儿抽搐后心肌酶谱的检测,探讨热性惊厥对心肌的损害.[方法]对2008年10月~2010年10月收治的62例急性上呼吸道感染致热性惊厥患儿进行心肌酶谱检测.[结果]观察组血清肌酸激酶同工酶(c reatine kinase-MB,CK-MB)、肌酸激酶(creatine k inase,CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(lac tare dehydrogenase,LDH)较对照组升高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).[结论]热性惊厥患儿抽搐时会引起心肌受损.治疗热性惊厥患儿时要注意保护心肌,有助于患儿早日康复.%[Objective] Through the detection of myocardial enzymes of children with febrile convulsion after convulsion, to investigate the myocardial damage. [Methods] From October 2008-October 2010, myocardial enzymes of 62 children with febrile convulsion admitted in because of acute upper respiratory tract infection were detected. [ Results] The serum levels of creatine kinase (c reatine kinase-MB, CK-MB) , creatine kinase (creatine k inase, CK) , lactate dehydrogenase (lac tate dehydrogenase, LDH) were higher than those in control group, there was a significant difference (P < 0.01). [Conclusion] The convulsions in children with febrile convulsion may cause myocardial damage. When treating febrile convulsion children, it should pay attention to the pmtection of the cardiac muscle, which helps children to recovery early.

  2. 小儿高热惊厥的治疗及护理%The Nursing and Treatment of Children With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿高热惊厥的原因及主要表现,实施有效的护理,在医护紧密配合下获得满意的效果。方法回顾性分析我院接诊的14例高热惊厥患儿的临床资料。结果经及时止惊,降温,保持呼吸道通畅,吸氧,加强监护等综合治疗,患儿均转为为安。结论及时迅速控制惊厥,降温,加强护理,降低高热惊厥患儿的意外伤害率,减少惊厥的复发。%Objective To explore the causes and the main performance of high fever convulsion in children, and implement effective nursing care to obtain satisfactory results in close cooperation with medical care.Methods Retrospective analyzed of 14 cases of febrile convulsion in children in our hospital.Results The patients were treated with the combined therapy of respiratory tract, keeping the respiratory tract unobstructed, oxygen inhalation, strengthening the monitoring, et al, all of them were safe. Conclusion Prompt control of seizures, cooling, enhanced care, reduce the rate of accidental injury in children with high fever and recurrence of seizures.

  3. 热性惊厥患儿高血糖的护理对策%Nursing countermeasures for febrile convulsion children with hyperglycemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 吴国红; 滕云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the change of blood glucose level in children with febrile convulsion and propose appropriate nursing countermeasures. Methods Febrile convulsion children with hyperglycemia were conducted with basic nursing, and meanwhile the hyperglycemia level was regulated by targeted nursing. Results After the application of targeted nursing, all the children's blood glucose levels return to normal level within 48 hours after hospitalization. Conclusion Targeted nursing can timely correct hyperglycemia and alleviate damage of brain tissue and other vital organs caused by hyperglycemia.%目的 探讨热性惊厥患儿血糖水平的变化并提出相应的护理对策.方法 对伴有高血糖的热性惊厥患儿进行基础护理的同时,对其高血糖也进行针对性护理.结果 对伴高血糖热性惊厥患儿进行针对性护理后,人院48 h内患儿血糖全部恢复正常水平.结论 针对性护理可及时纠正高血糖,减轻高血糖造成的脑组织和其他重要器官的损害.

  4. Studies on the potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of quinolinic acid in rats with altered blood-brain barrier permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzani, A.; Stasi, M.A.; Wu, H.Q.; Castiglioni, M.; Weckermann, B.; Samanin, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano (Italy))

    1989-10-01

    Intravenous injection of 450 mg/kg quinolinic acid (Quin), an endogenous kynurenine metabolite with excitotoxic properties, induced only minor electroencephalographic (EEG) modifications and no neurotoxicity in rats with a mature blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB permeability was altered in rats by focal unilateral irradiation of the cortex (7 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth) with protons (60 Gy, 9 Gy/min). Three days after irradiation, Evans blue dye staining showed BBB breakdown in the dorsal hippocampus of the irradiated hemisphere. No neurotoxic or convulsant effects were observed as a consequence of the radiation itself. When BBB-lesioned rats were challenged with 225 mg/kg Quin iv, epileptiform activity was observed on EEG analysis. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by 225-450 mg/kg Quin. Light microscopic analysis showed a dose-related excitotoxic type of lesion restricted to the hippocampus ipsilateral to the irradiated side. Neuro-degeneration was prevented by local injection of 120 nmol D(-)2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. No lesions or EEG or behavioral modifications occurred after 450 mg/kg nicotinic acid, an inactive analog of Quin. The potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of Quin under conditions of altered BBB permeability are discussed.

  5. 热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血的关系%Heat Convulsions and the Relationship Between iron Deficiency Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清波; 付瑶; 张高坤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between thermal convulsions with iron deficiency anemia. Methods To detect hospital from June 2010 to August 2010 of hot sex of 104 cases of children with convulsions, red blood hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cellcount (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood volume (MCV), serum iron (SI), and with the same period 98 cases of children with respiratory tract, intestinal infection without convulsion as the control group, analyzes the results. Results The incidence of anemia eclampsia group was obviously higher than that of control group, and more for smal cellanemia. Conclusion Children with fever convulsion and has close relation with the serum iron, one of the reasons for hot seizures for iron deficiency anemia. 6 months to 5 years old children, the brain's arousal system and control the balance of the system is in unstable state, under the interference of external factors, prone to seizures. Many clinical data demonstrate hot the occurrence of convulsion and disorder of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine increasing.%目的:探讨小儿热性惊厥与缺铁性贫血之间的关系。方法检测院2010年6月~2012年8月的热性惊厥患儿104例的红细胞平均血红蛋白的含量(MCHC)、红细胞平均血红蛋白(MCH)、红细胞计数(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞平均容积(MCV)、血清铁含量(SI),并以同期98例呼吸道、肠道感染而无惊厥患儿为对照组,分析其结果。结果惊厥组贫血发生率明显高于对照组,并且多为小细胞性贫血。结论小儿热性惊厥与血清铁有着密切的关系,引起热性惊厥的原因之一为缺铁性贫血。6个月~5周岁儿童,大脑的兴奋系统和抑制系统的平衡处于不稳定状态,在外界因素的干扰下,易发生惊厥。许多临床资料证明热性惊厥的发生和神经介质失调如5-羟色胺、多巴胺的增多有关。

  6. Cause Analysis and Nursing Strategy of Pediatric Burn Complicated with Convulsion%小儿烧伤并发惊厥的原因分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章红英; 邵蕴慧; 王冬蕾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the related factors of pediatric burn complicated with convulsion so as to put forward the nursing intervention measures. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data and nursing intervention in 17 cases of pediatric burn and convulsion. Results Hyperthermia, hyponatremia, cerebral edema and hypocalcemia were the major causes for convulsion after pediatric burn. Of all the cases, hyperthermia induced convulsion occurred in 9 cases, hyponatremia-induced convulsion in 5,cerebral edema induced convulsion in 2,and hypocalcemia-induced convulsion in 1. Using sedatives,oxygen, cooling, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and correcting water treatment, the convulsion was controlled within 1 min in 15 cases and within 2~5 min in 2 cases. With the remission of convulsion,the children were observed with no neurological symptoms and signs. All the 17 childrens were cured and discharged, which was followed up for 1 year without recurrence of convulsion and brain sequelae. Conclusion The occurrence of convulsions can be effectively prevented or reduced by correctly handling the wound, infection control, prevention of febrile,timely and reasonable infusion,prevention and treatment of shock, correcting water,electrolyte disturbance; prevention of cerebral edema.%目的 分析探讨小儿烧伤后惊厥的原因,以期提出相应的护理干预措施.方法 回顾性分析17例小儿烧伤后发生惊厥的临床资料和护理措施.结果 高热、低钠血症、脑水肿、低钙血症是小儿烧伤后发生惊厥的主要因素.其中,高热致惊厥9例,低钠血症引起惊厥5例,脑水肿引起惊厥2例,低钙血症引起惊厥1例.患儿经使用镇静剂、吸氧、降温、脱水、纠正水和电解质紊乱等治疗护理后,惊厥在1 min内控制的有15例,在2~5 min内控制的有2例;惊厥缓解后,患儿无神经系统症状和体征.17例患儿均治愈出院,随访1年无再发惊厥

  7. Fever,poor response, convulsions, and hepatomegaly%发热,反应差,抽搐,肝大

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱乔乔; 刘智胜; 张芙蓉; 李瑞珍; 王宝香

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differential diagnosis of Reye syndrome and the characteristics of primary carnitine deficiency,and to provide diagnostic strategy for similar cases.Methods There was a case presented with fever,poor response,convulsions and hepatomegaly hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital,and the clinical manifestations were described,the physical examination was comprehensively conducted,the auxiliary examination results were recorded,some pediatric specialists from ICU,neurology department,genetic metabolic department,digestive system department were invited to discuss the case.The treatment was adjusted according to the suggested opinions;the treatment effects and the final diagnosis were tracked.Results The primary diagnosis of the case was central nervous system infection or toxic encephalopathy at the time of admission,but Reye syndrome could not be excluded.Although the cerebrospinal fluid test and brain MRI examination detected nothing abnormal,liver function suggested alanine aminotrans ferase ALT increase,blood sugar decrease,the liver volume increase,which was detected by liver ultrasound.Blood amino acids examination revealed the carnitine level decreased,and it was confirmed as primary carnitine deficiency in the end.L-carnitine was used to treat the disease,and its effect was good.Conclusions Great importance should be attached to children with onset age,physical check-up,and multidisciplinary cooperation.Use monism to explain the illness and the auxiliary inspection as far as possible,so that it can get early diagnosis and treatment,and the outcome is good.%目的 探讨瑞氏综合征的鉴别诊断及原发性肉碱缺乏症特点,并为类似病例提供诊断思路.方法 对武汉市儿童医院收治的1例临床表现为发热、反应差、抽搐、肝脏增大的患儿,总结其临床表现,全面进行体格检查,记录其辅助检查结果,并请小儿重症医学科、神经内科、遗传代谢科、消化内科专

  8. The clinical significance of testing serum calcium and sodium in children with febrile convulsion%热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Serum calcium and sodium concentration in children with febrile convulsion and its significance.Methods:Detect the serum calcium and sodium levels using automatic biochemical analyzer in 76 cases of children with febrile convulsion and 69 cases of the control group with fever,and compared it.Results:Serum calcium and sodium in febrile convulsion group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Children with febrile convulsion is in low calcium and low blood sodium.Reciprocal causation between febrile convulsion and low calcium and low sodium.For the treatment of febrile seizure,we should pay attention to correct the low calcium hyponatremia in addition to conventional anti convulsion and cooling,in order to prevent repeated attack of convulsion,and alleviate the damage on brain and other important organs.%目的:探讨热性惊厥患儿血清钙、钠浓度变化及其意义。方法:采用全自动生化测定仪检测76例热性惊厥患儿和对照组69例发热患儿的血清钙、钠水平,并进行比较分析。结果:热性惊厥组血清钙、钠明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:热性惊厥患儿存在低血钙、低血钠。热性惊厥与低钙、低钠之间互为因果,针对热性惊厥治疗时除常规止惊、降温外应注意纠正低钙低钠血症,预防惊厥反复发作,减轻脑组织和其他重要脏器的损害。

  9. Study on prognosis status and its influential factors in children with febrile convulsion%高热惊厥小儿预后现状和影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建军; 杨毅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高热惊厥小儿预后现状和影响因素.方法 采用自编问卷收集2010年8月~2011年8月在湖南省永州市祁阳县人民医院儿科住院治疗的43例高热惊厥患儿临床资料.结果 在本研究入选的43例患儿中,35例患儿预后良好,预后良好率为81.40%,而预后不良率为18.60%,多因素Logistic回归分析发现初次发作年龄<1岁,高热惊厥持续时间≥15 min、高热惊厥次数≥2次和脑电图异常是高热惊厥患儿预后差危险因素.结论 高热惊厥患儿总体预后欠佳,预后影响因素较多,在对高热惊厥进行治疗的过程中,积极治疗高热惊厥,发作时尽可能在最短时间内止痉,改善患儿的预后.%Objective To investigate the prognosis status and its influential factors in children with febrile convulsion. Methods Clinical data of 43 children with febrile convulsion who were treated in the Department of Pediatric in the People's Hospital of Qiyang County in Yongzhou City, Hu'nan Province, from August 2010 to August 2011 were collected by self-made questionnaire. Results 43 children with febrile convulsion were favorable prognosis, the good prognosis rate was 81.40%, the bad prognosis rate was 18.60%, binary classification logistic regression analysis showed that first onset age <1 year old, febrile convulsion duration ≥15 min, febrile convulsion number ≥2 and electroencephalography abnormality were risk factors. Conclusion The prognosis status of children with febrile convulsion was bad. It is affected by various factors. We should give positive treatment and control attack as soon as possible to improve the prognosis of children with febrile convulsion.

  10. 咪达唑仑在窒息后惊厥新生儿中的应用%Application of midazolam in convulsion newborn after asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫; 杨志雄

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the anticonvulsant action of midazolam in perinatal severe asphyxia.Methods:21 cases of convulsion newborns after severe asphyxia were selected.They were randomly divided into the experimental group with 11 cases and the control group with 10 cases.The experimental group was given midazolam treatment,and the control group was given phenobarbital treatment.The anticonvulsant effects and respiratory inhibition effects of two groups were compared.Results:The anticonvulsant effect of the experimental group was better than that of the control group.There was no respiratory inhibition in the experimental group,and the control group had 1 case of respiratory inhibition.Conclusion:The effect of midazolam in the treatment of convulsion after newborn asphyxia is much better than that of phenobarbital.%目的:探讨咪达唑仑在新生儿重度窒息中抗惊厥作用。方法:收治重度窒息后惊厥新生儿21例,随机分为试验组11例和对照组10例。试验组给予咪达唑仑治疗,对照组给予苯巴比妥治疗。比较两组抗惊厥效果及呼吸抑制作用。结果:试验组抗惊厥效果优于对照组,试验组中未见呼吸抑制,对照组中1例发生呼吸抑制。结论:咪达唑仑在新生儿窒息后惊厥治疗中效果明显优于苯巴比妥。

  11. RDX Binds to the GABAA Receptor–Convulsant Site and Blocks GABAA Receptor–Mediated Currents in the Amygdala: A Mechanism for RDX-Induced Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Larry R.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Qashu, Felicia; Finne, Huckelberry; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Bannon, Desmond I.; Braga, Maria F. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high-energy, trinitrated cyclic compound that has been used worldwide since World War II as an explosive in both military and civilian applications. RDX can be released in the environment by way of waste streams generated during the manufacture, use, and disposal of RDX-containing munitions and can leach into groundwater from unexploded munitions found on training ranges. For > 60 years, it has been known that exposure to high doses of RDX causes generalized seizures, but the mechanism has remained unknown. Objective We investigated the mechanism by which RDX induces seizures. Methods and results By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) ionophore. Whole-cell in vitro recordings in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) showed that RDX reduces the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous GABAA receptor–mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents and the amplitude of GABA-evoked postsynaptic currents. In extracellular field recordings from the BLA, RDX induced prolonged, seizure-like neuronal discharges. Conclusions These results suggest that binding to the GABAA receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. Knowledge of the molecular site and the mechanism of RDX action with respect to seizure induction can guide therapeutic strategies, allow more accurate development of safe thresholds for exposures, and help prevent the development of new explosives or other munitions that could pose similar health risks. PMID:21362589

  12. Low distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2A and synaptotagimin-1 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of spontaneously epileptic rats exhibiting both tonic convulsion and absence seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaya, R; Hosoyama, H; Sugata, S; Tokudome, M; Hirano, H; Tokimura, H; Kurisu, K; Serikawa, T; Sasa, M; Arita, K

    2012-09-27

    The spontaneously epileptic rat (SER) is a double mutant (zi/zi, tm/tm) which begins to exhibit tonic convulsions and absence seizures after 6 weeks of age, and repetitive tonic seizures over time induce sclerosis-like changes in SER hippocampus with high brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Levetiracetam, which binds to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), inhibited both tonic convulsions and absence seizures in SERs. We studied SER brains histologically and immunohistochemically after verification by electroencephalography (EEG), as SERs exhibit seizure-related alterations in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. SERs did not show interictal abnormal spikes and slow waves typical of focal epilepsy or symptomatic generalized epilepsy. The difference in neuronal density of the cerebral cortex was insignificant between SER and Wistar rats, and apoptotic neurons did not appear in SERs. BDNF distributions portrayed higher values in the entorhinal and piriform cortices which would relate with hippocampal sclerosis-like changes. Similar synaptophysin expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was found in both animals. Low and diffuse SV2A distribution portrayed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SERs was significantly less than that of all cerebral lobes and inner molecular layer (IML) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of Wistar rats. The extent of low SV2A expression/distribution in SERs was particularly remarkable in the frontal (51% of control) and entorhinal cortices (47%). Lower synaptotagmin-1 expression (vs Wistar rats) was located in the frontal (31%), piriform (13%) and entorhinal (39%) cortices, and IML of the DG (38%) in SER. Focal low distribution of synaptotagmin-1 accompanying low SV2A expression may contribute to epileptogenesis and seizure propagation in SER.

  13. Electromagnetic Field Modeling of Transcranial Electric and Magnetic Stimulation: Targeting, Individualization, and Safety of Convulsive and Subconvulsive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-De

    inform dosage requirements in convulsive therapies. Our results indicate that the MST electric field is more focal and more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. Further, the conventional ECT current amplitude is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. One of the factors important to clinical outcome is seizure expression. However, it is unknown how the induced electric field is related to seizure onset and propagation. In this work, we explore the effect of the electric field distribution on the quantitative ictal electroencephalography and current source density in ECT and MST. We further demonstrate how the ECT electrode shape, size, spacing, and current can be manipulated to yield more precise control of the induced electric field. If desirable, ECT can be made as focal as MST while using simpler stimulation equipment. Next, we demonstrate how the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be controlled. We present the most comprehensive comparison of TMS coil electric field penetration and focality to date. The electric field distributions of more than 50 TMS coils were simulated. We show that TMS coils differ markedly in their electric field characteristics, but they all are subject to a consistent depth-focality tradeoff. Specifically, the ability to directly stimulate deeper brain structures is obtained at the expense of inducing wider electric field spread. Figure-8 type coils are fundamentally more focal compared to circular type coils. Understanding the depth-focality tradeoff can help researchers and clinicians to appropriately select coils and interpret TMS studies. This work also enables the development of novel TMS coils with electronically switchable active and sham modes as well as for deep TMS. Design considerations of these coils are extensively discussed. Part II of the dissertation aims to quantify the effect of individual, sex, and age differences in head geometry and conductivity on the induced

  14. 242例不同来源高热惊厥患儿电解质水平比较分析%Electrolyte Levels Comparative Analysis of 242 Cases of Febrile Convulsion Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋生; 徐昀; 陈玉勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the correlatlonshlp of seruifi electrolyte levels and convulsion from children of dif ferent sources Methods Selected 242 cases hyperpyrexia children aged 13 years,the an seruifi electrolyte levels are compared in simple Febrile Convulsions children group and Febrile non convulsion children group;The mean serum ion ized calcium levels are compared in urban source children group and migrant workers Source group;The convulsions in cidence were compared of urban source children group and migrant workers Source group Results The mean setuifi I onized calcium levels of simple Febrile Convulsions children group (n=130)lower than Febrile non convulsion children group(112 cases)(P<0.05);The mean setuifi ionized calcium levels in migrant workers Source group(143 cases)lower than urban source children group(P<0.05);The incidence of Febrile Convulsions was no significant difference (P>0.05)between urban source children group and migrant workers Source group.Conclusion Hypocalcaemia is a risk factor for the occurrence of simple Febrile Convulsions It should be actively promoted the development of commu nity medical and scientific upbringing and supervision to ensure the reduction of convulsions incidence both of urban source and migrant workers Source children.%目的 观察不同来源的高热患儿血清钙、钠、钾、氯离子的水平与发生惊厥的关系.方法 选择242例1-3岁高热患儿,采集动脉血,应用干化学式血气电解质分析系统进行血气分析.按照单纯性高热惊厥患儿以及高热无惊厥患儿进行分组,比较平均血清离子水平;按照患儿来源于城市或外来务工人员进行分组,比较患儿平均血清离子钙水平,并比较惊厥发生率.结果 高热惊厥患儿血清钙离子水平显著低于高热无惊厥患儿血清离子钙水平(P0.05).结论 低钙是发生高热惊厥的危险因素,对于来源于城市及外来务工人员的儿童,均应积极倡导合理补钙并发

  15. Clinical Exploration of Factors Related to Recurrence of Febrile Convulsion in Children%小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素的临床探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the factors related to the recurrence of febrile convulsion in children. Methods:Select 6 9 cases of child patient in relapse of febrile convulsion as the treatment group and 6 9 cases of concurrent non-recurrent child patient as the control group.Compare their differences on gender ,age,the condition and temperature when convulsion recurs,anomalies during perinatal period ,family history, weight,preictal complications and otherwise.Results:Compare some of the factors of the patients in the two groups,the number of male,age,weight,convulsion times,EEG anomaly,convulsion duration,family his-tory and complications and other factors in treatment group was found to be obviously different from that in the control group,P0.05.Conclusion:The recurrence rate of febrile convulsion is quite high,some may even transform to epilepsia,scientific and effective measures would prevent sequela in nervous system and lower the recurrence effectively.%目的::对小儿热性惊厥复发相关因素进行研究分析。方法:从某院小儿热性惊厥复发患者中选取69例为治疗组,选取同期没有复发的69例小儿热性惊厥患者为对照组,对比分析两组患者在性别、年龄、惊厥发作情况、体温、围生期异常、家族史、体重和发作前合并症等因素之间的差异性。结果:对比两组患者部分因素,治疗组患者男性比率、年龄、体温、惊厥次数、复杂型、脑电图异常、惊厥发作时间、家族史和合并症等因素同对照组患者间存在显著差异性,P0.05。结论:热性惊厥疾病具有较高复发率,部分患者会转化为癫痫,科学有效的处理措施可有效避免患者出现神经系统后遗症,降低患者出现复发现象发生率。

  16. 236例高热惊厥患儿的血清钠分析%236 Cases of Serum Sodium Level Change in Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate influential factors and clinical significance of serum sodium reduction in children with febrile convulsion. Methods To analyze retrospectively the serum sodium concentration changes in children with febrile convulsion.Results In 236 cases,girls (90/236) serum sodium values for (135.97 ±3.04) mmol/L,boys(146/236) serum sodium values for (134.55±3.57) mmol/L,P=0.002,31.11% of the girls (28/90) had lower serum sodium,54.11% of the boy (79/146) had lower serum sodium,χ2=11.883,P=0.001;twitching time ranging from 30 seconds to 20 minutes,3 minutes,5 minutes and 10 minutes respectively grouped boundaries,in dif erent groups of children serum sodium statistics P>0.05;serum sodium and serum sodium reduction rate was no significant statistical dif erence between children with previous twitching history (89/236) and no twitching history (147/236);in children with having family history (78/236) and no family history (158/236),serum sodium and serum sodium reduction rate was no significant statistical dif erence.Conclusion In children with febrile convulsion,there is often decreased serum sodium,the proportion of reduction with serum sodium is higher in male children;and there is no clear correlation with twitching time,twitching history,family history.%目的:探讨高热惊厥(Fc)患儿发生血清钠降低的影响因素及其临床意义。方法对236例高热惊厥患儿血清钠浓度变化进行回顾分析。结果236病例中,女童(90/236)血钠值为(135.97±3.04) mmol/L,男童(146/236)血钠值为(134.55±3.57) mmol/L, P=0.002,女童中31.11%(28/90)有血清钠降低,男童中54.11%(79/146)有血清钠降低,χ2=11.883,P=0.001;抽搐时间在30s~20min不等,分别以3min、5min及10min为分组界限,不同组别的患儿血清钠统计 P>0.05;既往有抽搐史者(89/236)与无抽搐史者(147/236)血钠值及血钠降低率统计学差异无显著意义;有家族史者(78/236)与无家族史(158/236)血钠

  17. The anti-convulsion effect of verapamil on mice model induced by pentylenetetrazol%维拉帕米抗戊四唑诱导小鼠惊厥的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珣; 柳佳利; 孙浩; 李勤; 刘洋; 林熙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of verapamil on anti-convulsion and provide a new therapeutic method for convulsion. Methods Sixty mice were divided into 3 groups as follow, the blank group, MgSO4 group and experimental group (the low, middle, high dosage of verapamil ). Pentylenetetrazol was intraperitoneally injected into mice after medication to make the model of convulsion. The occurrence time of convulsion, survival time of mice, the incidence rate of convulsion and the mortality of mice were observed. Results Compared with the blank group, either of MgSO4 and verapamil ( low,middle or high dosage) groups had longer occurrence time of convulsion. The group of MgSO4 had significantly longer survival time and lower mortality of mice ( P < 0.01 ). The groups of verapamil ( low,middle or high dosage) had also longer living time of mice ( P < 0.01 ) and the lower mortality in the low and middle dosage groups ( P <0.01 ). Conclusion The low or middle dosages of verapamil had a better curative effect of anticonvulsion in the convulsion model mice induced with pentylenetetrazol, but the high dosage of verapamil was not suitable for the anti-convulsion therapy.%目的 研究维拉帕米抗惊厥的治疗效果,为临床治疗惊厥提供新方法.方法 将实验小鼠60只分为模型对照组、硫酸镁(MgSO)组和实验组(维拉帕米低、中、高剂量组),每组12只.预先给予相应的治疗药物之后,腹腔注射戊四唑制造惊厥模型;造模成功后观察并记录小鼠的惊厥发生时间、存活时间、惊厥发生率和死亡率等.结果 与模型对照组相比,硫酸镁组和维拉帕米各剂量组惊厥发生所需时间均有所增加(P<0.01),硫酸镁组小鼠的存活时间显著延长且死亡率降低(P<0.01);维拉帕米各剂量组小鼠的存活时间延长(P<0.01),低、中剂量组死亡率明显降低(P<0.01).结论 低、中剂量维拉帕米对于戊四唑所致的惊厥模型有较好的疗效;高剂量维拉帕米不宜用于抗惊厥治疗.

  18. The clinical features and follow-up of neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons%病因不明新生儿惊厥的临床特征及随访观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆竹山

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical manifestations and follow-up of the neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons.MethodsThe clinical manifestations and the outcome of 12 patients with the agnogenic neonatal convulsion have been summarized.ResultsAll the patients were full term infants,7 boys,5 girls;The behaviour of convulsion was subtle;The AEEG of 2 patients show interrupted low voltage,the other 10 patients' were normal;The AEEG of all 12 patients were reexamined,3 patients show spike and slow wave,the other 9 patients' were normal;The MRI of 12 patients were normal during in hospital;4 patients' MRI were reexamined,normal;3 patients were diagnosed as epilepsy,One has growth retardation,who was diagnosised methylmalon academia;6 patients had no convulsion after treatment in hospital,At present they developed normally,The convulsion of 3 patients discontinued in 10 weeks after discharge,They had a good follow-up till now.ConclusionBoth epilepsy and benign idiopathic neonatal convulsions was the potential origin of neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons. It is important to follow-up and find reason for the neonatal convulsion with unknown reasons.%目的:探讨病因不明新生儿惊厥的临床特征及转归。方法总结12例病因不明的新生儿惊厥病例的临床特征及随访结果。结果12例患儿均为足月儿,男7例,女5例;惊厥发作以微小型发作为主;2例住院期动态脑电图示间断低电压改变,10例正常;12例均复查动态脑电图,3例出现爆发棘慢波,9例正常;12例住院期颅部MRI均正常,4例复查颅部MRI未见异常;3例随访中诊断为癫痫,其中1例合并发育迟缓,遗传代谢病筛查诊断为甲基丙二酸血症;6例出院后未再抽搐,3例出院10周内未特殊治疗抽搐停止,目前均生长发育良好。结论病因不明新生儿惊厥的潜在原因可能为癫痫、某种遗传代谢病或良性特发性新生儿惊厥等,应加强随访,追

  19. 钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风的疗效%Effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春梅; 刘永信; 禄林; 蒋天秀

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风的疗效。方法:收治小儿急惊风患儿45例,采用钩藤银翘散治疗。结果:服药4~9剂治愈率68.89%。结论:钩藤银翘散治疗风热动风型小儿急惊风疗效显著。%Objective:To investigate the effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type.Methods:45 cases of pediatric acute convulsion were selected,and they were treated by uncaria yinqiaosan. Results:The cure rate was 68.89% after taking the medicine for 4~9 doses.Conclusion:The effect of uncaria yinqiaosan in the treatment of pediatric acute convulsion with wind stirring wind type is significant.

  20. 儿童化脓性脑膜炎急性期惊厥发作62例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 62 cases of convulsion associated with acute purulent meningitis of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁泽淑; 张洁; 杨理明; 江志; 陈波

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性期发生惊厥的化脓性脑膜炎患儿的临床表现、影像学及脑电图(EEG)检查等相关因素分析.方法 回顾性分析本院收治的301例化脓性脑膜炎患儿的临床资料,其中62例出现急性期惊厥发作,分析化脓性脑膜炎急性期发生惊厥的发病率、相关危险因素及转归.结果 化脓性脑膜炎急性期惊厥的发病率为20.60%,部分性发作8例(占12.90%),部分性发作继发全身性发作15例(占24.19%);全身性发作32例(占51.61%)%,惊厥持续状态7例(占11.29%),有惊厥发作组脑电图异常率高于无惊厥发作组(P<0.05),脑器质性损害发生率高于无惊厥发作组(P<0.05).经多因素非条件Logistic回归分析,病因、首发症状、意识障碍、阳性体征及脑脊液培养阳性与惊厥发作为相关因素(P<0.01).结论 化脓性脑膜炎急性期惊厥发作以全面性发作为主,脑器质性损害易继发惊厥发作,惊厥发作与病因、首发症状、意识障碍、阳性体征及脑脊液培养阳性相关,结合临床表现、头颅影像学及EEG异常对本病的诊治及预后评估具有指导意义.%Objective The study was conducted to investigate the acute phase of convulsion related problem on the clinical manifestations,imaging and electroencephalograph (EEG) examination of purulent meningitis.Methods Cluster sampling method was employed to select children in our hospital,a total of 301 cases with purulent meningitis was analyzed retrospectively.Among them,62 cases had convulsion.The incidence of convulsion in the acute phase of the purulent meningitis,risk factors,and prognosis were analyzed.Results The convulsion incidence rate of acute purulent meningitis was 20.60%.The partial seizure was eight cases (12.90%).The secondarily generalized seizure following partial seizure was 15 cases (24.19%).The generalized seizure was 32 cases (51.61%).The convulsive status was 7 cases (11.29%).The EEG

  1. Comparisons of drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono for epilepsy An experiment of determining cortical convulsive threshold in rats undergoing electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Scholars have investigated the differences in drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics between valproate and its sustained-release tablets only from the angle of pharmaceutical sciences or clinical practice.Whether the fact that differences in drug efficacy and time-effect of different doses of valproate and different types of sustained-release valproate tablets at the same concentration can be quantitatively reflected by determining the changes in convulsive threshold pre- and post-administration in rat models of determining the convulsive threshold developed by direct cortical electrical stimulation remains unclear.OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to compare the drug efficacy and time-effect among magnesium valproate,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet and depakine chrono in the treatment of epilepsy by determining the convulsive threshold of rat models created by direct cortical electrical stimulation,and human serum drug concentration before and after administration.DESIGN:A controlled observational experiment.SETTING:Research Institute of Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University.MATERIALS:Adult health male SD rats of clean grade,weighing 200 - 220 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Shanxi Medical University.The protocol was carried out in accordance with requests from Animal Ethics Committees for guidance.Magnesium valproate (Lot No.041004) and sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet (Lot No.050501) were produced in Hunan Xiangzhong Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.METHODS:This study was carried out in the Laboratory for Epilepsy,Shanxi Medical University between June and August 2005.①All the SD rats were created into models for determining cortical convulsive threshold.They were randomly divided into 4 groups with 20 rats in each:magnesium valproate tablet group,sustained-release magnesium valproate tablet group,depakine chrono group and control group.After being modeled,the rats in the first 3 groups were intragastrically administrated with

  2. Adult tonic-clonic convulsive status epilepticus over the last 11 years in a resource-poor country: a tertiary referral centre study from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phabphal, Kanitpong; Geater, Alan; Limapichart, Kitti; Sathirapanya, Pornchai; Setthawatcharawanich, Suwanna

    2013-09-01

    Status epilepticus is a common condition in patients admitted to hospital in resource-poor countries and reports indicate that aetiology, factors of poor outcome, and treatment strategies are variable. To date, there is no report of a prospective study in Thai adults. Herein, we investigated the aetiology, clinical features, factors of predicted poor outcome, and treatment strategies in Thai adult patients who presented with convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 180 patients, whose ages ranged from 15 to 106 years, were included. Of these, 121 patients (67.2%) had acute symptomatic aetiology. The most common aetiology of status epilepticus was encephalitis (36.1%), followed by scarring of the cerebral hemisphere (15%). The median duration of status epilepticus before treatment was three hours. The rate of mortality in the study was 26.7%. Poor outcome was identified in 112 (62.2%) patients. For referral patients, all received only intravenous drugs before referral. The variables that correlated with poor outcome were aetiology and duration of status epilepticus. An approach to incorporate improved prevention of encephalitis, a more effective transportation system, and provision of the essential intravenous antiepileptic drugs would effectively increase the response to treatment.

  3. 综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿进行的护理效果观察%Observation of nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利霞; 黄电芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨综合护理干预对高热惊厥患儿的护理效果。方法60例高热惊厥患儿采用随机数字表法分为对照组与试验组,每组30例。对照组采用常规护理方法,试验组采用综合护理干预,观察比较两组患儿护理后的临床效果。结果试验组患儿惊厥复发率3.33%明显低于对照的30.00%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高热惊厥患儿进行综合护理干预后,惊厥复发率明显降低,可显著提高护理质量,促进患儿恢复健康,安全可靠,值得临床推广应用。%Objcetive To investigate the nursing effect by comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion. Methods A total of 60 children with febrile convulsion were divided by random number table into control group and experimental group, and each group contained 30 cases. The control group received conventional nursing method, and the experimental group received comprehensive nursing intervention. Clinical effects were observed and compared between the two groups after nursing. Results The relapse rate of convulsion was 3.33%in the experimental group, and that was obviously lower than 30.00%of the control group. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Implememt of comprehensive nursing intervention for children with febrile convulsion can remarkably decrease relapse rate of convulsion, improve nursing quality and promote children’s rehabilitation. This method is safe and reliable, and it is worth clinical promotion and application.

  4. The effect of magnesium sulfate on the convulsion and mortality rate in lidocaine-poisoned mice%硫酸镁对利多卡因中毒小鼠惊厥和死亡率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱有波; 杨拯; 袁梦郎

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Using the model of seizure induced by lidocaine hydrochloride to investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on the convulsions and mortality rate of mice with lidocaine poisoning. METHODS 210 Kunming mice weighing 18-25g were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group, 50mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 100mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 200mg/kg magnesium sulfate, 400mg/kg magnesium sulfate group, 42 mice in each group, and received intraperitoneal injections of magnesium sulfate of four different doses or the same volume of normal saline, respectively. 15 minutes later, all the mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/kg lidocaine hydrochloride, convulsion latency, duration, seizures incidence, death time and mortality in mice were observed. RESULTS ① Compared with control group, magnesium sulfate extended incubation period of lidocaine induced convulsions, shortened the duration of convulsions induced by lidocaine, extended the time of death of lidocaine induced convulsions. ② Magnesium sulfate could reduce the incidence of seizures induced by lidocaine, 200 and 400mg/kg magnesium group compared with the control group, the incidence of lidocaine induced convulsions had significant differences (P<0.05); could reduce mortality of convulsions induced by lidocaine, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg magnesium group compared with the control group, lidocaine induced convulsions were significant differences in mortality (P < 0.01, P< 0.05). ③ Magnesium sulfate could reduce the intensity convulsions caused by lidocaine. Increased with the dose of magnesium sulfate, the level of induced convulsions by lidocaine decreased. CONCLUSION In this experimental condition, magnesium sulfate could be antagonized by convulsive effects of lidocaine to reduce the toxicity of lidocaine.%目的 应用盐酸利多卡因致小鼠中毒惊厥模型,探讨硫酸镁对利多卡因中毒小鼠惊厥和死亡率的影响.方法 210只昆明小鼠,体重18~25 g,按照

  5. Etiological Analysis and Curative Effect Observation of Emergency Convul-sions in Children%小儿急诊惊厥病因分析及疗效探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨小儿急诊惊厥病因及其治疗效果。方法整群选取于2014年9月—2015年9月在该院接受治疗的惊厥患儿共110例。了解患者疾病的相关信息,并对患者进行辅助检查,针对病因实施针对性治疗。观察小儿的惊厥病因及其治疗方法。结果惊厥病因分析中,热性惊厥占53.6%,癫痫占20.9%,颅内感染占8.2%。其中,新生儿以低血糖为主,婴幼儿与6岁以下小儿以热性惊厥为主,6岁以上小儿以癫痫为主;治疗总有效率为97.3%,不良反应率为1.8%。结论小儿急诊惊厥的病因复杂,以热性惊厥最为常见。临床治疗中,选择必要的辅助检查手段,并进行对症治疗,能够预防疾病复发,保障小儿生命安全。%Objective To discuss the etiology and treatment effect of emergency convulsions in children. Methods 110 cas-es of children with convulsions treated in our hospital from September 2014 to September 2015 were selected, the related information of the patient’s disease was known, the patients were given accessory examination, targeted treatment were im-plemented according to the etiologies, the etiology and treatment method of children were observed. Results The convul-sions etiology analysis showed that febrile convulsion accounted for 53.6%, epilepsia accounted for 20.9%, intracranial in-fection accounted for 8.2%, among them, the neonates were mainly with glucopenia, infants and children less than 6 years old were mainly with febrile convulsion, children more than 6 years old were mainly with epilepsia, the total treatment ef-fective rat e was 97.3%, the adverse reaction rate was 1.8%. Conclusion The etiology of emergency convulsions in children is complex and the febrile convulsion is most common, in clinic treatment, choosing necessary accessory examination means and symptomatic treatment can prevent disease recurrence and ensure the safety of children’s life.

  6. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngugi Anthony K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC. Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE, which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems. We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as ‘gold standard’. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. Results We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18 were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18 in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. Conclusion This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC.

  7. Dom João VI's death: convulsions and coma Morte de Dom João VI: convulsões e coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dom João VI's death occurred in adverse political conditions that led to the regicide hypothesis. The main aim of this paper is to mention life style and conditions of the death of the king by means of narrative review based on primary and secondary sources. Dom João VI died in the way of convulsions and gastrointestinal symptoms. This could be the result of the pathological chain of genetic determination, accentuated by the inappropriate life style, obesity and sedentary habits, and/or poisoning. The finding of arsenic in high doses in his viscera favors the last hypothesis as the basic cause of death, but one can not discard the atherosclerosis predisposing risk factors for a final stroke.A morte de Dom João VI aconteceu em condições políticas adversas que conduziram à hipótese de regicídio. O objetivo principal deste artigo é mencionar o estilo de vida e condições da morte do rei por meio de revisão narrativa baseada em fontes primárias e secundárias. Dom João VI morreu apresentando convulsões e sintomas gastrointestinais. Esse poderia ser o resultado da cadeia patológica de determinação genética, acentuada pelo estilo de vida inapropriado, obesidade e/ou envenenamento. O achado de arsênico em doses altas nas suas vísceras aponta a última hipótese como a causa básica da morte, mas não se pode descartar a aterosclerose como fator de risco predisponente para um acidente vascular cerebral final.

  8. Association between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Febrile Convulsion in 3- to 60-Month-Old Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Habibian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists regarding the association between Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA, iron status, and Febrile Convulsion (FC during childhood. In this article, a systematic review and meta-analysis is conducted in order to determine possible association and the degree of association between these statuses and FC. To identify all studies related to IDA and FC, various references such as MEDLINE (PubMed, Embase (OVID, Web of sciences (Thomson Reuters and Google scholar were searched (up until 15 January 2013. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic, Tau2, and I2. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed. The outcome of primary interest was the overall Odds Ratio (OR of FC for IDA and standard mean differences (SMD of ferritin level. In total, 21 articles were considered to assess the association between IDA and FC. Anemia was more prevalent among the FC patients compared with the controls and the overall OR was 1.52 (95% CI=1.03 to 2.25. In addition, the pooled OR for 17 studies performed in the populations with low and moderate prevalence of anemia was 2.04 (95% CI=1.46 to 2.85. Furthermore, 12 studies assessed the association between the ferritin level and FC. The overall SMD was -0.02 with a 95% CI of -0.09 to 0.06. Besides, the pooled SMD of ferritin was -0.57 (95% CI=-0.7 to -0.46 in 6 studies reporting no difference between the FC and the control group with respect to temperature. IDA was associated with a moderate increased risk of FC in children, particularly in the areas with low and moderate prevalence of anemia.

  9. The effect of calculus bovis cultivated by glucuronidase on anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice%酶促牛黄对小鼠的抗惊厥及抗炎作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵斌; 高允生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of calculus bovis cultivated by glucuronidase (CBCG )on anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice, evaluate the pharmaceutical value of CBCG.Methods ( 1 )Anti-convulsion experiment.Appl ying nikethamide( NTM )-induced convulsion model and maximal electroshock convulsion ( MES ) model to observe the effect of CBCG on anti-convulsion in mice.( 2 )Anti-inflammation experiment.To apply carrageenan( CGN )-induced foot inflammation model in mice and dimethyl benzene( DMB )-induced inflammation model in mice to observe the effect of CBCG on antiinflammation.Results ( 1 )The outcome of anti-convulsion experiment showed that the CBCG and pentobarbital sodium ( PBS ) could prolong the NTM-induced convulsion latent phase in mice, raised the convulsion threshold value of maximal electroshock mice and reduce convulsion cases induced by maximal electroshock( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ).The effect of PBS was better than CBCG( P <0.01 ),no difference was found among different CBCG groups( P >0.05 ).( 2 )The results of anti-inflammatory experiments showed that the CBCG and the aspirin( ASP ) could inhibit DMB-induced ear swell and CGN induced foot swell in mice( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ).The CBCG had dose depend trend against DMB-induced ear swell in mice, the effect was highest in CBCG high-dose group( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ), compared with NS gorup, ASP gorup.NCB group and CBCG group could inhibit foot swell in mice 3 ~5 h after medication( P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ), the effect was highest in NCB and CBCG high-dose group.Conclusion It proved that the CBCG had the effect of anti-convulsion and anti-inflammation in mice.%目的 观察酶促牛黄(CBCG)对小鼠的抗惊厥、抗炎作用,初步评价CBCG的药用价值.方法 (1)抗惊厥实验:分2个子实验,各取50只小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(NS组)、戊巴比妥钠组(PBS组)及CBCG高、中、低剂量组各10只,分别采用尼可刹米和最大电休克法制备小鼠惊厥

  10. Benign Infantile Convulsions with Mild Gastroenteritis:Report of 42 Cases%婴幼儿良性惊厥并轻度胃肠炎42例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 宋元华

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究良性惊厥并轻度胃肠炎(BICE)婴幼儿的临床特征、病因及治疗措施。方法对42例BICE的患儿详细观察记录其住院期间的胃肠炎及惊厥的表现特点。先后用金标法对患儿粪便行轮状病毒抗原,检测血生化(Na+,K+,Ca2+,Cl-,HCO-),跟踪随访半年以上。结果本病患儿胃肠症状多较轻微,无脱水或仅有轻度脱水;惊厥多为成簇发作;血生化(Na+,K+,Ca2+,Cl-,HCO-)正常或基本正常;脑脊液及头颅影像学检查正常;发作间期脑电图9例(21.4%)于中央中线或中央区或额区见少量痫样放电,1例中央中线及顶区见痫样波发放,其他32例正常或睡眠时背景活动稍差。轮状病毒抗原:粪便阳性23例。苯巴比妥预防性肌内注射1次后惊厥再发率为79.2%。结论婴幼儿BICE消化系统表现轻,惊厥往往成簇发作。巴比妥肌内注射对惊厥镇痉作用不明显,BICE后遗癫痫的概率很小。%Objective To study the benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICE) clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment of infants and young children.Methods 42 cases of BICE patients with observed features recorded gastroenteritis and convulsions during their hospital stay. The blood biochemical(Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO-) of the stool rotavirus antigen of the children were detected by gold standard method, followed up for more than half year.Results The disease of children gastrointestinal symptoms more mild, no dehydration or only mild dehydration; convulsions clustered children;serum(Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO-) normal or nearly normal; of cerebrospinal lfuid and brain imaging examination was normal; seizure interictal EEG in 9 cases (21.4%) in the central line or central or frontal region to see a small amount of epileptiform discharge, 1 case medial and apical area see epileptiform wave distribution, the other 32 cases normal or sleep background activity slightly

  11. 轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥264例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 264 cases of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远达; 冀超玉; 李荣敏; 张小龙; 张瑜; 董青伟; 韩立坡

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥(BICE)复发以及转化为癫痫的可能危险因素。方法将264例BICE患儿按惊厥发生次数分为单次组134例(惊厥1次),多发组130例(惊厥次数≥2次);按惊厥持续时间分为,短时组186例(惊厥持续时间<5 min),长时组78例(惊厥时间≥5 min),分析其住院及随访资料。结果多发组有9.23%复发,6.15%转化为癫痫;单次组有2.99%复发,0.75%转化为癫痫,两组间复发及转化为癫痫比例的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。长时组有12.82%复发,8.97%转化为癫痫;短时组有3.23%复发,1.08%转化为癫痫,两组间复发及转化为癫痫比例的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01)。结论 BICE患儿有复发以及转化为癫痫的可能,惊厥次数≥2次,惊厥持续时间≥5 min是BICE患儿复发以及转化为癫痫的可能危险因素。%ObjectiveTo analyze the potential risk factors for relapse and development of epilepsy in patients with benign in-fantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE).MethodsA total of 264 cases of BICE were recruited. Accord-ing to the frequency of convulsions, the patients were divided into single group (n=134, convulsion once), and multiple group (n=130, convulsions≥2 times). According to convulsion duration, the patients were divided into short-term group (n=186, con-vulsions duration <5 minutes) , and long-term group (n=78, convulsion duration≥5 minutes). The clinical data obtained during hospitalization and follow-up were analyzed.ResultsIn multiple group, 9.23% were relapsed and 6.15% developed epilepsy. In single group, 2.99% were relapsed and 0.75% developed epilepsy. There were signiifcantly different in the rate of relapses and development of epilepsy between two groups (P<0.05). In the long-term group, 12.82% were relapsed and 8.97% developed epi-lepsy. In the short-term group, 3.23% were relapsed and 1

  12. 用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果探讨%Curative Effect Discussion on Combination of Diazepam and Phenobarbital in the Treatment of Children Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐中贤; 许正香; 周泉良

    2016-01-01

    Objective To Discuss the Curative effect of combination of diazepam and phenobarbital in the treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods Randomly divided 98 children with febrile convulsion from October 2013 to October 2015 into diazepam group,phenobarbital group and combined treatment group, respective intravenous with diazepam,phenobarbital and combination of diazepam and Phenobarbital.Compare the anticonvulsant effect and recurrence of convulsion rate.Results Combined treatment group anticonvulsant effect is better than that of phenobarbit al group and the recurrence rate is lower than that of diazepam group, the differences shows statis tically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Combination of diazepam and phenobarbital has a better anticonvulsant effect and low recurrence rate in treatment of children febrile convulsion,and is worth clinical application.%目的:探讨用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的临床效果。方法:将我院于2013年10月~2015年10月期间收治的98例热性惊厥患儿随机分为地西泮组、苯巴比妥组和联合用药组,为这三组患儿分别使用地西泮、苯巴比妥、地西泮和苯巴比妥进行治疗。比较三组患儿所用药物的镇惊效果及其病情的复发率。结果:经治疗,联合用药组患儿镇惊的效果、惊厥的复发率均好于苯巴比妥组和地西泮组患儿,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:用地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果理想,而且能有效地降低此病患儿惊厥的复发率。

  13. Clinical Study on Diazepam Combined with Phenobarbital in Treatment of Children Patients with Convulsions%地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵剑峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical study on diazepam combined with Phenobarbital in treatment of children patients with convulsions is to be investigated. Methods Choose 43 children patients with convulsions who are treated in hospital from October 2013 to November 2014 and separate them into two groups according to their hospitalization sequence with 23 patients in study group and 20 patients in control group;patients in control group are given diazepam medication treatment only,while patients in study group are given diazepam combined with Phenobarbital medication treatment; and then compare treatment effects between two groups. Results Patients’treatment efficacy,complication incidence and il ness reoccurrence rate in study group are much better than counterparts in control group;there is a treatment differential between two groups,and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Diazepam combined with Phenobarbital medication is quite effective in treatment of children patients with convulsions; it is conducive to increasing treatment efficacy,reducing complication incidence and decreasing convulsion attack times; thus,such an effective treatment is quite worthwhile to be promoted clinical y.%目的:探讨地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床研究。方法选取2013年10月到2014年11月我院接诊的43例小儿惊厥患者,按照入院的先后顺序分为两组,实验组23例和对照组20例,对照组采用单纯地西泮药物,实验组采用地西泮联合苯巴比妥,观察两组患者的治疗效果。结果实验组患者的治疗总有效率、并发症的发生率及总复发率明显优于对照组,差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥的临床效果显著,能够有效提高患儿的治愈率,降低并发症的发生率,减少复发次数,值得临床推广。

  14. Effect of Health Education on Prevention of Simple Feverilsh Convulsion in Infants%健康教育对预防单纯性热性惊厥的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍世英

    2003-01-01

    @@ 热性惊厥(feverilsh convulsion,FC)多见于3岁以下婴幼儿,是儿科急性热性病高热时的合并症,其再发率高.在初次惊厥以后约25%~40%(平均33%)的患儿在以后的热性病时出现惊厥复发[1].如果反复发作,会不同程度的影响脑功能.

  15. 非抽搐性癫痫持续状态五例及文献复习%Non-convulsive status epilepticus: 5 cases report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春波; 刘晓原; 裴立英; 席晓芳; 杨靓; 刘献增; 朱继红

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨非抽搐性癫痫持续状态(NCSE)患者的临床表现及持续脑电监测的脑电图(EEG)特征.方法 对自2008年11月至2009年12月北京大学人民医院急诊科收治的5例NCSE患者行持续EEG监测检查,观察其EEG特征及临床表现.结果 5例均出现发作性意识障碍,其中4例出现烦躁、易怒或躁狂,3例表现出精神运动迟滞和遗忘,2例出现言语自动症和失认,1例出现定向障碍.所有患者的EEG均出现广泛性但一侧明显的异常放电.静脉注射地两泮后,3例患者临床症状迅速改善.结论 NCSE并非罕见,持续EEG监测能查出本病,早期诊断,及时治疗可改善患者预后,临床应注意与其他引起意识紊乱的疾病相鉴别.%Objective To describe the clinical and electroencephalographic features as well as the possible etiology and treatment of patients with non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Methods We identified 5 adult patients with NCSE from the epilepsy database of the comprehensive epilepsy. Continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was analyzed and chart review was performed to analyze their clinical and electroencephalographic features. Results The patients ranged from 19 to 66 years old. All of the 5 patients showed impaired consciousness: 4 demonstrated agitation and paranoia; 3 had both psychomotor retardation and amnesia; 2 developed verbal automatisms and agnosia; and 1 had disorientation. All the patients had associated generalized discharges but lateralized dominant. Three patients showed clinical improvement following administration of benzodiazepines. Conclusion The NCSE is not a rare case and continuous EEG monitoring can help the diagnosis. Prompt recognition and treatment may be necessary in improving the neurological outcome, and attention should be paid to the identification with other diseases that cause impairment of conscience.

  16. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons respond to convulsant drugs when co-cultured with hiPSC-derived astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Misawa Niki; Yamamoto, Koji; Shoji, Masanobu; Asami, Asano; Kawamata, Yuji

    2017-08-15

    activity in response to convulsant drugs. Our study indicates the possibility that co-culture system of hiPSC-derived neurons with hiPSC-derived astrocytes could be useful in the risk assessment of drug-induced seizure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Winner of the young physician's section of the Gowers' prize 2000. Too good to be true? Thomas Willis--neonatal convulsions, childhood stroke and infanticide in seventeenth century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N

    2001-10-01

    A case of neonatal convulsion reported by Thomas Willis (1621-1675) together with its post mortem findings is quoted as being congenital intracerebral haemorrhage or strongly suggested as being the earliest pathological description of childhood cerebrovascular disease. However these authors only reviewed the incomplete written record left by Willis, describing how this case was the fourth consecutive child that the mother had lost to neonatal convulsions. The medical record is completed by notes taken by John Locke from a lecture delivered by Willis 3 or 4 years before the case was first published. Here, Locke relates how the mother subsequently had three further children who were all treated by Willis soon after birth and all survived uneventfully. Reviewing the post mortem findings and the full case histories modern medical science gives a different interpretation. Instead, I suggest that the case history given and pathological features described are more in keeping with a whiplash shaking injury than with cerebrovascular disease or a stroke. I believe that this is the earliest pathological description of shaking injury in childhood. We can never know why Willis did not publish the full success of his management of the subsequent children but it may have been due to his dramatic experience of a similar mother early on in his medical career.

  18. O advento do tratamento psiquiátrico moderno: a terapia convulsiva de László Meduna Lessons from an early account of convulsive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Baran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A terapia convulsiva (TC constitui uma das principais contribuições européias ao tratamento psiquiátrico moderno e à psiquiatria biológica. A TC foi introduzida na psiquiatria em 1934 por László Meduna, neuropsiquiatra húngaro. As publicações subseqüentes sobre o primeiro paciente tratado com TC, Zoltán L (ZL, baseiam-se nos artigos e na autobiografia de Meduna. De acordo com essas referências, após quatro anos de estupor catatônico, ZL recebeu TC induzida por cânfora que resultou em plena remissão dos sintomas esquizofrênicos, culminando com alta da instituição. Este artigo reconstrói a história do caso de ZL a partir da recente recuperação de anotações - algumas escritas pelo próprio Meduna - dos Arquivos do Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria e Neurologia (Hungria. Essas anotações mostram que ZL recebeu repetidas sessões de TC entre 1934 e 1937, primeiramente induzidas por cânfora e depois por cardiazol. A primeira série de TC resultou na suspensão do estupor catatônico e na remissão parcial da psicose. Entretanto, a remissão foi breve e, a despeito de repetidas sessões de TC, ZL nunca esteve inteiramente livre de sintomas, nunca teve alta hospitalar e veio a falecer no Instituto em 1945. Na discussão do caso de ZL, tentamos explicar as possíveis razões das discrepâncias entre o relato de Meduna e as notas originais do prontuário médico.Convulsive therapy (COT is a major European contribution to the psychiatric armamentarium and biological psychiatry. COT was introduced in psychiatry by László Meduna, a Hungarian neuropsychiatrist. All subsequent publications about the first patient treated with COT, Zoltán L (ZL, were based on Meduna's papers and autobiography. After 4 years of catatonic stupor, ZL received camphor-induced COT which resulted in full remission and discharge from the institution. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct ZL's case history from the original case notes-partly written by

  19. Clinical analysis of 39 rotavirus gastroenteritis cases with benign infantile convulsions%轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥39例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡耘; 窦娟; 李晓峰; 张萍萍; 王清文

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥的临床特点.方法 回顾分析2004年10月~2009年12月本院轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥患者的临床表现、实验室检查和治疗效果并进行随访.结果 39例患儿男23例,女16例,发病年龄4~26个月,病程3天内发生惊厥,呈全身强直一阵挛性发作,一次病程中发作1~4次,持续时间短,易控制.发作间期脑电图无明显异常,血生化、脑脊液及颅脑影像学检查正常.惊厥停止后来予抗癫痫治疗.随访3~66月,2例复发,病程<1年.所有患儿预后良好,生长发育如正常儿童.结论 轮状病毒肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥多为良性过程,预后好,不必长期抗癫痫治疗,但须注意复发可能.%Aim To investigate the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases with benign infantile convulsions.Methods There 39 hospitalized infant rotavirus gastroenteritis cases accompanied with benign afebrile seizures including 23 boys and 16 girls,aged 4~26 months old from October 2004 to December 2009 were observed. Results The convulsions were generalized tonic-clonic seizures,occurring between the first and the third day of gastroenteritis, 1 to 4 times during a single episode and easy to be controlled with short duration. All displayed normal EEG background in interictal period. The serum biochemistry, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging studies were performed with a normal results.No patient was put on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs. After 3~66 months follow-up,relapse occurred in 2 patients,with an episode less than 1 year. All showed a favorable prognosis. Conclusion Recognition of rotavirus gastroenteritis with benign infantile convulsions can avoids extensive evaluation and long-term antiepileptic therapy.Attention should be paid to recurrence.

  20. 新生儿低钠血症致惊厥的发生率及原因分析%Analysis of the incidence and causes of con-vulsion induced by neonatal hyponatremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛荣利

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析新生儿低钠血症致惊厥的发生率及原因.方法:选取2014-02/2015-02我院收治的84例惊厥新生儿作为研究对象,其中有36例伴低钠血症,分析其发病原因,并采取有效的治疗措施.结果:36例惊厥伴低钠血症患儿平均住院时间(9.12±1.24)d;随访3个月,有2例患儿失访,其余34例患儿中有1例因原发病为重度缺血缺氧性脑病而出现脑瘫外,其余患儿均正常,无神经系统后遗症发生.结论:临床医生必需给予低钠血症并发惊厥以足够的重视,通过早期诊断与治疗,可减少并发症的发生.%AIM: To analyze the incidence and causes of convulsion induced by neonatal hyponatremia. METHODS: A total of 84 cases of neonatal convulsion admitted into our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were selected as the research object, including 36 cases with hyponatremia. The causes of the disease were analyzed, and effective measures should be adopted to raise the treatment effect. RESULTS: The average hospital stay of 36 cases of children with convulsion and hyponatremia was ( 9. 12+1. 24 ) d. They were followed up in 3 months, and 2 cases of patients lost to follow⁃up, 1 case occurred cerebral palsy because of the primary disease named severe hypoxic⁃ischemic encephalopathy, the rest of the children were normal, and no neurological sequelae occurred. CONCLU⁃SION:It is necessary to pay enough attention to the complication caused by hyponatremia, which can reduce the incidence of com⁃plications by early diagnosis and treatment.

  1. 固本防惊汤预防小儿高热惊厥复发的疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Guben Fangjing Decoction on preventing recurrence of infantile febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董幼祺; 董继业; 郑含笑

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨固本防惊汤防治小儿高热惊厥(FC)复发的疗效,评价该方防治小儿FC复发的综合临床效应及应用前景.方法:将易发高热惊厥患儿272例随机分成治疗组138例,对照组134例.治疗组给予固本防惊汤治疗,对照组给予地西泮短期间歇治疗.随访1年,比较治疗组与对照组的总疗效、中医症候疗效以及各项检测指标有无差异.结果:治疗组的总疗效和中医症候疗效均明显优于对照组(P<0.01);治疗组的体质量、脑电图、免疫功能与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:固本防惊汤能有效降低小儿FC复发率(1年复发率降至20.3%)、改善患儿体质,是防治小儿FC复发的有效汤剂.%Objective: To investigate the curative effect of Guben Fangjing Decoction on preventing the recurrence of Infantile Febrile Convulsion (FC), together with its evaluation of comprehensive clinic results and the anticipation of application. Methods: 272 FC susceptible subjects are divided into treatment group (n=138) and control group (n=134). The treatment group subjects receive the Guben Fangjing Decoction therapy while the control group is intermittently treated with diazepam in short-terms. The general efficacy, TCM symptom efficacy and other detection indices between the two groups are compared to reveal discrepancy after one year's follow-up. Results: The outcome manifests that the general efficacy and TCM symptom efficacy of treatment group significantly excel the control group (P<0.01), while the comparison of weight, electroencephalogram and immune function between the two groups shows statistical significance (P<0.05) as well. Conclusion: Guben Fangjing Decoction improves patients' constitution and effectively reduces the recurrence rate of Infantile Febrile Convulsion (lower to 20.3% within one year), which proves to be an efficacious decoction against the recurrence of Infantile Febrile Convulsion.

  2. 婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥39例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 39 Cases of Mild Gastroenteritis with Benign Infantile Convulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红; 高科; 李小鸣

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥的临床特点。[方法]回顾性分析本院2010年1月至2011年12月收治的39例婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥患儿的临床资料。[结果]惊厥发病率为6.81%。1~2岁患儿最多,占76.93%。患儿全年均有发病,而以冬春季节为多,多发生在急性胃肠炎的1~3 d 内,占87.18%,发作以1~2次者最多,共28例,占74.36%,平均发作1.96次。发作形式多表现为全身强直-阵挛性发作,间歇期脑电图背景活动正常。随访患儿均未长期应用抗癫痫药物治疗,出院后均无惊厥复发,随访期间精神神经发育和运动发育如正常同龄儿童。[结论]婴幼儿轻度胃肠炎伴良性惊厥在住院患儿中发病率较高,但经治疗后无复发,无需长期应用抗癫痫药物治疗,临床预后良好。%[Objective]To study the clinical features of mild gastroenteritis with benign infantile convul-sions.[Methods]Clinical data of 39 cases of mild gastroenteritis with benign infantile convulsions admitted to our hospital from Jan.2010 to Dec.2011 were analyzed retrospectively.[Results]The incidence rate of con-vulsions was 6.81%.The patients aged from 1 to 2 years old were most,accounting for 76.93%.The inci-dence of convulsions was throughout the year,and mostly occurred in winter and spring.The disease mainly occurred within 1~3d of acute gastroenteritis,accounting for 87.18%.Most of the patients attacked up 1 or 2 times,accounting for 74.36%,on average 1.96 times.The form of attack was mainly general tonic-clonic sei-zures with normal intermittent EEG background activity.During the follow up,none took long-term anti-epi-leptic drugs.No seizure recurred after discharge.Neurological development and motor development in the fol-low-up period were the same as the normal children with the same age.[Conclusion]Mild gastroenteritis with benign infantile convulsions has higher prevalence in

  3. Clinical features of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis%轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖宏; 郑承宁

    2005-01-01

    目的认识轻度胃肠炎伴良性婴幼儿惊厥(BICE)的临床特点,做到正确诊断和合理治疗.方法对年龄在3~36个月的轻度胃肠炎伴惊厥的患儿进行临床观察和出院后18个月以上的随访.结果12例诊断为BICE,发病年龄(16.0±6.5)个月,6例(50%)冬季发病,9例(75%)3 d内发生惊厥,为全身性或部分性发作,7例(58%)有早期频繁发作,一次病程中惊厥平均发作2.1次.发作间期EEG、脑影像学、血生化及脑脊液检查正常.惊厥停止后未行抗痫治疗,3例(25%)复发,复发≤2次,病程最长为8个月.所有病例精神运动发育正常.结论本组BICE具有以下特点:1~2岁高发,冬季多发,无家族史;无热惊厥多出现于病程的早期,全身性或部分性发作,早期频繁发作多见;血电解质、血生化、脑脊液、脑影像学和发作间期脑电图正常;部分病例可复发,病程少于1年,预后好.惊厥停止后不推荐应用抗癫痫药.%Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical features of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE) and provide helpful information for the accurate diagnosis and effective management of BICE. Methods The patients, aged 3-36 months, with gastroenteritis accompanied with convulsions were clinically observed and followed up for more than 18 months. Results BICE was diagnosed in 12 cases with a peak onset age of ( 16.0 ± 6.5) months. Six (50%) of the cases occurred in winter. All seizures developed within the first 5 days of the course and 9 (75%) within the first 3 days. The cases presented with generalized or partial seizures. Early clustering seizure attacks were seen in 7 patients (58%). Seizures averaged 2.1 attacks per course. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), brain imaging, blood biochemical profile and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing did not show abnormality in all cases. No antiepileptic medications were prescribed to the patients as the seizures had

  4. 咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入控制小儿热性惊厥的探讨%Clinical study on treating children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝栋; 江从春; 唐建宁; 王小春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of midazolam nasal drip in the treatment of children’s febrile convulsion. Methods 42 children who suffered from febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups(the treament group and the control group). 0.2 mg/kg midazolam nasal drip was delivered to each member of the treament group,while 0.3~0.5 mg/kg diazepam was given to each member of the control group by intravenous injection. Compared and evaluated the control time,effective rate and safefy regarding treament of children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip. Results Effective rate of treament group was 85.7%,while the control group was 90.5%. These weren’t significantly different from each other(P > 0.05). The control time of the treament group was(6.2 ±1.6)min,while the control group was(8.10 ±0.9)min(P<0.05). Both groups showed no obvious adverse reacitons. Conclusion It is effective and convenient to treat children’s febrile convulsion with midazolam nasal drip.%目的:探讨咪达唑仑鼻腔给药治疗小儿高热惊厥的有效性和安全性。方法选取小儿热性惊厥患儿42例,随机分为治疗组和对照组各21例。治疗组鼻腔内滴入咪达唑仑0.2 mg/kg,对照组给予地西泮0.3~0.5 mg/kg静脉缓慢推注。比较分析两组患儿的惊厥控制时间、有效率及安全性。结果治疗组和对照组有效率分别为85.7%和90.5%,组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗组患儿从到达医院急诊科至惊厥控制所用时间为(6.2±1.6)min,对照组为(8.1±0.9)min,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组均未发现明显不良反应。结论咪达唑仑鼻腔滴入可以有效地控制小儿热性惊厥,且更方便快捷。

  5. RDX binds to the GABA(A) receptor-convulsant site and blocks GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents in the amygdala: a mechanism for RDX-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Larry R; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Qashu, Felicia; Finne, Huckelberry; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Bannon, Desmond I; Braga, Maria F M

    2011-03-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high-energy, trinitrated cyclic compound that has been used worldwide since World War II as an explosive in both military and civilian applications. RDX can be released in the environment by way of waste streams generated during the manufacture, use, and disposal of RDX-containing munitions and can leach into groundwater from unexploded munitions found on training ranges. For > 60 years, it has been known that exposure to high doses of RDX causes generalized seizures, but the mechanism has remained unknown. We investigated the mechanism by which RDX induces seizures. By screening the affinity of RDX for a number of neurotransmitter receptors, we found that RDX binds exclusively to the picrotoxin convulsant site of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) ionophore. Whole-cell in vitro recordings in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) showed that RDX reduces the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents and the amplitude of GABA-evoked postsynaptic currents. In extracellular field recordings from the BLA, RDX induced prolonged, seizure-like neuronal discharges. These results suggest that binding to the GABA(A) receptor convulsant site is the primary mechanism of seizure induction by RDX and that reduction of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is involved in the generation of RDX-induced seizures. Knowledge of the molecular site and the mechanism of RDX action with respect to seizure induction can guide therapeutic strategies, allow more accurate development of safe thresholds for exposures, and help prevent the development of new explosives or other munitions that could pose similar health risks.

  6. 老年期全面惊厥性癫持续状态预后不良的影响因素%To Explore the Influence Factors of senile Comprehensive Convulsive status Epilepticus of poor Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单玉民

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨老年期全面惊厥性癫持续状态预后不良的影响因素。方法对2013年6月至2014年6月我院收治的60例全面惊厥性癫患者资料进行回顾性分析。结果60例患者中病死7例,占11.7%,均死于多器官功能障碍综合征(MODS);53例生存患者中,32例出现不同程度的复发,21例得到完全控制,复发率为53.3%,治愈率为35.0%。结论老年期全面惊厥性癫持续状态预后不良的影响因素有MODS、原发病未根除以及机体的自身因素等。%Objective To explore the influence factors of senile comprehensive convulsive status epilepticus of poor prognosis.Methods In 2013 June to 2014 June in our hospital 60 cases of epilepsy patients comprehensive retrospective analysis..Results 7 patients died,60 death patients accounted for 11.7%,al died of multiple organ failure comprehensive disorder syndrome multiple organ(MODS);53 cases of survivors,32 cases occurred different degrees of recurrence,21 cases got complete control,the cure rate was 35.0%,the recurrence rate was 53.3%. Conclusion The influence factors of senile comprehensive convulsive status epilepticus of poor prognosis of MODS,the primary disease was not eradicated and the body's own factors etc.

  7. 轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥128例脑电图改变及随访%Electroencephalography and follow-up of 128 cases of infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路新国; 廖建湘; 韩春锡; 陈彦; 魏雪梅; 徐雅娜; 胡雁

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿惊厥发作期及发作间期的脑电图改变,并通过追踪随访了解此类患儿的脑电图演变及惊厥复发情况.方法 对2005年1月至2009年12月我院神经内科住院治疗的轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析,进行电话或门诊随访3~7年,了解患儿惊厥发作情况.结果 (1) 128例患儿中,胃肠炎急性期惊厥发作间期脑电图128份,发作期脑电图4份(共5次).其中63例发作间期脑电图未见癫(痫)样波发放,65例于不同导联见少许癫(痫)样波发放,48/65例位于中央及中央中线位置.在5次发作期脑电图中,2次发生于同一患儿的同一次监测过程中,异常波均起源于局部且起源部位不固定.2个月后脑电图复查57例,52例癫(痫)样波消失,其他5例仍可见少量的癫(痫)样波发放.(2) 128例患儿在随访中失访25例,96例无发作,3例以发热为诱因出现惊厥发作,2例又在胃肠炎期间再次出现惊厥发作,未予抗癫治(痫)疗,1.5~3.0年未再发作,2例出现数次不明原因的无热惊厥,诊断为癫(痫)并给予了抗癫(痫)治疗,现1.5 ~2.5年时间暂无发作.结论 (1)轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿在胃肠炎急性期惊厥发作间期脑电图近半数可见癫(痫)样放电,且放电部位多在中央区及其中线;(2)发作期脑电图均局部起源;(3)轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿惊厥患儿有惊厥再发的危险,尤其是存在诱发因素情况下,个别患儿可转化为癫(痫).%Objective In present study,we aimed to investigate the ictal and interictal electroencephalography (EEG) changes in patients with infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis,to understand the evolution of EEG and recurrence of convulsion by follow-up.Methods In this retrospective study,all patients with infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis visited our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009 were included

  8. Effect of Xingnaojing injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion%醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion. Methods 60 cases of children with febrile convulsion were randomly divided into two groups,with 30 cases in each group.Control group was given conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment,such as anti-convulsion,anti-infection,abatement of fever,oxygen uptake,and so on,on basis of which,treatment group was given Xingnaojing Injection 0.2-0.6mL/(kg·d),once a day.The course was 7 days.The observational indexes included:clinical effect;abatement time of fever,length of stay;recurrence of convulsion,epileptogenesis. Results The total effective rate of treatment group was 93.3%,which was higher than that of control group (76.7%),the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05).There were no statistically significant difference of the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups(P > 0.05). Conclusion Xingnaojing Injection in adjuvant therapy of children with febrile convulsion can improve clinical effect obviously,shorten abatement time of fever and length of stay,reduce the times of recurrence of convulsion,which is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察醒脑静注射液辅助治疗小儿热性惊厥的效果。方法将60例热性惊厥患儿随机分为两组,各30例。对照组给予止惊、抗感染、退热、吸氧等常规对症支持治疗,治疗组在此基础上给予醒脑静注射液0.2~0.6mL/(kg·d),1次/d。7d为1个疗程。观察指标包括:临床疗效、退热时间、住院时间、惊厥复发以及癫痫发生情况、不良反应发生情况。结果治疗组总有效率达93.3%,显著高于对照组(76.7%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组退热时间(1.48±0.16)d、住院时间(2.48±0.56)d,均显著短于对照组(2.23±0.47)d、(4.97±1.34)d],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。随访1年后,

  9. The Research of Blood Salt Levels and CSF Biochemical in Viral Enteritis Merger Combined with Convulsions%病毒性肠炎合并惊厥的血盐水平及脑脊液生化检查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严佩瑜

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨病毒性肠炎合并惊厥的血盐水平及脑脊液病毒生化检查结果。方法:回顾性分析本院2010年1月-2014年10月收治的病毒性肠炎合并惊厥患儿69例的临床资料,将惊厥可按照发作频率分为频繁性(>3次)惊厥组(22例)与非频繁性(<3次)惊厥组(47例),按性质分为良性惊厥(52例)与非良性惊厥(17例),比较频繁性惊厥与非频繁性惊厥、良性惊厥与非良性惊厥患儿的血盐水平及脑脊液病毒生化检查结果。结果:惊厥频繁患儿的低血钠、低血钾、低血钙、低血镁及脑脊液生化检查病毒阳性比例均显著高于惊厥非频繁患儿(P<0.05);良性惊厥患儿体温、惊厥发作次数、惊厥持续时间及大便轮状病毒检查阳性率均显著低于非良性惊厥患儿(P<0.05)。结论:病毒性肠炎合并惊厥患儿中频繁性惊厥伴有低血钠、低血钾、低血钙、低血镁症状及脑脊液病毒感染,良性惊厥患儿的体温、惊厥发作次数、惊厥持续时间及大便轮状病毒检查阳性率均要低于非良性惊厥。%Objective:To explore the blood salt levels and CSF biochemical in Viral enteritis combined with convulsions. Method:The clinical date of 69 children with viral enteritis merger and convulsions in our hospital from January 2010 to October 2014 were retrospectively analysed.They were divided into frequent seizures(≥3 times) group(22 patients) and non-frequent (<3 times) seizures(47 cases) group according to the seizures frequency,according to the nature they were divided into benign convulsions (52 patients) and non-benign convulsions (17 patients).Salt levels in blood and viral biochemical test results of cerebrospinal fluid were compared between Frequent seizures and non-frequent seizures,Benign convulsions and Non-benign convulsions.Result:Frequent seizures group were significantly higher than the non-frequent seizures group(P<0.05) and

  10. 头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥的防治作用及机理研究%The Research of Mechanism and Effection in the Prevent and Therapeutic Course of Rats Febrile Convulsion with Ceftriaxone sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕊; 李俊利

    2013-01-01

      目的研究头孢曲松钠对大鼠热性惊厥时脑内谷氨酸和谷氨酸转运体表达的影响,探讨头孢曲松钠对抗高热惊厥脑损伤的机制。方法利用热水浴惊厥模型诱导出生15d后100只Wistar大鼠发生10次热性惊厥,将其分为治疗组和对照组。治疗组大鼠每次惊厥一出现立即腹腔注射头孢曲松钠(分为50mg/kg,100mg/kg,200mg/kg),对照组大鼠仅腹腔注射等量生理盐水,利用免疫组织化学方法检测正常对照组和高热惊厥组大鼠脑内谷氨酸及谷氨酸转运体的表达,并进行定性及定量分析。结果高热惊厥时脑细胞内谷氨酸表达上升,而脑细胞膜和细胞间质中的谷氨酸转运体GLT-1表达下降;接受头孢曲松钠治疗的大鼠脑细胞谷氨酸表达降低,而GLT-1表达上升并呈剂量依赖性。结论头孢曲松钠可以上调热性惊厥大鼠皮层和海马CA1区GLT-1蛋白的表达。%Objective To study the effection to the expression of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter in brain of febrile convulsion rat about ceftriaxone sodium, approach the mechanism about febrile convulsion brain injured with ceftriaxone sodium . Methods:Selected only 100 maleness Wistar rats , age of 15 days,weight 30~45g. Divided the rat into 2 groups:normal control group(20) and febrile convulsion group(80). Utilized hot bath convulsion model to induce febrile convulsion 10 times with birth 15d Wistar rats, divided it into therapy group and control group. The rat of therapy group was injected with ceftriaxone sodium immediately when the convulsion had happened,(divided into 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg three doses),the rat of control group only was injected with normal saline into partes aequales,use the method of immunohistochemistry to test and analysis the express condition of aminoglutaminic acid and aminoglutaminic acid transporter about in brain of normal control and febrile convulsion group rat

  11. Benign Infantile Convulsions with Mild Gastroenteritis:Clinical Study of 38 Patients%轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥38例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 王燕; 武彦秋; 马桂云

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥的病因、临床特征、治疗、预后,以提高对该病的认识和诊断、治疗水平.方法:对我院2008年至2010年收治的38例轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥患儿的临床表现、实验室检查、治疗结果及随访结果进行回顾性分析.结果:38例患儿胃肠道症状相对较轻,无或有轻度脱水,电解质基本正常,脑脊液检查正常,头颅影像学正常.年龄2-36个月,平均15.6±8.2月,惊厥发生于第1天10例(26.3%),第2天16例(42.1%),第3天6例(15.8%),第4天2例(5.3%),第5天2例(5.3%),第6天1例(2.6%),第7天1例(2.6%).惊厥发作次数1-5次,仅发作1次25例(65.7%),发作2次7例(18.4%),发作3次3例(7.8%),发作4次2例(5.3%),发作5次1例(2.6%).35例惊厥表现为全身性强直-阵挛发作(92%),3例有失神及局灶性发作(8%).4例患儿发病后脑电图检查异常,经复查均恢复正常.随访38例患儿均无复发,生长发育正常.结论:轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥病因尚不十分清楚,消化道症状轻而惊厥可反复发作,发作间期精神状态较好,苯巴比妥钠仍是治疗的有效药物,首剂给药剂量10mg/kg.本病预后良好,无复发,不遗留神经系统后遗症.%Objective; To analyze the etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis in patients of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis ( BICE). To improve the congnition, diagnosis and treatment standard of the disease. Method: Evaluated the clinical manifestations , laboratory findings , treatment outcome and follow-up results of 38 patients who were assessed in our hospital. Result: All of the 38 children had mild gastroenteritis with or without minor dehydration, electrolytes were normal, CSF examination were normal, with normal head imaging. The children were aged 2 to 36 months [ (15. 6±8. 2) months]. Convulsions occurred in 10 patients (26. 3% ) on the first day; The number of

  12. 综合护理干预在小儿高热惊厥中的应用%Application of comprehensive nursing intervention in children with febrile convulsion treated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建梅; 陈凤艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察小儿高热惊厥中应用综合护理干预的效果。方法资料选取内蒙古医科大学附属医院2011年3月~2012年3月收治的高热惊厥患儿共138例,将其分为研究组与对照组,其中对照组69例予常规护理,研究组69例在上述护理的基础上予综合护理干预。观察两组患儿的预后相关指标水平及血清生化检查结果,对患儿行2年随访,观察惊厥复发情况。结果研究组惊厥消失时间为(38.77±10.52)s,住院时间为(7.69±2.38)d,均显著少于对照组[(68.94±19.68)s,(13.04±2.17)d],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);护理后研究组血钾、血钠、血糖水平均显著优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);随访末期研究组8例(11.59%)复发,显著低于对照组[19例(27.54%)],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论小儿高热惊厥中应用综合护理干预能够有效改善预后,恢复患儿正常血清生化指标,降低复发率,临床效果显著,具有应用价值。%Objective To observe the effect of children with febrile convulsion treated with comprehensive nursing in-tervention. Methods 138 cases were selected from patients with febrile convulsion who received treatment in the Affil-iated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University from March 2011 to March 2012. They were divided into the re-search group and the control group. The research group (69 cases) was given the comprehensive nursing intervention and the common nursing; while the control group (69 cases) was given the common nursing. Then levels of prognostic index and results of biochemistry of blood serum of two groups were observed, 2 years of follow-up on children were made in order to observe the relapse of convulsion. Results The elapsed time of convulsion and length of stay in the research group [(38.77±10.52) s and (7.69±2.38) d] were less than those in the control group [(68.94±19.68) s and (13.04±2.17) d], with statistical

  13. 中西医结合治疗小儿烧伤后惊厥的临床疗效观察%Therapeutic Effect of Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine and West Medicine for Convulsion after Burn Injury in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of the combination of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) and west medicine for convulsion after burn injury in children. Methods 96 children with convulsion after burn injury,admitted to our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013,were randomly divided into control group and observation group with each group 48 cases. The control group was given west medicine treatment,including opening air passages,oxygen uptake,sedation, relieving convulsion and abatement of fever. While the observation group was given additional drip-feed of Qingkailing Injection, oral Bezoar Bolus,oral and packed Zixue Pellet.χ2 was used to compare the therapeutic effect of the two groups. Results After treatment,32 cases were significantly improved,14 cases were improved and 2 cases were invalid in the observation group,with a total therapeutic effect of 95. 8%;26 cases were significantly improved,8 cases were improved and 14 cases were invalid in the control group,with a total therapeutic effect of 70. 8%,which was significantly higher than the control group(χ2 =11. 56, P<0. 05). Conclusion The therapeutic effect is fairly good by combining TCM and west medicine,which is conducive to the childrenˊs immediate rehabilitation.%目的:观察中西医结合治疗小儿烧伤后惊厥的临床疗效。方法选取2005年1月-2013年12月本院烧伤科收治的烧伤后惊厥患儿96例,将其随机分为对照组和观察组,各48例。对照组患儿给予西医治疗,包括通畅呼吸道、吸氧、镇静、止痉、退热等常规治疗。观察组在对照组治疗的基础上,另给予清开灵注射液静脉滴注,安宫牛黄丸口服,紫雪丹口服、外敷。采用χ2检验比较两组患儿治疗后的总有效率。结果治疗后观察组显效32例,有效14例,无效2例,总有效率为95.8%;对照组显效26例,有效8例,无效14例,总有效率为70.8%。观察组患儿总

  14. 地西泮联合苯巴比妥对小儿惊厥患者的临床效果研究%Clinical effect of diazepam and phenobarbital in children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴文利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of diazepam and phenobarbital in children with febrile convulsion.Methods Seventy cases of febrile convulsion patients were divided into control group (phenobarbital treatment,35 cases) and experiment group (diazepam combined with phenobarbital,35 cases) by random digits table method,and compared the efficacy and complications.Results Two groups were cured within 1 h.The effective rate within 30 min in experiment group was significantly higher than that in control group [88.6% (31/35) vs.74.3% (26/35)] (P < 0.05).The recurrent rate in experiment group was significantly lower than that in control group [2.9% (1/35) vs.14.3% (5/35)] (P < 0.05).The complications had no statistically significant differences between two groups(P > 0.05).Conclusions Diazepam combined with phenobarbital are very effective for children with febrile convulsion,can greatly improve clinical efficacy,decrease recurrent rate,and won't produce adverse reaction and complications,are the ideal treatment in the clinical treatment.%目的 探讨地西泮联合苯巴比妥治疗小儿惊厥患者的临床效果.方法 选取小儿惊厥患者70例,按随机数字表法分为对照组和试验组,每组35例,对照组患儿给予苯巴比妥药物治疗,试验组患儿给予地西泮联合苯巴比妥药物治疗.观察比较两组临床效果与并发症发生情况.结果 两组患儿均在1h内治愈.试验组患儿30 min内的治疗有效率为88.6%(31/35),明显高于对照组的74.3%(26/35),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).试验组患儿复发率为2.9%(1/35),明显低于对照组的14.3%(5/35),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组并发症发生情况比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对小儿惊厥患者使用地西泮联合苯巴比妥的药物治疗,可以迅速提高临床治疗效果,降低惊厥复发的几率,并且不良反应及并发症少,是临床治疗中的理想治疗方式.

  15. 微量泵维持静脉注射咪达唑仑治疗惊厥持续状态疗效观察%Clinical effect of continuous infusion of midazolam in the treatment of infants' status convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹淮祥; 周瑞; 陈兰举; 陈娟娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect and safe of continuous infusion of midazolam in the treatment of infants' status convulsion. Methods 104 cases of infants with status convulsion were randomly assigned into midazolam group or diazepam group: Midazolam 59 cases in Midazolam group were initially given first-dose of midazolam 0. 1 ~0. 2 mg ·kg-1 intravenously, and after that given maintenance dose of 0.1 ~0. 2 mg · kg-1 · h-1 ,iv,continuously;45 cases in Diazepam group were initiated with a loading dose of 0.2 ~0.3 mg · kg-1. After initial dose,a maintenance dose of 0. 1 ~0. 2 mg · kg-1 · h-1 was added. Each medicine was administered with a virtual safe dose according to condition of seizures. The dose and efficacy of midazolam or diazepam were evaluated,the side effect in these infants were observed too. Results The effective rates in the midazolam group and diazepam group were 94.9% and 80% , respectively. There was a significant deviation(x2 =4.65 P 0.05) in the midazol.fim group, Conclusion Intravenous midazolam infusion may be more effective tnan diazepam infusion in controlling infants status convulsion, in addition, midazolam has minor influence on circulatorium system.%目的 研究咪达唑仑持续静脉泵入治疗小儿惊厥持续状态的临床效果及价值.方法 选择惊厥持续状态患儿104例,随机分为两组:咪达唑仑组59例,地西泮组45例.咪达唑仑组静脉注射负荷量0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1后,以0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1·h-1持续泵入;地西泮组静脉注射负荷量0.2~0.3 mg·kg-1后,以0.1~0.2 mg·kg-1·h-1持续泵入.两组均根据惊厥发作次数调整至有效安全剂量,并维持至减量停药.观察两组患儿用药剂量、治疗有效性及不良反应.结果 咪达唑仑组和地西泮组有效率分别是94.9%和80%,二组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.65,P<0.05);咪达唑仑对心率、血压无明显影响,而地西泮组心率、血压有明显降低(P<0.05).结论 咪达唑仑比地西泮

  16. 无抽搐电休克对精神病症状的效果及治疗原理探讨%Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy treatment psychotic symptoms effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开波

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨无抽搐电休克(Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy MECT)治疗精神病症状的效果及探讨MECT治疗原理。方法将我院2011年1月~2011年12月,在我院接受MECT治疗的86例精神病病人治疗前后的简明精神病量表(BPRS)资料进行分析。结果 MECT抑郁症的疗效最好(90.91%),其次为躁狂症(86.36%),精神分裂症(74.19%);总有效率为83.72%,尤其以敌对猜疑、激活性两因子减分显著;对不合作、兴奋、吵闹、敌对、妄想状态、拒食及木僵等症状的有较好的效果。结论 MECT治疗精神病有效;是控制精神科急、危、重、难症状的有效措施之一。MECT治疗原理,可能是影响神经元突触后膜受体的敏感性有关。%objective Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy (MECT) treatment and the effects of psychiatric symptoms related problem. Methods from 2011 years from January 2011 to December, accept MECT treatment in our hospital of 86 cases of mental ilness the patient's before treatment, after the brief psychiatric scale (BPRS) data were analyzed. Results the total effective rate was 83.72%, especialy with suspicion, activate the two hostile sexual deduction significant factor; To not cooperation, excited, noisy, hostile, state, and MuJiang delusion refusing foods such as the symptoms have better effect. Conclusion MECT treatment mental effective; Is the control psychiatric urgent, dangerous, heavy, one of the effective measures to symptoms.

  17. 热性惊厥患儿血清C-反应蛋白与心肌酶变化的临床意义%Clinical significance of C-reactive protein and myocardial enzymes changes in children with febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕飞; 任允孜; 段爱花; 李雅彬; 王艳芬

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨C-反应蛋白( CRP)和心肌酶谱变化在热性惊厥患儿的临床意义。方法选取2014年9月至2015年9月热性惊厥患儿120例为惊厥组,选择同期住院伴发热无惊厥上呼吸道感染患儿45例为对照组,比较两组患儿血清CRP及心肌酶指标。结果惊厥组CRP、肌酸激酶( CK)、肌酸激酶同工酶( CK-MB)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)阳性率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。热性惊厥组CRP[(17.05±8.04)mg/L]高于对照组[(6.34±3.89)mg/L],差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。CRP水平与CK呈正相关(r=0.523)。结论热性惊厥患者中存在一定程度脏器损伤;CRP、CK与炎性反应相关,可作为机体炎症反应的重要参考指标。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of C-reactive protein and myocar-dial enzymes changes in children with febrile convulsion. Methods One hundred and twenty children with febrile convulsion from September 2014 to September 2015 were selected as convulsion group,over the same period 45 cases with fever and without convulsion upper respiratory tract infection with were se-lected as control group,serum CRP and myocardial enzyme index of the two groups were compared. Re-sults The rates of abnormality of CRP,CK,CK-MB,LDH of the convulsion were increased more sig-nificantly than that of the control group,the differences were significant( P ﹤0. 05 ). CRP[( 17. 05 ± 8. 04)mg/L]of the convulsion group was higher than[(6. 34 ± 3. 89)mg/L]of control group,the differ-ence was significant( P﹤0. 05 ). The level of CRP was closely correlated with to CK( r=0. 523 ). Con-clusions It is sure that some organ impairment exists in children with febrile convulsion;C-reactive and CK are correlated with the degree of inflammation reaction and can be as important marks of inflammation reaction in children with febrile convulsion.

  18. 静脉麻醉药抑制利多卡因致大鼠惊厥作用的比较%Comparisons of anticonvulsant action of intravenous anesthetics against lidocaine-induced convulsion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春平; 张山; 刘红梅; 韩倩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the anticonvulsant action of midazolam, propofol, etomidate and thiopental on lidocaine-induced convulsion in rats. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats weighing (250±20) g were equally randomized into 6 groups: (1) control group (group C); (2) lidocaine group (group L: lidocaine 4 mg ·k1 ·min-1 until convulsion); (3) lidocaine and propofol group (group P, lidocaine and propofol 12.5 mg/kg), (4) lidocaine and etomidate group (group E: lidocaine and etomidate 1. 85 mg/kg) , (5) lidocaine and midazolam group (group M: lidocaine and midazolam 0. 65 mg/kg) , (6) lidocaine and thiopental group (group T: lidocaine and thiopental 30. 85 mg/kg). Animals were decapitated 2 hours after convulsion and the brains were removed. One side of hippocampus was obtained for detecting expressions of c-fos protein. The other side was obtained to measure the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (N()S). Results The c-fos positive cells, the concentration of NO and the activity of NOS increased significantly in group L compared with group C (P<0. 05). The c-fos positive cells, the NO concentration and the activity of NO.S were significantly lower in groups P, M, E and T compared with group L (P<0. 05), and especially in groups M and T. Conclusion Propofol, midazolam, etomidate and thiopental can inhibit lidocaine-induced convulsion in rats and it is more significant by midazolam and thiopental.%目的 比较静脉麻醉药丙泊酚、依托咪酯、咪达唑仑及硫喷妥钠拮抗利多卡因致大鼠惊厥的作用.方法 雄性Wistar大鼠36只,体重(250±20)g,随机均分为六组:空白对照组(C组)、利多卡因组(L组:利多卡因4 mg· kg- 1·min-1)、利多卡因+丙泊酚组(P组:利多卡因+丙泊酚12.5ng/kg)、利多卡因+依托咪酯组(E组:利多卡因+依托咪酯1.85mg/kg)、利多卡因+咪达唑仑组(M组:利多卡因+咪达唑仑0.65mg/kg)和利多卡因+硫喷妥钠组(T组:

  19. Severe Convulsions and Dysmyelination in Both Jimpy and Cx32/47 (-/-) Mice may Associate Astrocytic L-Channel Function with Myelination and Oligodendrocytic Connexins with Internodal Kv Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Y H Gerald; Chen, Ye; Hertz, Elna; Hertz, Leif

    2017-02-18

    The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K(+) concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal astrocytes to counteract histological abnormalities. This metabolic response is now known to reflect opening of L-channels for Ca(2+). The resulting deficiency in Ca(2+) entry has many consequences, including lack of K(+)-stimulated glycogenolysis and release of gliotransmitter ATP. Lack of purinergic stimulation compromises oligodendrocyte survival and myelination and affects connexins and K(+) channels. Mice lacking the oligodendrocytic connexins Cx32 and 47 show similar neurological dysfunction as Jimpy. This possibly reflects that K(+) released by intermodal axonal Kv channels is transported underneath a loosened myelin sheath instead of reaching the extracellular space via connexin-mediated transport to oligodendrocytes, followed by release and astrocytic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-driven uptake with subsequent Kir4.1-facilitated release and neuronal uptake.

  20. Gitelman Syndrome in a School Boy Who Presented with Generalized Convulsion and Had a R642H/R642W Mutation in the SLC12A3 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Makino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old Japanese boy presented with a generalized convulsion. He had hypokalemia (serum K 2.4 mEq/L, hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis (BE 5.7 mmol/L. In addition, his plasma renin activity was elevated. He was tentatively diagnosed with epilepsy on the basis of the electroencephalogram findings and was treated by potassium L-aspartate and carbamazepine to control the hypokalemia and seizure, respectively. However, a year later, the patient continued to have similar abnormal laboratory data. A presumptive diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome (GS was then made and the patient’s peripheral blood mononuclear cells were subjected to sequence analysis of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes a thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter. The patient was found to have compound heterozygous mutations, namely, R642H inherited from his father and R642W inherited from his mother. Thus, if a patient shows persistent hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, GS must be considered, even if the patient exhibits atypical clinical symptoms.

  1. 轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥患儿血清硫化氢水平变化的研究%Serum hydrogen sulifde levels in children with benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远达; 顾芳; 谢会卿; 冀超玉; 张小龙; 张瑜; 庞微微

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥(BICE)患儿血清硫化氢(H2S)水平的变化及意义。方法选择住院治疗的42例BICE患儿为观察组,同期因单纯急性胃肠炎入院治疗的46例患儿为对照组。使用分光光度计法检测其血清H2S水平。结果观察组患儿血清H2S水平显著低于对照组(28±12μmol/L vs 45±10μmol/L,P<0.O1)。惊厥发作次数≥2次患儿血清H2S水平显著低于发作次数<2次患儿(P<0.O5)。BICE患儿惊厥发作次数与血清H2S水平呈负相关(r=-0.485,P=0.001);惊厥持续时间≥5 min组患儿的发作时间与血清H2S水平呈负相关(r=-0.736,P=0.004)。结论内源性H2S水平的降低可能是BICE患儿发病原因之一;血清H2S水平下降程度与惊厥发生的次数及发作超过5 min的持续时间有关,其临床意义有待于更多的研究证实。%Objective To study the changes and signiifcance of serum hydrogen sulifde (H2S) levels in children with benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE). Methods Forty-two hospitalized children diagnosed with BICE were recruited to the observation group, and 46 children admitted due to acute gastroenteritis alone were recruited to the control group. Serum H2S levels were measured by a spectrophotometer. Results The serum H2S level in the observation group was signiifcantly lower than in the control group (28±12μmol/L vs 45±10μmol/L;P<0.01). The patients with a number of convulsions greater than or equal to two had signiifcantly lower serum H2S levels than those with a number less than two (P<0.05). The number of convulsions was negatively correlated with serum H2S level in BICE patients (r=-0.485, P=0.001). When a convulsion exceeded 5 minues in duration, the duration was negatively correlated with serum H2S level (r=-0.736, P=0.004). Conclusions The reduction in endogenous H2S level might be one of the causes of convulsions in BICE patients

  2. The diagnosis and treatment of non-convulsive status epilepticus(a report of 2 cases)%非惊厥性癫癎持续状态的诊治2例随访研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铁; 史亮; 白洁; 王晓丽; 刘永红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the drug therapy of Non‐convulsive status epilepticus(NCSE)epi‐sodes .Methods:The clinical ,electroencephalographic (EEG )features and treatment of 2 patients with NCSE were analyzed .Results:The 2 paitents had the same ictal type .The ir abnormal discharges in the ic‐tal period were different and their symptoms and abnormal EEG were different to AEDs .Conclusion:The reason of different response to AEDs needs further observation ,and it may be related with the different ictal EEG of the patient with NCSE in the type of CPS .%目的:探讨非惊厥性癫癎持续状态(NCSE)发作期的药物治疗。方法:对本院确诊的2例NCSE患者的临床症状,视频脑电图及药物治疗效果进行分析。结果:2例 NCSE患者发作类型相同,发作期的异常放电不同,临床症状和异常脑电对药物反应不同。结论:发作形式为复杂部分性发作(CPS)的NCSE患者,是否需要给予地西泮静推,如果需要,如何把握药物剂量,还需进一步大样本的临床观察。

  3. The effect of leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide-Y on serum Tnf-Α, Il-1β, Il-6, Fgf-2, galanin levels and oxidative stress in an experimental generalized convulsive seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Berrin; Sahin, Deniz; Kir, Hale; Eraldemir, Fatma Ceyla; Musul, Mert; Kuskay, Sevinç; Ates, Nurbay

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained. Seizure activity was scored by observing seizure behavior, and the onset time, latency, and seizure duration were determined according to the EEG records. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained in all groups to assess the serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, FGF-2, galanin, nitric oxide (NOֹ), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The electrophysiological and biochemical findings (pleptin, ghrelin, and NPY shows that these peptides may have anti-inflammatory effects in epileptic seizures. Also, leptin significantly increases the serum levels of the endogenous anticonvulsive agent galanin. The fact that each one of these endogenous peptides reduces the levels of MDA and increases the serum levels of GSH leads to the belief that they may have protective effects against oxidative damage that is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Our study contributes to the clarification of the role of these peptides in the brain in seizure-induced oxidative stress and immune system physiology and also presents new approaches to the etiology and treatment of tendency to epileptic seizures.

  4. 惊厥患儿血清、脑脊液中神经元特异性烯醇化酶的临床意义%The Clinical Significance of Neuron-Specific Enolase in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Children with Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石筱蕾; 王永清; 杨文

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨血清与脑脊液中神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)水平在惊厥中的临床意义。方法选择105例惊厥患儿,根据病因分为病毒性脑炎组(33例)、热性惊厥组(37例)和轻度胃肠炎伴发婴幼儿良性惊厥组(35例),以入院时怀疑有神经系统疾病,最后经各种检查除外神经系统疾病的儿童(25例)作为对照组。采用电化学发光免疫分析技术测定各组血清与脑脊液中 NSE 水平。结果惊厥发作后病毒性脑炎组患儿血清与脑脊液中 NSE 水平明显升高,显著高于热性惊厥组、轻度胃肠炎伴发婴幼儿良性惊厥组及对照组(P 0.05)。结论病毒性脑炎惊厥发作后血清和脑脊液中 NSE 水平与脑损伤严重程度密切相关,可作为早期判断惊厥性脑损伤的客观指标之一。%Objective To explore the levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with convulsion and their clinical significances. Methods One hundred and five children with con-vulsion were enrolled. According to the clinical diagnosis,the children were divided into viral encephalitis (VE) group (33 cases),febrile convulsion ( FC) group (37 cases),and benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastreenteritis (BICE) group (35 cases). Serum and CSF were collected within 24 ~ 48 h after convulsive seizures. The children,who were suspected neurological diseases,and finally except for neurological diseases by various examinations,were selected as the control group (25cases) to collect serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Serum and CSF were collected before surgery. The lev-els of NSE in serum and CSF were detected by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Result The levels of NSE in se-rum and CSF of VE group were increased significantly,and were much higher than in serum and CSF of FC group,BICE group and control group (P 0. 05). Conclusions The levels of NSE in serum and CSF of children with viral encephalitis after convul-sive

  5. 轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥62例临床分析%Benign Infantile Convulsions Associated with Mild Gastroenteritis: a Report of 62 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国生

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥(BICE)的临床特点.方法 对2008年10月-2012年1月共收治62例BICE的临床资料,结合随访结果进行分析.结果 62例BICE,发病年龄在12 ~24个月占72.6%,中位数是13.2个月;其中男35例,女27例;52例在3d内发生惊厥,惊厥持续时间均在5min以内;51例在一次病程发作1~2次.出院后随访3~12个月,2例患儿腹泻时再次出现惊厥,所有患儿生长发育正常,无后遗症.结论 BICE多发生在12 ~24个月的婴幼儿,惊厥持续时间短,一次病程中绝大多数发作1~2次,预后良好,但尚需随访观察.%Objective To analyze the clinical features of benign infantile convulsion associated with mild gastroenteritis ( BICE). Methods Total 62 children with BICE were hospitalized between October 2008 and January 2012 and then followed up. The clinical data of cases was analyzed. Results Age of onset ranged between 12 and 24 months in 72.6% of patients. The median age at presentation was 13.2 months. Of the infants,35 were females and 27 were males. The seizure of 52 cases occurred in the first 3 day an episode,was lasting for less than 5 minutes. The seizure of 51 cases occurred 1-2 times during a single episode. Two patients experienced recurrences when suffering a new gastroenteritis episode and all the patients were found to have normal psychomotor development and neurological examination after a follow-up period of between 3 and 12 months. Conclusion BICE always occurs in infants aged between 12-24 months. Seizure lasts for short time. The seizure of most of cases occurred 1-2 times during a single episode. Prognosis is excellent,but these patients should be followed up.

  6. Clinical analysis of twenty-eight elderly patients with convulsive status epilepticus%老年惊厥性癫痫持续状态28例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤鹰; 余敏; 顾勤; 邓冰; 姜嘟嘟; 詹青

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察老年惊厥性癫痫持续状态( CSE)的临床特点。方法收集神经重症监护室( NICU)年龄≥60岁的CSE患者28例,回顾性分析其临床特点。结果脑血管病为28例老年CSE的首位病因。接受抗癫痫药物治疗后,CSE症状控制的中位时间为0.9 h,其中16例患者在1 h内症状控制,12例为难治性癫痫持续状态(RSE)。28例患者中,存活16例、死亡12例。死亡者与存活者相比,合并中枢神经系统新发疾病(P=0.027)和RSE的比例显著不同(P=0.027)。结论老年CSE患者基础情况差,病因多样,合并有中枢神经系统新发疾病或有RSE者的死亡率高。%Objective To observe the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 28 aged patients (age above 60) with CSE admitted to our neurological intensive care unit ( NICU) . Results The most common etiology of CSE in elder patients was cerebrovascular disease .Median time from antiepileptic drugs ( AEDs ) treatment to CSE successful terminated was 0.9 hour.Among these patients, CSE was terminated successfully in 16 patients within 1 hour, while other 12 patients were in status of refractory status epilepticus (RSE).As a result, 16 patients survived and 12 died. Compared died patients with those survived , the rates of new-onset central nervous system lesions ( P=0.027 ) and RSE ( P=0.027 ) were significantly different . Conclusion The elderly patients with CSE have poor health basis and various etiologies of CSE .Presenting of new-onset of central nervous system lesions and RSE are associated with the increased rate of death .

  7. [An unusual presentation of painful tic convulsive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Feinholz, S; Medina, M P; Nares-Lopez, F E; Soto-Hernandez, J L; Revuelta-Gutierrez, R

    2017-03-16

    Introduccion. La presentacion clinica de un espasmo hemifacial asociado a neuralgia trigeminal ipsilateral se conoce como tic convulsivo doloroso. La causa mas comun de esta patologia es la compresion vascular de los nervios craneales V y complejo VII-VIII en la zona de entrada y salida de las raices en el tronco del encefalo, pero existen informes de diversas etiologias. Su tratamiento, aunque aun esta en discusion, se basa en la descompresion microvascular quirurgica. Caso clinico. Mujer de 63 años, con un cuadro de evolucion de 14 años de neuralgia trigeminal, con predominio en distribucion de la rama maxilar (V2) izquierda, asociado durante mas de 10 años a espasmo hemifacial ipsilateral. Tras fallar el tratamiento medico, se sometio a cirugia por abordaje microasterional, y en un primer momento se realizo una diseccion de adherencias aracnoideas firmes rodeando complejos nerviosos. En un segundo tiempo quirurgico se insertaron fragmentos de teflon en los sitios de entrada de los nervios V y complejo VII-VIII, y se logro una resolucion completa de la sintomatologia durante mas de un año. Conclusion. La etiologia del tic convulsivo doloroso en esta paciente fue aracnoiditis basal, lo cual la convierte en el unico caso comunicado hasta el momento con dicha etiologia.

  8. [Problems of the therapy of neonatal convulsions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, P; Chierici, R; Fortini, C

    1982-01-01

    The newborn with seizures should be treated urgently, because of the high risk of consequent brain damage. In addition to general management in order to correct metabolic and functional unbalancement, associated with the fits, specific causes of neonatal seizures (hypoglicemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesiemia, hypo-hypernatremia, pyridoxine deficiency) should be immediately removed. If neonatal seizures depend on other non specific causes (anoxia, cerebral hemorrhagy, malformation, infection or other, a symptomatic anticonvulsant treatment should be carried out without delay. Useful drugs for the newborn are phenobarbital, phenytoin and benzodiazepine e.v. or e.m. After fits have been controlled, an oral maintenance therapy has to be started with phenobarbital or phenytoin in order to avoid seizure-relaps. Clinical EEG and hematological data should be monitored to detect side effects, as well as plasma drugs levels to achieve adequate maintenance doses. Criteria for discontinuing the neonatal seizures treatment have not been well established. On the bases of the data collected through a longitudinal study of 54 newborns who developed seizures in the first day of life, clinical and EEG criteria for discontinuing anticonvulsant therapy are discussed. If the fits are rare, short, immediately controlled and EEG is mildly abnormal, we attempt to discontinuing treatment within 15 days. If fits are unfrequent, varying in length, their therapeutical control is reached within 3 days and the EEG is markedly abnormal but recovered within 1 month, treatment is discontinuing between 15 days and 3 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. [Delayed convulsion after lidocaine instillation for bronchoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaïes, E; Jebabli, N; Lakhal, M; Klouz, A; Salouage, I; Trabelsi, S

    2016-05-01

    Lidocaine toxicity usually appears rapidly and is directly correlated with plasma concentrations of the drug. We report a case of a late neurologic toxicity occurring after instillation of lidocaine during fibre-optic bronchoscopy. A patient with bronchiolitis obliterans underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy. She received multiples instillations of Xylocaine(®) 2% (lidocaine). Three and a half hours later, she had a tonic-clonic seizure. Seven hours later, this recurred. Lidocaine plasma levels were in the toxic range at the time of the first seizure (18.32μg/mL) with a significant decrease in the concentration noted 24hours later. The slow absorption of lidocaine into the blood from the bronchial tree explains the delayed neurologic toxicity. Our observation is a reminder that complications can occur due to high doses of lidocaïne administrated by instillation. Thus, if the recommended dose of lidocaine is exceeded, it is essential to monitor patients closely for a prolonged period, especially those with fibrosing lung disease in order to avoid possible late toxicity. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. 惊厥持续状态后大鼠海马TLR4、IL-1β的表达及意义%Expression of TLR4 and IL-1β in hippocampus of rats after status convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琴; 李光乾; 张勤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of neuron pathology and the expression of TLR4 and IL- 1βin hippocam-pus of rats after status convulsion. Methods Eighty eight male Sprague- Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group (A) and convulsion group (B). The status convulsion was induced by injection of lithium chloride- pilocarpine in group B, then the animals were sacrificed at 4h, 24h, 48h, 72h after convulsion discontinued (subgroup B1- B4). The histopathological changes in hippocampus were observed by HE staining and electron microscopy, the expression of TLR4 and IL- 1β mRNA in hippocampus were detected by RT- PCR. Results Neuronal injury was observed in group B by HE staining and electron mi-croscopy, and the changes were increased gradual y at 72h after convulsion, Compared with controls the expression of TLR4 mRNA in rat hippocampus of group B started to increase at 4h (P0.05). Conclusion The expression of TLR4 and IL- 1β may be associated with brain injury in SC rats, and the early increased IL- 1βexpression may promote the expression of TLR4.%目的:观察大鼠惊厥持续状态(status convulsion,SC)后海马的病理改变及TLR4、IL-1β的动态表达,阐明免疫反应在惊厥性脑损伤发病机制中的作用。方法88只SD大鼠分为生理盐水组(A组)、SC组(B组),B组用氯化锂-匹罗卡品法成功制作SC模型后,再分为B1- B4组(分别于惊厥后4、24、48和72h处死)。光镜观察大脑皮层及海马各区形态学改变,电镜确认海马CA1区神经元超微结构变化,RT- PCR检测海马TLR4、IL-1βmRNA的动态表达。结果长程惊厥发作后,大鼠海马神经元的损伤存在动态变化,随着观察时间的延长,72h内病变逐渐加重。TLR4 mRNA于惊厥后4h开始升高(P<0.05),并随时间延长逐步增高,于72h时达到高峰点(P<0.01),而IL-1βmRNA在惊厥后4h即达高峰(P<0.01),此后随时间延长而下降,至72h

  11. Comparison of different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve,and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion in rats%迷走神经、躯体神经与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彧; 刘玉玺

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there are different effects of electric stimulation of vagus nerve,peripheral nerve(sciatic nerve and trigeminal nerve),and motor cortex on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)induced convulsion in rats.Methods The vagus nerve and sciatic nerve were exposed in rats.The stimulation electrodes were placed on the vagus nerve,sciatic nerve,trigeminal nerve,and motor cortex,respectively.After electric stimulation,PTZ(50 mg/kg)was intraperitoneally injected into the rats.The pattern and latency of the convulsion seizure were observed and recorded.Results Racine's grade Ⅰ-Ⅴ grade convulsion seizure Was present in 9 rats(9/10)in the control group after the injection of PTZ.However,this intensity Was reduced to Ⅰ-Ⅲ grade differentially in all the rats by electric stimulation of the vagus nerve(5/10)or peripheral nerve(6/10 and 5/10).Furthermore,in the group of rats stimulated at motor cortex,there Was completely no convulsion.On the other hand,when pathological changes appeared in cortex or hippocampus(i.e.epileptic model was set up by 7 weeks stimulation),the same stimulation of motor cortex was not able to inhibit the convulsion seizure induced by injection of PTZ and all these rats showed Ⅳ-Ⅴ grade seizure(10/10).Conclusions In physiological condition,all of the four types of stimulation differentially reduced intensity of convulsion seizure triggered by PIZ injection and motor cortex stimulation has the best effect.However.when rats were in pathological status and epileptic nidus appeared in their brains.stimulatiion of motor cortex has no effect on PTZ induced convulsion seizure.%目的 探讨迷走神经、躯体神经(坐骨神经、三叉神经)与运动皮质电刺激对戊四氮点燃大鼠惊厥行为的影响是否存在差异.方法 分别剥离大鼠迷走神经、坐骨神经(三叉神经不予以剥离)和建立运动皮质电刺激模型,给予上述4种电刺激后腹腔注射戊四氮50 mg/kg,观察

  12. 慢性肾功能不全患者使用头孢哌酮钠他唑巴坦钠致抽搐6例报道%Six cases of convulsions caused by cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium in chronic renal failure patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣雨; 邢海燕; 姜玲; 史天陆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the symptoms that chronic renal failure patients given cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium may cause convulsions,which will be considered by medical staff. Methods Clinical pharmacists analyzed possible causes through col-lecting data of six chronic renal failure patients with convulsions which had used cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium in normal usage and dosage. Results The patients were given cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium injection by intravenous drip due to infection. A few days later,patients had sudden convulsions owing to continuous application,and the symptoms of patients disappeared through drug discontinuation and suitable treatment. Conclusions Cefoperazone sodium and tazobactam sodium injection in chronic re-nal failure patients should be used carefully. The clinical doctors and pharmacists should adjust dosage strictly according to endogenous creatinine clearance rate. Meanwhile drug treatment should not be too long. Drug used in elderly patients should be more cautious. Moni-toring clinical symptoms is essential and at the same time its adverse drug reactions should be alerted.%目的:探讨肾功能不全患者在使用头孢哌酮钠他唑巴坦钠时可能会引起抽搐,引起有关医务人员关注。方法通过临床药师收集肾功能不全患者在正常用法用量下使用头孢哌酮钠他唑巴坦钠时引起抽搐的6例案例,分析其可能原因。结果6例慢性肾功能不全患者,因感染给予头孢哌酮钠他唑巴坦钠静脉滴注。连续用药后数天,患者突发抽搐,停用头孢哌酮钠他唑巴坦钠后,对症处理后上述症状消失。结论肾功能不全患者使用头孢哌酮钠他唑巴坦钠时须根据内生肌酐清除率调整给药剂量,同时药物的疗程不宜过长,高龄患者更应谨慎,密切关注临床症状,警惕该药不良反应的发生。

  13. Significance of video-EEG in the diagnosis of intractable non-convulsive seizure epilepsy and presurgical evaluation on the epileptogenic lesion%VEEG对难治性非惊厥发作癫痫的诊断及致痫灶术前定位价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲贤; 毓青; 杨卫东; 陈英; 陈旨娟; 郝志东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of long time Video-EEG in the diagnosis of non-convulsive seizure and preoperative localization of refractory epilepsy. Methods:22 patients with intractable non-convulsive seizure epilepsy were checked by VEEG, all of them were checked by MRI, 17 patients were checked by interictal PCT-CT.8 patients were checked by MEG. All patients did the preoperative evaluation on epileptogenic zone, then in half of them with surgical treatment,the accuracy of epileptogenic zone was validated with intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG). Results: 22 patients were monitored by VEEG for 24-48 h, 83 non-convulsive seizures were observed in which unknown seizure type in past medical history was found in the 5 patients. In all patients clinically seizures and ictal discharge (2 -20 times) were watched.18 ictal EEG prompted discharge area:frontal(6),temporal(7),frontal-temporal area(5).The seizure onset zone was consistent with symplomatogenic zone in 12 patients. Tne coincidence rates of VEEG methods on localizing epileptogenic zone with the abnormal MRI and with MEG were 100% respectively,and with PET-CT was 82.35% .VEEG was consistent with ECoG in the 11 patients who with surgical treatment. Conclusion: VEEG can improve the detection rate of non-convulsive seizure and also has a notable value in diagnosis classification. Meanwhile, it has significance in preoperative localization of epilepsy surgery. VEEG is an essential examination on presurgical evaluation in intractable epilepsy.%目的:探讨长程视频脑电图(VEEG)对非惊厥发作癫痫的诊断价值及对难活性癫痫术前定位的意义.方法:对22例难治性非惊厥发作性癫痫患者行VEEG监测,22例行头MRI检查,17例行发作间期PET-CT检查,8例行脑磁图(MEG)检查.对所有患者进行致痫灶术前定位评估后11例行手术治疗,术中皮层脑电图(ECoG)监测结果验证VEEG定位的准确性.结果:22倒VEEG监测时间24~48h,共监测到83

  14. Safety of intravenous midazolam and traditional regimen in the treatment of recurrent infantile convulsion%静脉给药咪达唑仑与传统联合方案治疗反复性小儿惊厥的安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比分析静脉给药咪达唑仑与传统联合方案治疗反复性小儿惊厥的疗效及安全性。方法选择88例反复性小儿惊厥患者为研究对象,行随机数字表法均分,观察组行静脉给药咪达唑仑治疗,对照组行传统联合方案,交替使用地西泮、苯巴比妥。观察两组疗效及不良反应发生率。结果观察组总有效率为93.2%,对照组为77.2%,观察组总有效率显著性高于对照组(χ2=4.223,p=0.035);观察组心率及血压未发生显著变化,且未出现明显不良反应,对照组心率和血压均显著降低,且出现6例呼吸抑制。结论静脉给药咪达唑仑治疗反复性小儿惊厥疗效好、安全性高,值得推广。%Objective to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous midazoLam and traditionaL regimen for the treatment of recurrent infantiLe convuLsions. Methods Eighty-eight cases of recurrent infantiLe convuLsions chiLdren were seLected as the research objects. they were randomLy divided into two groups. the observation group received intravenous midazoLam treatment, whiLe the controL group underwent conventionaL regimen,aLternate using of diazepam,phenobarbitaL. their curative effects and adverse reactions were observed. Results the totaL effective rate of observation group was 93. 2%,that of controL group was 77. 2%. the totaL effective rate of observation group was significantLy higher than that of the controL group(χ2 =4. 223,p=0. 035 ). the heart rate and bLood pressure did not change significantLy,and there was no obvious adverse reaction,the heart rate and bLood pressure was significantLy Lower,and there were 6 cases of respiratory inhibition. Conclusion the treatment effect of intravenous injection of midazoLam on recurrent convuLsion in chiLdren is good,it has high security,so is worthy of promotion.

  15. 婴儿惊厥伴阵发性舞蹈手足徐动症临床特点和PRRT2基因突变研究%Clinical features and PRRT2 mutations in infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小玲; 张月华; 许小菁; 王爽; 杨志仙; 吴晔; 张秀菊; 刘晓燕; 吴希如

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the phenotypes and proline-rich transmenbrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene mutations in patients of infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis (ICCA).Methods Clinical data were collected from ICCA patients and their family members.Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples with standard protocol.Mutations of PRRT2 were screened using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing.Results Eleven families and one sporadic case with ICCA were recruited in this study.In 11 ICCA families,49 family members were affected,of which 15 individuals had benign infantile convulsions (BIC) alone,18 individuals had only paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia(PKD),and 16 individuals had BIC followed by PKD.The seizure onset age of infantile convulsions was between 3 and 12 months.The onset age of PKD was ranging from 5 to 17 years old.Four affected members in two ICCA families had PKD or ICCA co-existing with migraine.The one sporadic ICCA case had afebrile seizures between 3.5 and 4 months,and developed paroxysmal twists of limbs after 3 years and 9 months of age.He had good response to treatment with oxcarbazepine at the age of 4 years and 10 months.PRRT2 mutations were identified in all 11 ICCA families.The most common mutation,c.649 _650insC (p.R217PfsX8),was detected in 6 of the 11 families (54.5%).PRRT2 mutation (c.649_650insC) was also found in the sporadic ICCA case,and was identified as de novo mutation.Conclusion The phenotype of PKD in ICCA families occurred in childhood or adolescence.Few affected members in some ICCA families may have migraine.PRRT2 is the causative gene of ICCA and the mutation c.649_650insC was the hotspot of PRRT2 mutations.PRRT2 mutation was also found in sporadic case with ICCA.%目的 研究婴儿惊厥伴阵发性舞蹈手足徐动症(infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis,ICCA)的临床表型和富脯氨酸跨膜蛋白2(proline-rich transmenbrane protein 2,PRRT2)基因突变特点.方法 收集ICCA

  16. Evaluation of treatment effect of sodium valproate for convulsive status epilepticus of cerebral arterial thrombosis%丙戊酸钠对于缺血性脑卒中惊厥性癫痫持续状态的治疗效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨丙戊酸钠(SV)治疗缺血性脑卒中惊厥性癫痫持续状态(CSE)的效果。方法:收治CSE患者38例,采用 SV 治疗,观察治疗效果。结果:治疗成功24例(63.15%),4例患者发生不良反应。10例(29.4%)难治性 CSE 的mRS>3;实验室检查无明显恶化。结论:SV治疗缺血性脑卒中后CSE安全有效,特别是mRS低分值患者。%Objective:To explore the treatment effect of sodium valproate(SV) for convulsive status epilepticus(CSE) of cerebral arterial thrombosis.Methods:38 patients with CSE were selected.They were treated with SV.We observed the effect of treatment. Results:24 cases(63.15% ) were treated successfully,and 4 cases had adverse reactions.The mRS was greater than 3 of 10 patients(29.4% ) with intractable CSE,and laboratory tests showed no deterioration.Conclusion:SV was safe and effective for treating CSE after cerebral arterial thrombosis,especially for patients with low mRS scores.

  17. Neuropeptide Y,Brain-derived neurotrophic factor,Interleukin-6 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children with convulsive diseases%惊厥性疾病患儿血浆和脑脊液中神经肽Y、脑源性神经营养因子、白介素-6的水平变化及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭向阳; 焦富勇; 王侠; 高颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective:In order to study the levels and relationship of neuropeptide Y(NPY) , brain-derived neuro-trophic factor(BDNF) , interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) in children convulsion. Methods: 74 children with convulsive diseases were studied as following: obtaining the samples of plasma in the first day and the seventh day after being in hospital, and the samples of CSF in the lst after being in hospital. We investigated the changes of NPY, BDNF, IL-6 in plasma and CSF with radioimmunoassay(RIA). Results: In children with convulsive diseases ( febrile sei zure, epilepsy ) NPY, IL-6 in plasma and CSF were increased, but BDNF decreased. NPY, IL-6 and BDNF were higher in the seventh day than those in the first day in plasma and CSF. NPY and BDNF in different types of febrile seizures and epi leptic seizures were no difference, but IL-6 had differences. The levels of NPY, IL-6 in plasma and CSF correlated with the times of convulsion,but BDNF had no correlation to the times of convulsion. NPY, BDNF and IL-6 in plasma positively correlated with those in CSF respectively; In plasma and CSF NPY had significantly positive correlation to IL-6, and nega tive correlation to BDNF; BDNF was negatively correlation to IL-6. Conclusion: NPY, IL-6 in plasma and CSF are elevated in children with convulsive diseases and have correlation to the times of convulsion, changing in the different course of con vulsion. There are positive correlation in NPY, BDNF, IL-6 between plasma and CSF. The levels of those in plasma could indirectly reflect the levels of those in CSF. In plasma and CSF NPY have significantly positive correlation to IL-6 and nega tive correlation to BDNF; BDNF is negatively correlation to IL-6.%目的:探讨惊厥性疾病患儿血浆和脑脊液中神经肽Y(NPY)、脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)、白介素-6(IL-6)的水平变化及相互关系.方法:选取惊厥性疾病患儿74例,分别在入院第1天、第7天采取静脉血,第7天

  18. Study on the protective function and its mechanism of cyclosporin A to immature brain tissue with convulsive brain damage%环孢素A对未成熟脑惊厥性损伤的保护作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚乐; 黄绍平; 李丹; 杨琳; 周戬平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective function and its mechanisms of eyclosporin A to immature brain tissue with convulsive brain damage. Methods 21-day-old SD rats were given lithium-pilocarpine to make the epilepsy model. Total 67 male rats had been investigated. Cyclosporin A (CsA) were injected three times at 6, 30, 54 hrs after model had been established. Three dosages had been chosen: 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg each time. The level of apoptotic cells, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CA1 area of hippocampus had been determined, and compared with the rats without giving CsA. Results Rats from epilepsy model group had higher level of apoptosis, P-gp, GFAP expression than those from pseudo-model group. CsA injection by dose 5 mg/kg each time for three times reduced the level of P-gp, GFAP. Model group and pseudo-model group were same. Both the interventions of CsA injection by 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg can reduce the level of P-gp, GFAP, however neither of their effectiveness was better than CsA 5 mg/kg each time. Conclusions Small dosage of CsA may protect the immature brain tissue from convulsive brain damage by reducing the level of P-gp, GFAP in CA1 area of hippocampus.%目的 探讨环孢素A(CsA)对未成熟脑惊厥性损伤的保护作用及机制.方法 21日龄SD雄性大鼠67只,制作氯化锂-匹鲁卡品癫(癎)模型,分别于制模后6、30、54 h采用CsA干预,分5、10、25 ms/(kg·次),三个干预剂量,与模型不干预组对比,观察制模后72 h脑海马CA1区凋亡细胞、多药耐药基因产物P-糖蛋白(P-gp)、星形胶质细胞纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)表达情况等.结果 模型组比假手术组海马CA1区凋亡细胞、P-gP、GFAP表达明显增加,CsA 5 me,/(kg·次)干预组可显著减少P-gP、GFAP表达,且与假手术组水平接近,CsA 10 ms/(kg·次)、CsA 25 me,/(kg·次)有相似效果,但不及CsA 5 ms/(kg·次)效果明显.CsA干预不能减少凋亡细胞.结论 中小剂量Cs

  19. Analysis of clinical characteristics and plasma level of mannose-binding lectin in 68 children with febrile convulsion%68例热性惊厥患儿临床特点及其血浆甘露糖结合凝集素水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超前; 华春珍; 罗巧二; 王琦婧; 戴凯丽; 黄邢邢; 杨钦梳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the clinical characteristics of febrile convulsion (FC) occurred in children and study the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels in plasma at both acute and convalescent stages in the case group. [Methods] Plasma samples were separated from whole blood which was collected from children with FC at the acute and convalescent stages during August 2010 to July 2011. The MBL concentrations were measured by ELISA method and the SPSS 11. 0 software was used in the study. [Results] Among all 68 cases,The mean MBL levels were (595 + 559)ng/mL at acute stage and (585 ± 466)ng/mL in recovery stage,and no significant difference was found between the two groups (Z = 0. 207,P = 0. 836). However,there was a significant correlation of the MBL levels between the two stages (r=0. 809, P<0. 01). 29. 4% of all individuals had low MBL levels less than 200 ng/mL at convalescent stage. Acute reaction of MBL was observed in 38. 2% children with FC. No correlation was found between MBL levels and CRP levels(r =-0. 15,P=0. 22). It was found that 89. 7% of the FC children was caused by acute upper respiratory tract infection. The creatine kinase-MB exceeding normal value was found in 54. 1% of all individuals. [Conclusion] As a whole, convulsion acting as a kind of stress, had no significant effects on the MBL level in vivo.%[目的]了解热性惊厥患儿的临床特点及其血浆甘露糖结合凝集素(mannose-binding lectin,MBL)水平在惊厥前后的变化. [方法]对2010年8月-2011年7月在本院住院的68例热性惊厥患儿,应用ELISA法检测急性期与恢复期血浆MBL浓度,同时进行临床特点分析.统计分析采用SPSS 11.0. [结果]急性期和恢复期MBL平均浓度分别为(595±559) ng/mL和(585±466) ng/mL,二者差异无统计学意义(Z=0.207,P=0.836),急性期与恢复期MBL水平呈线性相关(r=0.809,P<0.01).其中恢复期MBL血浆浓度<200 ng/mL的病例占29.4%,MBL参与急性应答占全部病例的38.2%.MBL浓

  20. Establishment and Effects of Nursing Clinic Pathway of Modified Electric Convulsive Therapy in Psychiatric Department%精神科无抽搐电休克治疗临床护理路径的建立与实施效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春霞; 陈海勤; 徐美英; 潘晓芳; 叶美凤; 徐伟琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of clinical pathway on the improvement of the nursing quality of modified electric convulsive therapy (MECT) in psychiatric department. Methods Using convenience sampling, 100 patients undergoing the initial MECT in the hospital between March and August 2011 were enrolled in the study. Two male and female wards were randomly selected as control group(n=50) , while the other two male and female wards were selected as the research group(n= 50). Patients in the control group were treated with the regular nursing care, while patients in the research group were given the clinical pathway. The nursing safety, health education, basic care, complication, nursing writing time and the MECT treatment satisfaction were compared between the two groups with a self-designed nursing quality evaluation form. Results The quality of care and patient satisfaction in the research group were significantly higher than those in the control group,while the recording time and the incidence of complications in the research group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0. 05). Conclusion The establishment and implementation of the clinical pathway on the MECT in psychiatric department contributes to standardizing the treatment procedure, saving recording time and improving nursing quality and the satisfaction of patients' families.%目的 探讨临床路径在提高精神科无抽搐电休克治疗(modified electric convulsive therapy,MECT)护理质量中的作用.方法 方便性抽样选择2011年3-8月湖州市第三人民医院普通精神科首次入院进行MECT治疗的患者100例,各抽取男女两个病房作为对照组和观察组,每组50例,对照组采用常规护理,观察组采用临床路径进行护理;应用自制的护理质量评定表比较两组患者治疗前后的护理安全、健康宣教、基础护理、并发症、护理书写时间及MECT治疗满意度.结果 结果表明,观察组的护理质量、患者满

  1. 依达拉奉对惊厥持续状态幼年大鼠海马IL-1β、NF-κB表达及细胞凋亡的影响%Effects of edaravone on the expression of interleukin-1β,nuclear factor-κB and neuron apoptosis in juvenile rat hippocampus after status convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海萍; 邓小龙; 李光乾

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of edaravone on expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and neuron apoptosis in the juvenile rat hippocampus after status convulsion (SC). Methods One hundred and ninty-five juvenile male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group, status convulsive group and edaravone treatment group. Each group was further divided into five subgroups for different time points. The rats in status convulsive group were kindled into epilepsy by lithium-pilocarpine chemical method. Expressions of IL-1β and NF-κB proteins were detected with immunohistochemistry methods. Expression of NF-κB mRNA was detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The neuron apoptosis was observed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL). Results (1)Measured by immunohistochemistry the value of IOD of IL-1β(30.83±3.81,41.00±5.61, 36.32±6.78 and 28.48±4.61, respectively, 12-72 h points) and NF-κB (67.60±5.81,74.61±7.94, 82.43±10.67, 70.70±5.85 and 68.22±9.67, respectively, 4-72 h points) positive cells in the SC group increased, there was significant difference compared with NS group (IL-1β: 11.74±2.32, 12.93±2.49, 13.02±2.83 and 12.98±5.29, respectively, 12-72 h points. NF-κB: 48.67±16.14, 44.62±7.82, 53.16±14.45, 54.27±5.25 and 55.56±7.56, respectively, 4-72 h points) (P<0.01, or P<0.05). By ED intervention in IL-1β (22.01±4.45, 28.28±4.50 and 26.00±5.34, respectively, 12-48 h points) and NF-κB (58.56±6.37, 59.86±6.73, 70.00±10.09, 64.78±7.56 and 64.45±6.51, respectively, 4-72 h points) positive cells value of the IOD decreased as compared with SC group(P<0.01, or P<0.05). (2) Measured by RT-PCR, the expression of NF-κB mRNA and protein trend was similar. (3) The TUNEL positive cells in hippocampns, CA1 of SC group (11.41±2.37) were more than that of NS group 12 h after the SC (P<0.01), reached its highest level at 48 h (28.78±5

  2. 异丙酚预先给药对抑郁大鼠电休克后海马Glu和GABA水平的影响%Effects of propofol pretreatment on the levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid in hippocampus of mentally depressed rats after electro-convulsive therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永峰; 闵苏; 董军; 魏珂; 曹俊; 黎平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of propofol pretreatment on the levels of glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobytyric acid (GABA) in hippocampus of mentally depressed rats after electro-convulsive therapy.Methods Thirty male 2-3 month old SD rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 5 groups ( n = 6each) : group Ⅰ control (C) ; group Ⅱ mental depression (D) ; group Ⅲ propofol (P) ; group Ⅳ electric shock (E) and groupV propofol + electric shock (PE). Mental depression was induced by subjecting the animals to different kinds of stresses every day for 21 consecutive days in group Ⅱ - Ⅴ. After mental depression had been induced, the animals received intraperitoneal (IP) propofol 100 mg/kg in group P, electric shock in group E and propefol 100 mg/kg + electric shock in group PE respectively once every 2 days × 6 times. The anxiety-related behavior was assessed by open-field test and scored (the higher the score the better) on the day before induction of mental depression was started (To ,baseline), on the 1st day after mental depression had been induced (T1) and on the 2nd day after treatment (T2). The learning ability and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze at T1 and T2. The animals were killed after the last test and their brains were removed and bilateral hippocampi were isolated for determination of glutamate and GABA contents by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results The behavior scores and learning ability and memory were significandy decreased in group Ⅱ-Ⅴ as compared with the control group (P0.05);与E组比较,PE组学习记忆功能增强,Glu含量升高,GABA含量降低,Glu/GABA比值升高(P<0.05).结论 异丙酚预先给药改善电休克治疗后学习记忆功能的机制可能与异丙酚调节Glu和GABA功能状态的平衡有关.

  3. Treatment Strategies fir the NMDA Component of Organophosphorous Convulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Peterson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of New Mexico Health Science Center Albuquerque, NM 87131-5041 REPORT DATE: April 2005 TYPE OF...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION University of New Mexico Health REPORT NUMBER Science Center Albuquerque, NM 87131-5041 E-Mail: bonfire@unm.edu... Epilepsia 41(S6):S3-S8. Bertram, E.H., Mangan, P.S., Zhang, D., et al., 2001. The midline thalamus: alterations and a potential role in limbic

  4. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Spreading depolarization of cells in cerebral grey matter is characterized by massive ion translocation, neuronal swelling and large changes in direct current-coupled voltage recording. The near-complete sustained depolarization above the inactivation threshold for action potential generating...

  5. Maternal vitamin D deficiency associated with neonatal hypocalcaemic convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbott Rebecca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal vitamin D insufficiency is not uncommon. Infants born to mothers who are deficient in vitamin D and or calcium, usually due to cultural modifications in their diets or clothing habits, and in addition are breastfed, are at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency and hypocalcaemia. We present a case of neonatal hypocalcaemic seizures secondary to vitamin D deficiency. Rickets in children resulting from vitamin D deficiency is well documented. It is also becoming clear that there is a positive correlation between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and lactation and the development of rickets both in infancy and childhood. The correlation between maternal vitamin D, neonatal vitamin D and hypocalcaemia is not well documented.

  6. Avant-garde: The Convulsions of a Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Jones

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the «avant-garde» provokes many questions, which include both inner-artistic matters and matters of history and society commonly associated with Marxist or reception-oriented thinkers. The convolution of questions cannot be disentangled; efforts to confront the dilemmas of the avant-garde cannot abstract from matters of commodification, recent reception, or the complex dialectic of «classical» and «modern.» The essay deals with the most recent manifestations of avant-garde aesthetic impulses. It emphasizes the historical and social aspects of German theorizing in contrast to purely formalist or ahistorical conceptions commonly found elsewhere. It insists that such «materialist» theory does greater justice than formalist conceptualizations to the proverbial connections of «art» and «life.» It tries to integrate the present phenomenon of proliferating theory into the theoretical exposition, as a characteristic trait of the current situation. It warns against abandoning the subversive content of classical modernism in the course of developing a theory of post-modernism.

  7. Vertebral artery dissection associated with generalized convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2013-01-01

    showed a left-sided pontine infarction, an infarct in the left cerebellar hemisphere and a right vertebral artery dissection (VAD). The patient was treated with heparin and an oral anticoagulant for 6 months. Recovery of neurologic function was excellent. In patients with symptoms of disturbances...

  8. [A rare cause of afebrile convulsion: rotavirus gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabel, Müsemma; Karabel, Duran; Kara, Semra; Halıcı Taş, Tuğba; Türkay, Sadi

    2013-04-01

    Rotavirus is the most common infectious diarrhea that causes important mortality and morbidities in small children, severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Extraintestinal signs are rare in rotavirus infections. Recently, afebrile seizures associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis but without encephalopathy, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance or hypoglycemia have being reported. In this article, the fact that rotavirus, which is seen commonly in our country, can be confronted with various clinical manifestations was emphasized by reminding that it can be seen not only in infants with neurologic and systemic disease but also in healthy infants.

  9. [An uncommon cause of hypocalcemic convulsion: congenital rickets. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabel, Duran; Karabel, Musemma; Yilmaz, Ayse Esra; Tas, Tugba; Karayel, Metin

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and rickets are major health problems in developing countries. Congenital rickets is a rare form of rickets. Maternal vitamin D deficiency is the most important risk factor for vitamin D deficiency and rickets in newborns and early infancy. In this report, we presented a two-month old infant with seizures while hospitalized for pulmonary infection. Finally, congenital rickets due to maternal vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed.

  10. Clinical observation on the application of etomidate and propofol induced anesthesia in the non-convulsion electric shock therapy for senile patient%依托咪酯联合丙泊酚诱导麻醉用于老年患者无抽搐电休克治疗的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉萍; 王晓敏; 肖文斌; 沈曙光; 何永光; 李士通

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨依托咪酯联合丙泊酚诱导麻醉用于老年患者无抽搐电休克治疗(MECT)的安全性及疗效.方法 2009年8月至2010年10月收治的需行MECT的老年患者60例,男42例,女18例,年龄60~85岁.按随机化顺序均分为依托咪酯与丙泊酚联合组(A组)、依托咪酯组(B组)和丙泊酚组(C组).A组静注依托咪酯0.15 mg/kg、丙泊酚1mg/kg;B组静注依托咪酯0.3mg/kg;C组静注丙泊酚2 mg/kg.测定三组患者麻醉前、麻醉诱导后和MECT后5、10 min的SBP、DBP、HR、SpO2以及麻醉前、MECT 10 min后的血糖.记录治疗过程中每组患者的脑电癫痫波发作时间及不良反应.结果 B组MECT后5、10 min SBP、DBP明显高于、HR明显快于A、C组,B组MECT后10 min血糖明显高于麻醉前和A、C组(P<0.05).A、B组脑电癫痫波发作时间明显长于C组(P<0.01);A组不良反应发生率明显低于B组(P<0.05).结论 依托咪酯联合丙泊酚诱导麻醉用于老年患者MECT安全有效,对血流动力学影响轻微,同时能明显延长脑癫痫波发作时间,减少不良反应的发生.%Objective To explore the curative effect and safety of the etomidate and propofol induced anesthesia in the non-convulsion electric shock therapy ( MECT) for senile patient Methods Sixty senile patients (42 males and 18 females aged 60 to 85 years old) needing MECT from August, 2009 to October, 2010 were randomized into three groups, one group using etomidate and propofol (group A), one group using etomidate (group B), and one group using propofol (group C). Patients in group A are given etomidate fat emulsion injection 0. 15 mg/kg and propofol 1 mg/kg in their venae, etomidate 0. 3 mg/kg in group B, and propofol 2 mg/kg in group C. SBP, DBP, HR, and SpO2 are measured respectively before these three groups of patients are anesthetized, after anesthesia induction, and 5 min and 10 min after MECT. Blood glucose is also measured before anesthesia and 10 min after MECT. The onset time

  11. Control study of modified electric convulsive therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms%无抽搐电休克治疗以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate curative effect and safety of modified electric convulsive therapy (MECT) in the treatment of schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms.Methods A total of 70 schizophrenia patients with predominantly negative symptoms were divided by admission order into research group and control group, with 35 cases in each group. The research group received sulpiride combined with MECT for treatment, and the control group received sulpiride alone. Scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS) and scale for assessment of negative symptoms (SANS) were used to evaluate clinical effects, and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) was used to evaluate adverse reactions.Results At the end of 8-week treatment, the effective rate was 79.4% in the research group, and 54.3% in the control group. Both groups had gradually reduced SAPS and SANS scores along with treatment. After 2 weeks of treatment, the research group had more remarkably decreased SAPS score than the control group. The research group also had more decreased SANS total score and factors scores than the control group after 4 weeks. Their differences all had statistical significance (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Adverse reactions in most patients were tolerable in both groups, and some were relieved treatment. They had no influence on treatment.Conclusion Combination of sulpiride and MECT provides excellent effect in treating schizophrenia patients with predominantly negative symptoms. This method provides quick onset effect, remarkable effect for negative symptoms and other psychotic symptoms, and high safety.%目的 探讨无抽搐电休克治疗(MECT)对以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症的疗效和安全性.方法 70例以阴性症状为主的精神分裂症患者按住院顺序分为研究组和对照组, 各35例.研究组应用舒必利联合无抽搐电休克治疗, 对照组单用舒必利治疗.以阳性症状量表(SAPS)与阴性症状量表(SANS)评定临床疗效、治疗中出

  12. Alteration of electrophysiology and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus of juvenile rats following a status convulsion%持续惊厥后幼年大鼠海马电生理学变化及脑源性神经营养因子表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊佳佳; 蒋莉; 陈恒胜; 胡越

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究幼年期大鼠长时程惊厥(status convulsion,SC)后海马电生理学与海马脑源性神经营养因子(brain-derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)表达变化,探索两者之间的可能关系.方法:选择生后21 d Wistar鼠160只,随机分为对照组和实验组,每组80只.腹腔注射氯化锂-匹罗卡品制造SC模型;以腹腔注射生理盐水为对照组.造模后1、7、14、21 d膜片钳技术检测海马场兴奋性突触后电位(field excitatory postsynaptic potentials,fEPSP)斜率与波幅的变化,比较长时程增强(long-term potentiation,LTP)现象.造模后12 h、1d、3、7、14、21 d免疫组织化学观察海马区BDNF表达的定位情况,Western blot方法鉴定其表达情况.结果:(1)SC后7d,实验组tEPSP斜率为(162.30±28.50)%高于对照组(124.01±26.46)%(P<0.05);SC后14 d实验组和对照组fEPSP斜率分别为(83.06±8.32)%和(121.64±23.12)%,波幅分别为(100.54±16.03)%和(135.65±35.85)%,实验组较对照组斜率及波幅明显降低,有统计学差异(P<0.05).(2)免疫组织检查发现SC后大鼠海马CA1,CA3区BDNF阳性着色均有不同程度的增强,实验组在SC后12h、1d、3、7d较正常组有增多趋势,14 d及21 d组无明显差别.(3) Western blot测定BDNF表达情况,SC后12 h、1d、3、7d分别为:1.08±0.10、1.39±0.08、0.85±0.04、0.53±0.06,对照组分别为:0.39±0.16、0.37±0.03、0.39±0.02、0.37±0.04,实验组与对照组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:(1)幼年大鼠SC后fEPSP斜率在SC后7d较正常组增高;在SC后14 d fEPSP斜率及波幅较对照组和其他实验组明显降低.提示SC后急性期LTP增高,潜伏期LTP降低.(2)经免疫组化和Western blot方法检测,提示BDNF表达受SC刺激影响,在SC后急性期表达明显增多.(3)BDNF在LTP形成过程中可能起重要作用.

  13. 伴紫癜、抽搐和甲硫氨酸血症的citrin缺陷病患儿临床表型与基因突变分析%Clinical investigation and mutation analysis of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura,convulsive seizures and methioninemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏强; 王国兵; 陈占玲; 刘晓红; 崔冬; 赏月; 李成荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features and SLC25A13 gene mutations of a child with citrin deficiency complicated with purpura,convulsive seizures and methioninemia.Methods The patient was subjected to physical examination and routine laboratory tests.Blood amino acids and acylcarnitines,and urine organic acids and galactose were analyzed respectively with tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatographic mass spectrometry.SLC25A13 gene mutation screening was conducted by high resolution melt (HRM) analysis.Results The petechiae on the patient's face and platelet count (27 × 109/L,reference range 100 × 109/L 300 × 109/L) supported the diagnosis of immunologic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).Laboratory tests found that the patient have abnormal coagulation,cardiac enzyme,liver function and liver enzymes dysfunction.Tandem mass spectrometry also found methionine to be increased (286 μmol/L,reference ranges 8 μmol/L 35 μmol/L).The patient did not manifest any galactosemia,citrullinemia and tyrosinemia.Analysis of SLC25A13 gene mutation found that the patient has carried IVS16ins3kb,in addition with abnormal HRM result for exon 6.Direct sequencing of exon 6 revealed a novel mutation c.495delA.The same mutation was not detected in 100 unrelated healthy controls.Further analysis of her family has confirmed that the c.495delA mutation has derived from her farther,and that the IVS16ins3kb was derived from her mother.Conclusion The clinical features and metabolic spectrum of citrin deficiency can be variable.The poor prognosis and severity of clinical symptoms of the patient may be attributed to the novel c.495delA mutation.%目的 分析1例伴紫癜、抽搐和甲硫氨酸血症为主要表现的citrin缺陷病患儿的临床特征,并探讨其SLC25A13基因突变类型.方法 对患儿进行体格与一般实验室项目检查;应用串联质谱分析血氨基酸和肉碱浓度,气相色谱质谱法检测尿有机酸及半乳糖含量;应用高分辨率熔

  14. 咪达唑仑静脉给药治疗小儿惊厥性癫痫持续状态的疗效观察%Study on the effect of midazolam intravenous therapy for children with convulsive status epilepticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马茂雷; 张丽娜; 钟家洋; 施静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of midazolam intravenous therapy for children with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE).Methods 133 admitted CSE children were randomly divided into treatment group (n =6 8) and control group (n =6 5).Based on symptomatic treatment,the control group was given diazepam plus phenobarbital intravenous injection,the treatment group was given midazolam injection plus intravenous infusion scheme.The clinical efficacy and adverse drug reactions were observed and compared between the two groups.Results After treatment for 3h,the total effective rate of the treatment group was 91.2%,which was significantly higher than 76.9% of control group(x2 =5.078,P =0.024).Among children with markedly effective and effective effect,the mean onset time (49.3 ± 10.4)min and seizure control time (112.1 + 24.7)min of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of control group (73.8 + 15.4) min,(157.2 ± 38.4) min,the differences were statistically significant(u =9.619,7.191,P =0.000).15 ineffective cases of control group were transferred into midazolam intravenous therapy,the total effective rate after 3h was 73.3% (11/15).1 case died in both two groups.In control group,the proportion of complications such as muscle tension descending,heart rate and blood pressure variation,respiratory depression,et al.was 49.2%,which was significantly higher than 30.9% of the treatment group (x2 =4.668,P =0.31).Conclusion Compared with diazepam plus phenobarbital scheme,midazolam intravenous administration in treatment of children with CSE takes effect faster,and with higher safety.With the increasing of midazolam dosage,alert should be taken to drug influence on respiration and heart rate.%目的 观察咪达唑仑静脉给药治疗小儿惊厥性癫痫持续状态(CSE)的临床疗效.方法 将CSE患儿133例按数字表法随机分为治疗组(n=68)与对照组(n=65),在对症治疗原发病基础上,对照组予地西泮联合苯巴比

  15. 惊厥持续状态幼年大鼠海马CHOP水平的动态变化及依达拉奉对其表达的影响%Dynamic Changes in Expression of CHOP in Juvenile Rat Hippocampus after Status Convulsion and Effects of Edaravone on Its Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 王海萍; 李光乾

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察惊厥持续状态(SC)幼年大鼠海马前凋亡因子CHOP 动态表达及神经细胞凋亡的变化,探讨依达拉奉(ED)对二者的影响.方法 将195只SD幼年雄性大鼠随机分为9 g·L-1盐水对照组(NS组)、SC组和ED组,每组65只,各组均按SC后处死时间点分为2 h、12 h、24 h、48 h、72 h 5个亚组,每组13只.应用氯化锂-毛果芸香碱建立大鼠SC模型,用半定量反转录-PCR(RT-PCR)动态观察SC后大鼠海马CHOP mRNA的表达,采用免疫组织化学SABC法检测海马CA1区CHOP蛋白表达;并用HE染色观察海马CA1区病理改变,原位细胞凋亡检测法(TUNEL)观察海马CA1区神经元凋亡细胞数.结果 1.RT-PCR法:SC组幼年大鼠海马CHOP mRNA表达于2 h开始增加,于12 h达高峰,之后开始下降;与NS组各时间点比较差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);与SC组比较,ED组(2 h,12 h,48 h)CHOP mRNA表达均明显下降(Pa<0.05,0.01).2.免疫组织化学结果:SC组幼年大鼠海马CHOP蛋白表达于2 h开始增加,12 h明显增加,24 h达高峰;与NS组各时间点比较差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);ED组各时间点均较SC组明显降低(Pa<0.01,0.05).3.TUNEL结果:SC组海马CA1区TUNEL阳性细胞数于惊厥后24 h迅速增加,48 h达高峰(Pa<0.05,0.01);与NS组比较,12~72 h时间点组均明显高于NS组(Pa<0.01);与SC组比较,ED组12~72 h CA1区TUNEL阳性细胞数明显减少(P<0.05,0.01).4.HE染色:SC后出现神经元变性及丢失,48 h组病理改变最显著,与TUNEL表达一致;而ED组病理改变减轻.结论 SC后早期幼年大鼠可能触发了内质网应激中CHOP介导的凋亡信号途径,从而引起了脑损伤;而ED可能通过下调其表达,从而缓解惊厥后脑损伤.%Objective To investigate the dynamic expressions of CHOP in juvenile rat hippocampus alter status convulsion, and the changes in apoptosis of nerve cells,and to explore the effects of edaravone( ED) on them. Methods One hundred and ninety - five juvenile male Sprague

  16. Speed and Convulsive Beauty: Trains and the Historic Avant-garde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylaura Papalas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The train, an invention and evocative symbol of the 19th century, somewhat ironically continued to fascinate avant-garde artists and writers of the 20th century, when faster and more exciting modes of transportation were in use. Locomotive imagery in Italian futurism and French surrealism, however, demonstrates a lasting fascination with speed, locomotive space, and their effect on perceptions of reality. Considering the work of more recent theorists like Paul Virilio, Michel Foucault, and various others who have contributed to the growing field of mobility studies, this paper aims to understand the persisting presence of the train as a symbol of an alternative reality in historic avant-garde work, particularly that of the Italian Futurists and the French Surrealists.

  17. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  18. Disulfiram-Induced De Novo Convulsions without Alcohol Challenge: Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ranganath Ramarao; Bairy, Bhavya K

    2015-01-01

    Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF) an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day) with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%), DSF-induced hypertension (HTN) (37.5%), psychosis (12.5%) were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5%) were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5%) even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%). Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution.

  19. Disulfiram-induced seizures with convulsions in a young male patient: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrishabhendraiah, Santosh Shanbhog; Gopal Das, C M; Jagadeesh, M Kasi; Mruthyunjaya, N

    2015-01-01

    Disulfiram is the aversive therapeutic agent which has been used to treat alcohol dependence more than 50 years. It causes the complications like neurological toxicity, postural hypotension, circulatory collapse, mental confusion, etc. The aim of our study was to report a rare case of disulfiram-induced seizures in a patient of alcohol dependence syndrome. This case study is about a 35-year-old male patient who had one episode of seizures during treatment with disulfiram.

  20. Ictal epileptic headache revealing non convulsive status epilepticus in a case of eyelid myoclonia with absences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Albini, Mariarita; Casciato, Sara; Manfredi, Mario; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Epileptic seizures and headache attacks are two common neurologic phenomena characterized by paroxysmal alteration of brain functions followed by complete restauration of the baseline condition. Headache and epilepsy are related in numerous ways, and they often co-occur. Although the link between these two diseases is not completely clear, several clinical, physiopathological and therapeutic features overlap. Headache is reported in association with epileptic seizures as a pre-ictal, ictal or post-ictal phenomenon. We present the case of a 40 year-old woman affected by eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA) with a history of prolonged headache attacks. A video-EEG recording performed during one of these episodes showed subcontinuous epileptic activity consisting of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs), clinically associated with tensive headache. Our work represents one of the few well EEG-documented cases of ictal epileptic headache in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE).

  1. Comparison between the effect of propofol and midazolam on picrotoxin-induced convulsions in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zuheir A; Abdel Razzak, Rima L; Alzoubi, Karem H

    2014-04-10

    Propofol is a short acting intravenous anesthetic that has been used in the treatment of status epileptics. However, the occurrence of seizures in epileptic and non-epileptic patients during recovery from propofol induced anesthesia suggests that propofol may have proconvulsant effects. We have previously shown that propofol displays anticonvulsant effects against picrotoxin (PTX) induced seizures during its peak sedative effects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the time course of the effect of intravenous administration of various doses (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) of propofol and midazolam on PTX-induced seizures in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The latency to onset of clonic seizures induced by intraperitoneal injection of PTX was significantly increased by the highest dose of propofol and all doses of midazolam, suggesting that both agents display anticonvulsant effects. The anticonvulsant effects of propofol (10 mg/kg) lasted about 20 min and PTX-induced clonic seizures were observed thereafter and peaked within 30 min post drug administration. Clonic seizures progressed rapidly to tonic seizures leading to high rate of PTX-induced mortality. In midazolam (10 mg/kg) treated rats, clonic seizures were observed 25 min after drug administration and the number of rats exhibiting clonic seizures was highest within 40 min. However, clonic seizures did not progress into tonic seizures and thus, PTX-induced seizure related mortality was significantly reduced. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence for the anticonvulsant effects of propofol and midazolam against PTX-induced seizures. Furthermore, the data of the current study showed that midazolam was more effective than propofol against PTX-induced tonic seizures.

  2. Efficacy of Continuous High Dose Midazolam Infusion in Childhood Refractory Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Fayyazi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available bjeciveProlonged and uncontrolled refractory status epilepticus (SE is a life-threatening medical emergency in children (1,2,3. There is no consensus on the optimal therapy for refractory status epilepticus (1. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for treating patients with refractory status epilepticus.Materials & MethodsTen children with refractory status epilepticus in Mofid Hospital, who did not respond to 10 μg/kg per min of intravenous midazolam, had their dose of midazolam increased to 30 μg/kg per min. All children were monitored for the development of side effects.ResultsTen children with no response to low-dose midazolam were given a higher dose of midazolam, and 5 (50% children had a good response. These patients had significantly different response to high-dose midazolam.One patient in the high-dose midazolam group was intubated and required mechanical ventilation. The duration of stay in the hospital and PICU and on mechanical ventilation in patients with no response to low-dose midazolam following with other drugs was longer than in the high-dose midazolam group.No death occurred in high dose midazolam group.ConclusionHigh-midazolam dose drip infusion is a safe and effective protocol for refractory status epilepticus in children.

  3. 38 CFR 4.124a - Schedule of ratings-neurological conditions and convulsive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... perform previously learned motor activities, despite normal motor function). 2 Motor activity mildly...-psychotic organic psychiatric disturbance (psychotic, psychoneurotic or personality disorder) if diagnosed... psychotic or psychroneurotic disorder will be rated under the appropriate diagnostic code. The personality...

  4. Disulfiram-induced de novo convulsions without alcohol challenge: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath Ramarao Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%, DSF-induced hypertension (HTN (37.5%, psychosis (12.5% were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5% were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5% even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution.

  5. Serotonin neurones have anti-convulsant effects and reduce seizure-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Murray, Nicholas M; Hajek, Michael A; Richerson, George B

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. Defects in central control of breathing are important contributors to the pathophysiology of SUDEP, and serotonin (5-HT) system dysfunction may be involved. Here we examined the effect of 5-HT neurone elimination or 5-HT reduction on seizure risk and seizure-induced mortality. Adult Lmx1bf/f/p mice, which lack >99% of 5-HT neurones in the CNS, and littermate controls (Lmx1bf/f) were subjected to acute seizure induction by maximal electroshock (MES) or pilocarpine, variably including electroencephalography, electrocardiography, plethysmography, mechanical ventilation or pharmacological therapy. Lmx1bf/f/p mice had a lower seizure threshold and increased seizure-induced mortality. Breathing ceased during most seizures without recovery, whereas cardiac activity persisted for up to 9 min before terminal arrest. The mortality rate of mice of both genotypes was reduced by mechanical ventilation during the seizure or 5-HT2A receptor agonist pretreatment. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced mortality of Lmx1bf/f but not of Lmx1bf/f/p mice. In C57BL/6N mice, reduction of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine increased MES-induced seizure severity but not mortality. We conclude that 5-HT neurones raise seizure threshold and decrease seizure-related mortality. Death ensued from respiratory failure, followed by terminal asystole. Given that SUDEP often occurs in association with generalised seizures, some mechanisms causing death in our model might be shared with those leading to SUDEP. This model may help determine the relationship between seizures, 5-HT system dysfunction, breathing and death, which may lead to novel ways to prevent SUDEP. PMID:25107926

  6. Investigation of Hypericum perforatum extract on convulsion induced by picrotoxin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, Leila; Heidari, Mahmoud Reza; Heidari, Mohammad; Moshiri, Mohammad; Behravan, Effat; Abbasifard, Mitra; Azimzadeh, Behzad Sarvar

    2011-04-01

    Therapeutic effect of Hypericum perforatum L. has been well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of Hypericum methanolic extract against seizure induced by picrotoxin in mice. The study were performed on four groups of animals. They received percolated extract of Hypericum perforatum at the doses of 25, 50, 100 & 200 mg/kg intra peritoneally. After 20 minutes animals received picrotoxin 10 mg/kg for induction of seizure. Latency of seizure, duration of seizure, death latency and percent of mortality were determined. The results indicated that latency of seizure increased in pretreated group with the dose of 50 mg/kg (pHypericum perforatum L. at the dose of 50 mg/kg maybe have some beneficial effect in seizure induced by picrotoxin and this plant is suitable for continuing search in this field.

  7. Convulsive syncope resulting from arrhythmia in a case of congenital deafness with ECG abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Sebus, J.; Heyst, A.N.P. van

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of an 8-year-old girl with the syndrome of Jervell and Lange Nielsen consisting of congenital deafness, prolonged Q-T time in the ECG, and attacks of unconsciousness. In addition there were extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and atrial flutter. T

  8. Zotepine-induced convulsive seizures in a chronic case of treatment resistant paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Khairkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects to antipsychotics are varied, frequently intolerable, often serious and sometimes fatal in clinical practice. Seizures are one of these adverse effects. Almost all first and second generation antipsychotics elicit dose-dependent lowering of seizure threshold, indicating increased seizure risk at higher drug dosages. The adverse event of zotepine induced seizure is published in few case reports. We report the occurrence of myoclonic seizure progressing to generalized tonic-clonic seizures with zotepine along with clear temporal association of dose dependent modulation evident in this case.

  9. Convulsive and nonconvulsive epilepsy in rats: effects on behavioral response to novelty stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midzyanovskaya, I.S.; Shatskova, A.B.; Sarkisova, K.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tuomisto, L.; Kuznetsova, G.D.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral response to a new environment of Wistar and WAG/Rij rats with absence and/or audiogenic seizures (AGSs) was investigated. Behavior was observed in open-field (OF) and light-dark choice (LD) tests. Correlations of test performance with seizure parameters were evaluated. AGS-susceptible Wis

  10. [Convulsion due to application of low dose meperidine: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Halit; Akcan, Abdullah Barış; Aydemir, Gökhan; Akbaş, Mert

    2012-01-01

    Meperidine is an opiod analgesic used in a variety of clinical situations. The active metabolite, normeperidine, is a central nervous system excitatory agent and has the ability to cause irritability, hyperreflexia, tremor, myoclonus and seizures. Previously identified risk factors for the development of meperidine-related seizures include renal failure, high meperidine dosages, and co-adminestration of hepatic enzyme inducing medications or phenothiazines which decreases seizure treshold. Patients with normal renal function rarely manifest seizure activity when given meperidine. Here we report a 10 year old boy with a femur fraction who had normal renal function. We used low dose meperidine due to post operative pains.

  11. Cognitive performance and convulsion risk after experimentally-induced febrile-seizures in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Ebrahim; Abdeen, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair; Alsaffar, Yousif; Mandeel, Mohammad; Al Shawaaf, Fatima; Al-Ansari, Sali; Kamal, Amer

    2014-05-01

    Many reports indicated that small percentage of children with febrile seizures develop epilepsy and cognitive disorders later in adulthood. In addition, the neuronal network of the hippocampus was reported to be deranged in adult animals after being exposed to hyperthermia-induced seizures in their neonatal life. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) latency and probability of seizures, (2) spatial learning and memory, in adult rats after neonatal hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures (FS). Prolonged FS were elicited in 10-day old, male Sprague Dawleys (n=11/group) by exposure to heated air (48-52 °C) for 30 min; control rats were exposed to 30 °C air. After 1.5 months the animal's cognitive performance was assessed by 5 day trial in the Morris water maze. In another experiment the latency and probability of seizures were measured in response to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injections (increased doses ranged from 7 to 140 mg/kg; i.p.). In water maze, both groups showed improvements in escape latency and distance swam to reach the platform; effects were significantly greater in control versus hyperthermia-treated animals on days 3 and 4. Latency and probability of PTZ-induced seizures were shorter and higher respectively, in hyperthermia-treated animals compared to controls. We concluded that FS in neonatal rats leads to enhanced susceptibility for seizures, as well as cognitive deficits in adults.

  12. Cognitive performance and convulsion risk after experimentally-induced febrile-seizures in rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajab, Ebrahim; Abdeen, Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair; Alsaffar, Yousif; Mandeel, Mohammad; Al Shawaaf, Fatima; Al-Ansari, Sali; Kamal, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Many reports indicated that small percentage of children with febrile seizures develop epilepsy and cognitive disorders later in adulthood. In addition, the neuronal network of the hippocampus was reported to be deranged in adult animals after being exposed to hyperthermia-induced seizures in their

  13. A large eruption convulsed in prehistoric times an extensive area of Catamarca, Southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Ratto, Norma; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Rejas, Marta; Lobo, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological, stratigraphical, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of many recent 30-160 cm ash deposits occurring at the Bolsón de Fiambalá in Catamarca, NW Argentina, allow their correlation. This lithostratigraphic unit is named Fiambalá Ash and it is uncovered or covered by colluvial deposits and present-day aeolian deposits, reworked products of the primary fall deposits. The grain size of these ash deposits is gritty rather than silty. They are nearly unique among regional ashes in containing hornblende phenocrysts. In addition, they are made up of glass (subangular blocky shards), feldspars, biotite, and quartz; magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and titanite are scarce. The glass is rhyolitic (˜75 to 79 % m/m SiO2; ˜3 to 4 % m/m Na2O; ˜3 to 5 % m/m K2O; 1 to 2 % m/m CaO; normalized to 100 %). On the other hand, in northern margins of Fiambalá basin, extensive remnants of fines-poor pumiceous debris flows and hyperconcentrated sandflow deposits as thick as 10 m are exposed on the walls of the river gorges, where the base is usually covered, e.g., Chuquisaca River. There is no significant unconformity or intercalation of other materials, thus suggesting rapid emplacement after a single eruptive event. A preliminary age of Fiambalá Ash based on archaeological studies bracket it between 1400-1270 and 1270-980 cal a BP (OxCal 4.2.4, SHCal13, 2 sigma). The geographical distribution, the geomorphological features observed in satellite images and the information on the main trends of the stratigraphy, the abundance of hornblende and biotite in the younger proximal ash fall deposits, ignimbrites and lava-domes of the Nevado Tres Cruces complex, favours this edifice as the strongest candidate to be the source of the Upper Holocene pyroclastic deposits found in the Fiambalá basin. The archaeological records seem to evidence the abrupt environmental and societal changes associated with this major eruption. Significant areas of Catamarca were likely rendered uninhabitable, being dramatic the socio-economic and environmental consequences for generations. However, the resilience was high, as evidenced by the relatively quick reintroduction of cultivated fields. The understanding of these impacts could provide valuable insights to manage volcanic hazards related to large explosive eruptions. Financial support was provided by the QUECA Project (MINECO, CGL2011-23307).

  14. The anti-convulsants lacosamide, lamotrigine, and rufinamide reduce myotonia in isolated human and rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Martin; de Paoli, Frank V; Nielsen, Ole B; Pedersen, Thomas H

    2017-07-01

    In myotonia congenita, loss of ClC-1 Cl(-) channel function results in skeletal muscle hyperexcitability and myotonia. Anti-myotonic treatment has typically targeted the voltage-gated sodium channel in skeletal muscle (Nav1.4). In this study we explored whether 3 sodium channel-modulating anti-epileptics can reduce myotonia in isolated rat and human muscle. Dissected muscles were rendered myotonic by ClC-1 channel inhibition. The ability of the drugs to suppress myotonia was then assessed from subclinical to maximal clinical concentrations. Drug synergy was determined using isobole plots. All drugs were capable of abolishing myotonia in both rat and human muscles. Lamotrigine and rufinamide completely suppressed myotonia at submaximal clinical concentrations, whereas lacosamide had to be raised above the maximal clinical concentration to suppress myotonia completely. A synergistic effect of lamotrigine and rufinamide was observed. These findings suggest that lamotrigine and rufinamide could be considered for anti-myotonic treatment in myotonia congenita. Muscle Nerve 56: 136-142, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Cost-effectiveness of buccal midazolam in the treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures in the outpatient setting in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Martinez-Bermejo, Antonio; Sanchez-Carpintero, Rocío; Ruiz-Falco Rojas, M Luz; Verdu-Perez, Alfonso; Smeyers-Dura, Patricia; Camino-Leon, Rafael; Sanmarti, Francesc X; Santos-Borbujo, José; Pico, Gustavo; Blanco-Barca, Oscar; Cebollero, M Antonia

    2014-06-01

    Introduccion. El tratamiento de las crisis epilepticas prolongadas requiere disponer de una medicacion de rescate comoda, segura y efectiva. Actualmente, el tratamiento estandar en la comunidad es el diacepam rectal. La introduccion de una solucion bucal de midazolam abre una perspectiva nueva en el tratamiento. Objetivo. Evaluar el coste-efectividad del midazolam bucal respecto al diacepam rectal para los niños con un diagnostico de epilepsia que presentan crisis convulsivas prolongadas en la comunidad en España. Materiales y metodos. Modelo coste-efectividad desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) español, con resultados presentados en terminos de costes y años de vida ajustados por calidad. Los datos se obtuvieron de varias fuentes, incluidas las estimaciones de efectividad clinica de un ensayo clinico, de un panel Delphi en España y de una encuesta nacional a padres de niños con epilepsia para determinar las practicas actuales. Resultados. El tratamiento con midazolam bucal produce un ahorro de costes en comparacion con el diacepam rectal. El ahorro para el SNS español es de 5.484 euros por paciente al año. El tratamiento con midazolam bucal ofrece una mejora en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Esto, unido al ahorro de costes, hace que el midazolam bucal sea dominante frente al diacepam rectal en todos los escenarios examinados. Conclusion. Los resultados del modelo muestran que el midazolam bucal es mas coste-efectivo que el diacepam rectal debido a una reduccion en la necesidad de llamadas a la ambulancia y estancias en el hospital, asi como a una mejora en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud.

  16. Evaluation of anticonvulsant effect of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in experimentally induced convulsions in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Naseeruddin Nadeem; Maliha Maqdoom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) exists as the inducible form of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, the levels of which are elevated in inflammatory conditions. COX-2 is located in regions of brain like hippocampus and cerebral cortex. When induced, COX-2 forms prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is responsible for CNS excitation, in turn leading to generation of seizures. COX-2 inhibitors by preventing the formation of PGE2 may serve as effective anticonvulsants. Since none of the anti-epileptics in ...

  17. RDX binds to the convulsant site of the GABAA receptor and increases spontaneous firing rates of cortical neurons in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    RDX (hexahydro-1 ,3,5-trinitro-1 ,3,5-triazine, hexogen, Royal Demolition eXplosive) is an explosive widely used by the military and has been found in soil and ground water in and surrounding training ranges, creating potential hazards to the environment and human health. Oral RD...

  18. 惊厥患儿的脑电图分析%THE ANALYSIS OF EEG ON CHILDREN WITH CONVULSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍俊叶

    2008-01-01

    目的: 探讨癫(癎)、急性病毒性脑炎、热性惊厥(FC)与脑电图(EEG)关系.方法: 记录166例8个月至6岁患儿EEG.结果: 首次EEG异常率达90%,三天后复查EEG异常率达60%,在出现癫(癎)症状的急性病毒性脑炎患儿的EEG描记中,以低至中波幅慢波增多,呈弥散性或局限性异常者居多,出现癫(癎)样放电占50%,由热性惊厥引起的EEG变化,三天后复查EEG大都好转,部分患儿多次EEG检查出现发作性尖波,6岁后发热引起惊厥的患儿,最后诊断为癫(癎).结论: 在小儿发热引起的惊厥中,EEG的检查是一项重要的临床检查项目,对了解脑功能状况、排除病毒性脑炎、癫痫、热性惊厥有重要的参考作用.

  19. Early induction of secretoneurin expression following kainic acid administration at convulsant doses in the rat and gerbil hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, E; Blasi, J; Ferrer, I

    2002-01-01

    The expression of secretogranin-II and its major proteolytic product secretoneurin (SN) is under the control of neuronal excitation, as demonstrated by treating rats with the excitotoxic kainic acid (KA). Differences in the structure and function of the hippocampus in rats and gerbils have been described; these suggest possible differential reactive responses to KA. In the present study, the SN immunostaining pattern in relation with cell damage is analyzed from 6 h to 4 days following KA administration in rats and gerbils. Dramatic differences in the expression of SN were found in the hippocampal complex following KA administration in gerbils and rats. A robust increase in SN immunoreactivity was detected in the pyramidal cell layer of the rat hippocampus, especially in the CA1 area. In the gerbil, however, a strong increase in SN immunostaining was detected in interneurons of the hippocampal formation, as shown by double-labeling immunohistochemistry to SN and the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin. In addition, no damage (in the hippocampal formation) or moderate damage (in the entorhinal cortex) was observed in the gerbil, in contrast to the rat. The administration of KA and the GABA-B receptor inhibitors (CGP56999A or CGP36742) to the gerbil resulted in a strong rise in SN immunoreactitivty in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, as in the rat. However, no increased cell damage was observed under these conditions. The present data provide evidence of a species-differential reactive response to KA that might be based, in part, on distinct inhibitory intrahippocampal circuitry.

  20. The outcome of therapies in refractory and super-refractory convulsive status epilepticus and recommendations for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlisi, Monica; Shorvon, Simon

    2012-08-01

    In a previous paper, we reviewed the range of therapies available for the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus. Here we report a review of the outcome of therapies in refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus. Patients (n = 1168) are reported who had therapy with: thiopental, pentobarbital, midazolam, propofol, ketamine, inhalational anaesthetics (isoflurane, desflurane), antiepileptic drugs (topiramate, lacosamide, pregabalin, levetiracetam), hypothermia, magnesium, pyridoxine, immunotherapy, ketogenic diet, emergency neurosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, vagal nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation. The outcome parameters reported include control of status epilepticus, relapse on withdrawal, breakthrough seizures and mortality. Where reported (596 cases), the long-term outcome was found to be death (35%), severe neurological deficit (13%), mild neurological deficit (13%), undefined deficit (4%) and recovery to baseline (35%). The quality of reported outcome data is generally poor and the number of cases reported for all non-anaesthetic therapies is low. Outcome assessment is complicated by changes in co-medication, delay in response and publication bias. Given these deficits, only broad recommendations can be made regarding optimal therapy. An approach to therapy, divided into first-line, second-line and third-line therapy, is suggested on the basis of this outcome evaluation. The importance of treatments directed at the cause of the status epilepticus, and of supportive ITU care is also emphasized.

  1. Buccal, intranasal or intravenous lorazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions in children in Malawi: An open randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lissauer

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Intravenous lorazepam effectively treats most childhood seizures in this setting. Intranasal and buccal routes are less effective but may be useful in pre-hospital care or when intravenous access cannot be obtained. Further studies comparing intranasal lorazepam to other benzodiazepines, or alternative doses by a non-intravenous route are warranted.

  2. Magnetoconvulsoterapia: indução de convulsões com estimulação magnética transcraniana Magnetic convulsive therapy: seizure induction with TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Alexandro Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A indução proposital de convulsões através da estimulação magnética transcraniana, chamada de magnetoconvulsoterapia, é uma nova técnica que tem sido utilizada para o tratamento de transtornos neuropsiquiátricos, principalmente depressão. É um tratamento que utiliza um aparelho estimulador que cria um campo magnético variável no tempo, aplicado sobre o crânio, através de uma bobina de estimulação. Neste artigo, é feita uma detalhada revisão dos 11 casos nos quais a convulsão foi induzida com finalidade terapêutica. Apesar de ainda incipiente, é uma técnica que poderá substituir a indução elétrica de convulsões (eletroconvulsoterapia, caso se mostre com equivalente eficácia e perfil mais seguro quanto aos efeitos colaterais e complicações, por ser o estímulo mais localizado.The induced seizure through Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, also called magnetic seizure therapy, is a new technique that has been used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, specially depression. It uses a magnetic stimulator that generates a magnetic field that is applied over the patient's skull with a coil. This article reviews the eleven cases in which the seizure was induced deliberately for therapeutic purposes. Although just in it's beginning, it is a technique that can substitute electrically induced seizures (electroconvulsive therapy, if it shows the same efficacy and a more safe profile related to side effects and possible complications, taking the fact that the stimuli are more focused.

  3. Comparison of serum zinc in children younger than 5 years old with febrile convulsion, children with seizures without fever and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vahidi A

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study showed reduced serum zinc levels during febrile seizure. The need for continued research on surface tension in febrile children over several months is recommended. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 972-975

  4. Synaptic Mechanisms of Action of Convulsion-Producing Anticholinesterases. Characterization of Di-Isopropyl Phosphorofluoridate-Induced Epileptiform Activity in the Mammalian Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    EPSP followed by a longer-lasting IPSP [51], which is presumably due to the recurrent excitation of inhibitory interneurons [57]. A calcium-dependent...of the theoretical discharge frequency versus 30 the preset average EPSP amplitude. TABLES 1. Effects of various pharmacological agents on 22...at or near 0 mV [9,18], a result which would indicate that an excitatory postsynaptic potential ( EPSP ) is responsible for pro- ducing these

  5. Acute and chronic effects of the synthetic neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone, against the convulsive and lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol in seizure-kindled mice : comparison with diazepam and valproate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasior, M; Ungard, JT; Beekman, M; Carter, RB; Witkin, JM

    2000-01-01

    A high-affinity positive modulator of the GABA, receptor complex, ganaxolone, is a 3 beta-methylated analog of the naturally occurring neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone. in the present study, ganaxolone was tested for its ability to (1) suppress seizures (clonic and tonic) and lethality induced

  6. 120例热性惊厥儿童脑电图分析%Analysis of EEG of 120 Patients with Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朝蓉

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨热性惊厥(FC)患儿异常脑电图(EEG)与临床特征的关系,以及和以后FC的再发及移行为癫痫(EP)发作的关系.方法:记录120例3个月~8岁患儿FC后EEG.结果:EEG异常率与性别无关;3岁以后首发FC的EEG异常率较3岁以内的高;FC再发者EEG异常率较首次FC发作者高;FC大多发生于体温>38.5 C,但初发体温<38.5 C,EEG异常发生率明显增高;局灶性发作和FC发作持续时间>15 min者的EEG异常率较全身性发作及发作持续时间<15 min者高;有明显异常分娩史及阳性家族史EEG异常率明显升高.其中有4例FC经过2 a~5 a的随访,最后诊断为EP.结论:FC患者EEG的异常率与异常分娩史、阳性家族史及临床特征有明显关系,EEG对FC的早期分类诊断和进行预防性治疗有指导意义.

  7. 158例热性惊厥儿童的脑电图分析%Analysis of Electroencephalogram in 158 Children with Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元青

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨热性惊厥(FC)患儿异常脑电图(EEG)与临床特征的关系,以及和以后FC的再发及移行为癫痫(EP)发作的关系.方法 记录158例6个月~6岁患儿FC后EEG.结果 EEG异常率与性别无关;3岁以后首发FC的EEG异常率较3岁以内的高;FC再发者EEG异常率较首次FC发作者高;FC大多发生于体温≥38.5℃,但初发体温<38.5℃,EEG异常发生率明显增高;局灶性发作和FC发作持续时间≥ 15min者的EEG异常率较全身性发作及发作持续时间<15min者高;有阳性家族史者EEG异常率明显升高.其中有6例FC经过2~5年的随访,最后诊断为EP.结论 FC患者EEG的异常率与阳性家族史及临床特征有明显关系,EEG对FC的早期分类诊断和进行预防性治疗有指导意义.

  8. Analysis of electroencephalogram in 92 children with febrile convulsion%92例小儿热性惊厥脑电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖碧云; 王宏

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨热性惊厥(FC)异常脑电图(EEG)与临床的关系.方法:记录92例5月~10岁患儿的FC后EEG.结果:首次EEG异常率为19.6%.随着FC再发次数的增多及FC患儿年龄的增大,EEG异常率增高,3岁以内FC的EEG异常不明显,3岁以后FC的EEG异常逐渐增多,有统计学意义.结论:EEG的异常率与FC临床特征有关;FC再发与EEG异常及年龄有明显关系.

  9. Convulsive Tic Disorder Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Guinon and Grasset on the Phenomenology and Psychopathology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Robertson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette gained eponymous fame when he described nine cases of multiple tics, coprolalia and echolalia, and later he, Guinon and Grasset were the first to document the psychopathology of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In particular, they noted the association between obsessional thoughts and behaviours and the tic disorder. In this paper we present the first English translations of their works referring to the psychopathology, comparing and contrasting their ideas to current concepts.

  10. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation reduces the convulsive expression and amino acid release in the hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Gómez, César E; Alcántara-González, David; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Besio, Walter; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release in the hippocampus under basal conditions and during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Animals were previously implanted with a guide cannula attached to a bipolar electrode into the right ventral hippocampus and a concentric ring electrode placed on the skull surface. The first microdialysis experiment was designed to determine, under basal conditions, the effects of TFS (300 Hz, 200 μs biphasic square pulses, for 30 min) on afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and the release of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus. The results obtained indicate that at low current intensities (Status Epilepticus".

  11. 伴高热惊厥史的儿童癫痌病例分析%Analysis of children epilepsy with history of febrile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常杏芝; 孟洪弟; 秦炯; 游石琼

    2001-01-01

    分析伴高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿的临床特点,探讨高热惊厥脑损伤及其与颞叶癫痌的关系。方法对1996~1999年本院儿科神经病房480例住院癫痌患儿进行回顾性分析,包括首发年龄、家族史、持续时间、癫痌发作类型、神经影像学及脑电图改变等。结果115例(23.9%)患儿有前期高热惊厥史。伴高热惊厥史的患儿癫痌发作早且易于出现癫痌持续状态。与无高热惊厥史的患儿相比,伴高热惊厥史的患儿强直-阵挛发作较多,复杂部分性发作较少。408例患儿曾行影像学检查,4例提示有海马硬化者均无高热惊厥史。在伴高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿中脑电图局灶起源的异常放电显著低于无高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿。有6.08%(7/115)伴高热惊厥史的癫痌惠儿和6.84%(25/365)无高热惊厥史的癫痌患儿脑电图表现为单纯颞叶异常放电,二组相比无明显差异。结论在癫痌患儿中,高热惊厥可能伴有脑损伤,且可能与后期的癫痌发生有关,伴高热惊厥史者不一定发展为颞叶癫痌。%To investigate clinical characteristics in children with epilepsywho have a history of preceding febrile seizures ,the possible brain damage with febrile seizures, and the relationship of prior febrile seizures to temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods 480 children who were admitted to our pediatric neurological unit from 1996 to 1999 were studied by retrospective analysis including age at onset ,family history, status epilepticus and seizure type, neuroimaging and EEG. Results 115 ( 23.9% ) cases had preceding history of febrile seizures. Children with febrile seizures were younger at onset of epilepsy,and were more likely to develop status epilepticus. Compared with children without febrile seizures, children with prior febrile seizures had more tonic-clonic onset, fewer complex partial seizures. Imaging studies were performed in 408 children(85%), of the 4 children whose imaging studies demonstrated hippocampal atrophy, none had a history of febrile seizures. Interictal EEG focal epileptic discharges were fewer in epileptic children with prior febrile seizures. Epileptic discharges were temporal focus in 6. 08% ( 7/115 ) children with prior febrile seizures and 6. 84% (25/365) children without prior febrile seizures,no significant differences were seen between two groups. Conclusions In epileptic children, preceding febrile seizures might cause brain damage and may be related to later epilepsy. But in children with prior febrile seizures,their epilepsies are not necessarily be temporal lobe epilepsy.

  12. THE EFFECT OF ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS (PHENOBARBITAL AND VALPROIC ACID ON THE SERUM LEVEL OF CHOLESTEROL, TRIGLYCERIDE, LIPOPROTEIN AND LIVER ENZYMES IN CONVULSIVE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHIOMRAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveStudies on the effect of various antiepileptic drugs on serum lipids show contradictory results. We aimed to find the effect of Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate monotherapy on serum lipid profile and liver function tests in epileptic children.Materials & MethodsThis cohort study was conducted in Amirkola Children Hospital. One hundred and ten children with epilepsy were included in this study. Children with hepatic or renal disease, those receiving medications which could alter liver function tests or serum lipid profile were excluded from the study. Patients were allocated into two groups. The first group, including 63 patients, received Phenobarbital and the second group, including 47 patients, received Sodium Valproate, both in divided doses. A venous blood sample was collected after overnight fasting to evaluate serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and liver function tests. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 17.ResultsIn children receiving Phenobarbital, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, ALP, SGOT and SGPT increased significantly after treatment, but TG level showed no significant changes. In children receiving Sodium Valproate, HDL, ALP, SGOT, SGPT significantly increased after treatment but there were no statistically significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL and TG. In our study, the plasma levels of LPa elevated significantly after treatment with Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate (P Value=0.0001. This increase was more significant in patients receiving Sodium Valproate.ConclusionOur results suggested a need for monitoring serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG levels in patients receiving Phenobarbital and Valproic Acid.Keywords: Seizure, Phenobarbital, Sodium Valproate.

  13. 改良电痉挛治疗精神病的护理%NURSING CARE OF 263 CASES PSYCHOPATHY TREATD WITH MODIFIED ELECTRIC CONVULSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏勉; 王彩琴; 姚小梅

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨改良电痉挛治疗精神病的护理.方法对263例精神病患者行改良电痉挛治疗(841例次)并进行有效的术前、术中、术后护理.结果263例精神病患者经积极治疗和护理,近期疗效良好,无1例出现严重并发症.结论改良电痉挛疗法是一种安全有效的治疗精神病的方法之一,术后的护理至关重要.

  14. Simultaneous central nervous system distribution and pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of the electroencephalogram effect of norfloxacin administered at a convulsant dose in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenel, Marylore; Marchand, Sandrine; Dupuis, Antoine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Paquereau, Joël; Pariat, Claudine; Couet, William

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of norfloxacin blood–brain barrier (BBB) transport to its delayed electroencephalogram (EEG) effect in rats. Norfloxacin was injected as a bolus dose of 150 mg kg−1. Blood samples were collected for total norfloxacin plasma concentration measurements. The corresponding unbound levels were determined in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) using microdialysis. Quantitative EEG recording was conducted during 9 h post-dose. Brain ECF norfloxacin concentrations were much lower than plasma levels (AUC ratio=9.7±2.8%) but peaked very early, and concentration versus time profiles were parallel in both biological fluids. The best pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling was obtained by considering that ECF concentrations were part of the central compartment, with a proportionality factor. The peak of EEG effect was delayed and the effect versus plasma concentration curves exhibited a dramatic hysteresis. A PK–pharmacodynamic (PD) effect compartment model with a spline function to describe the relationship between effect and concentration at the effect site successfully described the data. Comparisons of PK–PD parameters estimated from plasma and ECF concentrations show that most of the delayed norfloxacin EEG effect is not due to BBB transport, but also that PD parameters derived from plasma data must be carefully interpreted when drug distribution at the effect site is restricted, as may often be the case for centrally acting drugs. PMID:15155539

  15. Jesus Heard the Word of God, but Mohammed had Convulsions: How Religion Clause Principles Should Be Applied to Religion in the Public School Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Elizabeth D.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why public schools are making religion an important part of social-studies curriculum and why teaching of religion may create unintended constitutional violations. Explores the efficacy of current legal tests of constitutionality of religion in schools. Proposes new test for evaluating the constitutionality of religion in public-school…

  16. NATO Planning Guide for the Estimation of CBRN Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Recommended Thermal Transmission Probabilities for Various Vehicle/Shelter Types...severe headache with anxiety and confusion, tight chest, convulsions, severe effects in 10% – 50% 25 – < 27 Twitching, weakness, diarrhea , convulsions...convulsions; severe effects in 10% – 50% 9 – < 10 Twitching; weakness; diarrhea ; convulsions progressing to collapse and respiratory failure; lethality

  17. Anticonvulsive effect of agmatine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-QiangLu; Rui-BinSu; Xiao-LiWei; YinLiu; JinLi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The present study was designed to examine the effect of agmatine, the decarboxylated product of L-arginine by L- arginine decarboxylase, on convulsion in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES) test and mouse glutamate-induced convulsion test. METHODS: MES convulsion and glutamate convulsion were respectively induced by an electrical stimulation

  18. An Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    0...’Ii I I I I I I I In conducting the research described in this report, the investigator(s) adhered to the *Guide for the Care and Use of...Laboratory Animals," prepared by the Comittre on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research...differentials of loaded and spent syringes. (C)Animal died at 18 hr. (M)Animal died at 74 hr.. W’Animal died at 22 hr. I MAnimal died at 52 min. W(OAnimal

  19. Kindled non-convulsive behavioral seizures, analogous to primates. A 24th case of 'limbic psychotic trigger reaction': bizarre parental infanticide--might nonvoluntariness during LPTR become objectified by primate model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, Anneliese A

    2008-01-01

    Limbic psychotic trigger reaction (LPTR) includes paroxysmal, out-of-character, motiveless, unplanned felonies (or similarly bizarre social misbehavior), all committed during flat affect, autonomic arousal and a fleeting de novo psychosis. A transient limbic hyperactivation is implicated that impairs prefrontal monitoring (judgment, planning, intent, volition, emotional participation) but preserves memory for the acts. It is hypothesized that LPTR implicates an atavistic regression to a limbic 'paleo-consciousness', exemplified by a 24th patient (parental infanticide), presented herein. He had closed head injury and borderline abnormal posterior brain pathology (EEG/CT), which might have contributed to his unusually numerous visual hallucinations.

  20. 电休克治疗导致认知功能损害的研究进展%Research progress of cognitive impairment caused by electro-convulsive therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣江

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT ) is a psychiatric treatment in w hich certain amount of electric current passing patient’s head cause generalized convul‐sion so as to achieve the purpose of treating diseases .Its therapeutic action has been widely recognized , but it also caused some adverse reactions ,cognitive impairment is the most common adverse reaction and the severity and duration of cognitive impairment is related to electric shock parameters and individual difference .The main manifestations of cognitive impairments caused by ECT were short‐term disorienta‐tion and dysmnesia ,it also has different influence on intelligence .%电休克治疗是以一定量电流通过患者头部,导致全身抽搐,从而达到治疗疾病的目的。其治疗作用已经得到广泛认可,但同时也引起了一定的不良反应,其中最常见的是认知功能损害,该不良反应的程度和持续时间与电休克所应用的参数和患者个体差异有关,所致认知功能损害主要表现为短期定向力障碍和记忆障碍,另外对智力也有不同程度的影响。

  1. The analysis of affecting factors on convulsion shock time under modified electrical shock therapy%影响现代电休克治疗抽搐发作时间的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一文; 王高华; 万为滔

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨影响无抽搐电休克治疗抽搐发作时间的相关因素,并建立发作时间模型.方法 对46例住院患者进行无抽搐电休克治疗,并记录患者性别,年龄,每次MECT治疗时的体重,全程治疗时间、通电量、麻醉量、抽搐发作时间以及操作者编码.结果 抽搐发作时间在不同性别、诊断及操作者之间差异无显著性,而与年龄、电量及麻醉量呈弱的负相关,与治疗总次数、全程治疗时间呈弱的正相关,与体重无关,且电量和全程治疗时间对抽搐发作时间影响最大.结论 电量和全程治疗时间是影响抽搐发作时间两个重要相关因素,治疗中选定合适的电量和全程治疗时间,可获得较满意的抽搐发作时间.

  2. Adverse event and related factors analysis of modiifed electro-convulsive therapy in the treatment of mental disorder%MECT治疗精神障碍的不良反应及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翔春; 王雅萍; 江文庆; 吴彦

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨无抽搐电休克治疗(modiifed electroconvulsive therapy,MECT)术后不良反应及其相关因素。方法:对2014年到2015年期间,在上海市嘉定区精神卫生中心住院期间接受MECT治疗的964例精神障碍患者进行MECT术后不良事件的记录和比较。结果:共报告不良事件119例(12.34%);女性报告不良事件的发生率显著高于男性(χ2=13.964,P=0.000)。不同精神疾病的不良事件报告率存在显著差异(χ2=9.736,P=0.004),其中情感性障碍的不良事件报告率最高。丙泊酚麻醉后导致近记忆减退的发生率显著高于依托咪酯(χ2=8.111,P=0.005);而依托咪酯麻醉后导致急性谵妄的发生率显著高于丙泊酚(χ2=9.201,P=0.003)。结论:MECT在治疗上总体安全,但也应注意其不良反应并及时处理,特别是发生意识不清(急性谵妄)时,应密切观察。%Objective:To explore the adverse event and related factors of modiifed electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) on patients with mental disorder.Methods:The data of post-operative adverse events in the patients who received MECT during hospitalization from 2014 to 2015 in Jiading Mental Health Center, Shanghai were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The adverse events were seen in 119 cases of patients(12.34%) and the incidence of adverse events was signiifcant higher in female than male (χ2=13.964,P=0.000). There existed some obvious differences in the reported incidence of adverse events in different kinds of mental disorders (χ2=9.736,P=0.004), in which the highest occurred in the patients with affective disorder. The incidence of recency memory decline caused by propofol anesthesia was obviously higher than that by etomidate(χ2=8.111,P=0.005)while the incidence of acute delirium caused by etomidate was higher than that by propofol(χ2=9.201,P=0.003).Conclusion: MECT is a safe and effective treatment method in clinic, but the adverse reaction should be carefully monitored and intervened in time, especially when the acute delirium occurs.

  3. 羚羊角粉治疗小儿高热惊厥脑损伤临床研究%The Clinical Research into Brain Injury due to Infantile Febrile Convulsions Treated with Antelope Horn Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅云飞; 兰春

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察羚羊角粉治疗小儿高热惊厥脑损伤的临床疗效.方法:选择本院60例高热惊厥患儿,随机分为对照组和研究组各30例,对照组给予常规降温、止痉等处理,研究组在对照组治疗的基础上使用羚羊角粉治疗,比较两组患儿临床疗效及智力发育评分.结果:研究组治疗有效率为96.67%,明显高于对照组的53.33%,两组有效率比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);研究组惠儿治疗后IQ值(62.1±10.2)分明显高于对照组的(51.5±8.6)分,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:羚羊角粉治疗小儿高热惊厥脑损伤疗效显著,安全可靠.

  4. A Research Into The Pharmacological Functions Of Limianye(a Liquid medicine for improving sleep)-Calm,Hypnosis And Anti-convulsions%利眠液镇静催眠抗惊厥药理作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小毛; 卢新华

    2002-01-01

    实验结果显示:利眠液具有抑制神经中枢的作用,能明显减少小白鼠自发活动次数,具有协同戊巴比妥钠的催眠作用.对回苏灵致小白鼠惊厥有明显的对抗作用,而且能明显缩短小白鼠凝血时间和出血时间.

  5. 组胺H3受体拮抗剂对大鼠难治性癫痫的治疗作用%Anti-convulsion action of histamine H3 receptor antagonists to rat model with intractable epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓颖; 王江涛; 梁东

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨中枢组胺(HA)的抗惊厥作用和组胺H3受体(H3R)拮抗剂对难治性癫痫的治疗作用.方法:88只生后12 d Wistar大鼠随机分成3组:空白对照组、N-甲基-D天门冬氨酸(NMDA)模型组和盐酸培他啶(BH)组(又分为小剂量BH组和大剂量BH组).NMDA组和BH组腹腔注射NMDA,建立婴幼儿难治性癫痫动物模型,BH组同时给予150和300 mg·kg-1BH.用药后每天观察痫性发作和行为改变;分别应用荧光法和免疫组化法检测第2和4周末大鼠脑皮质、海马HA含量和H3R分布情况.结果:NMDA模型组和BH组12~17日龄Wistar鼠引出甩尾等自动症及前弓反张发作,18~25日龄的Wistar鼠只有自动症;BH组较NMDA模型组甩尾等自动症和前弓反张发作的发生率降低(P<0.05)、潜伏期延长(P<0.05),且大剂量BH组较小剂量BH组潜伏期延长更明显(P<0.05).实验第2周末,与空白对照组比较,NMDA模型组皮质及海马HA含量降低(P<0.05),H3R阳性细胞表达率升高(P<0.05);与NMDA模型组比较,BH组皮质及海马区HA含量升高(P<0.05),H3R阳性细胞表达率降低(P<0.05),且大剂量BH组较小剂量BH组变化更明显(P<0.05);实验第4周末,各组间不同脑区HA含量的变化程度有所减低,但NMDA模型组与BH组比较差异仍有显著性(P<0.05);各组间不同脑区H3R阳性细胞表达率比较差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论:NMDA诱发的Wistar大鼠惊厥发作与人类婴儿痉挛临床表现相似,符合难治性癫痫动物模型标准;脑内HA含量越低则癫痫发生率越高,组胺H3R拮抗剂对大鼠难治性癫痫有一定的治疗作用.

  6. 依托咪酯抗实验性惊厥作用及其机制%The antidotal effect and mechanism of etomidate on experimental convulsion in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晶; 戴体俊; 段世明; 许爱军; 郭忠民

    2006-01-01

    目的观察静脉麻醉药依托咪酯对小鼠电惊厥、药物性惊厥的作用,为临床应用提供依据,同时探讨依托咪酯的作用机制.方法以电刺激或致惊剂[士的宁、N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸(NMDA)、利多卡因]建立不同类型的小鼠惊厥模型,观察腹腔注射3种剂量的依托咪酯对小鼠强直性惊厥潜伏期、持续期、惊厥发生率、小鼠死亡率以及小鼠存活时间的影响.结果依托咪酯剂量依赖性地缩短电惊厥小鼠强直性惊厥的持续时间,延长士的宁惊厥小鼠的存活时间(P<0.01),较大剂量可完全拮抗NMDA和利多卡因引起的强直性惊厥(P<0.01).结论依托咪酯对小鼠电惊厥、士的宁、NMDA及利多卡因惊厥均有拮抗作用.依托咪酯的作用机制复杂,可能与NMDA受体、甘氨酸受体、γ-氨基丁酸A(GABAA)受体等有关.

  7. 210例热性惊厥的临床特征和脑电图的关系%Relation between Clinical Characteristics and EEG of 210 Febrile Convulsion Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志暖

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨热性惊厥(FC)异常脑电图(EEG)与临床特征的关系,对FC进行早期分类诊断,与以后癫痫(EP)发作、FC的再发及进行预防性治疗的关系.方法:记录210例3个月~7.5岁患儿FC后EEG.结果:首次EEG异常率为28.7%.随着FC再发次数的增多、FC惠儿EEG异常率随年龄增大而增高,3岁以内FC的EEG异常不明显,3岁以后FC的EEG异常则逐渐增多,有统计学意义.其中有5例FC经过2~6 a的随访,最后诊断为EP.结论:EEG的异常率与Ⅰ级亲属的FC史无关,与FC临床特征如局灶性发作、FC的发作持续时间有关.FC再发与EEG发作性异常、年龄有明显关系.EEG多次出现发作性异常的FC者转变成EP,建议预防性治疗.

  8. Analysis of EEG and clinical manifestations in 160 children withfebrile convulsion%160例热性惊厥儿童的临床和脑电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭艳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨热性惊厥(FC)时异常脑电图(EEG)与以后癫痫(EP)的发作,与FC的再发及预防性治疗的关系.方法记录160例6个月~6岁患儿FC后EEG.结果EEG异常率为38.1%;EEG异常率与FC临床特征(局灶性发作和FC持续时间>15分钟)有关;首次FC的EEG异常率为20.5%,随着FC再发次数的增多逐渐增高,岁以内FC儿其EEG异常率不明显,岁以后的FC儿EEG的异常率则逐渐增多,有统计学意义;部分患儿多次EEG检查出现发作性棘波,其中3例随访3-4年,最后诊断为癫痫.结论EEG异常率与临床特征有关系;FC再发与EEG异常、年龄有明显关系;EEG多次异常FC可发展为癫痫;建议预防性治疗.

  9. To optimize the emergency care process the application of the;treatment in children with febrile convulsion%微信平台在急诊外科护理教学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉

    2016-01-01

    objective: to study the WeChat platform application in emergency surgical nursing teaching effect. Methods: nursing interns 60 patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group 30 each, the control group using traditional teaching patterns in clinical teaching, observation group in the control group add WeChat platform on the basis of the teaching. Comparative analysis is given of two groups of students achievement and teaching satisfaction. Results: the observation group is given performance score and satisfaction survey to the teaching mode are better than that of control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: WeChat platform in oncology clinical teaching can improve the knowledge of nursing theory and practical operation ability, better teaching satisfaction, is worthy of reference for clinical teaching.%目的:探讨微信平台在急诊外科护理教学中的应用效果。方法:护理实习生60名随机分为观察组和对照组各30名,对照组采用传统带教模式进行临床教学,观察组在对照组基础上增设微信平台教学。对比分析两组学生的出科成绩和教学满意度。结果:观察组出科成绩得分及对教学模式的满意度调查均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:微信平台在肿瘤内科临床教学中可以提高护理实习生的知识理论与实际操作能力,教学满意度更好,值得临床教学借鉴。

  10. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. The epilepsies have many ... sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. The epilepsies have many ...

  11. Information for Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to: Commitment to a mental institution Convulsive treatment Psychosurgery Abortion Neglect of comfort care And in the ... to voluntary inpatient mental health services, convulsive treatment, psychosurgery, or abortion. A physician must comply with your ...

  12. Does brain slices from pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice provide a more predictive screening model for antiepileptic drugs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Suzanne L.; Sterjev, Zoran; Werngreen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    action in animal models of epilepsy. In our study, the anticonvulsant effect of the AEDs was investigated in vivo using several observational parameters (i.e., incidence and duration of convulsions, latency to clonic convulsions, and severity of convulsions). We found that including the observational...

  13. Enhanced seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced seizures in metallothionein-I + II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M; Hadberg, H

    2000-01-01

    ), a potent convulsive agent, to examine the neurobiological importance of these MT isoforms. At 35 mg/kg KA, MT-I + II deficient male mice showed a higher number of convulsions and a longer convulsion time than control mice. Three days later, KA-injected mice showed gliosis and neuronal injury...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information. (2) Indications for use. For the control of convulsions associated with idiopathic epilepsy, epileptiform convulsions, viral encephalitis, distemper, and hardpad disease that occurs as a clinically... crushed and mixed with the food. When convulsions are frequent, the dosage should be divided...

  15. 78 FR 14241 - Acetonitrile; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ..., confusion, hyperpnea, dyspnea, rapid pulse, unconsciousness, and convulsions (Ref. 9). Cyanide was detected... convulsions in various studies (Ref. 9). 2. Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure Subchronic inhalation... week. Ataxia, abnormal posture, and clonic convulsions occurred in the 1,600 ppm males that died....

  16. Intensive care management of status epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. SE may be classified into convulsive and non-convulsive types, based on the presence of rhythmic jerking of the extremities. Clinically, tonic-clonic convulsive SE (CSE) is divided into four subsequent stages: Early, established, refractory and super-refractory. Initial elements of resuscitation include airway protection, haemodynamic resuscitation and seizure control. Further tr...

  17. Oral hypoglycemics overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... responsiveness) Confusion Convulsions (seizures, especially in infants and children) Increased appetite Nausea Nervousness Rapid heartbeat Stupor (decreased level of consciousness plus confusion) Sweating Tingling of ...

  18. Baking soda overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda loading ... Baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate. ... Symptoms of baking soda overdose include: Constipation Convulsions Diarrhea Feeling of being full Frequent urination Irritability Muscle spasms Muscle weakness Vomiting

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa leaf, stem, fruit and seed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonyadi Rad Ehsan; Awad Vital; Nirichan Kunchiraman Bipinraj

    2009-01-01

    ... such as adenopathy, ague, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic, consumption, convulsion, cough, fertility and phthisis, was tested against different pathogenic microorganisms by agar well diffusion method...

  20. Anticonvulsant activity of bioflavonoid gossypin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Duraisamy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The anticonvulsant activity of gossypin was investigated by studying the effects on seizures induced by pentelentetrazole, strychnine and maximal electroshock convulsive methods in mice. Gossypin (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly reduced the duration of convulsion in tonic seizure induced by pentelenetetrazole (95 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Gossypin (20 mg/kg p.o significantly reduced the tonic extensor convulsion induced by strychnine and maximum electroshock-induced convulsions. The data obtained suggest that gossypin have anticonvulsant property and may probably be affecting both GABA aminergic and glycine inhibitory mechanism.

  1. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them.

  2. The anticonvulsant action of the galanin receptor agonist NAX-5055 involves modulation of both excitatory- and inhibitory neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Anne B; Flynn, Sean P; West, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    -based anti-convulsant drugs was prompted. Based on this, a rationally designed GalR1 preferring galanin analogue, NAX-5055, was synthesized. This compound demonstrates anti-convulsant actions in several animal models of epilepsy. However, the alterations at the cellular level leading to this anti-convulsant......M NAX-5055 led to a reduction in the extracellular level of glutamate and an elevation of the extracellular level of GABA. Altogether these findings may at least partly explain the anti-convulsant effect of NAX-5055 observed in vivo....

  3. Serial cranial computed tomography in acute infantile hemiplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Hojo, Hiroatsu; Yamasaki, Shun (Shizuoka Prefectural Children' s Hospital (Japan)); Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Shozo

    1982-11-01

    Serial cranial computed tomography (CCT) was studied in 20 children with acute infantile hemiplegia. These children were devided into two groups: hemiplegia following fever, hemiconvulsion and unconsiousness (the convulsive group) and hemiplegia without convulsion (the non-convulsive group). There were 15 cases in the convulsive group and 5 cases in the non-convulsive group. We could investigate the CCT immediately after the onset in 6 convulsive cases and 3 non-convulsive cases, but the immediate CCT revealed no abnormalities in both groups. Within several days after the onset the abnormally low density area appeared on the CCT in both groups. In three cases there were abnormally high density areas complicating these abnormalities. Over more than a month, the hemispheric low density area changed into the hemispheric atrophy and the lobar low density area changed into the focal wedge-shaped atrophy or diminished. The small or lacunar low density area changed into the low density spot and the hemorrhagic infarction into the porencephaly. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery were found in two non-convulsive cases and the stenosis of the internal carotid artery in a convulsive case with purulent meningitis.

  4. Anticonvulsant activity of bioflavonoid gossypin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisami Rasilingam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticonvulsant activity of gossypin was investigated by studying the effects on seizures induced by pentelentetrazole, strychnine and maximal electroshock convulsive methods in mice. Gossypin (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly reduced the duration of convulsion in tonic seizure induced by pentelenetetrazole (95 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Gossypin (20 mg/kg p.o significantly reduced the tonic extensor convulsion induced by strychnine and maximum electroshock-induced convulsions. The data obtained suggest that gossypin have anticonvulsant property and may probably be affecting both GABA aminergic and glycine inhibitory mechanism.

  5. The effects of non-convulsive electric shock therapy on depression and serum brain derived neurotrophic factors%无抽搐电休克对抑郁症患者疗效及血清脑源性神经营养因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家洪; 陈远岭; 唐伟; 陈大春

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析抑郁症患者应用无抽搐电休克治疗对患者疗效及血清脑源性神经营养因子的影响.方法 将80例抑郁症患者,按照入院先后顺序随机分为研究组和对照组各40例.所有患者采用艾司西酞普兰治疗,研究组外加无抽搐电休克治疗.比较2组患者汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和临床变化总体评价量表(CGI)得分等.结果 治疗前,2组患者脑源性神经营养因子(brain-derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后,2组患者均显著升高(P<0.05),且研究组显著优于对照组(P<0.05).研究组治疗有效率为92.50%(37/40),对照组为82.50% (33/40),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).2组患者治疗前后HAMD、HAMA以及CGI、认知功能均得到显著改善(均P <0.05).结论 无抽搐电休克治疗抑郁症患者,可有效改善患者抑郁、焦虑以及认知功能,提高患者BDNF水平,对患者性功能不会产生影响.

  6. 不同波宽刺激下无抽搐电痉挛治疗情感障碍患者的疗效及对认知功能的影响%The efficacy of modified electro-convulsive treatment with different wave-width and the effects on cognitive function in patients with mood disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玮; 路亚洲

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察无抽搐电痉挛治疗仪DGx模式和LOW0.5模式治疗情感障碍患者的疗效和认知功能的变化.方法:将70例符合国际疾病分类第十版(ICD-10)情感障碍诊断标准的患者随机分为两组,DGx模式组(n=35),LOW0.5模式组(n=35).用无抽搐电痉挛治疗仪进行治疗6次.治疗前、治疗结束时和治疗后2周分别采用汉密顿抑郁量表(Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ,HAMD)和Young氏躁狂量表(Young Mania Rating Scale ,YMRS)进行疗效评定;以韦氏记忆量表(Wechsler Memory Scale,WMS)、威斯康星卡片分类测验(Wisconsin Card Sorting Test,WCST)及持续性操作测验(Continuous Performance Task,CPT)评定对认知功能的影响.比较两组患者的疗效和认知功能改变.结果:LOW0.5模式组躁狂和抑郁状态患者显好率均为100%;DGx模式组躁狂状态患者显好率为100%,抑郁状态患者显好率为94.1%.两组相比显好率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).LOW0.5模式组抑郁状态患者和躁狂患者治疗1天后WMS、WCST、CPT评分均高于DGx组,两组相比差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:DGx模式和LOW0.5模式治疗情感障碍疗效相当.LOW0.5模式治疗对认知功能的影响程度比DGx模式治疗对认知功能的影响程度轻.

  7. 低剂量纳洛酮对氯胺酮抗局麻药致惊厥作用的影响%The effect of low-dose naloxone on the anticonvulsant action of ketamine on local anaesthetics-induced convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小林; 周纯; 石春雷; 陈银宝; 戴体俊; 黄水平

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察氯胺酮(ketamine,KT)对罗哌卡因(ropivacaine,R)、布比卡因(bupivacaine,B)、利多卡因(lidocaine,L)致惊厥作用的影响,以及低剂量纳洛酮(naloxone, NL)对此效应的影响.方法 腹腔注射低剂量纳洛酮(10 ng/kg), 5 min后腹腔注射氯胺酮(10 mg/kg),再过5 min后腹腔注射致惊厥剂量的罗哌卡因、布比卡因、利多卡因(分别为89.5 mg/kg、100 mg/kg、60 mg/kg),观察小鼠惊厥的持续时间、惊厥次数和惊厥率.并用序贯法测定腹腔注射氯胺酮(20 mg/kg)5 min后,罗哌卡因、布比卡因、利多卡因致惊厥ED50.结果 氯胺酮(20 mg/kg)能增加罗哌卡因、布比卡因、利多卡因致惊厥的ED50(P0.05).结论 在本实验条件下,氯胺酮能够增强罗哌卡因、布比卡因、利多卡因致惊厥作用,低剂量纳洛酮能够增强氯胺酮抗利多卡因惊厥的作用.

  8. 卡马西平对青霉素点燃惊厥大鼠脑内GABAA受体mRNA表达的作用%The effects of carbamazepine on GABAA receptor mRNA expression in brain of convulsant rats kindled by penicillin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓军; 马永刚; 王明正; 杨李华; 陈靖京; 张琴琴; 王华坤

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究两种剂量卡马西平对青霉素慢性点燃大鼠的抗惊厥作用及对脑内GABAA受体mRNA表达的影响,从基因水平探讨卡马西平抗惊厥的作用机制.方法 采用腹腔注射(ip)青霉素(3×106 U·kg-1·d-1)慢性点燃大鼠惊厥模型,两种剂量卡马西平(50,100 mg·kg-1×13 d)ig给药,以痫性发作潜伏期和Racine惊厥行为分级标准为判定药效指标,观察卡马西平的抗惊厥作用.运用RT-PCR技术测定大鼠脑内GABAA受体mRNA表达量,分析卡马西平抗惊厥作用的新机制.结果 两种剂量卡马西平ig给药后,均可使青霉素慢性点燃大鼠痫性发作的潜伏期延长,与模型对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),同时使惊厥大鼠的发作程度均较模型对照组减轻.青霉素慢性点燃大鼠脑内GABAA受体mRNA表达减少,与正常对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两种剂量卡马西平预防性干预组的GABAA受体mRNA表达量分别与模型对照组相比,差异均无显著性.结论 两种剂量卡马西平对青霉素慢性点燃的惊厥发作均有明显的对抗作用,但抗惊厥机制与GABAA受体的基因表达无关.

  9. Effects of electric pulse stimulation on cervical glossopharyngeal nerve on reactivity and convulsive threshold to electrostimulation in rats%脉冲电刺激颈舌咽神经对大鼠的电刺激反应性和电致惊厥阈的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒岩; 李树蕾; 杨立彬; 张现娥

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察颈舌咽神经脉冲电刺激对大鼠的电刺激反应性和电致惊厥阈的影响,阐明脉冲电刺激颈舌咽神经抗大鼠惊厥的有效性。方法:30只成年Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组、颈迷走神经电刺激组和颈舌咽神经电刺激观察组,每组各10只。对照组只行左侧颈部切开消毒处理,颈迷走神经电刺激组行左颈部迷走神经分离后脉冲电刺激,颈舌咽神经电刺激组行左颈部舌咽神经分离后脉冲电刺激。各组动物分别给予双侧耳缘电刺激,记录大鼠的电刺激反应性和电致惊厥阈。结果:与对照组比较,颈舌咽神经电刺激组大鼠嘶叫和发生强直阵挛的最小刺激电压显著提高(P<0.01),颈舌咽神经电刺激组与颈迷走神经电刺激组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:颈舌咽神经电刺激能提高大鼠的电刺激反应性和电致惊厥阈,有较好的抗惊厥作用。

  10. 书面健康教育对热性惊厥患儿家长即刻反应和长期反应的影响%Effect of parents' instant and long term response for children with fever convulsion by written style health education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荷君; 陈秀萍

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨书面健康教育对热性惊厥(FC)患儿家长即刻反应和长期反应的影响.方法 随机分为对照组和研究组,常规口头健康教育为对照组,发放书面资料健康教育为研究组,自制家长FC知识了解调查表,通过书信发放和回收,比较不同健康教育对热性惊厥患儿家长即刻反应和长期反应的影响.结果 研究组家长能正确予以应急处理,且心理疲倦恢复快,相对比较理智,平时能以积极的态度接受病情,情绪比较稳定,心理负担轻,两组比较,差异有显著性意义,P<0.05.结论 书面健康教育是家长获得FC知识的主要途径,在不增加护理人员工作量的同时,对指导家长应急处理,有效预防复发,减轻家长紧张、恐惧心理,避免盲目求医,减少家庭开支,有着重要意义.

  11. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Gowda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, isoniazid or isonicotinic hydrazide (INH and maximal electroshock induced convulsion (MES were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH. In the PTZ induced convulsion, ethanolic extract of D. triflorum (EEDT 400 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion and reduced mortality. Similarly a dose of 800 mg/kg of EDDT significantly delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion and showed 33.33% protection in mice against INH induced convulsion. Further no mortality was found. Both the doses reduced hind limb tonic extension (HLTE phase of MES induced convulsion in mice. The pretreated EEDT showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  12. Chorea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levodopa, anti-convulsants, and anti-psychotics) metabolic and endocrine disorders, and vascular incidents. × Definition Chorea is an abnormal ... levodopa, anti-convulsants, and anti-psychotics) metabolic and endocrine disorders, and vascular incidents. View Full Definition Treatment There ...

  13. Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Fluorescent Invisible – UV light visible Paint ball guns NON-LETHAL CASINGS ENCAPSULANTS TAGGERS – ACTIVE Italicized text signifies existing...preliminary legal review include gastrointestinal convulsives , calmative agents, sticky foam, aqueous foam, adhesives, malodorous agents, Oleoresin... convulsives , if classified as riot control agents (and not used on combatants), can be acceptable within the context of the Biological Weapons

  14. After Action Report: Black Sea Initiative Table Top Exercise Albatross 2007 Batumi, Georgia, 12-15 February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    hundred Typical Spill Volume - Large - Small Detection - Visible - Often invisible Human Risk - Low vapor hazard, some dermal hazards - High vapor...difficulty in breathing, convulsions , localized sweating, conjunctivitis (reddening of eyes/nerve agent symptoms), erythema (reddening of... convulsions and even Endemic disease rapidly sudden death

  15. Absence and mixed forms of epilepsy in WAG/Rij rats : characteristics and brain aminergic modulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midzyanovskaya, Inna Stanislavovna

    2006-01-01

    The neuroanatomical substrates of absence seizures and convulsive seizures differ; absence seizures are generated in the cortico-thalamic loop, whereas the brain stem and limbic structures are involved in audiogenic convulsive seizures. In spite of this difference, the two seizure types share a majo

  16. Hepatitis A virus infection presenting with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Sebahat; Ertem, Deniz; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Pehlivanoglu, Ender

    2005-07-01

    Hepatitis A infection rarely causes extrahepatic manifestations. Here we present a 5-year-old patient with an initial complaint of nuchal rigidity and convulsions during the course of hepatitis A infection. Because hepatitis A virus RNA was demonstrated in the cerebrospinal fluid, it was thought that convulsions might be related to this viral infection.

  17. Synthesis and enantiopharmacology of new AMPA-kainate receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, P; De Amici, M; De Sarro, G

    1999-01-01

    . The convulsant properties of all the compounds were evaluated in vivo on DBA/2 mice after icv injection. CIP-A showed a convulsant activity, measured as tonus and clonus seizures, 18-65 times higher than that produced by AMPA. It was also quite active after ip administration, since it induced seizures in mice...

  18. Varierende sygdomsbilleder hos mindre børn med Influenzavirus type A infektioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P M; Hornsleth, A; Krasilnikoff, P A

    1992-01-01

    . Eight patients had febrile convulsions, a girl aged nine years had double vision and vertigo and a female infant aged two months had periodic apnoea and bradycardia. The reasons for hospitalization were febrile convulsions, abdominal pain, lower respiratory tract symptoms and high pyrexia....

  19. Continuous EEG Monitoring in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian Kærsmose; Wellwood, Ian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic...

  20. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  1. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract ofEleusine indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ette Okon Ettebong; Edidiong Etukakpan; Augustine Bassey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract ofEleusine indica. Methods:Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg) and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg). Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg), aminophylline (280 mg/kg) and isoniazid (250 mg/kg) were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  2. Abnormal motor activity during anaesthesia in a dog: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervik, Andreas; Haga, Henning A; Becker, Max

    2010-12-01

    Seizures or convulsions that occur during anaesthesia in veterinary patients are infrequently reported in the literature. Consequently, the incidence of such events is unknown. Several drugs commonly used in clinical veterinary anaesthesia have been shown to induce epileptiform activity in both human clinical patients and experimental candidates. The present case report describes convulsions in a four-year old male Bernese mountain dog during maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane after premedication with acepromazine and methadone followed by co-induction with propofol and ketamine. The dog had no history of previous convulsions. The use of several sedative and anaesthetic drugs makes it difficult to find one single causative pharmaceutical.

  3. Abnormal motor activity during anaesthesia in a dog: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seizures or convulsions that occur during anaesthesia in veterinary patients are infrequently reported in the literature. Consequently, the incidence of such events is unknown. Several drugs commonly used in clinical veterinary anaesthesia have been shown to induce epileptiform activity in both human clinical patients and experimental candidates. The present case report describes convulsions in a four-year old male Bernese mountain dog during maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane after premedication with acepromazine and methadone followed by co-induction with propofol and ketamine. The dog had no history of previous convulsions. The use of several sedative and anaesthetic drugs makes it difficult to find one single causative pharmaceutical.

  4. Anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic extract of Justicia extensa T. Anders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Abimbola Adepeju; Adio, Olawale; Fageyinbo, Samuel

    2011-12-08

    To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the leaf extract of Justicia extensa T. Anders used traditionally in the treatment of convulsion. The anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic extract of Justicia extensa (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was assessed in strychnine-induced (STR) and picrotoxin-induced (PCT) convulsion models in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenobarbitone (2 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs respectively. The extract showed no toxicity and significantly prolonged (pJusticia extensa has anticonvulsant activity and this supports the use of the plant traditionally in the treatment of convulsion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The receptors involved in the excitatory effects of kynurenines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, I P; Ryzhov, I V

    1989-01-01

    There is presented a brief review of the authors' and literature data on the excitatory and convulsant effects of kynurenines, mainly 1-kynurenine and quinolinic acid. Particular attention is given to the interactions of kynurenines with the excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, their receptors, benzodiazepine receptor complex, catecholamines, serotonin, acetylcholine. The following trends of studies on the neuroactivity of kynurenines seem to be promising: isolation of specific binding sites for the most active kynurenines--kynurenine, quinolinic and kynurenic acids, the interaction with other endogenous convulsants like beta-carbolines, endorphines, folates, etc., the search of the brain structures triggering or deferring the excitatory and convulsant effects of kynurenines.

  6. Febrile Seizures: Controversy and Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Omer A.

    1983-01-01

    Although febrile convulsions are a relatively common complaint, the approach to their management is far from uniform and highly controversial. This article reviews the consensus statement on febrile convulsions arrived at by the Consensus Development Conference held in 1980 by the National Institutes of Health, together with other literature of interest to family physicians. Guidelines are given for the assessment, diagnosis and emergency treatment of febrile seizures. Epilepsy and atypical febrile convulsions are distinguished from simple febrile seizures. Prognosis, prevention, and the importance of counselling parents are discussed, as well as the controversial issue of prophylactic treatment. PMID:21286583

  7. Synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA transporters as targets for anti-epileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karsten K; Clausen, Rasmus P; Larsson, Orla M

    2009-01-01

    and BGT-1. When combined with the GAT1 selective inhibitor tiagabine, EF1502 was found to possess a synergistic anti-convulsant action in the Frings audiogenic seizure-susceptible mouse model of reflex epilepsy. This effect was subsequently attributed to inhibition of BGT-1. In this study, the anti-convulsant...... effect of the GAT2/3 inhibitor SNAP-5114 was assessed in the Frings audiogenic seizure-susceptible mouse alone, and in combination with tiagabine and EF1502. The results showed that SNAP-5114 produced a synergistic anti-convulsant effect in combination with EF1502 but not when used in combination...

  8. Mothers' perceptions and knowledge on childhood malaria in the holendemic Kibaha district, Tanzania: implications for malaria control and the IMCI strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Lwihula, G K; Minjas, J N

    2000-01-01

    as the commonest febrile illness (94. 1%), convulsions the least (11.4%). Fever and enteric symptoms featured as the most important symptoms of childhood malaria at frequencies of 93.5% and 73.8%, respectively. The need for laboratory diagnosis was very high (98.3%), the reason being to get accurate diagnosis...... facility. About 50% of the mothers would give traditional treatments for childhood convulsions and wait till fits cease before the next action. A high proportion of the mothers (75%) held the belief that an injection in a child with high fever would precipitate convulsions or death. The implications...

  9. Clinical pattern of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan in an area characterized by seasonal and unstable malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Elghazali, G; A-Elgadir, T M E

    2005-01-01

    malarial anemia (45.4%), followed by convulsions (21%), cerebral malaria (16. 4%) and hypotension (11.8%). Severe malaria was recognized in all age groups, but 44.5% of patients were aged 2 to 4 years. The mean ages of patients with severe anemia (5.6 years) and convulsions (5.9 years) were significantly...... lower than the mean ages of patients with cerebral malaria (14.1 years) or hypotension (35.2 years). Patients with convulsions and cerebral malaria had significantly higher mean parasite count (69972 and 56110 parasites/microL, respectively) than patients with severe anemia (24637 parasites...

  10. The United States Army Medical Department Journal, January - March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    hyperesthesia, paresthesia, diplopia . ataxia, confusion, urinary retention, convulsions, dysphagia, and an ascending flaccid paralysis.7 > Some...confusion, diplopia , dysphagia, dizziness, dysarthria, cranial nerve palsies, and ataxia. Seizures, hemiplegia, hemiparesis, ascending paralysis

  11. Western Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (hematocrit< 33%), nasal flaring, grunting, chest indrawing, diarrhea and convulsion in decreasing order. Anaemia was ... economic factors and health practices and their relation with the ..... documented as a predictor of death in many ...

  12. Cortico-thalamic activation in generalized status epilepticus, a PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B. M.; van de Hoeven, J. H.; Pruim, J.; van der Naalt, J.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    In a patient with a refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus, the ictal distribution of regional cerebral glucose was assessed with positron emission tomography (PET). Synchronized seizure activity in the EEG was associated with bilateral metabolic activation of medial sensorimotor regio

  13. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tingling in the fingers, convulsions, and abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to death if not corrected. ... that includes weight-bearing physical activity (such as walking and running). Osteoporosis is a disease of the ...

  14. Impaired basolateral sorting of pro-EGF causes isolated recessive renal hypomagnesemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestege, W.M.; Thebault, S.C.; Wijst, J.A.J. van der; Berg, D. Van den; Janssen, R.; Tejpar, S.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Cutsem, E. van; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Primary hypomagnesemia constitutes a rare heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal or intestinal magnesium (Mg(2+)) wasting resulting in generally shared symptoms of Mg(2+) depletion, such as tetany and generalized convulsions, and often including associated disturbances in calcium

  15. Dominant isolated renal magnesium loss is caused by misrouting of the Na+,K+-ATPase gamma-subunit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, I.C.; Koenderink, J.B.; Jong, J.C. de; Pont, J.J.H.H.M. de; Monnens, L.A.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Knoers, N.V.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Hereditary primary hypomagnesemia comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders in which hypomagnesemia is due to either renal or intestinal Mg(2+) wasting. These disorders share the general symptoms of hypomagnesemia, tetany and epileptiformic convulsions, and often

  16. Caretakers' Experiences with Sick Children in Luapula Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumali

    effective management of illness were identified and these include (i) poor recognition .... caretakers after obtaining their consent as well as .... “The child had fever and convulsions...she .... Luapula administered anti-malarial drugs, pain killers.

  17. Aerospace Toxicology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    convulsions, depressed heart action and respiratory rate, and possible death 70–80 Weak pulse, slow respiration, respiratory failure, and death within a...Labetalol Amitriptyline/Nortriptyline Lidocaine Amlodipine Maprotiline Atenolol Metoclopramide Atropine Metoprolol Azacyclonol Minoxidil Benzocaine

  18. Using women advocacy groups to enhance knowledge and home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using women advocacy groups to enhance knowledge and home management of ... parents who witness an episode of FC, would think the child is going to die. ... The perceived causes of febrile convulsion included fever (28%), witch craft ...

  19. hCG Test (Pregnancy Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as diuretics and promethazine (an antihistamine ) may cause false-negative urine results. Other drugs such as anti-convulsants, anti-parkinson drugs, hypnotics, and tranquilizers may cause false-positive ...

  20. Timing of Anticonvulsant Administration in Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Piantino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group studied the time elapsed from onset of pediatric convulsive status epilepticus (SE to administration of antiepileptic drugs (AED.

  1. Shigellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about eating dinner. Later than night, she started running a fever. But Erin got really scared the ... have convulsions (seizures), a stiff neck, a headache, extreme tiredness, and confusion. Shigellosis can also lead to ...

  2. Safety profile of grepafloxacin compared with other fluoroquinolones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stahlmann, R; Schwabe, R

    1997-01-01

    .... The photosensitizing effect of grepafloxacin was relatively weak and similar to that of ciprofloxacin. Grepafloxacin did not cause convulsions in mice when administered in conjunction with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug fenbufen...

  3. Acquired Auditory Verbal Agnosia and Seizures in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Judith A.; Ferry, Peggy C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a review of cases of children with acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder and discusses clinical features of three additional children in whom the specific syndrome of auditory verbal agnosia was identified. (Author/CL)

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    schizophrenia, manic episodes, major depressive disorder sec- ondary to ..... able, one should always keep in mind that the potential benefits must be weighed against the risks ... Fink M. Convulsive Therapy: Theory and Practice. New York: ...

  5. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    BACKGROUND: Febrile convulsion and sickle cell disease are common in tropical countries and both are ... intracranial infection or other defined central ..... The Natural History of Sickle Cell. Disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013;3: ...

  6. flavonoid constituents of the mature fruit of tetrapleura tetraptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    In West Africa, the fruit is widely used in traditional remedies for the treatment of several conditions including convulsion, gastric ulcer, rheumatism, fevers, whitlow, ..... Sesquiterpene Alcohol from Amboyna Wood Pakistan Journal of Biological ...

  7. Epidemiology of Status Epilepticus in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, etiology, seizure characteristics, and outcome in childhood convulsive status epilepticus (CSE are reviewed by researchers from Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, and the Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

  8. SAJAA ND 10-17

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studio G5

    occurs after injury to a nerve (cut skin, surgery to tissue) when an ... vascular resistance, cardiac workload ... home), and where the patient returns to after surgery (ward, ..... confusion, delirium and convulsions after 2 – 4 days of pethidine use.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    describe the underlying pathology of the disease itself. In this .... reduce the vasospasm, ischemia and hypertension found in these .... Pregnant women with acute endovascular injury may .... Convulsion/cortical blindness/stroke or pulmonary ...

  10. Hydroxychloroquine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bruising of the skin bleaching or loss of hair mood or mental changes irregular heartbeat drowsiness convulsions ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  11. Quality assessment of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Least values of this proximate composition (crude protein, crude fat ... convulsion. Complaints about the ripening methods used ... thereafter sold to market women. Blossoms of .... nutritional values available to the consumers.

  12. Evaluation of the anti-fertility activity of stem bark of Crataeva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (22), pp. ... urinary organs (Drury, 1978). It is also very ... continuous hot extraction process using soxhlet apparatus with ... of righting reflex, respiratory rate and convulsion (Ghosh, 1994).

  13. 46 CFR 10.215 - Medical and physical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... infarctions, psychiatric disorders, and convulsive disorders. (2) Food handlers are not required to submit to... the sense of balance; (ii) Is able, without assistance, to climb up and down vertical ladders...

  14. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    inappropriate clinical handling, abnormal consciousness, convulsions and nosocomial infection. Overall, the data indicated that neither age alone, community-acquired infection nor absence of identified risk factors can predict susceptibility to penicillin accurately. Recommendations for empirical antibiotic...

  15. Sturge-Weber syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A 6½ year-old female child has been described. The condition is characterized by port wine stains in the body, massive gingival overgrowth, history of convulsive disorder, and dilated ocular vessels.

  16. 42 CFR 100.3 - Vaccine injury table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Seizure and convulsion. For purposes of paragraphs (b) (2) of this section, the terms, “seizure” and “convulsion” include myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal), and simple and complex partial...

  17. Svær D-vitamin-mangel hos børn født i Danmark af kvinder med mørk hud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Huusom, Lene; Cortes, Dina

    2011-01-01

    D (10 micrograms) until two years old. Despite of these recommendations two cases of severe nutritional rickets among children of emigrants were discovered upon hospital admission. The symptoms were heterogeneous: delayed walking skills and convulsions. We conclude that nutritional rickets...

  18. Benign infantile seizures and paroxysmal dyskinesia caused by an SCN8A mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardella, Elena; Becker, Felicitas; Møller, Rikke S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), and their combination-known as infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis (ICCA)-are related autosomal dominant diseases. PRRT2 (proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 gene) has been identified...

  19. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF “TWELVE WELL-POINTS” IN EMERGENCY TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段功保

    2000-01-01

    In many years' clinical practice, I used blood-letting method of “Twelve Well-points” to treat emergencies as coma, syncope, acute infantile convulsion, wind-stroke syndrome, hysteria, epilepsy, etc. and have achieved immediate results.

  20. Inhibition of serotonin transporters by cocaine and meprylcaine through 5-TH2C receptor stimulation facilitates their seizure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Katsuya; Hamamoto, Masahiro; Arai, Shigeaki; Kitayama, Shigeo; Irifune, Masahiro; Kawahara, Michio; Kihira, Kenji; Dohi, Toshihiro

    2005-09-28

    The present study examined whether the inhibition of serotonin transporters (SERT) contributes to cocaine- and other local anesthetics-induced convulsions, and which subtypes of 5-HT receptor are involved in the convulsions. For this purpose, cocaine, meprylcaine and lidocaine, all of which have different effects on SERT, were used as convulsants and the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), specific agonists and antagonists for 5-HT receptor subtypes were evaluated in mice. Administration of SSRI, zimelidine, citalopram and fluoxetine, 5-HT(2A,2C) receptor agonist, R(-)-DOI and the 5-HT2C receptor agonists, mCPP, and MK212 resulted in a marked increase in incidence of convulsions and a reduction in the threshold of lidocaine-induced convulsions, while the 5-HT2B receptor agonist, BW723C86, had little influence. On the other hand, SSRI did not affect the measured parameters in meprylcaine- and cocaine-induced convulsions. R(-)-DOI, mCPP, and MK212 reduced the threshold of meprylcaine or cocaine with less extent than the reduction of lidocaine threshold. Incidence of cocaine- and meprylcaine-induced convulsions was significantly reduced by 5-HT(2A,2B,2C) antagonist, LY-53857, and 5-HT2C antagonist, RS 102221. The threshold of cocaine and meprylcaine was significantly increased by both antagonists. 5-HT2A antagonists MDL 11,939 and ketanserin, and 5-HT2B antagonist SB 204741 except at high doses had little effect on cocaine- and meprylcaine-induced convulsions. None of these antagonists altered the parameters of lidocaine-induced convulsions. Pretreatment with fluoxetine but not citalopram increased the plasma concentration of lidocaine. These results suggest that the increase of serotonergic neuronal activity through 5-HT2C receptor stimulation was responsible for increased activity of local anesthetics-induced convulsions and support the involvement of this mechanism in cocaine- and meprylcaine- but not in lidocaine-induced convulsions through their