WorldWideScience

Sample records for converting second-generation feedstocks

  1. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumbold, K.; Buijsen, H.J.J. van; Overkamp, K.M.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Punt, P.J.; Werf, M.J.V.D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of si

  2. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Groenestijn Johan W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of six industrially relevant microorganisms, i.e. two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum, two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were compared for their (i ability to utilize monosaccharides present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (ii resistance against inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (iii their ability to utilize and grow on different feedstock hydrolysates (corn stover, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse and willow wood. The feedstock hydrolysates were generated in two manners: (i thermal pretreatment under mild acid conditions followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and (ii a non-enzymatic method in which the lignocellulosic biomass is pretreated and hydrolyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid. Moreover, the ability of the selected hosts to utilize waste glycerol from the biodiesel industry was evaluated. Results Large differences in the performance of the six tested microbial production hosts were observed. Carbon source versatility and inhibitor resistance were the major discriminators between the performances of these microorganisms. Surprisingly all 6 organisms performed relatively well on pretreated crude feedstocks. P. stipitis and A. niger were found to give the overall best performance C. glutamicum and S. cerevisiae were shown to be the least adapted to renewable feedstocks. Conclusion Based on the results obtained we conclude that a substrate oriented instead of the more commonly used product oriented approach towards the selection of a microbial production host will avoid the requirement for extensive metabolic

  3. Development of the Second-Generation Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Variable Geometry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-25

    This study investigates the effect of design changes on the hydrodynamics of a novel oscillating surge wave energy converter being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The design utilizes controllable geometry features to shed structural loads while maintaining a rated power over a greater number of sea states. The second-generation design will seek to provide a more refined control of performance because the first-generation design demonstrated performance reductions considered too large for smooth power output. Performance is evaluated using frequency domain analysis with consideration of a nonideal power-take-off system, with respect to power absorption, foundation loads, and power-take-off torque.

  4. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlater, K.M. [Institute for Resources Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 429-2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4 (Canada); Kandlikar, M., E-mail: milind.k@ubc.ca [Liu Institute for Global Studies, University of British Columbia, 6476 NW Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Governments around the world see biofuels as a common solution to the multiple policy challenges posed by energy insecurity, climate change and falling farmer incomes. The Indian government has enthusiastically adopted a second-generation feedstock - the oilseed-bearing shrub, Jatropha curcas - for an ambitious national biodiesel program. Studies estimating the production capacity and potential land use implications of this program have typically assumed that the 'waste land' slated for Jatropha production has no economic value and that no activities of note will be displaced by plantation development. Here we examine the specific local impacts of rapid Jatropha plantation development on rural livelihoods and land use in Rajasthan, India. We find that in Jhadol Tehsil, Jatropha is planted on both government and private land, and has typically displaced grazing and forage collection. For those at the socioeconomic margins, these unconsidered impacts counteract the very benefits that the biofuel programs aim to create. The Rajasthan case demonstrates that local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making for national targets and global biofuel promotion efforts. - Highlights: > Hardy biofuel crops like Jatropha replace edible feedstocks that use arable land. > In Rajasthan, Jatropha displaces grazing and forage on both public and private land. > As Jatropha plantations mature, the loss of grass becomes more pronounced. > Unconsidered impacts negate the benefits that the biodiesel program aims to create. > Local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making.

  5. New approaches for the reduction of plasma arc drop in second-generation thermionic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziprokopiou, M. E.; Shaw, D. T.

    1981-03-01

    Investigations of ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma are described with respect to the advanced mode thermionic energy converter. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter were studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation were studied in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N2 as an energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a dc discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N2-Cs mixture. The data obtained show that all three techniques - i.e., the non-LTE high voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  6. Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrelli, Stefano; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2014-02-21

    Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G + 2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feedstock used was sugarcane juice, bagasse and leaves. The lignocellulosic fraction was hydrolysed with enzymes. Yields were assumed to be 95% of the theoretical for each of the critical steps in the process (steam pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), fermentation, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion) in order to obtain the best conditions possible for ethanol production, to assess the lowest production costs. Techno-economic analysis was performed for various combinations of process options (for example use of pentoses, addition of leaves), EH conditions (water-insoluble solids (WIS) and residence time), operating cost (enzymes) and market factors (wholesale prices of electricity and ethanol, cost of the feedstock). The greatest reduction in 2G MESP was achieved when using the pentoses for the production of ethanol rather than biogas. This was followed, in decreasing order, by higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE), by increasing the WIS to 30% and by a short residence time (48 hours) in the EH. The addition of leaves was found to have a slightly negative impact on 1G + 2G MESP, but the effect on 2G MESP was negligible. Sugarcane price significantly affected 1G + 2G MESP, while the price of leaves had a much lower impact. Net present value (NPV) analysis of the most interesting case showed that integrated 1G + 2G ethanol production including leaves could be more profitable than 1G ethanol, despite the fact that the MESP was higher than in 1G ethanol

  7. Impacts of second-generation biofuel feedstock production in the central U.S. on the hydrologic cycle and global warming mitigation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, K. J.; Twine, T. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Bagley, J. E.; Hill, J.

    2016-10-01

    Biofuel feedstocks provide a renewable energy source that can reduce fossil fuel emissions; however, if produced on a large scale they can also impact local to regional water and carbon budgets. Simulation results for 2005-2014 from a regional weather model adapted to simulate the growth of two perennial grass biofuel feedstocks suggest that replacing at least half the current annual cropland with these grasses would increase water use efficiency and drive greater rainfall downwind of perturbed grid cells, but increased evapotranspiration (ET) might switch the Mississippi River basin from having a net warm-season surplus of water (precipitation minus ET) to a net deficit. While this scenario reduces land required for biofuel feedstock production relative to current use for maize grain ethanol production, it only offsets approximately one decade of projected anthropogenic warming and increased water vapor results in greater atmospheric heat content.

  8. New approaches for the reduction of plasma arc drop in second-generation thermionic converters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatziprokopiou, M.E.; Shaw, D.T.

    1981-03-31

    Investigations of ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma as they pertain to the advanced mode thermionic energy converter are described. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter have been studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation have been investigated in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N/sub 2/ as an energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a DC discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N/sub 2/-Cs mixture. The experimental data obtained and discussed show that all three techniques - i.e. the non-LTE high-voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power - have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  9. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  10. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  11. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  12. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  13. Web Tools: The Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools and technologies, or second generation tools, help districts to save time and money, and eliminate the need to transfer or move files back and forth across computers. Many Web 2.0 tools help students think critically and solve problems, which falls under the 21st-century skills. The second-generation tools are growing in popularity…

  14. Web Tools: The Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools and technologies, or second generation tools, help districts to save time and money, and eliminate the need to transfer or move files back and forth across computers. Many Web 2.0 tools help students think critically and solve problems, which falls under the 21st-century skills. The second-generation tools are growing in popularity…

  15. The Aussat second generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowland, Wayne

    This paper outlines the design of Aussat's second generation satellites, and overviews the proposed service applications for which the system has been designed. Market data are presented for Aussat's planned mobile satellite services, together with an outline of the associated mobile satellite terminal development program. The unique procurement arrangements for which Aussat is adopting its second generation system, including the requirements for 'turnkey' in-orbit delivery and contractor-supplied risk management, are also described.

  16. Second-generation treatment: microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Alison; Cooper, Kevin G

    2007-12-01

    Microwave endometrial ablation is an effective treatment for heavy menstrual loss that achieves high satisfaction rates, is acceptable to patients, and is recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. It has been evaluated extensively in randomized trials against first- and second-generation endometrial ablative techniques. Its simplicity of use and short treatment time make it suitable for outpatient treatments, whilst it can also treat larger and irregular cavities. This article reviews the available clinical research and scientific basis of this endometrial ablation technique.

  17. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  18. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lo, Yung-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Shing; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Due to the recent energy crisis and rising concern over climate change, the development of clean alternative energy sources is of significant interest. Biohydrogen produced from cellulosic feedstock, such as second generation feedstock (lignocellulosic biomass) and third generation feedstock (carbohydrate-rich microalgae), is a promising candidate as a clean, CO2-neutral, non-polluting and high efficiency energy carrier to meet the future needs. This article reviews state-of-the-art technology on lignocellulosic biohydrogen production in terms of feedstock pretreatment, saccharification strategy, and fermentation technology. Future developments of integrated biohydrogen processes leading to efficient waste reduction, low CO2 emission and high overall hydrogen yield is discussed.

  19. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  20. Current and future economic performance of first and second generation biofuels in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske; Batidzirai, Batidzirai; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Net Present Value (NPV) and total production cost calculations aremade for first and second generation biofuels in 74 settings, covering 5 fuel output types, 8 feedstock types, 12 countries and 8 combinations of agricultural management systems between 2010 and 2030. Yields are assumed to increase du

  1. Molecular Breeding for Improved Second Generation Bioenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwright, Mike R; Taylor, Gail

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing urgency to develop and deploy sustainable sources of energy to reduce our global dependency on finite, high-carbon fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic feedstocks, used in power and liquid fuel generation, are valuable sources of non-food plant biomass. They are cultivated with minimal inputs on marginal or degraded lands to prevent competition with arable agriculture and offer significant potential for sustainable intensification (the improvement of yield without the necessity for additional inputs) through advanced molecular breeding. This article explores progress made in next generation sequencing, advanced genotyping, association genetics, and genetic modification in second generation bioenergy production. Using poplar as an exemplar where most progress has been made, a suite of target traits is also identified giving insight into possible routes for crop improvement and deployment in the immediate future.

  2. Use of extremophilic bacteria for second generation bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    production from food crops, such as corn (starch) or sugar cane (sucrose) is already an established process, with the USA and Brazil supplying 86% of the market. The major challenge remains in the use of different waste sources – agricultural, forestry, animal and household waste - as a feedstock....... The recalcitrance of these materials and their diverse sugar composition make the industrial yeast strains currently used unsuitable for a second generation bioethanol production process. One of the alternative strategies is the use of extreme thermophilic microorganisms. Currently, selected members from the genera...... for a wild type strain reported so far. However, productivity and titer values comparable to a first generation process are yet to be achieved. Metabolic engineering to redirect the metabolism from mixed-product fermentation to ethanol production is one of the solutions proposed to improve the performance...

  3. New insights into the second generation antihistamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, GM; Annunziato, L; Frossard, N; Knol, K; Levander, S; Nicolas, JM; Taglialatela, M; Tharp, MD; Tillement, JP; Timmerman, H

    2001-01-01

    Second generation antihistamines are recognised as being highly effective treatments for allergy-based disease and are among the most frequently prescribed and safest drugs in the world. However, consideration of the therapeutic index or the benefit/risk ratio of the H-1 receptor antagonists is of p

  4. Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels. Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisentraut, A.

    2010-02-15

    The paper focuses on opportunities and risks presented by second-generation biofuels technologies in eight case study countries: Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, Tanzania and Thailand. The report begins by exploring the state of the art of second-generation technologies and their production, followed by projections of future demand and a discussion of drivers of that demand. The report then delves into various feedstock options and the global potential for bioenergy production. The final chapter offers a look at the potential for sustainable second-generation biofuel production in developing countries including considerations of economic, social and environmental impacts. Key findings of the report include that: second-generation biofuels produced from agricultural and forestry residues can play a crucial role in the transport sector without competing with food production; the potential for second-generation biofuels should be mobilized in emerging and developing countries where a large share of global residues is produced; less-developed countries will first need to invest in agricultural production and infrastructure in order to improve the framework conditions for the production of second-generation biofuels; financial barriers to production exist in many developing countries; and the suitability of second-generation biofuels against individual developing countries' needs should be evaluated.

  5. Second-generation dental laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Michael

    1993-07-01

    The first generation of dental lasers proved limited to soft tissue applications. Due to the thermal properties of these lasers, drilling of enamel and dentin is harmful to the underlying nerve tissue. As a solution to this problem, more sophisticated solidstate lasers are under commercial development for hard tissue applications. The first of these second generation lasers to emerge is the erbium:YAG now marketed in Europe by KaVo. This system relies on a cumbersome articulated arm delivery device. Other manufacturers have overcome this delivery problem with the introduction of flexible delivery methods. Another hard tissue laser that has been introduced is the short-pulsed Nd:YAG. This laser uses shaped pulses to drill teeth without thermal damage. An overview of these and other second generation dental lasers is presented.

  6. Second generation professional doctorates in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Gary; Davies, Ruth

    2009-09-01

    This paper traces the increase in number and diversity of professional doctorates over the last two decades and discusses the evolution from first to second generation doctorates as a response to the rise of the knowledge economy and new understandings of knowledge-production. Distinctions between first and second generation doctorates are interpreted in the light of Gibbons et al. [Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., Trow, M., 1994. The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. Sage, London] taxonomy of knowledge-production, and it is argued that second generation doctorates, based on Mode 2 knowledge-production, are not only relevant to the economy but also have the potential to transform practice. However, as this paper highlights, this reconceptualisation of the professional doctorate presents particular challenges to academia and the discipline of nursing, which centre upon the threats posed to the power and authority of the University by the radical nature of Mode 2 knowledge generation and application in the workplace. Implications of these threats are discussed in relation to the current debate about the rigour of professional doctorates and the call by some for a return to the traditional doctorate or PhD. We conclude that the discipline of nursing has much to gain from embracing, rather than retreating from, the challenges posed by second generation professional doctorates, and that these offer an alternative but no less academically sound education in preparing nurses to pay a full and active role at the theory-practice interface.

  7. Herbert: A Second Generation Mobile Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    PROJECT. TASK S Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS ’ ~ 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...AD-AI93 632 WMRT: A SECOND GENERTION MOBILE ROWT(U) / MASSACHUSETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB R BROOKS ET AL .JAN l8 Al-M...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 1016 January, 1988 HERBERT: A SECOND GENERATION MOBILE ROBOT Rodney A

  8. Pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    This review considers pharmacogenetics of the so called 'second-generation' antipsychotics. Findings for polymorphisms replicating in more than one study are emphasized and compared and contrasted with larger-scale candidate gene studies and genome-wide association study analyses. Variants in three types of genes are discussed: pharmacokinetic genes associated with drug metabolism and disposition, pharmacodynamic genes encoding drug targets, and pharmacotypic genes impacting disease presentation and subtype. Among pharmacokinetic markers, CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype has clear clinical significance, as it impacts dosing considerations for aripiprazole, iloperidone and risperidone, and variants of the ABCB1 gene hold promise as biomarkers for dosing for olanzapine and clozapine. Among pharmacodynamic variants, the TaqIA1 allele of the DRD2 gene, the DRD3 (Ser9Gly) polymorphism, and the HTR2C -759C/T polymorphism have emerged as potential biomarkers for response and/or side effects. However, large-scale candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies indicate that pharmacotypic genes may ultimately prove to be the richest source of biomarkers for response and side effect profiles for second-generation antipsychotics.

  9. An overview of second generation biofuel technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ralph E H; Mabee, Warren; Saddler, Jack N; Taylor, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The recently identified limitations of 1st-generation biofuels produced from food crops (with perhaps the exception of sugarcane ethanol) have caused greater emphasis to be placed on 2nd-generation biofuels produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels production will continue to face major constraints to full commercial deployment. The logistics of providing a competitive, all-year-round, supply of biomass feedstock to a commercial-scale plant is challenging, as is improving the performance of the conversion process to reduce costs. The biochemical route, being less mature, probably has a greater cost reduction potential than the thermo-chemical route, but here a wider range of synthetic fuels can be produced to better suit heavy truck, aviation and marine applications. Continued investment in research and demonstration by both public and private sectors, coupled with appropriate policy support mechanisms, are essential if full commercialisation is to be achieved within the next decade. After that, the biofuel industry will grow only at a steady rate and encompass both 1st- and 2nd-generation technologies that meet agreed environmental, sustainability and economic policy goals.

  10. Second-Generation Curvelets on the Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Jennifer Y H; Kitching, Thomas D; McEwen, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Curvelets are efficient to represent highly anisotropic signal content, such as local linear and curvilinear structure. First-generation curvelets on the sphere, however, suffered from blocking artefacts. We present a new second- generation curvelet transform, where scale-discretised curvelets are constructed directly on the sphere. Scale-discretised curvelets exhibit a parabolic scaling relation, are well-localised in both spatial and harmonic domains, support the exact analysis and synthesis of both scalar and spin signals, and are free of blocking artefacts. We present fast algorithms to compute the exact curvelet transform, reducing computational complexity from $\\mathcal{O}(L^5)$ to $\\mathcal{O}(L^3\\log_{2}{L})$ for signals band-limited at $L$. The implementation of these algorithms is made publicly available. Finally, we present an illustrative application demonstrating the effectiveness of curvelets for representing directional curve-like features in natural spherical images.

  11. Second generation photodynamic agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, E D; Dolphin, D

    1993-10-01

    Over the last decade, laser treatment of neoplastic diseases has become routine. The ability of these light-induced therapies to effect positive results is increased with the utilization of photosensitizing dyes. The approval of Photofrin in Canada as a first generation photodynamic therapeutic agent for the treatment of some forms of bladder cancer is being followed by the development of other agents with improved properties. At this time a number of second generation photosensitizing dyes are under study in phase I/II clinical trials. A review of the status of these trials along with mechanistic aspects is reviewed in this article. In addition, a review of the status of lasers to be utilized for photodynamic therapy gives some indication of which instruments could be considered for this therapy in the future.

  12. Multi-scale process and supply chain modelling: from lignocellulosic feedstock to process and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Shah, Nilay

    2011-04-06

    There is a large body of literature regarding the choice and optimization of different processes for converting feedstock to bioethanol and bio-commodities; moreover, there has been some reasonable technological development in bioconversion methods over the past decade. However, the eventual cost and other important metrics relating to sustainability of biofuel production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process, but also by the performance of the entire supply chain from feedstock production to consumption. Moreover, in order to ensure world-class biorefinery performance, both the network and the individual components must be designed appropriately, and allocation of resources over the resulting infrastructure must effectively be performed. The goal of this work is to describe the key challenges in bioenergy supply chain modelling and then to develop a framework and methodology to show how multi-scale modelling can pave the way to answer holistic supply chain questions, such as the prospects for second generation bioenergy crops.

  13. Critical Metallicities for Second-Generation Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shull, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    The first massive stars may influence the formation of second-generation stars, in part by their metal enrichment of the surrounding gas. We investigate the "critical metallicity", defined as the the value, Z_crit, at which primordial gas cools more efficiently by fine-structure lines of O I (63.18 microns, Si II 34.8 microns, Fe II (25.99 and 35.35 microns), and C II (157.74 microns) than by either H I or H2 line emission. We explore the time-dependent thermodynamics and fragmentation of cooling gas at redshifts z = 10-30, seeded by trace heavy elements expelled from early supernovae. Because different modes of nucleosynthesis (alpha-process, Fe-group) produce abundance ratios far from solar values, these early stellar populations are likely to be influenced by O, Si, and Fe cooling. Our models also include radiative coupling of the fine structure lines and H2 to the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which sets a temperature floor (70-80K at z = 25-30) that may increase the Jeans mass. The H2 forms from cat...

  14. COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covello, Fabio; Scopa, Tiziana; Serva, Stefano; Caltagirone, Francesco; De Luca, Giuseppe Francesco; Pacaccio, Alessandro; Profili, Mario

    2014-10-01

    COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation (CSG) system has been conceived, according to Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Italian Ministry of Defence (It-MoD) requirements, at the twofold objective of ensuring operational continuity to the current constellation (COSMO-SkyMed - CSK), while improving functionality and performances. It is an "end-to-end" Italian Earth Observation Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) Space System with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating in X-Band. CSG mission planning purpose is to fully employ the system resources, shared between partners with very different needs, producing a mission plan that satisfies the higher priority requests and optimizes the overall plan with the remaining requests according to the users programming rights consumption. CSG Mission Planning tool provides new performances in terms of adaptability and flexibility of the planning and scheduling algorithms conceived to select and synchronize data acquisition and downloading activities. CSG planning and scheduling problem is characterized by a large size of research space and a particular structure of technical and managerial constraints that has led to the implementation of innovative design of the planning algorithms based on both priority criteria and saturation of system resources. This approach envisages two scheduling strategies: the rank-based and the optimization-based. The former strategy is firstly applied to the most important request categories, with an associated rank value or priority level; the latter is subsequently applied to the unranked or lower priority requests. This is an iterative dynamic process of finding optimal solutions able to better answer the demanding requirements coming from the needs of heterogeneous users.

  15. Production of advanced fuels and of chemicals by yeasts on the basis of second generation feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.; Raab, A.; Schilling, M.; Tamame González, M.M.; los Ángeles Santos García, De M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Arjona Antolín, R.; Gutiérrez Gómez, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to modified eukaryotic microbial cells that have been engineered for producing fermentation products such as fatty acids, 1-alcohols, [beta]- keto-acids and -alcohols, [beta]-hydroxyacids, 1,3-diols, trans-[Delta]2-fatty acids, alkenes, alkanes and derivatives thereof,

  16. Romiplostim: a second-generation thrombopoietin agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Claudia S; Bussel, James B

    2009-03-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major regulator of both megakaryopoiesis and platelet production. TPO is a glycoprotein primarily produced in the liver. TPO, when binding to its receptor (c-Mpl), triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the differentiation and proliferation of megakaryocytes, with a concomitant increase in platelets. The cloning and characterization of TPO in 1994 led to the production of a full length, glycosylated recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) and a pegylated, truncated protein (PEGrHuMGDF). These first-generation TPO drugs stimulated megakaryocyte production and increased platelet counts in healthy volunteers. Successful clinical trials followed in cancer patients, patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), and cancer patients receiving non-myeloablative chemotherapy. Neither rhTPO nor PEG-rHuMGDF raised platelet counts in myeloablated chemotherapy patients, probably due to a lack of megakaryocyte progenitor cells in their bone marrow. Unfortunately, neutralizing antibodies developed against TPO in 13 subjects who had received multiple injections of PEG-rHuMGDF. The resulting thrombocytopenia in these individuals ended all clinical trials with both drugs. A second generation of TPO growth factors have been developed and are in clinical trials. Researchers screened peptide libraries to find random, unrelated peptides that could stimulate TPO-dependent cell lines without also causing neutralizing antibody production. These peptides were then conjugated to various carrier molecules to increase their half-lives. This strategy led to the synthesis of romiplostim (AMG-531), with 2 sets of identical peptides linked to the Fc moiety of an Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. This TPO peptide mimetic has shown success in clinical trials with healthy volunteers and individuals with ITP. No neutralizing antibodies have developed against AMG-531, however some thromboembolic events have occurred in high risk patients, and potentially reversible increases

  17. Synthesis of fuels and feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Andrew D.; Brooks, Ty; Jenkins, Rhodri; Moore, Cameron; Staples, Orion

    2017-10-10

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a method for making fuels and feedstocks from readily available alcohol starting materials. In some embodiments, the method concerns converting alcohols to carbonyl-containing compounds and then condensing such carbonyl-containing compounds together to form oligomerized species. These oligomerized species can then be reduced using by-products from the conversion of the alcohol. In some embodiments, the method further comprises converting saturated, oligomerized, carbonyl-containing compounds to aliphatic fuels.

  18. Hydroprocessing of Fischer-Tropsch biowaxes to second-generation biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schablitzky, Harald Walter; Hafner, C. [OMV Refining and Marketing, Centre of Excellence-Fuels, Innovation and Quality, Schwechat (Austria); Lichtscheidl, J.; Hutter, K. [OMV Refining and Marketing, New Technology, Schwechat (Austria); Rauch, R. [Bioenergy, Graz (Austria); Hofbauer, H. [Bioenergy, Graz (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    Upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) biowaxes to second-generation biofuels via hydroprocessing is the final step for increasing the fuel amount of the overall biomass conversion route: gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, FT synthesis, and hydroprocessing. The typical FT product portfolio consists of high molecular weight paraffinic waxes as the main product and FT fuels in the diesel and naphtha boiling range. OMV's objective and contribution to the project focus on achieving coprocessing of FT biowaxes with fossil feedstock using existing hydrotreating plants of crude oil refineries. Various test runs have been examined with a conventional refining catalyst under mild conditions (380-390 C, 5.8 MPa; WHSV, 0.7-1.3 h{sup -1}) in a pilot plant. Pure FT biowax is converted to gases, fuels, and an oil/waxy residue in a fixed-bed reactor with a porous catalyst layer technology. The presence of hydrogen in the reaction chamber reduces the fast deactivation of the catalyst caused by the formation of a coke layer around the catalyst particle surface and saturates cracked hydrocarbon fragments. Another approach is the creation of synthetic biodiesel components with excellent fuel properties for premium fuel application. Basically, premium diesel fuel differs from standard diesel quality by cetane number and cold flow properties. Hydroprocessed synthetic biodiesel (HPFT diesel) has compared to conventional diesel advantages in many aspects. Depending on the catalyst selected, premium diesel quality can be obtained by shifting cold flow operability properties of HPFT fuels to a range capable even under extreme cold conditions. In addition, a high-quality kerosene fraction is obtained to create bio jet fuels with an extremely deep freezing point, as low as -80 C. The isomerization degree, as well as the carbon number distribution of high paraffinic profile, and the branching degree have a major impact on the cold flow properties and cetane number. FT diesel has

  19. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works.

  20. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  1. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  2. Effect of acid pretreatment on different parts of corn stalk for second generation ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Cai, Di; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Changwei; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of different parts of corn stalk, including stem, leaf, flower, cob and husk on second generation ethanol production were evaluated. FTIR, XRD and SEM were performed to investigate the effect of dilute acid pretreatment. The bagasse obtained after pretreatment were further hydrolyzed by cellulase and used as the substrate for ethanol fermentation. As results, hemicelluloses fractions in different parts of corn stalk were dramatically removed and the solid fractions showed vivid compositions and crystallinities. Compared with other parts of corn stalk, the cob had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility. The highest glucose yield of 94.2% and ethanol production of 24.0 g L(-1) were achieved when the cob was used as feedstock, while the glucose yield and the ethanol production were only 86.0% and 17.1 g L(-1) in the case of flower.

  3. Second-Generation Six-Limbed Experimental Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brett; Okon, Avi; Aghazarian, Hrand; Robinson, Matthew; Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The figure shows the LEMUR II - the second generation of the Limbed Excursion Mechanical Utility Robot (LEMUR), which was described in "Six-Legged Experimental Robot" (NPO-20897), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 12 (December 2001), page 58. The LEMUR II incorporates a number of improvements, including new features, that extend its capabilities beyond those of its predecessor, which is now denoted the LEMUR I. To recapitulate: the LEMUR I was a six-limbed robot for demonstrating robotic capabilities for assembly, maintenance, and inspection. The LEMUR I was designed to be capable of walking autonomously along a truss structure toward a mechanical assembly at a prescribed location and to perform other operations. The LEMUR I was equipped with stereoscopic video cameras and image-data-processing circuitry for navigation and mechanical operations. It was also equipped with a wireless modem, through which it could be commanded remotely. Upon arrival at a mechanical assembly, the LEMUR I would perform simple mechanical operations with one or both of its front limbs. It could also transmit images to a host computer. Each of the six limbs of the LEMUR I was operated independently. Each of the four rear limbs had three degrees of freedom (DOFs), while each of the front two limbs had four DOFs. The front two limbs were designed to hold, operate, and/or be integrated with tools. The LEMUR I included an onboard computer equipped with an assortment of digital control circuits, digital input/output circuits, analog-to-digital converters for input, and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters for output. Feedback from optical encoders in the limb actuators was utilized for closed-loop microcomputer control of the positions and velocities of the actuators. The LEMUR II incorporates the following improvements over the LEMUR I: a) The drive trains for the joints of the LEMUR II are more sophisticated, providing greater torque and accuracy. b) The six limbs are arranged symmetrically about

  4. Second generation YBCO coated conductors:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei; XIAO Liye

    2004-01-01

    The advance in first generation Bi-2223 HTS wire has enabled the demonstration of superconducting power cables, magnetic energy-storage devices, transformers, fault current limiters and motors. However, the low irreversibility field (H*) prevents application of Bi-2223 at 77 K in any significant field. Worldwide activities are therefore, focused on developing a second-generation HTS technology based on YBCO, for which H* (77 K)~7 T. In this paper, we discuss the status and commercial prospects of second generation HTS wire technologies. In addition, we review the recent results and discuss the prospects of future applications.

  5. Search for Second Generation Leptoquarks with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krobath, Gernot

    The Large Hadron Collider will collide protons with protons at a center-of-mass energy of up to 14 TeV. New physics phenomena and new particles are predicted to be detectable with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. One of these predicted new particles beyond the Standard Model are leptoquarks. This thesis deals with the search for scalar second generation leptoquarks produced in pairs. Second generation leptoquarks decay into a muon-type lepton and a quark. In this thesis the decay of both second generation leptoquarks into a muon and a quark is considered. Since pair production is studied the final state consists of two high-energetic muons and two high-energetic jets. This thesis studies second generation leptoquarks with masses of mLQ = 300 GeV, mLQ = 400 GeV, mLQ = 600 GeV and mLQ = 800 GeV. The best cut variables for the discrimination between the signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds ttbar and Z/gamma* found in this analysis are the pT of the muons, ST (the scalar sum of the trans...

  6. Search for pair production of second generation scalar leptoquarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L.S.; de Jong, S.J.; Filthaut, F.; Galea, C.F.; Hegeman, J.G.; Houben, P.; Naumann, N.A.; van den Berg, P.J.; van Leeuwen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a search for the pair production of second generation scalar leptoquarks (LQ) in p(p) over bar collisions at the center of mass energy root s = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1) collected with the D empty set experiment at the Fermilab Tev

  7. The Prototype Development for The Second Generation CBERS Initiates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2005-01-01

    It's reported that the concept for the second generation CBERS-CBERS-03 & 04 to be jointly developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and INPE went through the assessment by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) at the beginning of the year. It means that the prototype development of CBERS-03 & 04 has been initiated.

  8. Why are second-generation H1-antihistamines minimally sedating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yawen; Sieck, Deidra E; Hsu, Walter H

    2015-10-15

    H1-antihistamines are widely used in treating allergic disorders, e.g., conjunctivitis, urticaria, dermatitis and asthma. The first-generation H1-antihistamines have a much greater sedative effect than the second-generation H1-antihistamines. Researchers could not offer a satisfactory explanations until late 1990s when studies showed that second-generation H1-antihistamines were substrates of P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein, expressed in the blood-brain barrier, acts as an efflux pump to decrease the concentration of H1-antihistamines in the brain, which minimizes drug effects on the central nervous system and results in less sedation. P-glycoprotein is found in the apical side of the epithelium. It consists of transmembrane domains that bind substrates/drugs and nucleotide-binding domains that bind and hydrolyze ATP to generate energy for the drug efflux. This review mainly discusses interactions between P-glycoprotein and commonly used second-generation H1-antihistamines. In addition, it describes other possible determining factors of minimal sedating properties of second-generation H1-antihistamines.

  9. Design of sustainable second-generation biomass supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim Yazar; Duren, van Iris; Mes, Martijn; Kersten, Sascha; Clancy, Joy; Zijm, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Operational and economic trade-offs in the design of second-generation biomass (SGB) supply chains guide the decisions about plant scale and location as well as biomass collection routes. This paper compares different SGB supply chain designs with a focus on mobile pyrolysis plants and centralized v

  10. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities--in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities--and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of…

  11. Discrimination of Second-Generation Professionals in Leadership Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E. Waldring (Ismintha); M.R.J. Crul (Maurice); H. Ghorashi (Halleh)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis article, based on interviews from the Dutch Pathways to Success Project, investigates how Turkish-Dutch and Mo- roccan-Dutch second-generation professionals in leadership positions experience and deal with subtle discrimination at work. We argue that subtle discrimination in

  12. Potential benefits of second-generation human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorapop Kiatpongsan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV target two oncogenic types (16 and 18 that contribute to 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Our objective was to quantify the range of additional benefits conferred by second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines that are expected to expand protection to five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. METHODS: A microsimulation model of HPV and cervical cancer calibrated to epidemiological data from two countries (Kenya and Uganda was used to estimate reductions in lifetime risk of cervical cancer from the second-generation HPV vaccines. We explored the independent and joint impact of uncertain factors (i.e., distribution of HPV types, co-infection with multiple HPV types, and unidentifiable HPV types in cancer and vaccine properties (i.e., cross-protection against non-targeted HPV types, compared against currently-available vaccines. RESULTS: Assuming complete uptake of the second-generation vaccine, reductions in lifetime cancer risk were 86.3% in Kenya and 91.8% in Uganda, representing an absolute increase in cervical cancer reduction of 26.1% in Kenya and 17.9% in Uganda, compared with complete uptake of current vaccines. The range of added benefits was 19.6% to 29.1% in Kenya and 14.0% to 19.5% in Uganda, depending on assumptions of cancers attributable to multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types. These effects were blunted in both countries when assuming vaccine cross-protection with both the current and second-generation vaccines. CONCLUSION: Second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against additional oncogenic HPV types have the potential to improve cervical cancer prevention. Co-infection with multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types can influence vaccine effectiveness, but the magnitude of effect may be moderated by vaccine cross-protective effects. These benefits must be weighed against the cost of the vaccines in future

  13. Search for second generation leptoquarks with ATLAS at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krobath, Gernot

    2008-07-18

    The Large Hadron Collider will collide protons with protons at a center-of-mass energy of up to 14 TeV. New physics phenomena and new particles are predicted to be detectable with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. One of these predicted new particles beyond the Standard Model are leptoquarks. This thesis deals with the search for scalar second generation leptoquarks produced in pairs. Second generation leptoquarks decay into a muon-type lepton and a quark. In this thesis the decay of both second generation leptoquarks into a muon and a quark is considered. Since pair production is studied the final state consists of two high-energetic muons and two high-energetic jets. This thesis studies second generation leptoquarks with masses of m{sub LQ}=300 GeV, m{sub LQ}=400 GeV, m{sub LQ}=600 GeV and m{sub LQ}=800 GeV. The best cut variables for the discrimination between the signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds t anti t and Z/{gamma}{sup *} found in this analysis are the p{sub T} of the muons, S{sub T} (the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of the two selected muons and the transverse energies of the two selected jets), the mass of the selected dimuon system and the reconstructed leptoquark mass. The latter three cut variables have been optimized for a discovery with a 5{sigma} significance including the systematic uncertainties and trigger efficiencies. Second generation leptoquarks have been excluded up to the mass of 300 GeV with a 95% confidence level at present experiments. The expected integrated luminosities needed for a 5{sigma} discovery of the tested second generation leptoquark masses with the ATLAS detector have been calculated. This thesis shows that for a discovery with 5{sigma} significance of a second generation leptoquark with m{sub LQ}=300 GeV and m{sub LQ}=400 GeV an expected integrated luminosity of 1.51 pb{sup -1} and 7.42 pb{sup -1} is needed respectively; this corresponds to a very early phase, i.e. the first few months

  14. VLT/VLTI Second-Generation Instrumentation: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Pasquini, L.; Russell, A.

    2016-12-01

    The five second-generation instruments already delivered for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) represent worthy successors to the first generation of instrumentation development. Despite this success, it is still possible to learn many lessons for the future. A review, preceded by a workshop, on the lessons learned from the second-generation instrumentation for the VLT and VLT Interferometer took place in November 2015, following a previous review twelve years ago on lessons learned from the first-generation instruments. The aim of the workshop was to identify lessons in order to help define/refine good practice and make recommendations for the future. This article briefly reports on the workshop and summarises the findings of the review panel, their recommendations and some of the steps to implement them.

  15. Design of second generation HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jinxia; Dayam, Raveendra; Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q; Neamati, Nouri

    2007-01-01

    The prospect of HIV-1 integrase (IN) as a therapeutically viable retroviral drug target is on the verge of realization. The observed preclinical and clinical performance of beta-diketo containing and naphthyridine carboxamide compounds provides direct proof for the clinical application of IN inhibition. These validated lead compounds are useful in the design and development of second generation IN inhibitors. The results from preclinical and clinical studies on the first generation IN inhibitors reiterate a demand for novel second generation inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetic and metabolic properties. Pharmacophore-based drug design techniques facilitate the discovery of novel compounds on the basis of validated lead compounds specific for a drug target. In this article we have comprehensively reviewed the application of pharmacophore-based drug design methods in the field of IN inhibitor discovery.

  16. The Second Generation High Speed Rotor Head Mounted Instrumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John; Reynolds, R. S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating the air pressure flow of a rotor blade on a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter in-flight. This paper will address the changes and improvements due to additional restrictions and requirements for the instrumentation system. The second generation instrumentation system was substantially larger and this allowed greatly improved accessibility to the components for ease of maintenance as well as improved gain and offset adjustment capabilities and better filtering.

  17. On the missing second generation AGB stars in NGC6752

    CERN Document Server

    Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Vink, Jorick S; Monelli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] In recent years the view of Galactic globular clusters as simple stellar populations has changed dramatically, as it is now thought that basically all GCs host multiple stellar populations, each with its own chemical abundance pattern and colour-magnitude diagram sequence. Recent spectroscopic observations of asymptotic giant branch stars in the GC NGC6752 have disclosed a low [Na/Fe] abundance for the whole sample, suggesting that they are all first-generation stars, and that all second-generation stars fail to reach the AGB in this cluster. A scenario proposed to explain these observations invokes strong mass loss in second-generation horizontal branch stars possibly induced by the metal enhancement associated to radiative levitation. This enhanced mass loss would prevent second generation stars from reaching the AGB phase, thus explaining at the same time the low value of the ratio between HB and AGB stars (the R_2 parameter) observed in NGC6752. We have critically discussed this scenario, findi...

  18. Discrimination of Second-Generation Professionals in Leadership Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismintha Waldring

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on interviews from the Dutch Pathways to Success Project, investigates how Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch second-generation professionals in leadership positions experience and deal with subtle discrimination at work. We argue that subtle discrimination in organizations remains a reality for second-generation professionals in leadership positions. Because organizations are penetrated by power processes in society at large, these professionals are perceived not only on the basis of their position within the organization, but also on the basis of their marginalized ethnic group background. We show this through the existence of subtle discriminatory practices at three organizational levels—that of supervisors, same-level colleagues and subordinates—which may take place at one or more of these levels. When dealing with subtle discrimination, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch second-generation professionals in leadership positions show an awareness of organizational power and hierarchies. This awareness amounts to various forms of “micro-emancipation” by the second generation—adapted to the organizational level (supervisors, same-level colleagues and subordinates they are dealing with—that question and challenge subtle discrimination in organizations.

  19. The Lifting Scheme Based on the Second Generation Wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hui; GUO Lanying; XIAO Jinsheng

    2006-01-01

    The lifting scheme is a custom-design construction of Biorthogonal wavelets, a fast and efficient method to realize wavelet transform, which provides a wider range of application and efficiently reduces the computing time with its particular frame. This paper aims at introducing the second generation wavelets, begins with traditional Mallat algorithms, illustrates the lifting scheme and brings out the detail steps in the construction of Biorthogonal wavelets. Because of isolating the degrees of freedom remaining the biorthogonality relations, we can fully control over the lifting operators to design the wavelet for a particular application, such as increasing the number of the vanishing moments.

  20. Second-generation photovoltaic-concentrator-array design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, S.; Baumann, J.E.; Heller, B.W.; Hughes, D.J.; Marshall, L.S.; Semma, R.P.; Stegeman, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    Martin Marietta Corporation's design of a second generation concentrating photovoltaic module is described. The passively cooled 13-kg module uses 2 columns of 7 point focus Fresnel lenses that are each 20.7 cm by 20.7 cm, and 14 planar junction silicon cells. The geometric concentration is 84X. Martin Marietta fabricated five prototype modules and shipped three to Sandia for testing. The modules' peak efficiency was 14.1% which is the highest to date for a module using silicon cells.

  1. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196: a selective second-generation BTK inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More and more targeted agents become available for B cell malignancies with increasing precision and potency. The first-in-class Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib, has been in clinical use for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. More selective BTK inhibitors (ACP-196, ONO/GS-4059, BGB-3111, CC-292 are being explored. Acalabrutinib (ACP-196 is a novel irreversible second-generation BTK inhibitor that was shown to be more potent and selective than ibrutinib. This review summarized the preclinical research and clinical data of acalabrutinib.

  2. Second generation endometrial ablation techniques: an audit of clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Chendrimada K; Nattey, Joseph; Naeem, Tahira

    2009-10-01

    To audit the practice and effectiveness of second generation endometrial ablation techniques (microwave and thermal balloon ablation). An audit of microwave and balloon endometrial ablation procedures was completed and performed during a 2-year period, in two district hospitals of Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Trust, UK. Patients were followed up with for a maximum of 1 year postoperatively, or were referred again from their GPs, with symptoms. A questionnaire was also completed to evaluate patient satisfaction. About 136 and 59 women underwent balloon and microwave endometrial ablation, respectively (Total = 195), for heavy periods. By the end of year 1, 16% of patients were amenorrhoeic and 60% had lighter periods. About 15% of women did not have any relief of symptoms and needed a hysterectomy by 3 years. There were no statistically significant differences in the endometrial ablation techniques. There was no significant effect of age, body mass index, utero-cervical length, or the ablation technique on the results or the hysterectomy rates. A satisfaction survey showed that 75% of women felt better after the procedure and would recommend it to a close friend. Second generation ablation techniques are safe and effective methods of treating dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and are easy to use. They have reduced the incidence of hysterectomies and also have financial implications for healthcare providers.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of second generation bioethanol produced from low-input dedicated crops of Arundo donax L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucaro, Amalia; Forte, Annachiara; Basosi, Riccardo; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of bioethanol (EtOH) from perennial Arundo donax L. feedstock. A "cradle-to-wheel" approach was applied considering primary data for the cultivation of dedicated crops on hilly marginal lands and innovative "second generation technologies" for feedstock conversion into EtOH. The goals of the study were to: (i) quantify impacts of lignocellulosic EtOH production/use chain, (ii) identify hotspots and (iii) compare the environmental performance of different bioethanol-gasoline vehicles, E10 (10% EtOH and 90% gasoline) and E85 (85% EtOH and 15% gasoline), with a conventional gasoline passenger car. Results for E85 underlined that the feedstock production and the use phase were the prevailing contributors, whilst for E10 the gasoline production phase shared the largest part of impacts. The comparison showed that vehicles using lignocellulosic bioethanol have potentially significant benefits on global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation and fossil depletion in respect to conventional passenger car.

  4. Quantifying second generation ethanol inhibition: Design of Experiments approach and kinetic model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Johnson, Roger W; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    While softwoods represent a potential feedstock for second generation ethanol production, compounds present in their hydrolysates can inhibit fermentation. In this study, a novel Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was used to identify significant inhibitory effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A for the purpose of guiding kinetic model development. Although acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were present at potentially inhibitory levels, initial factorial experiments only identified ethanol as a significant rate inhibitor. It was hypothesized that high ethanol levels masked the effects of other inhibitors, and a subsequent factorial design without ethanol found significant effects for all other compounds. When these non-ethanol effects were accounted for in the kinetic model, R¯(2) was significantly improved over an ethanol-inhibition only model (R¯(2)=0.80 vs. 0.76). In conclusion, when ethanol masking effects are removed, DoE is a valuable tool to identify significant non-ethanol inhibitors and guide kinetic model development.

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The thirteenth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 2000) included SGAR tests in which coal was used as the reburning fuel. All test work was conducted at GE-EER's 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility. Three test series were performed including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and reburning + SNCR. Tests demonstrated that over 90% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved with utilization of coal as a reburning fuel in SGAR. The most effective SGAR variant is reburning + SNCR followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich.

  6. Search for Second Generation Scalar Leptoquarks using the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, Jason

    Leptoquarks are hypothetical particles that attempt to explain the coincidental similarities between leptons and quarks included in SM. Their exact properties vary between different theoretical models, and there are no strong theoretical constraints on their possible mass values. They can possibly be produced from particle collisions, and there have already been searching efforts at previous collider experiments. Their presence have yet been observed, and this fact has been translated into lower bound exclusions on their possible mass values. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being the most recently constructed particle collider with the highest collision energies ever achieved experimentally, provides a new platform to continue the search for Leptoquarks at even higher mass ranges. This thesis describes a search for pair-produced second-generation Leptoquarks using 20.3 fb$^{−1}$ of data recorded by the ATLAS detector of LHC at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. Events with two oppositely charged muons and two or more jets...

  7. New therapeutic strategies in HCV: second-generation protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Virginia C; Peter, Joy A; Nelson, David R

    2013-02-01

    Telaprevir and boceprevir are the first direct-acting antiviral agents approved for use in HCV treatment and represent a significant advance in HCV therapy. However, these first-generation drugs also have significant limitations related to thrice-daily dosing, clinically challenging side-effect profiles, low barriers to resistance and a lack of pan-genotype activity. A second wave of protease inhibitors are in phase II and III trials and promise to provide a drug regimen with a better dosing schedule and improved tolerance. These second-wave protease inhibitors will probably be approved in combination with PEG-IFN and Ribavirin (RBV), as well as future all-oral regimens. The true second-generation protease inhibitors are in earlier stages of development and efficacy data are anxiously awaited as they may provide pan-genotypic antiviral activity and a high genetic barrier to resistance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Changing Analysis Approach on COSMO SKYMED Second Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, G.; Antonelli, M.; Bandinelli, M.; Scione, E.; Scorzafava, E.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of a space system with its orbital environment is a major consideration in the design of any space system, since a variety of hazards are associated with the operation of spacecraft in the harsh space environment. The COSMO second generation satellites cross the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) that is usually considered less hazardous than high altitude geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, except when crossing the auroral oval where high energy low density plasma is encountered [1]. In this paper a prediction activity aimed to estimate the surface potentials of the COSMO 2nd generation satellite during the polar orbit is described. The free, open-source Spacecraft Plasma Interaction Software (SPIS) available for Spacecraft Plasma Interaction Network in Europe (SPINE) community [2] was applied to model satellite structures and materials, as well plasma environment and finally to evaluate the surfaces potentials.

  9. A second-generation constrained reaction volume shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M F; Tulgestke, A M; Davidson, D F; Hanson, R K

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a shock tube that features a sliding gate valve in order to mechanically constrain the reactive test gas mixture to an area close to the shock tube endwall, separating it from a specially formulated non-reactive buffer gas mixture. This second-generation Constrained Reaction Volume (CRV) strategy enables near-constant-pressure shock tube test conditions for reactive experiments behind reflected shocks, thereby enabling improved modeling of the reactive flow field. Here we provide details of the design and operation of the new shock tube. In addition, we detail special buffer gas tailoring procedures, analyze the buffer/test gas interactions that occur on gate valve opening, and outline the size range of fuels that can be studied using the CRV technique in this facility. Finally, we present example low-temperature ignition delay time data to illustrate the CRV shock tube's performance.

  10. A second-generation constrained reaction volume shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. F.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a shock tube that features a sliding gate valve in order to mechanically constrain the reactive test gas mixture to an area close to the shock tube endwall, separating it from a specially formulated non-reactive buffer gas mixture. This second-generation Constrained Reaction Volume (CRV) strategy enables near-constant-pressure shock tube test conditions for reactive experiments behind reflected shocks, thereby enabling improved modeling of the reactive flow field. Here we provide details of the design and operation of the new shock tube. In addition, we detail special buffer gas tailoring procedures, analyze the buffer/test gas interactions that occur on gate valve opening, and outline the size range of fuels that can be studied using the CRV technique in this facility. Finally, we present example low-temperature ignition delay time data to illustrate the CRV shock tube's performance.

  11. Second generation Robo-AO instruments and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Chun, Mark R.; Lu, Jessica R.; Connelley, Michael S.; Hall, Donald; Atkinson, Dani; Jacobson, Shane

    2014-07-01

    The prototype Robo-AO system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope is the world's first fully automated laser adaptive optics instrument. Scientific operations commenced in June 2012 and more than 12,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. Two new infrared cameras providing high-speed tip-tilt sensing and a 2' field-of-view will be integrated in 2014. In addition to a Robo-AO clone for the 2-m IGO and the natural guide star variant KAPAO at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope, a second generation of facility-class Robo-AO systems are in development for the 2.2-m University of Hawai'i and 3-m IRTF telescopes which will provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to λ = 400 nm.

  12. Second generation Robo-AO instruments and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Chun, Mark R; Lu, Jessica R; Connelley, Michael S; Hall, Donald; Atkinson, Dani; Jacobson, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The prototype Robo-AO system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope is the world's first fully automated laser adaptive optics instrument. Scientific operations commenced in June 2012 and more than 12,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. Two new infrared cameras providing high-speed tip-tilt sensing and a 2' field-of-view will be integrated in 2014. In addition to a Robo-AO clone for the 2-m IGO and the natural guide star variant KAPAO at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope, a second generation of facility-class Robo-AO systems are in development for the 2.2-m University of Hawai'i and 3-m IRTF telescopes which will provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to {\\lambda} = 400 nm.

  13. Second-generation transapical valves: the Medtronic Engager system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Simon H; Holzhey, David; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Treede, Hendrik; Jacobs, Stephan; Falk, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    The Medtronic Engager aortic valve system is a second-generation transcatheter aortic valve implantation bioprosthesis combined with a delivery system designed for over-the-wire transapical implantation of the valve. The self-expandable stent has control arms to be placed into the native aortic sinuses to achieve correct positioning of the bioprosthesis in a predefined height. The purpose of the lower skirt is to reduce paravalvular leakage. A three-leaflet, bovine pericardium valve is mounted on the stent. The implantation is facilitated by the control arms and rotational positioning of the commissural posts. A multicentre feasibility study showed promising results. The results from the following European pivotal trial led to CE mark approval in 2013. Here, we describe technical details of the device and its implantation technique and highlight special steps of the procedure.

  14. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  15. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  16. A second generation genetic map for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahr Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps characterizing the inheritance patterns of traits and markers have been developed for a wide range of species and used to study questions in biomedicine, agriculture, ecology and evolutionary biology. The status of rainbow trout genetic maps has progressed significantly over the last decade due to interest in this species in aquaculture and sport fisheries, and as a model research organism for studies related to carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. We constructed a second generation genetic map for rainbow trout using microsatellite markers to facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci for traits affecting aquaculture production efficiency and the extraction of comparative information from the genome sequences of model fish species. Results A genetic map ordering 1124 microsatellite loci spanning a sex-averaged distance of 2927.10 cM (Kosambi and having 2.6 cM resolution was constructed by genotyping 10 parents and 150 offspring from the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA reference family mapping panel. Microsatellite markers, representing pairs of loci resulting from an evolutionarily recent whole genome duplication event, identified 180 duplicated regions within the rainbow trout genome. Microsatellites associated with genes through expressed sequence tags or bacterial artificial chromosomes produced comparative assignments with tetraodon, zebrafish, fugu, and medaka resulting in assignments of homology for 199 loci. Conclusion The second generation NCCCWA genetic map provides an increased microsatellite marker density and quantifies differences in recombination rate between the sexes in outbred populations. It has the potential to integrate with cytogenetic and other physical maps, identifying paralogous regions of the rainbow trout genome arising from the evolutionarily recent genome duplication event, and

  17. Second generation sequencing of the mesothelioma tumor genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Bueno

    Full Text Available The current paradigm for elucidating the molecular etiology of cancers relies on the interrogation of small numbers of genes, which limits the scope of investigation. Emerging second-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies have enabled more precise definition of the cancer genome on a global scale. We examined the genome of a human primary malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM tumor and matched normal tissue by using a combination of sequencing-by-synthesis and pyrosequencing methodologies to a 9.6X depth of coverage. Read density analysis uncovered significant aneuploidy and numerous rearrangements. Method-dependent informatics rules, which combined the results of different sequencing platforms, were developed to identify and validate candidate mutations of multiple types. Many more tumor-specific rearrangements than point mutations were uncovered at this depth of sequencing, resulting in novel, large-scale, inter- and intra-chromosomal deletions, inversions, and translocations. Nearly all candidate point mutations appeared to be previously unknown SNPs. Thirty tumor-specific fusions/translocations were independently validated with PCR and Sanger sequencing. Of these, 15 represented disrupted gene-encoding regions, including kinases, transcription factors, and growth factors. One large deletion in DPP10 resulted in altered transcription and expression of DPP10 transcripts in a set of 53 additional MPM tumors correlated with survival. Additionally, three point mutations were observed in the coding regions of NKX6-2, a transcription regulator, and NFRKB, a DNA-binding protein involved in modulating NFKB1. Several regions containing genes such as PCBD2 and DHFR, which are involved in growth factor signaling and nucleotide synthesis, respectively, were selectively amplified in the tumor. Second-generation sequencing uncovered all types of mutations in this MPM tumor, with DNA rearrangements representing the dominant type.

  18. Uncertainty, irreversibility, and investment in second-generation biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tanner Joseph

    The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to be substantial. The analysis also reveals that a break-even approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of risk premium), and the traditional Marshallian approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of both the risk premium and the drift rate), would significantly underestimate the gasoline entry trigger price and the magnitude of that underestimation increases as both volatility and mean of gasoline prices increase. Results also uncover a great deal of hysteresis (i.e. a range of gasoline prices for which there is neither entry nor exit in the market) in entry/exit behavior by plants. Hysteresis increases as gasoline prices become more volatile. Hysteresis suggests that, at the industry level, positive (negative) demand shocks will have a significant impact on prices (production) and a limited impact on production (prices). In combination all of these results suggest that policies supporting second generation biofuels may have fallen short of their targets because of their failure to alleviate uncertainty.

  19. Climate regulation enhances the value of second generation biofuel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.; Tyner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial scale implementation of second generation (2G) biofuels has long been 'just over the horizon - perhaps a decade away'. However, with recent innovations, and higher oil prices, we appear to be on the verge of finally seeing commercial scale implementations of cellulosic to liquid fuel conversion technologies. Interest in this technology derives from many quarters. Environmentalists see this as a way of reducing our carbon footprint, however, absent a global market for carbon emissions, private firms will not factor this into their investment decisions. Those interested in poverty and nutrition see this as a channel for lessening the biofuels' impact on food prices. But what is 2G technology worth to society? How valuable are prospective improvements in this technology? And how are these valuations affected by future uncertainties, including climate regulation, climate change impacts, and energy prices? This paper addresses all of these questions. We employ FABLE, a dynamic optimization model for the world's land resources which characterizes the optimal long run path for protected natural lands, managed forests, crop and livestock land use, energy extraction and biofuels over the period 2005-2105. By running this model twice for each future state of the world - once with 2G biofuels technology available and once without - we measure the contribution of the technology to global welfare. Given the uncertainty in how these technologies are likely to evolve, we consider a range cost estimates - from optimistic to pessimistic. In addition to technological uncertainty, there is great uncertainty in the conditions characterizing our baseline for the 21st century. For each of the 2G technology scenarios, we therefore also consider a range of outcomes for key drivers of global land use, including: population, income, oil prices, climate change impacts and climate regulation. We find that the social valuation of 2G technologies depends critically on climate change

  20. A Second Generation Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Äystö, J; Lindroos, M; Ravn, H L; Van Duppen, P

    2000-01-01

    The proposed Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN would be an ideal driver for a proton-driven second-generation Radioactive Nuclear Beam facility. We propose to investigate the feasibility of constructing such a facility at CERN close to the present PS Booster ISOLDE facility. The existing ISOLDE facility would be fed with a 10 micro-amps proton beam from SPL, providing the physics community with a low-intensity experimental area. A second, new facility would be built with target stations deep underground, permitting proton beam intensities of more than 100 micro-amps. The secondary beams can be post-accelerated to 20-100 MeV/u and there will be a storage ring complex and large segmented detectors in the experimental area. Also, benefits from a muon-ion collider or from merging the ions and muons should be investigated. Since the antiproton decelerator would be nearby, the opportunities for antiprotonic radioactive atom studies should be pursued as well.

  1. Use of second generation H1 antihistamines in special situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, I; del Cuvillo, A; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    Antihistamine drugs are one of the therapeutic classes most used at world level, at all ages and in multiple situations. Although in general they have a good safety profile, only the more recent drugs (second generation antihistamines) have been studied specifically with regard to the more important safety aspects. Given the variety of antihistamine drugs, they cannot all be considered equivalent in application to various special clinical situations, so that the documented clinical experience must be assessed in each case or, in the absence of such, the particular pharmacological characteristics of each molecule for the purpose of recommendation in these special situations. In general, there are few clinical studies published for groups of patients with kidney or liver failure, with concomitant multiple pathologies (such as cardiac pathology), in extremes of age (paediatrics or geriatrics) and in natural stages such as pregnancy or lactation, but these are normal situations and it is more and more frequent (among the elderly) for antihistamine drugs to be recommended. This review sets out the more relevant details compiled on the use of antihistamines in these special situations.

  2. Exfoliated YBCO filaments for second-generation superconducting cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Farrell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The second-generation high temperature superconductor (2G HTS) wire is the most promising conductor for high-field magnets such as accelerator dipoles and compact fusion devices. The key element of the wire is a thin Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) layer deposited on a flexible metal substrate. The substrate, which becomes incorporated in the 2G conductor, reduces the electrical and mechanical performance of the wire. This is a process that exfoliates the YBCO layer from the substrate while retaining the critical current density of the superconductor. Ten-centimeter long coupons of exfoliated YBCO layers were manufactured, and detailed structural, electrical, and mechanical characterization were reported. After exfoliation, the YBCO layer was supported by a 75 μm thick stainless steel foil, which makes for a compact, mechanically stronger, and inexpensive conductor. The critical current density of the filaments was measured at both 77 K and 4.2 K. The exfoliated YBCO retained 90% of the original critical current. Similarly, tests in an external magnetic field at 4.2 K confirmed that the pinning strength of the YBCO layer was also retained following exfoliation.

  3. Integrated Navigation System for the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An array of components in a laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is being tested by the Flight Mechanics Office to develop an integrated navigation system for the second generation reusable launch vehicle. The laboratory is testing Global Positioning System (GPS) components, a satellite-based location and navigation system, and Inertial Navigation System (INS) components, sensors on a vehicle that determine angular velocity and linear acceleration at various points. The GPS and INS components work together to provide a space vehicle with guidance and navigation, like the push of the OnStar button in your car assists you with directions to a specific address. The integration will enable the vehicle operating system to track where the vehicle is in space and define its trajectory. The use of INS components for navigation is not new to space technology. The Space Shuttle currently uses them. However, the Space Launch Initiative is expanding the technology to integrate GPS and INS components to allow the vehicle to better define its position and more accurately determine vehicle acceleration and velocity. This advanced technology will lower operational costs and enhance the safety of reusable launch vehicles by providing a more comprehensive navigation system with greater capabilities. In this photograph, Dr. Jason Chuang of MSFC inspects an INS component in the laboratory.

  4. The ASAC Air Carrier Investment Model (Second Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Johnson, Jesse P.; Sickles, Robin C.; Good, David H.

    1997-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. To accomplish this, NASA is building an Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. To link the economics of flight with the technology of flight, ASAC requires a parametrically based mode with extensions that link airline operations and investments in aircraft with aircraft characteristics. This model also must provide a mechanism for incorporating air travel demand and profitability factors into the airlines' investment decisions. Finally, the model must be flexible and capable of being incorporated into a wide-ranging suite of economic and technical models that are envisioned for ASAC. We describe a second-generation Air Carrier Investment Model that meets these requirements. The enhanced model incorporates econometric results from the supply and demand curves faced by U.S.-scheduled passenger air carriers. It uses detailed information about their fleets in 1995 to make predictions about future aircraft purchases. It enables analysts with the ability to project revenue passenger-miles flown, airline industry employment, airline operating profit margins, numbers and types of aircraft in the fleet, and changes in aircraft manufacturing employment under various user-defined scenarios.

  5. Progress in second-generation holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Mark R.; Anderson, Ken; Askham, Fred; Sissom, Brad

    2014-09-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) remains an attractive technology for big data. We report on recent results achieved with a demonstrator platform incorporating several new second-generation techniques for increasing HDS recording density and speed. This demonstrator has been designed to achieve densities that support the multi-terabyte storage capacities required for a competitive product. It leverages technology from an existing state-of-the-art pre-production prototype, while incorporating a new optical head designed to demonstrate several new technical advances. The demonstrator employs the new technique of dynamic aperture multiplexing in a monocular architecture. In a previous report, a monocular system employing angle-polytopic multiplexing achieved a recording density over 700 Gbit/in2, exceeding that of contemporaneously shipping hard drives [1]. Dynamic aperture multiplexing represents an evolutionary improvement with the potential to increase this figure by over 200%, while still using proven anglepolytopic multiplexing in a monocular architecture. Additionally, the demonstrator is capable of two revolutionary advances in HDS technology. The first, quadrature homodyne detection, enables the use of phase shift keying (PSK) for signal encoding, which dramatically improves recording intensity homogeneity and increases SNR. The second, phase quadrature holographic multiplexing, further doubles density by recording pairs of holograms in quadrature (QPSK encoding). We report on the design and construction of the demonstrator, and on the results of current recording experiments.

  6. A second-generation high speed civil transport: Stingray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Sean; Lopes, Kevin; Ngan, Angelen; Perrin, Joseph; Phipps, Marcus; Westman, Blake; Yeo, Urn

    1992-01-01

    The Stingray is the second-generation High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) designed for the 21st Century. This aircraft is designed to be economically viable and environmentally sound transportation competitive in markets currently dominated by subsonic aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and upcoming McDonnell Douglas MD-12. With the Stringray coming into service in 2005, a ticket price of 21 percent over current subsonic airlines will cover operational costs with a 10 percent return on investment. The cost per aircraft will be $202 million with the Direct Operating Cost equal to $0.072 per mile per seat. This aircraft has been designed to be a realistic aircraft that can be built within the next ten to fifteen years. There was only one main technological improvement factor used in the design, that being for the engine specific fuel consumption. The Stingray, therefore, does not rely on technology that does not exist. The Stingray will be powered by four mixed flow turbofans that meet both nitrous oxide emissions and FAR 36 Stage 3 noise regulations. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nautical miles at a speed of Mach 2.4. The shape of the Stingray, while optimized for supersonic flight, is compatible with all current airline facilities in airports around the world. As the demand for economical, high-speed flight increases, the Stingray will be ready and able to meet those demands.

  7. Second-generation-heliostat optimization studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to define and quantify cost reductions in the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace Second Generation Heliostat resulting from design and cost optimization. These cost reductions were based on optimizing the heliostat performance vs. cost and engineering design, and reviewing the design specification in selected technological areas with a goal of removing nonrealistic requirements and eliminating or minimizing overdesign. Specific technological areas investigated were: (1) designing the heliostat for survival strength rather than stiffness and reducing the operational wind requirements as dictated by this design approach; (2) reducing the pointing accuracy and/or beam quality required for some fraction or all of the heliostat field; (3) modifying the operational temperature range; (4) relaxing the rate at which the heliostat must move in the slew mode; (5) using alternate beam safety strategies; (6) analyzing actual wind data for selected sites in the southwest United States vs. the heliostat design specification survival wind requirements; (7) estimating heliostat damage for winds in excess of the design specification over a 30 year period; (8) evaluating the impact of designing the heliostat for higher wind loads; and (9) investigating the applicability to heliostat design of the standard engineering practices for designing buildings.

  8. Energy crops for biofuel feedstocks: facts and recent patents on genetic manipulation to improve biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Burning fossil-fuels to meet the global energy requirements by human being has intensified the concerns of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Therefore, serious efforts are required to develop nonfossil-based renewable energy sources. Plants are more efficient in utilizing solar energy to convert it into biomass which can be used as feedstocks for biofuel production. Hence with the increasing demands of energy and the needs of cost-effective, sustainable production of fuels, it has become necessary to switch over to plant biomass as a renewable source of energy. Biofuels derived from more sustainable biological materials such as lignocellulosic plant residues, considered as second generation biofuels, are more dependable. However, there are technical challenges such as pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to convert it into fermentable sugars. Plant genetic engineering has already proven its potential in modifying cell wall composition of plants for enhancing the efficiency of biofuel production. Interest and potential in the area are very much evident from the growing number of patents in the recent years on the subject. In this review, recent trends in genetic engineering of energy crops for biofuel production have been introduced, and strategies for the future developments have been discussed.

  9. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64

  10. Search for second generation scalar leptoquarks using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Jason

    2014-07-24

    Leptoquarks are hypothetical particles that attempt to explain the coincidental similarities between leptons and quarks included in SM. Their exact properties vary between different theoretical models, and there are no strong theoretical constraints on their possible mass values. They can possibly be produced from particle collisions, and there have already been searching efforts at previous collider experiments. Their presence have not yet been observed, and this fact has been translated into lower bound exclusions on their possible mass values. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being the most recently constructed particle collider with the highest collision energies ever achieved experimentally, provides a new platform to continue the search for Leptoquarks at even higher mass ranges. This thesis describes a search for pair-produced second-generation Leptoquarks using 20.3 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by the ATLAS detector of LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV. Events with two oppositely charged muons and two or more jets in the final state were used. Candidate leptoquark events were selected with the help of four observables: the di-muon invariant mass (M{sub μμ}), the sum of the p{sub T} of the two muons (L{sub T}), the sum of the p{sub T} of the two leading jets (H{sub T}) and the average Leptoquark mass (M{sub LQ}). Monte Carlo simulations of SM background processes have shown to be in good agreement with data, both in the region constructed using selection requirements for candidate leptoquark events and in the designated control regions. Since no significant excess of events was observed in data, a exclusion limit was set as a function of the Leptoquark mass.

  11. Arterial Stiffness in Patients Taking Second-generation Antipsychotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fındıklı, Ebru; Gökçe, Mustafa; Nacitarhan, Vedat; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Hüseyin Avni; Kardaş, Selçuk; Şahin, Merve Coşgun; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objective That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine. Mental illness was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Mean age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, Framingham risk score (FRS), etc. were determined. Simultaneous electrocardiography and pulse wave were recorded with an electromyography device. The photo-plethysmographic method was used to record the pulse wave. Inclusion criteria included use of SGAs for at least the last six months. Patients with diseases that are known to cause stiffness and the use of typical antipsychotics were excluded. Results Ninety-six subject (56 patients, 40 controls) were included in our study. There were 49 females, 47 males. Patients had schizophrenia (n=17) and BD (n=39). Their treatments were quetiapine (n=15), risperidone (n=13), olanzapine (n=15), and aripiprazole (n=13). Although differences in mean age, gender, and FRS in the patient and control groups were not statistically significant (p=1), PWV was greater in patients in the antipsychotic group (p=0.048). Conclusion This study supported the liability to stiffness in patients with schizophrenia and BD. Using SGAs may contribute to arterial stiffness in these patients. PMID:27776389

  12. Second-generation aerosol shock tube: an improved design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haylett, D. R.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    An improved, second-generation aerosol shock tube (AST II) has been developed for the study of the chemical kinetics of low-vapor-pressure fuels. These improvements enable a wider range of fuel concentrations and enhanced spatial uniformity relative to our initial aerosol shock tube (AST I). In addition, the design of AST II limits the aerosol loading zone in the shock tube to a fixed region (1.2 m in length adjacent to the shock tube endwall). AST II achieves these improvements using a separate holding tank to prepare the aerosol mixture and a slightly under-pressure dump tank to carefully pull the aerosol mixture into the tube in a plug-flow. This filling method is capable of producing room temperature test gas mixtures of n-dodecane with equivalence ratios of up to 3.0 in 21 % O2, three times the loading achievable in the earlier AST I that used a flow-through strategy. Improvements in aerosol uniformity were quantified by measuring the liquid volume concentration at multiple locations in the shock tube. The measurements made over a length of 1.1 m of shock tube indicate that the AST II method of filling produces non-uniformities in liquid volume concentration of less than 2 %, whereas in the AST I method of filling the non-uniformities reached 16 %. The improved uniformity can also be seen in measurement of gas-phase fuel concentration behind the incident shock wave after the liquid droplets have evaporated. Significant reduction in the scatter of ignition delay times measured using AST II have also been achieved, confirming the importance of uniform loading of the aerosol in making high-quality combustion measurements.

  13. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  14. Exploring the switchgrass transcriptome using second-generation sequencing technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a C4 perennial grass and widely popular as an important bioenergy crop. To accelerate the pace of developing high yielding switchgrass cultivars adapted to diverse environmental niches, the generation of genomic resources for this plant is necessary. The large genome size and polyploid nature of switchgrass makes whole genome sequencing a daunting task even with current technologies. Exploring the transcriptional landscape using next generation sequencing technologies provides a viable alternative to whole genome sequencing in switchgrass. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Switchgrass cDNA libraries from germinating seedlings, emerging tillers, flowers, and dormant seeds were sequenced using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, generating 980,000 reads with an average read length of 367 bp. De novo assembly generated 243,600 contigs with an average length of 535 bp. Using the foxtail millet genome as a reference greatly improved the assembly and annotation of switchgrass ESTs. Comparative analysis of the 454-derived switchgrass EST reads with other sequenced monocots including Brachypodium, sorghum, rice and maize indicated a 70-80% overlap. RPKM analysis demonstrated unique transcriptional signatures of the four tissues analyzed in this study. More than 24,000 ESTs were identified in the dormant seed library. In silico analysis indicated that there are more than 2000 EST-SSRs in this collection. Expression of several orphan ESTs was confirmed by RT-PCR. SIGNIFICANCE: We estimate that about 90% of the switchgrass gene space has been covered in this analysis. This study nearly doubles the amount of EST information for switchgrass currently in the public domain. The celerity and economical nature of second-generation sequencing technologies provide an in-depth view of the gene space of complex genomes like switchgrass. Sequence analysis of closely related members of the NAD(+-malic enzyme type C4 grasses such as

  15. Multicenter performance evaluation of a second generation cortisol assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Ju Bae, Yoon; Bruegel, Mathias; Ceglarek, Uta; Fiers, Tom; Gaudl, Alexander; Kurka, Hedwig; Milczynski, Christoph; Prat Knoll, Cristina; Suhr, Anna C; Teupser, Daniel; Zahn, Ingrid; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Untreated disorders of the adrenocortical system, such as Cushing's or Addison's disease, can be fatal, and accurate quantification of a patient's cortisol levels is vital for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess the analytical performance of a new fully-automated Elecsys® Cortisol II assay (second generation) to measure cortisol levels in serum and saliva. Four European investigational sites assessed the intermediate precision and reproducibility of the Cortisol II assay (Roche Diagnostics) under routine conditions. Method comparisons of the Cortisol II assay vs. liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the gold standard for cortisol measurement, were performed. Cortisol reference ranges from three US sites were determined using samples from self-reported healthy individuals. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility for serum samples were ≤2.6%, ≤5.8%, and ≤9.5%, respectively, and for saliva were ≤4.4% and ≤10.9%, and ≤11.4%, respectively. Agreement between the Cortisol II assay and LC-MS/MS in serum samples was close, with a slope of 1.02 and an intercept of 4.473 nmol/L. Reference range samples were collected from healthy individuals (n=300) and serum morning cortisol concentrations (5-95th percentile) were 166.1-507 nmol/L and afternoon concentrations were 73.8-291 nmol/L. Morning, afternoon, and midnight saliva concentrations (95th percentile) were 20.3, 6.94, and 7.56 nmol/L, respectively. The Cortisol II assay had good precision over the entire measuring range and had excellent agreement with LC-MS/MS. This test was found suitable for routine diagnostic application and will be valuable for the diagnosis of adrenocortical diseases.

  16. Flocculation causes inhibitor tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for second-generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Mapelli, Valeria; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2014-11-01

    Yeast has long been considered the microorganism of choice for second-generation bioethanol production due to its fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance. However, tolerance toward inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic materials is still an issue. Flocculating yeast strains often perform relatively well in inhibitory media, but inhibitor tolerance has never been clearly linked to the actual flocculation ability per se. In this study, variants of the flocculation gene FLO1 were transformed into the genome of the nonflocculating laboratory yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D. Three mutants with distinct differences in flocculation properties were isolated and characterized. The degree of flocculation and hydrophobicity of the cells were correlated to the length of the gene variant. The effect of different strength of flocculation on the fermentation performance of the strains was studied in defined medium with or without fermentation inhibitors, as well as in media based on dilute acid spruce hydrolysate. Strong flocculation aided against the readily convertible inhibitor furfural but not against less convertible inhibitors such as carboxylic acids. During fermentation of dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, the most strongly flocculating mutant with dense cell flocs showed significantly faster sugar consumption. The modified strain with the weakest flocculation showed a hexose consumption profile similar to the untransformed strain. These findings may explain why flocculation has evolved as a stress response and can find application in fermentation-based biorefinery processes on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  17. CARBONIZER TESTS WITH LAKELAND FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lu; Z. Fan; R. Froehlich; A. Robertson

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract (USDOE) DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48%, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization/scrubbers. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized (PCFB) bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2700 F and higher. Under the USDOE Clean Coal V Demonstration Plant Program, a nominal 260 MWe plant demonstrating 2nd Gen PFB technology has been proposed for construction at the McIntosh Power Plant of the City of Lakeland, Florida. In the September-December 1997 time period, four test runs were conducted in Foster Wheeler's 12-inch diameter carbonizer pilot plant in Livingston New Jersey to ascertain carbonizer performance characteristics with the Kentucky No. 9 coal and Florida limestone proposed for use in the Lakeland plant. The tests were of a short-term nature exploring carbonizer carbon conversions, sulfur capture efficiencies and syngas alkali levels. The tests were successful; observed carbonizer performance was in agreement with predictions and no operating problems, attributed to the planned feedstocks, were encountered. The results of the four test runs are reported herein.

  18. CARBONIZER TESTS WITH LAKELAND FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lu; Z. Fan; R. Froehlich; A. Robertson

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract (USDOE) DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48%, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization/scrubbers. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized (PCFB) bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2700 F and higher. Under the USDOE Clean Coal V Demonstration Plant Program, a nominal 260 MWe plant demonstrating 2nd Gen PFB technology has been proposed for construction at the McIntosh Power Plant of the City of Lakeland, Florida. In the September-December 1997 time period, four test runs were conducted in Foster Wheeler's 12-inch diameter carbonizer pilot plant in Livingston New Jersey to ascertain carbonizer performance characteristics with the Kentucky No. 9 coal and Florida limestone proposed for use in the Lakeland plant. The tests were of a short-term nature exploring carbonizer carbon conversions, sulfur capture efficiencies and syngas alkali levels. The tests were successful; observed carbonizer performance was in agreement with predictions and no operating problems, attributed to the planned feedstocks, were encountered. The results of the four test runs are reported herein.

  19. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Bioenergy research at the Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) is focused on creating commodity-scale feed-stocks from native biomass that meet the needs...

  20. ESA's Ice Cloud Imager on Metop Second Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulf; Loiselet, Marc; Mason, Graeme; Gonzalez, Raquel; Brandt, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Since 2006, the European contribution to operational meteorological observations from polar orbit has been provided by the Meteorological Operational (MetOp) satellites, which is the space segment of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS). The first MetOp satellite was launched in 2006, 2nd 2012 and 3rd satellite is planned for launch in 2018. As part of the next generation EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS-SG), the MetOp Second Generation (MetOp-SG) satellites will provide continuity and enhancement of these observations in the 2021 - 2042 timeframe. The noel Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) is one of the instruments selected to be on-board the MetOp-SG satellite "B". The main objective of the ICI is to enable cloud ice retrieval, with emphasis on cirrus clouds. ICI will provide information on cloud ice mean altitude, cloud ice water path and cloud ice effective radius. In addition, it will provide water vapour profile measurement capability. ICI is a 13-channel microwave/sub-millimetre wave radiometer, covering the frequency range from 183 GHz up to 664 GHz. The instrument is composed of a rotating part and a fixed part. The rotating part includes the main antenna, the feed assembly and the receiver electronics. The fixed part contains the hot calibration target, the reflector for viewing the cold sky and the electronics for the instrument control and interface with the platform. Between the fixed and the rotating part is the scan mechanism. Scan mechanism is not only responsible of rotating the instrument and providing its angular position, but it will also have pass through the power and data lines. The Scan mechanism is controlled by the fully redundant Control and Drive Electronics ICI is calibrated using an internal hot target and a cold sky mirror, which are viewed once per rotation. The internal hot target is a traditional pyramidal target. The hot target is covered by an annular shield during rotation with only a small opening for the feed horns to guarantee a stable environment

  1. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  2. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  3. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build

  4. Design of second generation Hanford tank corrosion monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgemon, G.L.

    1998-04-02

    small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. Laboratory studies and recent reports on field applications have reported that EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A two year laboratory study was started at Hanford in 1995 to provide a technical basis for using EN in Hanford nuclear waste tanks. Based on this study, a prototype system was constructed and deployed in DST 241-AZ-101 in August, 1996. Based on the successful demonstration of this prototype for more than a year, a first-generation full-scale system was designed and installed into DST 241-AN-107 in September 1997. This document summarizes the design and operational requirements of the second-generation full-scale system scheduled for deployment into 241-AY-102.

  5. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  6. Second-generation antidepressants for seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Kylie; Delivuk, Marlene; Chapman, Andrea; Gaynes, Bradley N; Kaminski, Angela; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-12-07

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent depressive episodes that is often treated with second-generation antidepressants (SGAs), light therapy or psychotherapy. To assess the efficacy and safety of SGAs for the treatment of SAD in adults in comparison with placebo, light therapy, other SGAs or psychotherapy. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neuorosis Review Group's specialised register (CCDANCTR) on the 26 August 2011. The CCDANCTR contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). In addition, we searched pharmaceutical industry trials registers via the Internet to identify unpublished trial data. Furthermore, we searched OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, EMBASE and PsycINFO to 27July 2011 for publications on adverse effects (including non-randomised studies). For efficacy we included randomised trials of SGAs compared with other SGAs, placebo, light therapy or psychotherapy in adult participants with SAD. For adverse effects we also included non-randomised studies. Two review authors screened abstracts and full-text publications against the inclusion criteria. Data abstraction and risk of bias assessment were conducted by one reviewer and checked for accuracy and completeness by a second. We pooled data for meta-analysis where the participant groups were similar and the studies assessed the same treatments with the same comparator and had similar definitions of outcome measures over a similar duration of treatment. For efficacy we included three randomised trials of between five and eight weeks duration with a total of 204 participants. For adverse effects we included two randomised trials and three observational (non-randomised) studies of five to eight weeks duration with a total of 225 participants. Overall, the randomised trials had low-to-moderate risk of bias, and the observational studies had

  7. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  8. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Zhu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2012-08-01

    Developing feedstock-independent biomass pretreatment would be vital to second generation biorefineries that would fully utilize diverse non-food lignocellulosic biomass resources, decrease transportation costs of low energy density feedstock, and conserve natural biodiversity. Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF) was applied to a variety of feedstocks, including Miscanthus, poplar, their mixture, bagasse, wheat straw, and rice straw. Although non-pretreated biomass samples exhibited a large variation in enzymatic digestibility, the COSLIF-pretreated biomass samples exhibited similar high enzymatic glucan digestibilities and fast hydrolysis rates. Glucan digestibilities of most pretreated feedstocks were ∼93% at five filter paper units per gram of glucan. The overall glucose and xylose yields for the Miscanthus:poplar mixture at a weight ratio of 1:2 were 93% and 85%, respectively. These results suggested that COSLIF could be regarded as a feedstock-independent pretreatment suitable for processing diverse feedstocks by adjusting pretreatment residence time only.

  9. Do They Always Say No? : German Consumers and Second-Generation GMO Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, Jochen; HERRMANN, ROLAND

    2009-01-01

    European consumers and, in particular, German consumers are known to be very critical towards the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods. It is analyzed here whether German consumers do reject second-generation GMO foods, too. Whereas first-generation GM crops induced producer-related benefits, second-generation GM crops are associated with consumer-oriented benefits like an improvement of nutritional quality. The determinants of demand for second-generation GM rapeseed oil are inves...

  10. Differences in the labour market entry of second-generation immigrants and ethnic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene

    2014-01-01

    to their ethnic Danish twins according to parental characteristics and informal network quality. We find that second-generation immigrants with a high-school or primary school education, in particular females, perform as well or better than their ethnic counterparts. Second generation immigrants with vocational......Our study is one of the first to take search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account when investigating firm behavior towards second-generation immigrants in Denmark. We ensure sub-sample homogeneity in search models by matching second-generation immigrants...

  11. Cost and greenhouse gas emission tradeoffs of alternative uses of lignin for second generation ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhashem, Ghasideh; Adler, Paul R.; McAloon, Andrew J.; Spatari, Sabrina

    2013-06-01

    Second generation ethanol bioconversion technologies are under demonstration-scale development for the production of lignocellulosic fuels to meet the US federal Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2). Bioconversion technology utilizes the fermentable sugars generated from the cellulosic fraction of the feedstock, and most commonly assumes that the lignin fraction may be used as a source of thermal and electrical energy. We examine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and techno-economic cost tradeoffs for alternative uses of the lignin fraction of agricultural residues (corn stover, and wheat and barley straw) produced within a 2000 dry metric ton per day ethanol biorefinery in three locations in the United States. We compare three scenarios in which the lignin is (1) used as a land amendment to replace soil organic carbon (SOC); (2) separated, dried and sold as a coal substitute to produce electricity; and (3) used to produce electricity onsite at the biorefinery. Results from this analysis indicate that for life cycle GHG intensity, amending the lignin to land is lowest among the three ethanol production options (-25 to -2 g CO2e MJ-1), substituting coal with lignin is second lowest (4-32 g CO2e MJ-1), and onsite power generation is highest (36-41 g CO2e MJ-1). Moreover, the onsite power generation case may not meet RFS2 cellulosic fuel requirements given the uncertainty in electricity substitution. Options that use lignin for energy do so at the expense of SOC loss. The lignin-land amendment option has the lowest capital cost among the three options due to lower equipment costs for the biorefinery’s thermal energy needs and use of biogas generated onsite. The need to purchase electricity and uncertain market value of the lignin-land amendment could raise its cost compared to onsite power generation and electricity co-production. However, assuming a market value (50-100/dry Mg) for nutrient and soil carbon replacement in agricultural soils, and potentially

  12. Effects of feedstocks on the process integration of biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foglia, Domenico; Wukovits, Walter; Friedl, Anton [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Ljunggren, Mattias; Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, P. O. Box 124, Lund (Sweden); Urbaniec, Krzysztof; Markowski, Mariusz [Warsaw University of Technology, Plock (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    Future production of hydrogen must be sustainable. To obtain it, renewable resources have to be employed for its production. Fermentation of biomasses could be a viable way. The process evaluated is a two-step fermentation to produce hydrogen from biomass. Process options with barley straws, PSP, and thick juice as feedstocks have been compared on the basis of process balances. Aspen Plus has been used to calculate mass and energy balances taking into account the integration of the process. Results show that the production of hydrogen as energy carrier is technically feasible with all the considered feedstocks and thanks to heat integration, second generation biomass (PSP and barley straws) are competitive with food crops (thick juice). (orig.)

  13. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply

  14. The Kids Are (Mostly) Alright: Second-Generation Assimilation--Comments on Haller, Portes and Lynch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Kasinitz, Philip; Waters, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' comments on "Dreams Fulfilled, Dreams Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation" by William Haller, Alejandro Portes and Scott M. Lynch. The overall well-being and integration of second-generation immigrant youth constitute an important topic for researchers and policy makers, one…

  15. The interaction between EU biofuel policy and first- and second-generation biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutesteijn, C.; Drabik, D.; Venus, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    We build a tractable partial equilibrium model to study the interactions between the EU biofuel policies (mandate and double-counting of second-generation biofuels) and first- and second-generation biodiesel production. We find that increasing the biodiesel mandate results in a higher share of

  16. The interaction between EU biofuel policy and first- and second-generation biodiesel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutesteijn, C.; Drabik, D.; Venus, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    We build a tractable partial equilibrium model to study the interactions between the EU biofuel policies (mandate and double-counting of second-generation biofuels) and first- and second-generation biodiesel production. We find that increasing the biodiesel mandate results in a higher share of first

  17. Emigration and Schooling among Second-Generation Mexican-American Children. Working Paper. WR-529

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.; Torr, Berna M.

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation immigrants are typically analyzed under the assumption that, having been born in the United States, they grew up in the United States. We challenge this assumption by investigating the prevalence and patterns of second-generation Mexican-American children's migration to and return from Mexico during childhood, and consider the…

  18. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  19. Induced Land Use Emissions due to First and Second Generation Biofuels and Uncertainty in Land Use Emission Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Taheripour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has estimated induced land use changes (ILUCs and emissions for first generation biofuels. Relatively little has provided estimates for the second generation biofuels. This paper estimates ILUC emissions for the first and second generation biofuels. Estimated ILUC emissions are uncertain not only because their associated land use changes are uncertain, but also because of uncertainty in the land use emission factors (EFs. This paper also examines uncertainties related to these factors. The results suggest that converting crop residues to biofuel has no significant ILUC emissions, but that is not the case for dedicated energy crops. Use of dedicated energy crops transfers managed natural land and marginal land (cropland-pasture to crop production. Producing biogasoline from miscanthus generates the lowest land requirement among alterative pathways. The largest land requirement is associated with switchgrass. The difference is due largely to the assumed yields of switchgrass and miscanthus. The three major conclusions from uncertainty in emissions analyses are (1 inclusion or exclusion of cropland-pasture makes a huge difference; (2 changes in soil carbon sequestration due to changes in land cover vegetation play an important role; and (3 there is wide divergence among the emission factor sources, especially for dedicated crop conversion to ethanol.

  20. The second generation biofuels from the biomass; Les biocarburants de deuxieme generation issus de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  1. The number needed to treat for second-generation biologics when treating established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Jakobsen, A. K.; Bartels, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX)....

  2. Effects of the second-generation larch plantations on soil fertility and tree growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培华; 席苏桦; 姜文娟; 刘亚彬; 孙玉英

    2000-01-01

    In order to realize the effect of second generation of larch plantations on soil fertility and tree growth and to provide the theoretical base and the reasonable management measures, the growth of larch plantations for different generations at different soil conditions were inventoried and compared. The relationship between soil nutrition and tree growth of the second-generation larch plantations was analyzed. Comparing with the first generation, the second generation of larch did not present acidation phenomenon on the dark brown soil. With respect to the organic matter, rapidly available K and N, the values of the second-generation larch is close to that of first generation at later time. Platform-preparation is good measures for improving soil conditions

  3. MIGRANTS’ IDENTITY: A STUDY OF SECOND GENERATION MIGRANT LABOR IN QATAR

    OpenAIRE

    Muslu, Hazal

    2015-01-01

    Second generation migrants who were born or grew up in Qatar and studied in the same schools and environment with their Qatari counterparts represent a different case than migrant labor workers who move to Qatar through a sponsorship agreement for temporary purposes. The identity construction of second generation of middle class migrants is an issue that requires a further research since the research on international migration in the GCC countries tends to focus on low-income migrant workers ...

  4. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Jusoh; Farawahida Abu Zaharin; Nur Syazni Adam

    2013-01-01

    Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of secon...

  5. The number needed to treat for second-generation biologics when treating established rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L E; Jakobsen, A K; Bartels, E M;

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX).......To evaluate the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) of the second-generation biologics abatacept, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, and tocilizumab in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) taking concomitant methotrexate (MTX)....

  6. An Overview of Composting Based on Variable Feedstock Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biological treatment method that provides a potential sustainable way to convert food waste into organic compost. In composting, the feedstock material is an important item to ensure the success of the composting process. This paper reviewed the process of composting based on implementation different types of feedstock, namely: 1 animal waste such as cow dung, poultry litter, swine manure and chicken manure; and 2 agricultural waste such as sawdust, rice straw, bran, bagasse, banana waste and pine chip. The result for poultry litter, cow manure, swine manure, sawdust and rice straw has C/N ratio lower than 20 at final composting process which is considered as satisfactory level for compost maturity. As a conclusion, the selection of the feedstock material is based on the characteristics of the material itself and the selection of materials is important for the quality of compost.

  7. Comparing first and second generation digital natives' Internet use, Internet anxiety, and Internet identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Gavin, Jeff; Brosnan, Mark; Cromby, John; Gregory, Helen; Guiller, Jane; Maras, Pam; Moon, Amy

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare first and second generation Digital Natives' attitudes toward and use of the Internet. The sample of first generation Digital Natives consisted of 558 students who we surveyed in 2002 and who were born after 1980. The sample of second generation Digital Natives consisted of a sample of 458 students who we surveyed in 2012 and were born after 1993. They completed a questionnaire in the first semester of their first academic year, which consisted of a measure of Internet experience, an Internet anxiety scale, and an Internet identification scale. Second generation Digital Natives had more positive attitudes toward the Internet than first generation Digital Natives. They had higher scores on the Internet identification scale and lower scores on the Internet anxiety scale compared with first generation Digital Natives. Furthermore, we found that second generation Digital Natives used the Internet more than first generation Digital Natives. E-mail was the most popular activity for both generations, although second generation Digital Natives used it significantly more than first generation Digital Natives. Social networking sites emerged as very popular for second generation Digital Natives. Both generations reported low use of Web 2.0 technologies.

  8. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank

    2011-01-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.

  9. Effect of hydrotreating FCC feedstock on product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Sotelo, D.; Maya-Yescas, R.; Mariaca-Dominguez, E.; Rodriguez-Salomon, S.; Aguilera-Lopez, M. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    The demand of low-sulfur fuels has been increasing during the last 20 years due to environmental concerns about SO{sub x} emissions from processing plants and engines. Due to its high contribution to the gasoline pool, hydrotreating fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock offers several advantages, such as the increase of conversion and yields of gasoline and liquid-phase gas, meanwhile sulfur content in fuels is diminished. However, there are more important factors to be considered when hydrotreating FCC feedstock.In this work, two FCC feedstocks, typical and hydrotreated, were converted in a microactivity test (MAT) reactor, as described by ASTM D-3907-92, at different severities and using two commercial catalysts. Feedstock conversion, product yields and selectivity to valuable products were compared against industrial-scale results predicted by using commercial FCC simulation software. Expected increment in conversion and yield to profitable products was observed when hydrotreated feedstock was used; simulation results follow acceptably MAT results. Some recommendations are given for looking closely at the overall behavior (riser-regenerator), using reliable kinetic models and simulation programs.

  10. Using Populus as a lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2015-04-01

    Populus species along with species from the sister genus Salix will provide valuable feedstock resources for advanced second-generation biofuels. Their inherent fast growth characteristics can particularly be exploited for short rotation management, a time and energy saving cultivation alternative for lignocellulosic feedstock supply. Salicaceae possess inherent cell wall characteristics with favorable cellulose to lignin ratios for utilization as bioethanol crop. We review economically important traits relevant for intensively managed biofuel crop plantations, genomic and phenotypic resources available for Populus, breeding strategies for forest trees dedicated to bioenergy provision, and bioprocesses and downstream applications related to opportunities using Salicaceae as a renewable resource. Challenges need to be resolved for every single step of the conversion process chain, i.e., starting from tree domestication for improved performance as a bioenergy crop, bioconversion process, policy development for land use changes associated with advanced biofuels, and harvest and supply logistics associated with industrial-scale biorefinery plants using Populus as feedstock. Significant hurdles towards cost and energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and yield maximization with regards to biomass pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of celluloses and the sustainability of biorefineries as a whole still need to be overcome.

  11. Evaluation of a second-generation microtransesophageal echocardiography transducer and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lowell H; Chelliah, Anjali; Sable, Craig A

    2014-10-01

    Transesophageal echocardiographic imaging of small infants has been limited because of equipment size. A newer miniaturized transducer has allowed for the imaging of even the smallest patients but has been limited by intermittent poor image quality because of hardware durability. A second generation of the transducer was developed to address this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and durability of the second-generation transducer over multiple uses and to compare the image quality from the modified transducer and new software preset to the original transducer. Patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) based on clinical indications with the original or second-generation transducers were included in the study. All studies were reviewed for image quality and unacceptable image degradation, which was defined as imaging quality inadequate for clinical use. Study review was performed by two echocardiographers. Using the original transducer, 37 studies were performed with a mean patient weight of 3.46±0.89 kg (range 2.1-5.7). Using the second-generation transducer, 65 studies were performed with a mean patient weight of 4.87±2.05 kg (range 2.2-13.8). Image quality was clinically inadequate in 8 of the 35 studies with the original transducer and in zero with the second generation (Ptransducer allows for effective use of TEE even in the smallest infants and avoids the mechanical failures associated with the first-generation release. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Cancer risk assessment with a second-generation infrared imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jonathan F.; Lipari, Charles A.; Wang, Fen; Elliott, Robert L.

    1997-08-01

    Infrared imaging of the breasts for breast cancer risk assessment with a second generation amber indium antimonide focal plane staring array system was found to produce images superior to a first generation Inframetrics scanning mercury cadmium telluride system. The second generation system had greater thermal sensitivity, more elements in the image and greater dynamic range, which resulted in a greater ability to demonstrate asymmetric heat patterns in the breasts of women being screened for breast cancer. Chi-square analysis for independence of the results from 220 patients with both the scanning and focal plane infrared imaging systems demonstrated that the results from the two systems were strongly associated with each other (p equals .0001). However, the improved image from the second generation focal plane infrared imaging system allowed more objective and quantitative visual analysis, compared to the very subjective qualitative results from the first generation infrared imaging system. The improved image also resulted in an increase in the sensitivity for asymmetric heat patterns with the second generation focal plane system and yielded an increase in the percentage of patients with an abnormal asymmetric infrared image of the breasts from 32.7% with the scanning system to 50.5% with the focal plane system. The greater sensitivity and resolution of the digitized images from the second generation infrared imaging system has also allowed computer assisted image analysis of both breasts, breast quadrants and hot spots to produce quantitative measurements (mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum temperatures) of asymmetric infrared abnormalities.

  13. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.

  14. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs.

  15. Risk of schizophrenia in second-generation immigrants: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members...... for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or native Danes......Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...

  16. The use of a second generation star tracker in the control loop of the pointing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this note is to propose the use of a second generation star tracker to guide the UVISS pointing system.As UVISS is mounted on the International Space Station the time to observe a specific star is limited by the orbital motion, therefore it is crucial to reduce as much as possible...... the pointing and acquisition time.Due to the limited resources, primarily power and mass, and the attitude perturbations, the traditional pointing systems do not seem suitable.However, a star tracker of the second generation might be the key to find an elegant solution to the above points....

  17. Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pushkarev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.

  18. Fermentation strategy for second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate by Spathaspora passalidarum and Scheffersomyces stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Simone C; Soares, Lauren B; Biazi, Luiz Eduardo; Nascimento, Viviane M; Costa, Aline C; Rocha, George Jackson M; Ienczak, Jaciane L

    2017-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of released sugars in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass is a central feature for second generation ethanol (E2G) production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used industrially in the production of first generation ethanol (E1G) convert sucrose, fructose, and glucose into ethanol. However, these yeasts have no ability to ferment pentose (xylose). Therefore, the present work has focused on E2G production by Scheffersomyces stipitis and Spathaspora passalidarum. The fermentation strategy with high pitch, cell recycle, fed-batch mode, and temperature decrease for each batch were performed in a hydrolyzate obtained from a pretreatment at 130°C with NaOH solution (1.5% w/v) added with 0.15% (w/w) of anthraquinone (AQ) and followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The process strategy has increased volumetric productivity from 0.35 to 0.38 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) (first to third batch) for S. stipitis and from 0.38 to 0.81 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) for S. passalidarum (first to fourth batch). Mass balance for the process proposed in this work showed the production of 177.33 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. passalidarum compared to 124.13 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. stipitis fermentation. The strategy proposed in this work can be considered as a promising strategy in the production of second generation ethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2211-2221. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  20. New Universal Current-Mode Filter Using Non-Inverting Second-Generation Current-Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti; Aamir Alam Farooqui

    1995-01-01

    A new universal active current-mode filter with single input and five outputs is presented. The proposed filter avoids the use of feedback in any part of the circuit and uses only one type of second-generation current-conveyors, grounded resistors, and grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit can simultaneously realize lowpass, highpass, bandpass, allpass, and notch biquadratic filter functions.

  1. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  2. Home language policy of second-generation Turkish families in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezcioglu, Irem; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the family language policy of second-generation Turkish immigrant families in the Netherlands by exploring their language ideologies, practices, and management strategies. Using an ethnographic approach, data were collected through a set of observations and interviews with 20

  3. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  4. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel H.; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of mi...

  5. Renewable energy targets, forest resources, and second-generation biofuels in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Malinen, H.; Ranta, T.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of second-generation biofuels is an essential factor for meeting the EU’s 2020 targets for renewable energy in the transport sector and enabling the more ambitious targets for 2030. Finland’s forest industry is strongly involved in the development and commercializing of second-generatio

  6. Body fluid identification of blood, saliva and semen using second generation sequencing of micro-RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christel Hougård; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Tvedebrink, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    We report a new second generation sequencing method for identification micro-RNA (miRNA) that can be used to identify body fluids and tissues. Principal component analysis of 10 miRNAs with high expression in 16 samples of blood, saliva and semen showed clear differences in the expression of miRN...

  7. Is the antidepressive effect of second-generation antidepressants a myth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2010-01-01

    Two recent meta-analyses on second-generation antidepressants versus placebo in mild to moderate forms of major depression, based on data on all randomized clinical trials using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) submitted to FDA, have shown an effect size of approximately 0.30 in favour of ant...

  8. The remittances behaviour of the second generation in Europe: altruism or self-interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrosetti, E.; Cela, E.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most research on remittances focuses on first-generation migrants, the aim of this paper is to investigate the remitting behaviour of the host country-born children of migrants - the second generation - in various European cities. Some important studies found that migrant transnationalism is

  9. Acculturation preferences of the Turkish second generation in 11 European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Valk, H.A.G.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines acculturation preferences of the Turkish second generation in 11 European cities and compares these with expectations of national society comparison group members. Multiple classification analysis (MCA) was used to examine the effects of city of residence, exposure to national

  10. Human Capital Background and the Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Manon Domingues; Wolff, Francois-Charles

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of parental human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants using a large data set conducted in France in 2003. Estimates from censored random effect ordered Probit regressions show that the skills of immigrants explain in the most part, the ethnic educational gap between…

  11. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  12. Olefin Ring Closing Metathesis and Hydrosilylation Reaction in Aqueous Medium by Grubbs Second Generation Ruthenium Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grubbs second generation ruthenium catalyst was shown to catalyze various olefin ring closing metathesis and hydrosilylation reactions in aqueous medium. Reactions proceeded in pure water without any additives or co-solvents, in a short period of time. We found that inhomogen...

  13. Attractive Noncovalent Interactions in the Mechanism of Grubbs Second-Generation Ru Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2007-05-10

    Second-generation ruthenium carbenoid catalysts for olefin metathesis are a hundred to a thousand times more active than first-generation catalysts, despite a slower initiation step. A new density functional capable of treating medium-range correlation energy shows that the relative rates of generation of the catalyst are determined by attractive noncovalent interactions.

  14. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  15. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  16. The Cumulative Disadvantages of First- and Second-Generation Segregation for Middle School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2015-01-01

    Middle schools are important because they launch students on trajectories that they are likely to follow throughout their formal educations. This study explored the relationship of first-generation segregation (elementary and middle school racial composition) and second-generation segregation (racially correlated academic tracks) to reading and…

  17. Reinvention of ethnic identification among second generation Moroccan and Turkish Dutch social climbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootman, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a trajectory of immigrant incorporation is identified among ethnic minority social climbers that is characterized by reassertion and reinvention of ethnic identity in early adulthood. In-depth interviews with university-educated, second generation Moroccan and Turkish Dutch show tha

  18. The use of a second generation star tracker in the control loop of the pointing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this note is to propose the use of a second generation star tracker to guide the UVISS pointing system.As UVISS is mounted on the International Space Station the time to observe a specific star is limited by the orbital motion, therefore it is crucial to reduce as much as possible...

  19. Is the antidepressive effect of second-generation antidepressants a myth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2010-01-01

    Two recent meta-analyses on second-generation antidepressants versus placebo in mild to moderate forms of major depression, based on data on all randomized clinical trials using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) submitted to FDA, have shown an effect size of approximately 0.30 in favour...

  20. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  1. A Fast Component-Tree Algorithm for High Dynamic-Range Images and Second Generation Connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Component trees are important data structures for computation of connected attribute filters. Though some of the available algorithms are suitable for high-dynamic range, and in particular floating point data, none are suitable for computation of component trees for so-called second-generation, and

  2. Fast and Robust pointing and tracking using a second-generation star tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Pickles, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Second generation star trackers work by taking wide-angle optical pictures of star fields, correlating the image against a star catalogue in ROM, centroiding many stars to derive an accurate position and orientation. This paper describes a miniature instrument(10cm cube), fast and lightweight (85...

  3. Second-generation Muslims in European societies: Comparative perspectives on education and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and explain individual and contextual variation in educational attainment and religiosity of second-generation Turkish and Moroccan Muslims in North-West Europe. The two minority groups are compared across local and national receiving contexts in Belgium,

  4. Human Capital Background and the Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Manon Domingues; Wolff, Francois-Charles

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of parental human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants using a large data set conducted in France in 2003. Estimates from censored random effect ordered Probit regressions show that the skills of immigrants explain in the most part, the ethnic educational gap between…

  5. Development of an in-orbit refocusing mechanism for the meteosat second generation weather satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, P.; Mierlo, H.A. van; Braam, B.C.; Hopman, J.; Werkhoven, W.P. van; Kluse, M. le

    1998-01-01

    A Refocusing Mechanism (REM) has been designed and built for the SEVIRI instrument, the imager in the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The purpose of the mechanism is in-orbit focal adjustment of a mirror assembly which forms part of SEVIRI. As the MSG satellite observes the earth and its

  6. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  7. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  8. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  9. Improved Metathesis Lifetime: Chelating Pyridinyl-Alcoholato Ligands in the Second Generation Grubbs Precatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean I. du Toit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemilabile ligands can release a free coordination site “on demand” of an incoming nucleophilic substrate while occupying it otherwise. This is believed to increase the thermal stability and activity of catalytic systems and therefore prevent decomposition via free coordination sites. In this investigation chelating pyridinyl-alcoholato ligands were identified as possible hemilabile ligands for incorporation into the second generation Grubbs precatalyst. The O,N-alcoholato ligands with different steric bulk could be successfully incorporated into the precatalysts. The incorporation of the sterically hindered, hemilabile O,N-ligands improved the thermal stability, activity, selectivity and lifetime of these complexes towards the metathesis of 1-octene. A decrease in the activity of the second generation Grubbs precatalyst was additionally observed after incorporating a hemilabile O,N-ligand with two phenyl groups into the system, while increasing their lifetime.

  10. The effect of protons on the performance of second generation Swept Charge Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, Jason P.D., E-mail: j.p.d.gow@open.ac.uk [e2v Centre for Electronic Imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Holland, Andrew D. [e2v Centre for Electronic Imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pool, Peter J. [e2v Technologies PLC, 106 Waterhouse Lance, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom); Smith, David R. [Centre for Sensors and Instrumentation, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-11

    The e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) was developed as a large area detector for X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, achieving near Fano-limited spectroscopy at -15 Degree-Sign C. The SCD was flown in the XRF instruments onboard the European Space Agency's SMART-1 and the Indian Space Research Organisation's Chandrayaan-1 lunar missions. The second generation SCD, proposed for use in the soft X-ray Spectrometer on the Chandrayaan-2 lunar orbiter and the soft X-ray imager on China's HXMT mission, was developed, in part, using the findings of the radiation damage studies performed for the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer. This paper discusses the factor of two improvements in radiation tolerance achieved in the second generation SCD, the different SCD sizes produced and their advantages for future XRF instruments, for example through reduced shielding mass or higher operating temperatures.

  11. The development and clinical evaluation of second-generation leishmaniasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Raman, Vanitha S; Piazza, Franco M; Reed, Steven G

    2012-01-05

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Control of Leishmania parasite transmission is extremely difficult due to the large number of vectors and potential reservoirs, and none of the current treatments are ideal. Vaccination could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates are briefly discussed. The variety of clinical trials conducted using the only current second generation vaccine approved for clinical use, LEISH-F1+MPL-SE, are described. Given that epidemiological evidence suggests that reducing the canine reservoir also positively impacts human incidence, efforts at providing a vaccine for leishmaniasis in dogs are highlighted. Finally, potential refinements and surrogate markers that could expedite the introduction of a vaccine that can limit the severity and incidence of leishmaniasis are discussed.

  12. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aims The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to ...

  13. Discovery of BMS-955176, a Second Generation HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitor with Broad Spectrum Antiviral Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro-Ren, Alicia; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Swidorski, Jacob J; Chen, Jie; Venables, Brian L; Zhu, Juliang; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Protack, Tricia; Lin, Zeyu; Terry, Brian; Samanta, Himadri; Zhang, Sharon; Li, Zhufang; Beno, Brett R; Huang, Xiaohua S; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Parker, Dawn D; Haskell, Roy; Jenkins, Susan; Santone, Kenneth S; Cockett, Mark I; Krystal, Mark; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Dicker, Ira B

    2016-06-09

    HIV-1 maturation inhibition (MI) has been clinically validated as an approach to the control of HIV-1 infection. However, identifying an MI with both broad polymorphic spectrum coverage and good oral exposure has been challenging. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and preclinical characterization of a potent, orally active, second generation HIV-1 MI, BMS-955176 (2), which is currently in Phase IIb clinical trials as part of a combination antiretroviral regimen.

  14. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. The generational gap: Mental disorder prevalence and disability amongst first and second generation immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela; Sartor, Lauren; Ivancic, Lorraine; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Despite unprecedented numbers of migrants internationally, little is known about the mental health needs of immigrant groups residing in common countries of resettlement. The majority of studies support the 'healthy migrant hypothesis', but few studies have examined: 1) shifts in prevalence patterns across generations; 2) how prevalence relates to disability in immigrant groups. Our study examined the prevalence of common mental disorders and disability in first and second generation migrants to Australia. Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and substance use disorders were obtained from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (N = 8841). First generation immigrants (born overseas) and second generation immigrants (both parents overseas) from non-English and English speaking backgrounds were compared to an Australian-born cohort. Disability was indexed by days out of role and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS12). First generation immigrants with non-English speaking (1G-NE) backgrounds evidenced reduced prevalence of common mental disorders relative to the Australian-born population (adjusted odds ratio 0.5 [95% CI 0.38-0.66]). This lower prevalence was not observed in second generation immigrant cohorts. While overall levels of disability were equal between all groups (p > 0.05), mental health-related disability was elevated in the 1G-NE group relative to the Australian-born group (p = 0.012). The findings challenge the overarching notion of the "healthy migrant" and suggest a dissociation between reduced prevalence and elevated mental health-related disability amongst first generation immigrants with non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings highlight the heterogeneous psychiatric needs of first and second generation immigrants.

  16. Naphthalocyanines relevant to the search for second-generation PDT sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sounik, James R.; Rihter, Boris D.; Ford, William E.; Rodgers, Michael A. J.; Kenney, Malcolm E.

    1991-06-01

    Methods for the preparation of three siloxysilicon naphthalocyanines, a siloxygermanium tetraphenoxynaphthalocyanine, a siloxysilicon tetra-t-butyl-naphthalocyanine, a cofacial double-ring siloxysilicon naphthalocyanine, and a cofacial triple-ring siloxysilicon naphthalocyanine that are relevant to the search for second generation PDT sensitizers are outlined. Ultraviolet-visible spectra, NMR spectra, and other properties of these compounds are given and discussed. In addition, an attempt to make an aluminum tetradibenzobarreleno-naphthalocyanine is described.

  17. Second-generation pancakes, and the formation of phantom galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Hot, second-generation cosmological ''pancakes'' of neutrinos and gas may have formed and subsequently have evolved into hot, gravitationally bound gas-neutrino clouds. These ''phantom clusters'' would have a temperature, mass, and other parameters comparable with those of ordinary clusters of galaxies, but would contain no visible galaxies (or hardly any). Searches for phantom clusters could rely on x-ray surveys or analysis of microwave-background temperature fluctuations.

  18. Study on Growth and Genetic Gains of Different Families in Eucalyptus urophylla Second Generation Seed Orchards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A second-generation seedling seed orchard including 32 open-pollinated families of Eucalyptus urophylla was built at Gaoyao City, Guangdong Province to examine the genetic performance of the orchard, which were selected from the superior trees in an improvement seed orchard. Compared to the characteristics of height, DBH, individual volume, stem form, branch and blossom quantities among different families at 22 months. The results indicate that: (1) The most superior families in individual volume and bl...

  19. Second Generation Youth in Canada, Their Mobilities and Identifications: Relevance to Citizenship Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrunnisa Ali; Lori Wilkinson; Yvonne Hébert

    2010-01-01

    Based on narrative data recently collected from youth’s in three Canadian cities, our paper focuses on second generation perceptions of youth’s identifications in a society increasingly influenced by the forces of globalization and how these perceptions may or may not be reflected in programs of study dealing with citizenship education. We utilize a framework consisting of a continuum of mobilities of mind, body, and boundaries to situate their sense of self. The façade of ...

  20. Ethnicity amongst second generation Sikh girls: a case study in Nottingham

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, Beatrice Denis

    1988-01-01

    I examine the cultural lives, social relationships and ethnic identities of 16 to 20 year old Sikh females in Nottingham. Using an interview schedule, I interviewed my respondents individually and, in private. I present and analyse my findings within a framework which seeks to identify the major factors which can be said to influence the socio-cultural lives and identities of these 'second generation' Sikhs. These factors are either internal to their community (for example, caste members...

  1. A RESEARCH ON INSTITUTIONALIZATION PROBLEMS OF SECOND GENERATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Esra SARAL KOBAL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available All family enterprises nowadays are trying to have competitive advantage in their market and increase the productivity and efficiency of their operations. These are mandatory factors for those companies to survive and stay competitive in their markets. Institutionalization is one of the most important elements provides enterprises better competitive advantage, productivity and efficiency. This study aims to specify the level of institutionalization at family business and the problems that second generation of the related family faces during the institutionalization process. Because of this, study emphasizes, family business, institutionalization and second generation of the family’s problems. In parallel with the goal of this study, first institutionalization and levels of institutionalization will be shortly described. After this, the details of the problems that second generations are facing shall be determined. As the last concept of this study, the fundamentals of institutionalization at family business and corporate management will be analyzed. This study consisted of 3 sections. The first section is about the analysis of literature, second section defines the corporate fundamentals of the research and definition of the basic concepts, last section is about evaluation of the research and findings.

  2. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. Results: 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. Conclusion: the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. PMID:27508901

  3. Incidence of Schizophrenia Among Second-Generation Immigrants in the Jerusalem Perinatal Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Cheryl; Perrin, Mary; Harlap, Susan; Deutsch, Lisa; Fennig, Shmuel; Manor, Orly; Nahon, Daniella; Kimhy, David; Malaspina, Dolores; Susser, Ezra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased incidence of schizophrenia is observed among some immigrant groups in Europe, with the offspring of immigrants, ie “second-generation” immigrants particularly vulnerable. Few contemporary studies have evaluated the risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in other parts of the world. Methods: We studied the incidence of schizophrenia in relation to parental immigrant status in a population-based cohort of 88 829 offspring born in Jerusalem in 1964–1976. Parental countries of birth were obtained from birth certificates and grouped together as (1) Israel, (2) Other West Asia, (3) North Africa, and (4) Europe and industrialized countries. Cox proportional hazards methods were used in adjusting for sex, parents’ ages, maternal education, social class, and birth order. Results: Linkage with Israel's Psychiatric Registry identified 637 people admitted to psychiatric care facilities with schizophrenia-related diagnoses, before 1998. Incidence of schizophrenia was not increased among second-generation immigrants in this birth cohort, neither overall nor by specific group. Conclusions: The difference in risk of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in Europe and in this Israeli birth cohort suggests that the nature of the immigration experience may be relevant to risk, including reasons for migration, the nature of entry, and subsequent position in the host country for immigrants and their offspring. Minority status may be of importance as, in later studies, immigrants to Israel from Ethiopia had increased risk of schizophrenia. PMID:18648022

  4. Possible Radio Interference Between Video Capsule Endoscopy and Second-Generation OmniPod Patch Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitocco, Dario; Rizzi, Alessandro; Tortora, Annalisa; Manto, Andrea; Zaccardi, Francesco; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Costamagna, Guido; Riccioni, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to observe the small intestinal mucosa. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with T2DM, treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using second-generation OmniPod patch pump, undergoing VCE (Given M2A; VCE Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) for melena and anemia. During VCE, an abnormal interruption of communication between video capsule and its receiver occurred. Two hours after capsule ingestion, the patient activated the insulin pump infusion through the Personal Diabetes Manager (PDM) because she drank a sugary beverage for the first time after ingestion. Due to this, we decided to repeat VCE after the removal of the insulin pump and PDM: at this time, the capsule recorded for more than 10 h without any interruption. The video capsule and second-generation OmniPod patch pump use the same radio frequency and this may cause interference between these two devices. In patients using second-generation OmniPod patch pump undergoing VCE, we suggest to switch to intravenous insulin infusion or multiple daily injection or to use a different model of VCE, as MiRoCam (Intromedic, Seoul, Korea).

  5. Second-generation antidepressants in social anxiety disorder: meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Gabriela Bezerra; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Vigne, Paula; Figueira, Ivan; Versiani, Márcio

    2011-05-01

    A growing number of controlled clinical trials suggest that different second-generation antidepressants (SGA) may be effective in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of SGA in SAD and to investigate possible differences in their efficacy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials involving second-generation antidepressants in adult patients with SAD published on PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Current Controlled Trials databases until July 2009. Our analyses were based on changes in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and standardized mean difference (SMD). Twenty-seven controlled clinical trials, comprising ten different SGA, were selected. When comparing the reduction of LSAS scores, the group receiving active drugs showed a significantly greater reduction compared to those observed in the placebo group [pooled weighted mean -11.9 (IC 95% -14.5 to -9.4)]. The combined relative risk (RR) for the different drugs revealed a 62% increase in treatment response (final CGI ≤2) for those using SGAs, compared to those receiving placebo [RR 1.62 (95% CI 1.44-1.81)]. The combined SMD for the SGAs was -0.43 (IC 95% -0.49 to -0.37). Second-generation antidepressants are efficacious treatment for patients with SAD. However, our results do not suggest differences of efficacy among different drugs.

  6. Quality of Life and Stressful Life Events in First and Second Generation Immigrant Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lemos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in quality of life and stressful life events, in first and second generation immigrant adolescents living in Algarve. A total of 172 immigrant adolescents participated in the study, completing the kidscreen-52, the stressful and negative life events inventory and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Results suggest that younger immigrant adolescents report more physical well-being and a higher mood level. Concerning gender differences, girls scored higher than boys in physical well-being, mood and self-perception, but no differences were found on the other kidscreen subscales. First generation immigrants scored significantly higher than second generation ones on the general quality of life index, psychological well-being, autonomy, financial resources and school environment. However, the second-generation immigrants did not seem to be more exposed to stressful life events than the first-generation group. When selecting relevant variables for well-being promotion and for intervention, we must consider that immigrants are more exposed to economic vulnerability, may experience difficulties in adapting to a different school context, and are at higher risk of social exclusion.

  7. Processing Practice of Second Generation Tempeh Recipein Centre of Tempeh Home Industry in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Kristianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malang still faces nutrition problems that need to be solved with the use of local potential in the form of tempeh. More nutritious and attractive tempeh productsmay be produced by introducing new way of processing known as second generation of tempeh. This study was aimed to explore second generation tempe consumption pattern of in Malang. Methods: This study was descriptive qualitative. Tempeh consumption pattern was obtained from group of mother of 6-59 months child with malnutrition and pregnant with chronic energy deficiency in Kendalkerep health care center in which tempeh industry is localised and Arjowinangun health centers as a comparison. Data collection was conducted through FGD and tempeh cooking contest. Results: In general, respondents consumed tempeh almost every day. Tempe products were prepared traditionally in form of snack or protein source side dish. Tempeh processing is generally done by frying. Respondents have recognized the new way of processing tempeh in form of second generations.Respondents living in the tempeh industry area usedmore various ingredients and more complex methods of cooking. They also indicated the ability to adopt new way of tempeh processing. Conclusion: People in Malang consumes tempeh in two forms, ie. side dishes and snack traditionally processed mainly by frying. They may adopt new way of tempeh processing. Recommendation: Futher research is needed to prove the benefit in reducing the malnutrition.

  8. The second generation superthermal Ultra-Cold Neutron Source at RCNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Edgard; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Jeong, Sun Chan; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Matsumiya, Ryohei; Shin, Yun Chang; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu

    2014-09-01

    The project of a second generation superthermal ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source is currently going on at RCNP, Osaka University, Japan. It is aiming to produce the world's highest density of polarized UCNs using down-scattering of spallation-produced and moderated cold neutrons in superfluid helium (He-II) at 0.6 K. This project is developed in collaboration between KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) and RCNP. The first generation UCN source was using a vertical extraction and was optimized from 2002 to 2012 to increase its density of UCN from 0.7 UCN/cc to 26 UCN/cc. We have built a second generation UCN source which use a horizontal extraction system thanks to the energy boost induced by the field of a superconducting polarizer magnet (SCM). The SCM allows only one spin state to pass through, which make our UCN source a source of polarized UCN. Polarization is kept thanks to new UCN guides. The first experimental results, the performances and the future improvements of this second generation source will be presented in this talk.

  9. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  10. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  11. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Serdar E-mail: yamans@itu.edu.tr

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented.

  12. Pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    This review presents the summary of new studies on pyrolysis of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. A number of biomass species, varying from woody and herbaceous biomass to municipal solid waste, food processing residues and industrial wastes, were subjected to different pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The results of various biomass pyrolysis investigations connected with the chemical composition and some properties of the pyrolysis products as a result of the applied pyrolysis conditions were combined. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading or steam reforming, were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids to convert them to economic and environmentally acceptable liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Outcomes from the kinetic studies performed by applying thermogravimetric analysis were also presented. (author)

  13. Recent Progress on the Second Generation CMORPH: A Prototype Operational Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pingping; Joyce, Robert; Wu, Shaorong

    2016-04-01

    As reported at the EGU General Assembly of 2015, a conceptual test system was developed for the second generation CMORPH to produce global analyses of 30-min precipitation on a 0.05deg lat/lon grid over the entire globe from pole to pole through integration of information from satellite observations as well as numerical model simulations. The second generation CMORPH is built upon the Kalman Filter based CMORPH algorithm of Joyce and Xie (2011). Inputs to the system include both rainfall and snowfall rate retrievals from passive microwave (PMW) measurements aboard all available low earth orbit (LEO) satellites, precipitation estimates derived from infrared (IR) observations of geostationary (GEO) as well as LEO platforms, and precipitation simulations from numerical global models. Sub-systems were developed and refined to derive precipitation estimates from the GEO and LEO IR observations and to compute precipitating cloud motion vectors. The results were reported at the EGU of 2014 and the AGU 2015 Fall Meetings. In this presentation, we report our recent work on the construction of a prototype operational processing system for the second generation CMORPH. The second generation CMORPH prototype operational processing system takes in the passive microwave (PMW) retrievals of instantaneous precipitation rates from all available sensors, the full-resolution GEO and LEO IR data, as well as the hourly precipitation fields generated by the NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) Reanalysis (CFS). First, a combined field of PMW based precipitation retrievals (MWCOMB) is created on a 0.05deg lat/lon grid over the entire globe through inter-calibrating retrievals from various sensors against a common reference. For this experiment, the reference field is the GMI based retrievals with climatological adjustment against the TMI retrievals using data over the overlapping period. Precipitation estimation is then derived from the GEO and LEO IR data through calibration against

  14. Promoting Second Generation Biofuels: Does the First Generation Pave the Road?

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Eggert; Mads Greaker

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US, Brazil, and a number of European and other countries worldwide have introduced various support schemes for biofuels. The advantage of biofuels is that they are easily integrated with the current fossil fuel–based transport sector. However, recent studies question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent b...

  15. Optimal Distribution of Biofuel Feedstocks within Marginal Land in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, D.

    2015-12-01

    The United States can have 43 to 123 Mha of marginal land to grow second generation biofuel feedstocks. A physiological and biophysical model (BioCro) was run using 30 yr climate data (NARR) and SSURGO soil data for the conterminous United Stated to simulate growth of miscanthus, switchgrass, sugarcane, and short rotation coppice. Overlay analyses of the regional maps of predicted yields and marginal land suggest maximum availability of 0.33, 1.15, 1.13, and 1.89 PG year-1 of biomass from sugarcane, willow, switchgrass, and miscanthus, respectively. Optimal distribution of these four biofuel feedstocks within the marginal land in the USA can provide up to 2 PG year-1 of biomass for the production of second generation of biofuel without competing for crop land used for food production. This approach can potentially meet a significant fraction of liquid fuel demand in the USA and reduce greenhouse gas emission while ensuring that current crop land under food production is not used for growing biofuel feedstocks.

  16. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  17. Physical and psychological health of first and second generation Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashwin A

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in Germany suggest that first generation Turkish immigrants have lower mortality rates compared to native Germans. Conversely, studies examining morbidity, though not national in scope, have demonstrated that first generation Turks may have poorer health than native Germans. Additionally, little is known about the health of the emerging second generation Turkish population in Germany. To evaluate the discrepancy between mortality and morbidity trends and contribute to a better understanding of second generation Turkish immigrant health, this paper uses a nationally-representative dataset, including the 2005 German Gender and Generations Study (GGS) (n = 10,017) and the 2006 GGS Turkish supplement (n = 4,045), to assess three health outcomes: chronic illness, self-assessed health, and feelings of emptiness. The paper investigates whether sex, age, socioeconomic status, emotional support, or duration of residence in Germany predict these dimensions of health. Results establish clear health status differences between Turks and native Germans. Surprisingly, both first and second generation Turks tend to have lower chronic illness rates and rate their health as better than Germans at younger ages, but the advantage diminishes among higher age strata for the first generation. Feelings of emptiness results generally indicate an increased susceptibility to psychological problems for both generations of Turks. Controlling for socioeconomic status and age reduces these health differences modestly, pointing to their likely role as mediators. The relatively higher risks for all three health outcomes among Turkish females of both generations compared to their German counterparts suggest that female Turkish immigrants and their female offspring may be particularly vulnerable.

  18. Incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction following stent implantation: Comparison between first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandjung, K.; Tandjung, K.; von Birgelen, Clemens; (et al.), [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Background: First- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) differ in coating materials, which may influence the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI). Objective: To compare the incidence of PMI between first- and second-generation DES, using the current Academic Research

  19. Achievement and Expectations of Immigrant, Second Generation, and Non-Immigrant Black Students in U.S. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Research on academic achievement contrasting Black immigrant, second generation, and non-immigrant students as distinct groups is surprisingly sparse in the higher education literature. This study examined Black immigrant and second generation undergraduates from Africa and the Caribbean and non-immigrant Black American undergraduates, using the…

  20. Exploring the potential of second-generation sequencing in diverse biological contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise

    Second generation sequencing (SGS) has revolutionized the study of DNA, allowing massive parallel sequencing of nucleic acids with unprecedented depths of coverage. The research undertaken in this thesis occurred in parallel with the increased accessibility of SGS platforms for routine genetic...... H1N1 influenza A virus genomes. The results of these studies demonstrate the power of SGS for gaining insight into the genetic variation of diverse biological samples and highlight the importance of using optimized protocols for sequencing non-conventional samples....

  1. Statmaster and HEROS - web-based courses first and second generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pia Veldt; Rootzen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing focus on life-long learning, and with the convenience and accessibility of the Internet, the market for web-based courses has expanded vastly in recent times–in particular in connection with continuing education. However, teaching web-based courses presents various technical...... as well as pedagogical challenges. Some of these challenges are addressed, and means to dealing with them are suggested. A second generation of web-based courses is comprised of learning objects, which allows for tailoring courses for specialized groups of students, and accommodate individualized learning....... The concept of learning objects and how they are used to form new courses are discussed....

  2. Ablation of Barrett’s esophagus using the second-generation argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the second-generation argon plasma coagulation (VIO APC) in ablation of Barrett’s esophagus. Methods Eighteen patients with Barrett’s esophagus (12 males, median age of 55 years, median length of 2.1 cm,1 low-grade dysplasia, 13 cases of short segment Barrett’s esophagus) received VIO APC, which was performed at a power setting of 40W and argon gas flow at 1.5-2.0 L/min, "forced" mode, in 1-3 sessions (mean 1.3). All the patients received treatment with hi...

  3. Seizures induced by desloratadine, a second-generation antihistamine: clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Caterina; El-Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Lo Castro, Adriana; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Some clinical experiences indicate that H1-antihistamines, especially first-generation H1-antagonists, occasionally provoke convulsions in healthy children as well as epileptic patients. Desloratadine is a frequently used second-generation antihistamine considered to be effective and safe for the treatment of allergic diseases. We describe four children who experienced epilepsy associated with the nonsedating H(1)-antagonist desloratadine and discuss the neurophysiologic role of the central histaminergic system in seizure susceptibility. In conclusion, we recommend caution in treating epileptic patients with the histamine H(1)-antagonists, including second- and third-generation drugs that are frequently referred because they are considered to be nonsedating antihistamines.

  4. Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Raja V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a platelet concentrate that has been used widely to accelerate soft-tissue and hard-tissue healing. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF was first described by Choukroun et al. in France. It has been referred to as a second-generation platelet concentrate, which has been shown to have several advantages over traditionally prepared PRP. Its chief advantages include ease of preparation and lack of biochemical handling of blood, which makes this preparation strictly autologous. This article describes the evolution of this novel platelet concentrate, referred to as PRF.

  5. Non-uniform phenotyping of D12S391 resolved by second generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S; Rockenbauer, E; Buchard, A;

    2014-01-01

    of the electropherograms suggested that the individuals were heterozygous with two alleles that differed in size by one nucleotide. This was confirmed by amplifying the samples with the PowerPlex(®) ESX 17 system. D12S391 is a complex STR with variable numbers of AGAT and AGAC repeats. Second generation sequencing...... revealed that separation of two alleles differing by one nucleotide in length was poor if the number of AGAT repeats in the short allele was higher than in the long allele. A total of 45 individuals with microvariants or off-ladder alleles in D12S391 were sequenced. Thirty different alleles were detected...

  6. Pancakes of second generation and formation of fantomes of clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    The problem of formation of the second generation hot neutrino-gaseous ''pancakes'' is analyzed. These ''pancakes'' can evolve later into the gravitationally bounded hot neutrino-gaseous clouds-''fantomes'' of clusters. The temperature, mass and other parameters of ''fantomess'' are close to those of clusters of galaxies but ''fantomes'' do not (or nearly do not) contain ordinary galaxies. It is suggested that ''fantomes'' can be found in the X-ray surveys or by temperature fluctuations of relic radiation.

  7. Whole system analysis of second generation bioenergy production and Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2017-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy that has higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by current climate change. It is important to establish how second generation bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, SRC willow and poplar) can contribute by closing the gap between reducing fossil fuel use and increasing the use of other renewable sources in a sustainable way. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). We will present estimated yields for the above named crops in Europe using the ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. These yields will be brought into context with a whole system analysis, detailing trade-offs and synergies for land use change, food security, GHG emissions and soil and water security. Methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be used to estimate and visualise the impacts of increased use of second generation bioenergy crops on the above named ecosystem services. The results will be linked to potential yields to generate "inclusion or exclusion areas" in Europe in order to establish suitable areas for bioenergy crop production and the extent of use possible. Policy is an important factor for using second generation bioenergy crops in a sustainable way. We will present how whole system analysis can be used to create scenarios for countries or on a continental scale. As an

  8. Design and testing of a second generation solar Stirling engine power conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelving, H.-G.; Bratt, C.; Percival, W.; Wells, D.

    This paper discusses the design and testing of the improved, second generation 4-95 solar Stirling engine power conversion system. Design rationale and performance results are presented for the improved receiver design, improved concentrator alignment, integrated cooling unit, and improved control system. Flux patterns for the concentrator are presented along with calculated and measured data on the temperatures obtained in the solar heater tubes. Test results including maximum and average module performance are shown. The highlights from the testing include a maximum demonstrated power output of over 24.9 kilowatts electric output to the grid, and an overall module efficiency of 27 percent.

  9. Detecting black-hole binary clustering via the second-generation gravitational-wave detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Namikawa, Toshiya; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Taruya, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The first discovery of the gravitational wave (GW) event, GW150914, suggests a higher merger rate of black-hole (BH) binaries. If this is true, a number of BH binaries will be observed via the second-generation GW detectors, and the statistical properties of the observed BH binaries can be scrutinized. A naive but important question to ask is whether the spatial distribution of BH binaries faithfully traces the matter inhomogeneities in the Universe or not. Although the BH binaries are though...

  10. Second-generation youth's belief in the myth of Canadian multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehrunnisa Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Second-generation youth in Toronto, growing up in low-income neighbourhoods, interact primarily with other racialized and ethnicized people. Within this environment they do not experience racial prejudice or discrimination, appreciate the cultural diversity around them, and attribute it to Canada's ideology of multiculturalism. However, they are beginning to realize their own subjectivity in relation to the power of White people and institutions. These confident, ambitious, and globally connected young people are likely to get deeply disappointed as they uncover the myths of Canada's multiculturalism in the world beyond their ethnically concentrated schools and neighbourhoods. Acknowledging and addressing their marginality is critical to their inclusion in Canadian society.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigation of second-generation, controlled-diffusion, compressor blades in cascade.

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, Darren V.

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis contains a detailed experimental and numerical investigation of second-generation, controlled-diffusion, compressor-stator blades at an off-design inlet-flow angle of 39%5c Investigation of the blades took place in a low-speed cascade wind tunnel using various experimental procedures. The objective of the wind tunnel study was to characterize the flow field in and around the blades at the off-design angle, and to investigat...

  12. [Salvador Armendares: second generation Spanish refugee and pioneer of human genetics in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Lozano, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an analysis of Dr. Salvador Armendares' exile and professional career, with the aim of exploring the relation between the intellectual contributions of the second generation of Spanish refugees in Mexico and the origins of medical genetics in that country. The thesis is that the emigration of European refugees due to political issues, where eugenic values were exalted, paradoxically facilitated the establishment of medical genetics in Mexico. Interpretation of cultural, political, and social factors contributes to the analysis, avoiding Eurocentric and expansionist narratives.

  13. Feedstock storage, handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

  14. Second-generation stars in globular clusters from rapid radiative cooling of pre-supernova massive star winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Thompson, Todd A.

    2017-09-01

    Following work by Wünsch and collaborators, we investigate a self-enrichment scenario for second-generation star formation in globular clusters wherein wind material from the first-generation massive stars rapidly radiatively cools. Radiative energy loss allows retention of fast winds within the central regions of clusters, where it fuels star formation. Secondary star formation occurs in ∼3-5 Myr, before supernovae, producing uniform iron abundances in both populations. We derive the critical criteria for radiative cooling of massive star winds and the second-generation mass as a function of cluster mass, radius and metallicity. We derive a critical condition on M/R, above which second-generation star formation can occur. We speculate that above this threshold the strong decrease in the cluster wind energy and momentum allows ambient gas to remain from the cluster formation process. We reproduce large observed second-generation fractions of ∼30-80 per cent if wind material mixes with ambient gas. Importantly, the mass of ambient gas required is only of order the first generation's stellar mass. Second-generation helium enrichment ΔY is inversely proportional to mass fraction in the second generation; a large second generation can form with ΔY ∼ 0.001-0.02, while a small second generation can reach ΔY ∼ 0.16. Like other self-enrichment models for the second generation, we are not able to simultaneously account for both the full range of the Na-O anticorrelation and the second-generation fraction.

  15. An enantioselective synthetic route toward second-generation light-driven rotary molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijper, Thomas C; Pijper, Dirk; Pollard, Michael M; Dumur, Frédéric; Davey, Stephen G; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2010-02-05

    Controlling the unidirectional rotary process of second-generation molecular motors demands access to these motors in their enantiomerically pure form. In this paper, we describe an enantioselective route to three new second-generation light-driven molecular motors. Their synthesis starts with the preparation of an optically active alpha-methoxy-substituted upper-half ketone involving an enzymatic resolution. The subsequent conversion of this ketone to the corresponding hydrazone by treatment with hydrazine led to full racemization. However, conversion to a TBDMS-protected hydrazone by treatment with bis-TBDMS hydrazine, prepared according to a new procedure, proceeds with nearly full retention of the stereochemical integrity. Oxidation of the TBDMS-protected hydrazone and subsequent coupling to a lower-half thioketone followed by recrystallization provided the molecular motors with >99% ee. As these are the first molecular motors that have a methoxy substituent at the stereogenic center, the photochemical and thermal isomerization steps involved in the rotary cycle of one of these new molecules were studied in detail with various spectroscopic techniques.

  16. The Poetry of 1.5 and Second-Generation Israelis of Hungarian Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rosen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article continues my 2014 article in this journal, in which I presented a beginning of work on contemporary Israeli prose writers of Hungarian origin. My analysis of those works showed that they are governed by recurring concerns, or literary themes, such as: the memory or post-memory of the Holocaust; Hungarian-to-Hebrew language and translation peculiarities; preoccupation with the family's past, including that of remote relatives; and fascination with home objects, dishes, and recipes representing the family's Hungarian past. Following my work on those prose works, in this article I focus on the works and worlds of 1.5 and second-generation Hungarian-Israeli poets and explore, first, the presence of the concerns or themes governing this group's prose works, and, second, issues of identity through the poets' depictions of experiences such as persecution, displacement, emigration, and re-settlement in Israel. My present discussion of the 1.5 and second-generation Hungarian-Israeli poets is divided into four themes: the Holocaust as an epitome of catastrophe, the Holocaust as memory and post-memory, co-fusion of languages and cultures, and the eternal mental displacement of the poets' parents.

  17. Second-generation mobile satellite system. A conceptual design and trade-off study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, M. K.; Park, Y. H.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, interest has grown in the mobile satellite (MSAT) system, a satellite-based communications system capable of providing integrated voice and data services to a large number of users. To explore the potential of a commercial mobile satellite system (MSS) beyond the horizon of the first generation, using technologies of the 1990's and to assist MSAT-X in directing its efforts, a conceptual design has been performed for a second-generation system to be launched around the mid-1990's. The design goal is to maximize the number of satellite channels and/or minimize the overall life-cycle cost, subject to the constraint of utilizing a commercial satellite bus with minimum modifications. To provide an optimal design, a series of trade-offs are performed, including antenna sizing, feed configurations, and interference analysis. Interference is a serious problem for MSAT and often an overlapping feed design is required to reduce interbeam interference. The trade-off studies will show that a simple non-overlapping feed is sufficient for the second-generation system, thus avoiding the need for the complicated beam-forming network that is associated with the overlapping feed designs. In addition, a system that operates at L-band, an alternative frequency band that is being considered by some for possible MSAT applications, is also presented.

  18. Global land-use implications of first and second generation biofuel targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havlik, Petr, E-mail: havlik.petr@gmail.com [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Forestry Program, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Schneider, Uwe A. [University of Hamburg, Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Sustainability and Global Change (FNU) (Germany); Schmid, Erwin [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Institute of Sustainable Economic Development (Austria); Boettcher, Hannes; Fritz, Steffen [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Forestry Program, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Skalsky, Rastislav [Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia); Aoki, Kentaro [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Forestry Program, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Cara, Stephane De [INRA, UMR 210 Economie Publique INRA-AgroParisTech, Thiverval-Grignon (France); Kindermann, Georg; Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; McCallum, Ian; Mosnier, Aline [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Forestry Program, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Sauer, Timm [University of Hamburg, Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Sustainability and Global Change (FNU) (Germany); Obersteiner, Michael [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Forestry Program, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    Recently, an active debate has emerged around greenhouse gas emissions due to indirect land use change (iLUC) of expanding agricultural areas dedicated to biofuel production. In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the iLUC effect, and further address the issues of deforestation, irrigation water use, and crop price increases due to expanding biofuel acreage. We use GLOBIOM - an economic partial equilibrium model of the global forest, agriculture, and biomass sectors with a bottom-up representation of agricultural and forestry management practices. The results indicate that second generation biofuel production fed by wood from sustainably managed existing forests would lead to a negative iLUC factor, meaning that overall emissions are 27% lower compared to the 'No biofuel' scenario by 2030. The iLUC factor of first generation biofuels global expansion is generally positive, requiring some 25 years to be paid back by the GHG savings from the substitution of biofuels for conventional fuels. Second generation biofuels perform better also with respect to the other investigated criteria; on the condition that they are not sourced from dedicated plantations directly competing for agricultural land. If so, then efficient first generation systems are preferable. Since no clear technology champion for all situations exists, we would recommend targeting policy instruments directly at the positive and negative effects of biofuel production rather than at the production itself.

  19. Response to Selection for Fast Growth in the Second Generation of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingzhi; LI Qi; KONG Lingfeng; YU Ruihai

    2012-01-01

    Mass selection for fast growth was conducted in three Pacific oyster(Crassostrea gigas)stocks from China,Japan and Korea using previously established lines(CS1,JS 1,and KS 1).To determine whether continuous progress can be achieved by selection for growth,the progeny of three second-generation Pacific oyster lines was selected for shell height and evaluated via a 400-day farming experiment.When harvested at the end of the experiment,the selected crosses of CS2,JS2,and KS2 lines grew by 9.2%,10.2% and 9.6% larger than the control crosses,respectively.During grow-out stage,the genetic gain of three selected lines was (10.2 ± 1.4)%,(10.4 ± 0.3)%,and(8.4 ± 1.6)%,respectively;and the corresponding realized heritability was 0.457 ± 0.143,0.312 ±0.071 and 0.332 ± 0.009,respectively.These results indicated that the selection for fast growth achieved steady progress in the second generation of oyster.Our work provides supportive evidence for the continuity of the Pacific oyster selective breeding program.

  20. The Pharmacokinetics of Second-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics: Limitations of Monograph Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lik Hang N; Choi, Charles; Collier, Abby C; Barr, Alasdair M; Honer, William G; Procyshyn, Ric M

    2015-12-01

    Product monographs (also known by terms such as Summary of Product Characteristics and Highlights of Prescribing Information, depending on the jurisdiction) provide essential information to ensure the safe and effective use of a drug. Medical practitioners often rely on these monographs for guidance on matters related to pharmacokinetics as well as indications, contraindications, clinical pharmacology, and adverse reactions. The clinical and scientific information found within these documents, forming the basis for decision making, are presumed to be derived from well-designed studies. The objective of this review is to examine the source and validity of the pharmacokinetic data used in establishing the half-lives and times to steady-state reported in the product monographs of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Thus, we have critically evaluated the clinical trials from which the pharmacokinetic parameters listed in the product monographs were determined. In many cases, the pharmacokinetic information presented in product monographs is of limited use to clinicians wishing to optimize the effectiveness and tolerability of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Under such circumstances, off-label prescribing practices may actually produce better clinical outcomes than if decisions were made based on the product monographs alone.

  1. Vietnamese Parents and Czech Nannies: Second-Generation Immigrant Children and their Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéla Souralová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many second-generation Vietnamese immigrant children in the Czech Republic are brought up by Czech nannies. While their parents are incorporated into the labour market in order to provide their children with sufficient economic capital for their education, the role of caregivers is relinquished to nannies. Both parents and nannies become important actors in the children’s educational process, from the stage of acquiring first words, through primary school, to the moment they are admitted into university. This paper analyses the roles of parents and nannies in this educational process. It draws upon 60 interviews conducted with first-generation immigrant mothers, second-generation immigrants, and Czech nannies. The perspective of all three actors are presented here in order to reveal the interviewee’s understanding of the role of education in the parent-child and nanny-child relationships. How is education manifested in the definitions of parenting and caregiving? The paper illuminates the educational strategies taking place outside the educational institution as being an inherent part of everyday life. Simultaneously, the article reveals the meanings of education for the immigrant families as being linked both to past experience and future expectations. Key words: , , ,

  2. Evaluation of novel second-generation RSV and influenza rapid tests at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Ryan; Weick, Anja; Schwarz, Wiebke Sabrina; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Seeber, Lea; Tief, Franziska; Muehlhans, Susann; Karsch, Katharina; Peiser, Christian; Duwe, Susanne; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Rath, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Acute respiratory infections represent common pediatric emergencies. Infection control warrants immediate and accurate diagnoses. In the past, first-generation respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rapid tests (strip tests) have shown suboptimal sensitivities. In 2013, the Food and Drug Administration licensed a second-generation RSV rapid test providing user-independent readouts (SOFIA™-RSV) using automated fluorescence assay technology known to yield superior results with influenza rapid testing. We are reporting the first point-of-care evaluation of the SOFIA™-RSV rapid test. In the Charité Influenza-Like Disease Cohort, 686 nasopharyngeal samples were tested in parallel with SOFIA™-RSV and SOFIA™-Influenza A+B. Compared to real-time PCR, SOFIA™-RSV sensitivities/specificities were 78.6%/93.9%, respectively (SOFIA™-Influenza A: 80.6%/99.3%). Performance was greatest in patients below 2 years of age with a test sensitivity of 81.8%. RSV sensitivities were highest (85%) in the first 2 days of illness and with nasopharyngeal compared to nasal swabs (P=0.055, McNemar's test). Second-generation RSV and influenza rapid testing provides highly accurate results facilitating timely patient cohortation and management.

  3. Design, development, and evaluation of a second generation interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (SEEE2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Michael; Chung, Christopher A

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a second generation Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education. Details describing the first generation activities of this overall effort are published in Chung and Alfred (Sci Eng Ethics 15:189-199, 2009). The second generation research effort represents a major development in the interactive simulator educational approach. As with the first generation effort, the simulator places students in first person perspective scenarios involving different types of ethical situations. Students must still gather data, assess the situation, and make decisions. The approach still requires students to develop their own ability to identify and respond to ethical engineering situations. However, were as, the generation one effort involved the use of a dogmatic model based on National Society of Professional Engineers' Code of Ethics, the new generation two model is based on a mathematical model of the actual experiences of engineers involved in ethical situations. This approach also allows the use of feedback in the form of decision effectiveness and professional career impact. Statistical comparisons indicate a 59 percent increase in overall knowledge and a 19 percent improvement in teaching effectiveness over an Internet Engineering Ethics resource based approach.

  4. Dreams Fulfilled and Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M

    2011-03-01

    We summarize prior theories on the adaptation process of the contemporary immigrant second generation as a prelude to presenting additive and interactive models showing the impact of family variables, school contexts and academic outcomes on the process. For this purpose, we regress indicators of educational and occupational achievement in early adulthood on predictors measured three and six years earlier. The Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), used for the analysis, allows us to establish a clear temporal order among exogenous predictors and the two dependent variables. We also construct a Downward Assimilation Index (DAI), based on six indicators and regress it on the same set of predictors. Results confirm a pattern of segmented assimilation in the second generation, with a significant proportion of the sample experiencing downward assimilation. Predictors of the latter are the obverse of those of educational and occupational achievement. Significant interaction effects emerge between these predictors and early school contexts, defined by different class and racial compositions. Implications of these results for theory and policy are examined.

  5. Dreams Fulfilled and Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize prior theories on the adaptation process of the contemporary immigrant second generation as a prelude to presenting additive and interactive models showing the impact of family variables, school contexts and academic outcomes on the process. For this purpose, we regress indicators of educational and occupational achievement in early adulthood on predictors measured three and six years earlier. The Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), used for the analysis, allows us to establish a clear temporal order among exogenous predictors and the two dependent variables. We also construct a Downward Assimilation Index (DAI), based on six indicators and regress it on the same set of predictors. Results confirm a pattern of segmented assimilation in the second generation, with a significant proportion of the sample experiencing downward assimilation. Predictors of the latter are the obverse of those of educational and occupational achievement. Significant interaction effects emerge between these predictors and early school contexts, defined by different class and racial compositions. Implications of these results for theory and policy are examined. PMID:24223437

  6. Image Denoising Algorithm Using Second Generation Wavelet Transformation and Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khmag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes novel image denoising algorithm using combination method. This method combines both Wavelet Based Denoising (WBD and Principle Component Analysis (PCA to increase the superiority of the observed image, subjectively and objectively. We exploit the important property of second generation WBD and PCA to increase the performance of our designed filter. One of the main advantages of the second generation wavelet transformation in noise reduction is its ability to keep the signal energy in small amount of coefficients in the wavelet domain. On the other hand, one of the main features of PCA is that the energy of the signal concentrates on a very few subclasses in PCA domain, while the noise’s energy equally spreads over the entire signal; this characteristic helps us to isolate the noise perfectly. Our algorithm compares favorably against several state-of-the-art filtering systems algorithms, such as Contourlet soft thresholding, Scale mixture by WT, Sparse 3D transformation and Normal shrink. In addition, the combined algorithm achieves very competitive performance compared with the traditional algorithms, especially when it comes to investigating the problem of how to preserve the fine structure of the tested image and in terms of the computational complexity reduction as well.

  7. Detecting black-hole binary clustering via the second-generation gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Toshiya; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Taruya, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The first discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) event, GW150914, suggests a higher merger rate of black-hole (BH) binaries. If this is true, a number of BH binaries will be observed via the second-generation GW detectors, and the statistical properties of the observed BH binaries can be scrutinized. A naive but important question to ask is whether the spatial distribution of BH binaries faithfully traces the matter inhomogeneities in the Universe or not. Although the BH binaries are thought to be formed inside the galaxies in most of the scenarios, there is no observational evidence to confirm such a hypothesis. Here, we estimate how well the second-generation GW detectors can statistically confirm the BH binaries to be a tracer of the large-scale structure by looking at the auto- and cross-correlation of BH binaries with photometric galaxies and weak-lensing measurements, finding that, with a 3 year observation, the >3 σ detection of a nonzero signal is possible if the BH merger rate today is n˙ 0≳100 Gpc-3 yr-1 and the clustering bias of BH binaries is bBH ,0≳1.5 .

  8. Detecting Black-Hole Binary Clustering via the Second-Generation Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Namikawa, Toshiya; Taruya, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    First discovery of the gravitational wave (GW) event, GW150914, suggests a higher merger rate of black-hole (BH) binaries. If this is true, a number of BH binaries will be observed via the second-generation GW detectors, and the statistical properties of the observed BH binaries can be scrutinized. A naive but important question to ask is whether the spatial distribution of BH binaries faithfully traces the matter inhomogeneities in the Universe or not. Although the BH binaries are thought to be formed inside the galaxies in most of the scenarios, there is no observational evidence to confirm such a hypothesis. Here, we estimate how well the second-generation GW detectors can statistically confirm the BH binaries to be a tracer of the large-scale structure by looking at the auto- and cross-correlation of BH binaries with photometric galaxies and weak lensing measurements, finding that, with a three-year observation, the $>3\\sigma$ detection of non-zero signal is possible if the BH merger rate today is $\\dot{n...

  9. Exploring the meaning of separation in second-generation young South Asian women in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vineeta; Johnstone, Lucy; Gleeson, Kate

    2007-12-01

    To explore the experiences of young second-generation South Asian women living in Britain; to try and understand their experiences, deconstruct the term cultural conflict and understand it within a psychological framework. In particular, the aim was to explore issues of separation and individuation, and the meanings attributed to these concepts. An interview-based study using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to analyse the data. Interviews were conducted with six second-generation South Asian women aged 16-20, who had no prior contact with mental health services. Five main themes were identified from the analysis: differences in the meaning of adulthood, community policing, pressures and stressors, protective factors/coping and barriers to coping. The participants' perceived differences in the meaning of adulthood in Asian cultures in comparison with Western cultures. These differences, in conjunction with the community policing that they were exposed to, contributed to the pressures and stressors - in particular lack of control and a desire to make individual decisions. The results indicated that the differences in the meaning of adulthood in a collective culture challenged the assumptions of the separation-individuation model, and was a key element in cultural conflict. This highlighted the complexities of generalizing research findings across all social groups, and questioned the validity of applying existing psychological theory to this population. The clinical implications of coping/protective factors and barriers to coping were discussed.

  10. Anticonvulsant use after formulary status change for brand-name second-generation anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemal; Toe, Diana C; Burke, Shawn; Rasu, Rafia S

    2010-08-01

    Anticonvulsant medications are commonly used for off-label indications. However, managed care organizations can restrict utilization of medication to indicated uses only. To evaluate the pattern of off-label use of second-generation anticonvulsants after implementing a formulary change. We did a retrospective analysis of an administrative pharmacy claims database for a managed care plan with more than 1 million members continuously enrolled during 2004-2005. The study evaluated off-label use and explored pharmacy utilization patterns (by physician specialty, region, plan type, age, sex, copayment) across the study population following the formulary change. A total of 10,185 patients had at least 1 pharmacy claim (total of 137,638 claims) for a second-generation anticonvulsant during the study period. Most members were female (68%), and 4.9% were anticonvulsants prescribed for off-label use in 2004 and 2005, respectively (P = .162). The off-label usage pattern varied for individual anticonvulsants in 2004 and 2005 (P anticonvulsants for off-label uses, followed by neurologists (9.4%), psychiatrists (2.8%), and other (46.5%). The coverage change resulted in cost savings for the plan of $0.16 per member per month. The off-label usage pattern varied for individual anticonvulsants in 2004 and 2005. Future considerations for controlling off-label use may include requiring prior authorization and provider education.

  11. Ground-based gravitational wave interferometric detectors of the first and second generation: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losurdo, Giovanni

    2012-06-01

    The era of first-generation gravitational wave interferometric detectors is ending. No signals have been detected so far. However, remarkable results have been achieved: the design sensitivity has been approached (and in some cases even exceeded) together with the achievement of robustness and reliability; a world-wide network of detectors has been established; the data collected so far has allowed upper limits to be put on several types of sources; some second-generation technologies have been tested on these detectors. The scenario for the next few years is very exciting. The projects to upgrade LIGO and Virgo to second-generation interferometers, capable of increasing the detection rate by a factor of ˜1000, have been funded. The construction of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has started. GEO600 has started the upgrade to GEO HF, introducing light squeezing for the first time on a large detector. LCGT has been partly funded and the construction of the vacuum system is underway. There is a possibility that the third Advanced LIGO interferometer will be constructed in India. So, a powerful worldwide network could be in operation by the end of the decade. In this paper, we review the results achieved so far and the perspectives for the advanced detectors.

  12. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G

    2014-12-30

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n=5363) and second-generation (n=4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n=24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States.

  13. Comparison of intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraei, K; Amirsalari, S; Ajalloueyan, M

    2017-01-01

    Hearing impairment is a common type of sensory loss in children. Studies indicate that children with hearing impairment are deficient in social, cognitive and communication skills. This study compared the intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants. This research is causal-comparative. All 15 deaf children investigated had deaf parents and were selected from Baqiyatallah Cochlear Implant Center. The 15 children with cochlear implants were paired with similar children with hearing parents using purposive sampling. The findings show that the Hotelling trace of multivariate analysis of variance (F = 6.78, p children was significantly higher than for first-generation children for all intelligence scales except knowledge. It can be assumed that second-generation children joined their family in the use of sign language as the primary experience before a cochlear implant. The use of sign language before cochlear implants is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modifying lignin to improve bioenergy feedstocks: strengthening the barrier against pathogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eSattler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a ubiquitous polymer present in cell walls of all vascular plants, where it rigidifies and strengthens the cell wall structure through covalent cross-linkages to cell wall polysaccharides. The presence of lignin makes the cell wall recalcitrant to conversion into fermentable sugars for bioenergy uses. Therefore, reducing lignin content and modifying its linkages have become major targets for bioenergy feedstock development through either biotechnology or traditional plant breeding. In addition, lignin synthesis has long been implicated as an important plant defense mechanism against pathogens, because lignin synthesis is often induced at the site of pathogen attack. This article explores the impact of lignin modifications on the susceptibility of a range of plant species to their associated pathogens, and the implications for development of feedstocks for the second-generation biofuels industry. Surprisingly, there are some instances where plants modified in lignin synthesis may display increased resistance to associated pathogens, which is explored in this article.

  15. How non-conventional feedstocks will affect aromatics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, E. [Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The abundance of non-conventional feedstocks such as coal and shale gas has begun to affect the availability of traditional base chemicals such as propylene and BTX aromatics. Although this trend is primarily fueled by the fast growing shale gas economy in the US and the abundance of coal in China, it will cause the global supply and demand situation to equilibrate across the regions. Lower demand for gasoline and consequently less aromatics rich reformate from refineries will further tighten the aromatics markets that are expected to grow at healthy rates, however. Refiners can benefit from this trend by abandoning their traditional fuel-oriented business model and becoming producers of petrochemical intermediates, with special focus on paraxylene (PX). Cheap gas from coal (via gasification) or shale reserves is an advantaged feedstock that offers a great platform to make aromatics in a cost-competitive manner, especially in regions where naphtha is in short supply. Gas condensates (LPG and naphtha) are good feedstocks for paraffin aromatization, and methanol from coal or (shale) gas can be directly converted to BTX aromatics (MTA) or alkylated with benzene or toluene to make paraxylene. Most of today's technologies for the production and upgrading of BTX aromatics and their derivatives make use of the unique properties of zeolites. (orig.)

  16. Agave: a biofuel feedstock for arid and semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Stephen; Martin, Jeffrey; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2011-05-31

    Efficient production of plant-based, lignocellulosic biofuels relies upon continued improvement of existing biofuel feedstock species, as well as the introduction of newfeedstocks capable of growing on marginal lands to avoid conflicts with existing food production and minimize use of water and nitrogen resources. To this end, specieswithin the plant genus Agave have recently been proposed as new biofuel feedstocks. Many Agave species are adapted to hot and arid environments generally unsuitable forfood production, yet have biomass productivity rates comparable to other second-generation biofuel feedstocks such as switchgrass and Miscanthus. Agavesachieve remarkable heat tolerance and water use efficiency in part through a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis, but the genes andregulatory pathways enabling CAM and thermotolerance in agaves remain poorly understood. We seek to accelerate the development of agave as a new biofuelfeedstock through genomic approaches using massively-parallel sequencing technologies. First, we plan to sequence the transcriptome of A. tequilana to provide adatabase of protein-coding genes to the agave research community. Second, we will compare transcriptome-wide gene expression of agaves under different environmentalconditions in order to understand genetic pathways controlling CAM, water use efficiency, and thermotolerance. Finally, we aim to compare the transcriptome of A.tequilana with that of other Agave species to gain further insight into molecular mechanisms underlying traits desirable for biofuel feedstocks. These genomicapproaches will provide sequence and gene expression information critical to the breeding and domestication of Agave species suitable for biofuel production.

  17. Second Generation Antipsychotics Improve Sexual Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of antipsychotic drug treatment on sexual function was investigated during a randomised trial comparing first generation antipsychotics (FGAs to (nonclozapine second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. Sexual function and quality of life were (rater-blind assessed in 42 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (aged 18–65 using the self-report version of the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function (DISF-SR and the Heinrichs Quality of Life Scale (QLS, prior to, and 12 weeks following, a change in medication from an FGA drug to either an FGA or SGA drug. SGAs significantly improved sexual function compared to FGAs. Change in sexual function was associated with change in quality of life. Where impaired sexual functioning is a distressing adverse effect of treatment with an FGA agent, consideration should be given to switching to an SGA.

  18. The principle of second generation wavelet for milling cutter breakage detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Performance degradation or failure of manufacturing equipment will badly influence machining quality.Because of discontinuousness of the milling process,dynamic signals produced in the milling process become non-stationary.This paper indicates that the essence of SGW(second generation wavelet) transform in non-stationary signal processing is the mathematics principle of inner product transform of a dynamic signal with basis functions.Namely,by means of the inner product operation of a signal with basis functions containing scale function and wavelet function,signal decomposition and reconstruction are obtained.Acoustic emission signals generated in the milling processes of a CNC machine were analyzed by using the basis functions of SGW which are oscillation,decay and compact support.The features of end milling cutter breakage have been extracted,and the influences on machining surface quality have been identified effectively,which provide scientific bases for fault diagnosis,error tracing and quality control.

  19. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  20. SunnyTALEN: a second-generation TALEN system for human genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Bao, Zehua; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have rapidly emerged as a powerful genome editing tool. The site-specific DNA double-strand breaks generated by TALENs in the human chromosome can induce homologous recombination or non-homologous end joining, resulting in desired genetic modifications. In this study, we report the development of a TALEN variant, SunnyTALEN, with >2.5-fold improved genome editing efficacy in human cells. The corresponding scaffold increases the rate of genetic modification at all the 13 tested loci of human genome and is compatible with heterodimer TALEN architectures. This enhanced and high-efficiency TALEN variant represents a novel second-generation TALEN system and has great potential for biological and therapeutic applications.

  1. An Integrated Optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Benisty, M; Jocou, L; Labeye, P; Malbet, F; Perraut, K; Kern, P

    2009-01-01

    The very recent years have seen a promising start in scientific publications making use of images produced by near-infrared long-baseline interferometry. The technique has reached, at last, a technical maturity level that opens new avenues for numerous astrophysical topics requiring milli-arcsecond model-independent imaging. The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is on the path to be equipped with instruments capable to combine between four to six telescopes. In the framework of the VLTI second generation instruments Gravity and VSI, we propose a new beam combining concept using Integrated Optics (IO) technologies with a novel ABCD-like fringe encoding scheme. Our goal is to demonstrate that IO-based combination brings considerable advantages in terms of instrumental design and performance. We therefore aim at giving a full characterization of an IO beam combiner to establish its performances and check its compliance with the specifications of an imaging instrument. Laboratory measurements were made i...

  2. Second Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Jun, Tae-Youn; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2016-09-01

    Less than one third of patients who suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) report remission following antidepressant treatments requiring more diverse treatment approaches. Augmentation of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has been increasingly recognized as an important treatment option. The authors have previously provided a comprehensive review of SGAs for the treatment of MDD in 2013. Since then, numerous additional clinical trials have been conducted to investigate diverse issues regarding the utility of SGAs in MDD. Moreover, a new SGA, brexpiprazole, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration in July 2015 for the treatment of MDD as an augmentation agent to antidepressants. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a concise update of all the available SGAs for the treatment of MDD, in particular on the additional clinical trials which have been published since 2013.

  3. The principle of second generation wavelet for milling cutter breakage detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ZhengJia; CAO HongRui; LI Zhen; ZI YanYang; CHEN XueFeng

    2009-01-01

    Performance degradation or failure of manufacturing equipment will badly influence machining quality.Because of discontinuousness of the milling process, dynamic signals produced in the milling process become non-stationary. This paper indicates that the essence of SGW (second generation wavelet)transform in non-stationary signal processing is the mathematics principle of inner product transform of a dynamic signal with basis functions. Namely, by means of the inner product operation of a signal with basis functions containing scale function and wavelet function, signal decomposition and recon-struction are obtained. Acoustic emission signals generated in the milling processes of a CNC machine were analyzed by using the basis functions of SGW which are oscillation, decay and compact support.The features of end milling cutter breakage have been extracted, and the influences on machining surface quality have been identified effectively, which provide scientific bases for fault diagnosis, error tracing and quality control.

  4. Second Generation Youth in Canada, Their Mobilities and Identifications: Relevance to Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrunnisa Ali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on narrative data recently collected from youth’s in three Canadian cities, our paper focuses on second generation perceptions of youth’s identifications in a society increasingly influenced by the forces of globalization and how these perceptions may or may not be reflected in programs of study dealing with citizenship education. We utilize a framework consisting of a continuum of mobilities of mind, body, and boundaries to situate their sense of self. The façade of globalisation is examined in terms of its impact on identity formation and these youths’ impressions of diversity and multiculturalism. Finally, we consider the relevance of the findings for citizenship education in Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta.

  5. Rational Use of Second-Generation Antipsychotics for the Treatment of ICU Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yoonsun; Yam, Felix K

    2017-02-01

    Delirium, described as an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome, occurs commonly in critically ill patients and leads to many negative outcomes including increased mortality and long-term cognitive deficits. Despite the lack of clinical data supporting the use of antipsychotics for the management of intensive care unit (ICU) delirium, pharmacological interventions are often needed to control acutely agitated patients. Given that the most current guidelines do not advocate the use of haloperidol for either the prevention or treatment of ICU delirium due to a lack of evidence, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been commonly used as alternatives to haloperidol for ICU patients with delirium. Nonetheless, the evidence supporting the use of SGAs to treat ICU delirium remains limited. This review is designed to assess the available clinical evidence and highlights the different neuropharmacological and safety properties of SGAs in order to guide the rational use of SGAs for the treatment of ICU delirium.

  6. NEW METHOD FOR WEAK FAULT FEATURE EXTRACTION BASED ON SECOND GENERATION WAVELET TRANSFORM AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Chendong; He Zhengjia; Jiang Hongkai

    2004-01-01

    A new time-domain analysis method that uses second generation wavelet transform (SGWT) for weak fault feature extraction is proposed. To extract incipient fault feature, a biorthogonal wavelet with the characteristics of impact is constructed by using SGWT. Processing detail signal of SGWT with a sliding window devised on the basis of rotating operation cycle, and extracting modulus maximum from each window, fault features in time-domain are highlighted. To make further analysis on the reason of the fault, wavelet package transform based on SGWT is used to process vibration data again. Calculating the energy of each frequency-band, the energy distribution features of the signal are attained. Then taking account of the fault features and the energy distribution, the reason of the fault is worked out. An early impact-rub fault caused by axis misalignment and rotor imbalance is successfully detected by using this method in an oil refinery.

  7. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of second generation high temperature superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, I. O.; Arendt, P. N.; Foltyn, S. R.; Stan, L.; DePaula, R. F.; Holesinger, T. G.

    2010-06-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer-layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and intermediate layer providing a suitable lattice match to the superconducting Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO film. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffer layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer-layer architecture as a whole.

  8. Characteristics and realization of the second generation surface acoustic wave's wavelet device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Changbao; Zhu Changchun; Lu Wenke; Liu Qinghong; Liu Junhua

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the bulk acoustic wave (BAW), the triple transit signals and the discontinuous frequency band in the first generation surface acoustic wave's (FGSAW's) wavelet device, the full transfer multistrip coupler (MSC) is applied to implement wavelet device, and a novel structure of the second generation surface acoustic wave's (SGSAW's) wavelet device is proposed. In the SGSAW's wavelet device, the BAW is separated and eliminated in different acoustic propagating tracks, and the triple transit signal is suppressed. For arbitrary wavelet scale device, the center frequency is three times the radius of frequency band, which ensures that the frequency band of the SGSAW's wavelet device is continuous, and avoids losing signals caused by the discontinuation of frequency band. Experimental result confirms that the BAW suppression, ripples in band, receiving loss and insertion loss of the SGSAW's wavelet device are remarkably improved compared with those of the FGSAW's wavelet device.

  9. MANU-2: A second generation experiment for calorimetric neutrino mass determination with superconducting Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pergolesi, D. [University and INFN of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Gastaldo, L. [University and INFN of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Kichhoff-Institut fur Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, INF 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gatti, F. [University and INFN of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy)]. E-mail: flavio.gatti@ge.infn.it; Ribeiro Gomes, M. [University and INFN of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Repetto, P. [University and INFN of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Dussoni, S. [University and INFN of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Valle, R. [University and INFN of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    The calorimetric determination of the neutrino mass by means of cryogenic detectors could play a significant role, being in principle able to investigate the 10{sup -1} eV/c {sup 2} region. But the question if the developments in this new technique will allow verify the expected performances is still open. A step forward in the advancement of this technology is represented by the incoming second-generation experiment on the {beta}-decay of Re{sup 187} with superconducting rhenium, microcalorimeters, MANU-2. It is expected that this new experiment with about 300 detectors will achieve a sensitivity of 1.5 eV/c {sup 2} (90% CL), in 1 yr, that allow to cover or improve the present best limit from tritium beta spectroscopy.

  10. Researching Transnational Social Spaces: A Qualitative Study of the Spanish Second Generation in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Richter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transnational social spaces, as they are increasingly researched in various fields of scientific inquiry and specifically in the area of transnational migration, constitute a complex field of research. This complexity raises, apart from theoretical questions, increasingly methodological ones. How can we research transnational social spaces? Which instruments and methods might be helpful in this endeavor? The article addresses these questions by presenting a methodological approach used in a project involving people of second-generation Spanish origin living in Switzerland. It discusses the theoretical anchors (time, people, and sites that constitute the underlying logic of the approach and the various mixed-methods components such as biographical interviews, semi-structured interviews, visual materials, observation, and drawing. Finally, the conclusion consists of a critical reflection on the proposed methodology and the data gathered. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120385

  11. SAR image despeckling based on edge detection and nonsubsampled second generation bandelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenge; Liu Fang; Jiao Licheng; Gao Xinbo

    2009-01-01

    To preserve the sharp features and details of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image effectively when despeckling, a despeckling algorithm with edge detection in nonsubsampled second generation bandelet transform (NSBT) domain is proposed. First, the Canny operator is utilized to detect and remove edges from the SAR image. Then the NSBT which has an optimal approximation to the edges of images and a hard thresholding rule are used to approximate the details while despeckling the edge-removed image. Finally, the removed edges are added to the reconstructed image. As the edges are detected and protected, and the NSBT is used, the proposed algorithm reaches the state-of-the-art effect which realizes both despeckling and preserving edges and details simultaneously. Experimental results show that both the subjective visual effect and the mainly objective performance indexes of the proposed algorithm outperform that of both Bayesian wavelet shrinkage with edge detection and Bayesian least square-Ganssian scale mixture (BLS-GSM).

  12. Thermal stability of second generation carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Campus Universitario, Universidad de Alcala, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    Thermal analysis has a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical industry, in designing new molecules, control of raw materials, stability, compatibility studies, and development of new formulations. This paper evaluates the thermodynamic properties of two second generation G2 carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups by differential scanning calorimetry and TG/FTIR coupled techniques. The physical transformations have been detected and their thermodynamic characteristics have been estimated and analyzed. Both dendrimers are stable up to 150 Degree-Sign C, have the Tg at 75 and 59 Degree-Sign C and melting temperatures at 113 and 128 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The decomposition process proved to be very complex and takes place in three steps in nitrogen atmosphere and four steps in air, for both types of dendrimers. IR spectroscopic analysis was used to observe the evolution of the gaseous products versus temperature.

  13. New Feedstock for c-Si Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Alexey; Shagun, Alexander; Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2015-03-01

    Results from functional tests of highly doped silicon purified with electron beam melting, a new feedstock for photovoltaics are presented. Possibility of obtaining dislocation free single crystals from such feedstock in typical industrial processes (CZ and FZ) is shown, crystals' parameters are tested for coherence with requirements for PV silicon.

  14. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  15. Topping combustor status for second-generation pressurized fluidized bed cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domeracki, W.F.; Dowdy, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

    1997-01-01

    Second-generation Pressurized Fluidized (PFB) combined cycle employ topping combustion to raise the turbine inlet temperature for enhanced cycle efficiency. This concept creates special combustion system requirements that are very different from requirements of conventional gas turbine systems. The topping combustor provides the means for achieving state-of-the-art turbine inlet temperatures and is the main contributor to enhanced plant performance. The objective of this program is to develop a topping combustor that provides low emissions, and is a durable, efficient device exhibiting stable combustion and manageable wall temperature. The combustor will be required to burn a low-Btu syngas under normal coal-fired conditions. However, for start-up and/or carbonizer outage, it may be necessary to fire a clean fuel, such as oil or natural gas. Prior testing has shown the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) to have excellent potential for this application. Metal wall temperatures can be maintained at acceptable levels, even though most cooling is done by 1,600 F vitiated air. Good pattern factors and combustion efficiencies have been obtained. Additionally, low conversion rates of fuel bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} have been demonstrated. This paper presents an update of the status of an ongoing topping combustor development and test program for application to Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combined Cycles (PFBCC). The program is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) and will first be applied commercially into the Clean Coal Technology Round V Four Rivers Energy Modernization Project. Phase 1 of the program involved a conceptual and economic study (Robertson et al., 1988); Phase 2 addresses design and subscale testing of components; and Phase 3 will cover pilot plant testing of components integrated into one system.

  16. The Second-Generation Exportin-1 Inhibitor KPT-8602 Demonstrates Potent Activity against Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Thomas; De Bie, Jolien; Neggers, Jasper E; Jacquemyn, Maarten; Vanstreels, Els; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Hornung, Veit; Baloglu, Erkan; Landesman, Yosef; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Dagklis, Antonis; Cools, Jan; Daelemans, Dirk

    2016-10-25

    Purpose: Human exportin-1 (XPO1) is the key nuclear-cytoplasmic transport protein that exports different cargo proteins out of the nucleus. Inducing nuclear accumulation of these proteins by inhibiting XPO1 causes cancer cell death. First clinical validation of pharmacological inhibition of XPO1 was obtained with the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound selinexor (KPT-330) demonstrating activity in phase-II/IIb clinical trials when dosed 1 to 3 times weekly. The second-generation SINE compound KPT-8602 shows improved tolerability and can be dosed daily. Here, we investigate and validate the drug-target interaction of KPT-8602 and explore its activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).Experimental Design: We examined the effect of KPT-8602 on XPO1 function and XPO1-cargo as well as on a panel of leukemia cell lines. Mutant XPO1 leukemia cells were designed to validate KPT-8602's drug-target interaction. In vivo, anti-ALL activity was measured in a mouse ALL model and patient-derived ALL xenograft models.Results: KPT-8602 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in a panel of leukemic cell lines in vitro Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we demonstrated the specificity of KPT-8602 for cysteine 528 in the cargo-binding groove of XPO1 and validated the drug target interaction. In vivo, KPT-8602 showed potent anti-leukemia activity in a mouse ALL model as well as in patient-derived T- and B-ALL xenograft models without affecting normal hematopoiesis.Conclusions: KPT-8602 is highly specific for XPO1 inhibition and demonstrates potent anti-leukemic activity supporting clinical application of the second-generation SINE compound for the treatment of ALL. Clin Cancer Res; 1-14. ©2016 AACR.

  17. From molecular clusters to nanoparticles: second-generation ion-mediated nucleation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ions, which are generated in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays and other ionization sources, may play an important role in the formation of atmospheric aerosols. In the paper, a new second-generation ion-mediated nucleation (IMN model is presented. The new model explicitly treats the evaporation of neutral and charged clusters and it describes the evolution of the size spectra and composition of both charged and neutral clusters/particles ranging from small clusters of few molecules to large particles of several micrometers in diameter. Schemes used to calculate the evaporation coefficients for small neutral and charged clusters are consistent with the experimental data within the uncertainty range. The present IMN model, which is size-, composition-, and type-resolved, is a powerful tool for investigating the dominant mechanisms and key parameters controlling the formation and subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. This model can be used to analyze simultaneous measurements of the ion-mobility spectra and particle size distributions, which became available only recently. General features of the spectra for ions smaller than the critical size, size-dependent fractions of charged nanoparticles, and asymmetrical charging of freshly nucleated particles predicted by the new IMN model are consistent with recent measurements. Results obtained using the second generation IMN model, in which the most recent thermodynamic data for neutral and charged H2SO4-H2O clusters were used, suggest that ion-mediated nucleation of H2SO4-H2O can lead to a significant production of new particles in the lower atmosphere (including the boundary layer under favorable conditions. It has been shown that freshly nucleated particles of few nanometers in size can grow by the condensation of low volatile organic compounds to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. In such cases, the chemical composition of nucleated particles larger than ~10 nm is dominated

  18. A bibliometric study of scientific research conducted on second-generation antipsychotic drugs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Alamo, Cecilio

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors 'atypic* antipsychotic*', 'second-generation antipsychotic*', 'clozapine', 'risperidone', 'olanzapine', 'ziprasidone', 'quetiapine', 'sertindole', 'aripiprazole', 'paliperidone', 'amisulpride', 'zotepine', 'asenapine', 'iloperidone', 'lurasidone', 'perospirone' and 'blonanserin' in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal(4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature.

  19. Current development of the second generation of mTOR inhibitors as anticancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yu Zhou; Shi-Le Huang

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR),a serine/threonine protein kinase,acts as a “master switch” for cellular anabolic and catabolic processes,regulating the rate of cell growth and proliferation.Dysregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway occurs frequently in a variety of human tumors,and thus,mTOR has emerged as an important target for the design of anticancer agents.mTOR is found in two distinct multiprotein complexes within cells,mTORC1 and mTORC2.These two complexes consist of unique mTOR-interacting proteins and are regulated by different mechanisms.Enormous advances have been made in the development of drugs known as mTOR inhibitors.Rapamycin,the first defined inhibitor of mTOR,showed effectiveness as an anticancer agent in various preclinical models.Rapamycin analogues (rapalogs) with better pharmacologic properties have been developed.However,the clinical success of rapalogs has been limited to a few types of cancer.The discovery that mTORC2 directly phosphorylates Akt,an important survival kinase,adds new insight into the role of mTORC2 in cancer.This novel finding prompted efforts to develop the second generation of mTOR inhibitors that are able to target both mTORC1 and mTORC2.Here,we review the recent advances in the mTOR field and focus specifically on the current development of the second generation of mTOR inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  20. Kissing inflation is feasible with all second-generation drug-eluting balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgueglia, Gregory A; Todaro, Daniel; Bisciglia, Andrea; Conte, Micaela; Stipo, Antonino; Pucci, Edoardo

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of kissing second-generation drug-eluting balloons (DEB), which have better mechanical properties than the first-generation DEB, in order to optimize provisional bare-metal stenting (BMS) when treating coronary bifurcation lesions in patients with contraindication to drug-eluting stents. Consecutive patients with anticipated low compliance to dual antiplatelet therapy who are undergoing provisional stenting with an open-cell design BMS and final kissing balloon with second-generation DEB were enrolled in this feasibility study. Angiographic success and procedural success (i.e., angiographic success in absence of in hospital major cardiovascular events) were registered. Clinical follow-up was also attempted in all patients. A total of 14 patients (mean age 66±9 years, nine men) participated on the study. The DEB used were SeQuent Please (B. Braun Melsungen, Berlin, Germany) in six patients, In.Pact Falcon (Medtronic Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) in four patients, New Dior (Eurocor, Bonn, Germany) in two patients and Pantera Lux (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) in another two patients. All procedures, but one, were performed by transradial access through a 6-French high-flow guiding catheter. True bifurcation was present in 50% of the patients. Angiographic and procedural success was obtained in all patients. At a mean follow-up of 234±81 days, all contacted patients were asymptomatic and free from major adverse cardiac events (including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and target bifurcation revascularization). At the advent of dedicated bifurcation stents, kissing DEB appears safe and effective and can be used to implement innovative, simpler, safer and possibly more effective bifurcation techniques. These remarkable results have laid the ground for an ongoing prospective registry of the kissing DEB technique (KISSING DEBBIE study, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01009996). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Influencing the Use of Second-Generation Antipsychotics in Children with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sujith; Banahan, Benjamin F; Bentley, John P; West-Strum, Donna S; Patel, Amit S

    2016-08-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services sent a letter to state Medicaid directors explaining the need for oversight of psychiatric prescriptions for children with mental health disorders. The National Committee for Quality Alliance proposed 3 quality measures for rating managed care organizations (MCOs) that involve use of second-generation or atypical antipsychotics in children. In order to ensure appropriate use and to effectively manage the use of second-generation antipsychotics in children, MCOs need to better understand the factors that influence medication treatment decisions for children. To (a) determine how patient-level and physician-level factors influence decisions to prescribe second-generation antipsychotics to children (aged under 18 years) diagnosed with psychosis and (b) evaluate how the influence of these factors may differ between primary care providers and psychiatrists. This study employed a cross-sectional survey of 193 primary care providers and psychiatrists. A web-based patient simulation survey using a fractional factorial design was administered via a commercial vendor. Respondents were presented with simulated patient profiles described by various levels of factors considered to be essential to decision making. Respondents were asked to make treatment recommendations for each profile evaluated. In addition to treatment recommendations, demographics and beliefs about products were measured. Modified Poisson regression accounting for multilevel data was used to identify the factors that significantly affect treatment recommendations. Psychiatrists were more likely to recommend second-generation antipsychotics than primary care practitioners (unadjusted RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.23-1.51). Social factors such as foster status or parental concern were not found to be significant predictors of prescribing second-generation antipsychotics. The percentage of a provider's patients using second-generation antipsychotics (RR = 1

  2. Contextualizing ethnic educational inequality: the role of stability and quality of neighborhoods and ethnic density in second-generation attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Phalet, Karen; Neels, Karel; Deboosere, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the joint impact of neighborhood structure and ethnic density on the educational attainment of the second generation. Using second-generation samples and a majority reference sample from the Belgian Census, multi-level analysis yields the expected positive effects of neighborhood stability and quality and ethnic density on second-generation school completion. Reflecting the ethnic stratification of the Belgian housing market, majority residential concentration tends to coincide with high neighborhood stability and quality and high completion rates, whereas Moroccan concentrations overlap with low neighborhood quality, and low completion rates. For the Turkish and Italian second generation, neighborhood structure moderates ethnic density effects on school completion, in line with segmented assimilation. Our findings suggest distinct Moroccan, Turkish and Italian incorporation modes which reflect differential access to, and investments in ethnic versus mainstream social networks.

  3. Integration and religiosity among the Turkish second generation in Europe: A comparative analysis across four capital cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Phalet, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Drawing on recent cross-national surveys of the Turkish second generation, we test hypotheses of secularization and of religious vitality for Muslim minorities in Europe. Secularization predicts an inverse relationship between structural integration and religiosity, such that the Turkish second generation would be less religious with higher levels of educational attainment and intermarriage. The religious vitality hypothesis predicts the maintenance of religion in the seco...

  4. The Construction of the Success Frame by Second-Generation Chinese Parents; a Cross-National Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Noam, Krista R.

    2014-01-01

    The second-generation Chinese were raised by immigrant parents who had high academic expectations and socialized them with cultural values such as zeal, collectivism, and filial piety to achieve the goals they set for them. They lived in ethnic communities that supported these notions, and befriended peers whose notion of success was equally high, causing the second-generation to compare themselves to people with exceptionally high academic standards. These dynamics are the labeled the `succ...

  5. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  6. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  7. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  8. Second Generation Self-Inflating Tissue Expanders: A Two-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Omran Al Madani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tissue expansion is a well-established surgical technique that produces an additional amount of normal skin to cover a defect. This technique is appealing because the skin quality and color are from the patient’s own. The widely used injectable expanders are of great reliability but carry the disadvantage of being painful during injection and most of the time require multiple clinic visits. So the idea of self-inflation became attractive and hydrogel expanders were developed and became widely known for being painless during clinic visit and decrease number of visits. The first generation expanders were modified by adding an enclosing plastic shell to decrease the unopposed expansion that occurred in the first generation expanders, which lead to pressure necrosis of the skin flaps. This made it an attractive option for tissue expansion in children and some adult patients. Patients, Materials, and Methods. Charts of 17 patients were retrospectively reviewed, all of them had second generation self-inflating expanders implanted over a 2-year period for one of two purposes, the treatment of giant nevi or burn scars. Results. Fifteen patients were females and 2 were males. The indication was large burn scar in 14 cases (14/17, in which 47/55 expanders were implanted, and giant nevus in 3/17 cases in which 8/55 expanders were implanted. Extrusion of the expander occurred in 8/55 expanders (14.5%, which occurred in 6/14 patients. The highest percentage of extrusion occurred in the neck in which two out of three expanders extruded; otherwise this complication does not seem to be related to the indication, gender, nor age of the patients. It seems to be that it is technical in nature. The patients did not have to get any injections to fill the tissue expanders, which made the expansion process less painful and more convenient. Conclusion. This seems to be currently the largest published review in which second generation expanders were used

  9. Second generation biofuels. France drives in top gear; Tweede generatie biobrandstoffen. Frankrijk in de hoogste versnelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Leemreis, J.

    2010-06-15

    In its 2008 directive Europe formulated a target for 2020 for blending biofuels of 5.75%. At the national level France formulated stricter targets: 7% blending in petrol in 2010 and 10% in 2015. The target for diesel blending amounted to 8%. Partly because of this policy, France has become Europe's largest producer of first generation biofuels. Due to France's enthusiasm for first generation biofuels, it is lagging behind in the development of second generation biofuels compared to competitors such as Germany and the United States. Ambitions have now been set high to make up arrears. Both on the national and international level French teams are working on ambitious projects. This article provides an overview of the main French projects for the development of second generation biofuels. The following projects are discussed: Futurol (total budget of 74 million euro), BioTFuel (total budget of 112,7 million euro), GAYA (total budget van 61,4 million euro), Deinol, Global Bioenergies en Memobiol, Biocore, Eurobioref and the international enzyme-genomics project. [Dutch] In zijn richtlijn uit 2008 heeft Europa voor 2020 een doelstelling van 5,75% opgesteld voor bijmenging van biobrandstoffen. Op nationaal niveau heeft Frankrijk strengere doelstellingen geformuleerd: 7% bijmenging in benzine in 2010 en 10% in 2015. Voor diesel was de doelstelling 8% bijmenging. Mede vanwege dit beleid is Frankrijk Europa's grootste producent van eerste generatie biobrandstoffen. Door het Franse enthousiasme voor eerste generatie biobrandstoffen loopt het land voor de ontwikkeling van tweede generatie biobrandstoffen achter op concurrenten als Duitsland en de Verenigde Staten. De ambities zijn nu hoog om deze achterstand zo snel mogelijk weg te werken. Zowel op nationaal als internationaal niveau werken Franse teams aan ambitieuze projecten. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste Franse projecten voor de ontwikkeling van tweede generatie biobrandstoffen. Het

  10. Second generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with faster scan time and wider angular span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Laganis, Philip E; Spronk, Derrek; Jafari, Houman; Olson, Kyle; Gao, Bo; Lee, Yueh Z; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a new generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with higher tube flux and increased angular span over a first generation system. The linear CNT x-ray source was designed, built, and evaluated to determine its performance parameters. The second generation system was then constructed using the CNT x-ray source and a Hologic gantry. Upon construction, test objects and phantoms were used to characterize system resolution as measured by the modulation transfer function (MTF), and artifact spread function (ASF). The results indicated that the linear CNT x-ray source was capable of stable operation at a tube potential of 49 kVp, and measured focal spot sizes showed source-to-source consistency with a nominal focal spot size of 1.1 mm. After construction, the second generation (Gen 2) system exhibited entrance surface air kerma rates two times greater the previous s-DBT system. System in-plane resolution as measured by the MTF is 7.7 cycles/mm, compared to 6.7 cycles/mm for the Gen 1 system. As expected, an increase in the z-axis depth resolution was observed, with a decrease in the ASF from 4.30 mm to 2.35 mm moving from the Gen 1 system to the Gen 2 system as result of an increased angular span. The results indicate that the Gen 2 stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system, which has a larger angular span, increased entrance surface air kerma, and faster image acquisition time over the Gen 1 s-DBT system, results in higher resolution images. With the detector operating at full resolution, the Gen 2 s-DBT system can achieve an in-plane resolution of 7.7 cycles per mm, which is better than the current commercial DBT systems today, and may potentially result in better patient diagnosis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Second-generation pilot biofuel units worldwide - Panorama 2008; Les unites pilotes de biocarburants de deuxieme generation dans le monde - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The production of biofuels from agricultural raw material is attracting great interest for many reasons, among them global warming, oil price hikes, the depletion of oil reserves and the development of new agricultural markets. However, the technologies currently under development are hindered by the fact that available land is limited and by a risk of competition with food crops. In the last few years, research and development efforts have sought to alleviate these limitations by exploring new pathways to convert little-used plant feedstocks to biofuels with better efficiencies. Large-scale research programs concentrating on these new technologies are underway in the U.S. and Europe, with industrial development expected between 2012 and 2020.

  12. Build Your Own Second-Generation Bioethanol Plant in the Classroom!

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Sijbers, Jeroen P. J.; Denis, Misha; Tramper, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The production of bioethanol from cellulosic waste is described. The experiment is suitable for students in secondary school classroom settings and leads to bioethanol in a concentration high enough to burn the liquid. The experiment consists of three steps: (i) the cellulose of the waste material is converted to glucose by cellulase enzymes, (ii)…

  13. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  14. Development of a second generation torsion balance based on a spherical superconducting suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Giles D; Speake, Clive C; Matthews, Anthony J; Rocco, Emanuele; Peña-Arellano, Fabian

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a second generation superconducting torsion balance to be used for a precision measurement of the Casimir force and a short range test of the inverse square law of gravity at 4.2 K. The instrument utilizes niobium (Nb) as the superconducting element and employs passive damping of the parasitic modes of oscillation. Any contact potential difference between the torsion balance and its surroundings is nulled to within approximately 50 mV by applying known DC biases and fitting the resulting parabolic relationship between the measured torque and the applied voltage. A digital proportional-integral-derivative servo system has been developed and characterized in order to control the azimuthal position of the instrument. The angular acceleration and displacement noise are currently limited by the capacitive sensor at the level 3x10(-8) rad s(-2)/ squarerootHz and 30 nm/ squarerootHz at 100 mHz. The possibility of lossy dielectric coatings on the surface of the torsion balance test masses is also investigated. Our measurements show that the loss angles delta are (1.5+/-2.3)x10(-4) and (2.0+/-2.2)x10(-4) at frequencies of 5 and 10 mHz, respectively. These values of loss are not significant sources of error for measurements of the Casimir force using this experimental setup.

  15. Parenting and toddler aggression in second-generation immigrant families: the moderating role of child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Mapping the AAV capsid host antibody response towards the development of second generation gene delivery vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan eTseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2. Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from monoclonal antibodies, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  17. Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

    2014-05-01

    Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

  18. After Boyle and the Leviathan: the second generation of British air pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the second generation of British air pumps, covering the period 1700-1750. The air pump originated in the 1650s and 1660s thanks to the work of Otto von Guericke in Magdeburg, Robert Boyle in Oxford and London, and Accademia del Cimento in Florence. While these first models were often seen as unreliable and temperamental, and available to a small group only, the next period saw the air pump transformed into a publicly accessible device for use in public and private demonstrations, in practical applications, as well as in the production of new knowledge. In England, the instrument maker Francis Hauksbee and his followers played a decisive role in this process, which was connected, among other things, to popular medicine, anatomy and health. In this period, pneumatics (the field of air pumps and air-pump practice) reached a state where the pump came to be regarded as an unproblematic tool; and where a vacuum' came to be thought of and handled as an object.

  19. On the hydrolysis mechanism of the second-generation anticancer drug carboplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, Matej; Lucas, Maria Fatima A; Russo, Nino

    2007-01-01

    The hydrolysis reaction mechanisms of carboplatin, a second-generation anticancer drug, have been explored by combining density functional theory (DFT) with the conductor-like dielectric continuum model (CPCM) approach. The decomposition of carboplatin in water is expected to take place through a biphasic mechanism with a ring-opening process followed by the loss of the malonato ligand. We have investigated this reaction in water and acid conditions and established that the number of protons present in the malonato ligand has a direct effect on the energetics of this system. Close observation of the optimised structures revealed a necessary systematic water molecule in the vicinity of the amino groups of carboplatin. For this reason we have also investigated this reaction with an explicit water molecule. From the computed potential-energy surfaces it is established that the water hydrolysis takes place with an activation barrier of 30 kcal mol(-1), confirming the very slow reaction observed experimentally. The decomposition of carboplatin upon acidification was also investigated and we have computed a 21 kcal mol(-1) barrier to be overcome (experimental value 23 kcal mol(-1)). We have also established that the rate-limiting process is the first hydration, and ascertained the importance of a water molecule close to the two amine groups in lowering the activation barriers for the ring-opening reaction.

  20. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  1. Valorization of carob waste: Definition of a second-generation bioethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahry, Hajar; Pons, Agnès; Abdallah, Rawa; Pierre, Guillaume; Delattre, Cédric; Fayad, Nidal; Taha, Samir; Vial, Christophe

    2017-03-11

    The aim of this work was to develop a strategy for second-generation ethanol production from carob solid waste issued from Lebanese food industry. The pros and cons of submerged (SF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) using S. cerevisiae on ethanol yield and productivity were compared, including the respective roles of upstream and downstream processes, such as the size reduction, or sugar and ethanol recovery processes. The design of experiments methodology was applied. Experimental results demonstrated that SSF applied to cut carob waste from carob syrup preparation was simpler to operate and more cost-effective, maintained yield and productivity (0.458g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 4.3g/(kg waste)/h) in comparison to SF (0.450g ethanol/g consumed sugar and 5.7g/(kg waste)/h), and was able to achieve ethanol production up to 155g/(kg waste) at low water demand, while SF reached only 78g/(kg waste) due to the limitations of the sugar extraction pretreatment.

  2. Second generation cephalosporin antibiotic prophylaxis and Clostridium difficile infection in hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tawil, K; Babu, A; Loeffler, M; Williams, T

    2017-05-01

    Introduction The use of broad spectrum cephalosporin antibiotics has been discouraged by the Department of Health in England because of the link to increased Clostridium difficile infection rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a local protocol that included the use of second generation cephalosporin (cefuroxime) antibiotics as a prophylactic agent was associated with increased risk of C difficile in elective hip and knee arthroplasty patients. Methods A retrospective intention-to-treat study was conducted. An infection control database of all cases of C difficile infection both in hospital and in the community was reviewed and cross-referenced against surgical records. A positive correlation was identified when a C difficile positive sample was documented within eight weeks of arthroplasty surgery. Results Only 1 case (0.02%) of C difficile positive diarrhoea was identified that correlated to the 8-week postoperative period following 4,488 arthroplasty procedures. Conclusions The use of cephalosporin antibiotic prophylaxis in the elective hip and knee arthroplasty setting does not appear to be associated with increased C difficile infection rates, achieving surgical site infection rates that are comparable with the national average.

  3. Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richon, V M; Webb, Y; Merger, R; Sheppard, T; Jursic, B; Ngo, L; Civoli, F; Breslow, R; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    1996-06-11

    Hybrid polar compounds, of which hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is the prototype, are potent inducers of differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in patients, but is not an adequate therapeutic agent because of dose-limiting toxicity. We report on a group of three potent second generation hybrid polar compounds, diethyl bis-(pentamethylene-N,N-dimethylcarboxamide) malonate (EMBA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) with optimal concentrations for inducing MEL cells of 0.4 mM, 2 microM, and 4 microM, respectively, compared to 5 mM for HMBA. All three agents induce accumulation of underphosphorylated pRB; increased levels of p2l protein, a prolongation of the initial G1 phase of the cell cycle; and accumulation of hemoglobin. However, based upon their effective concentrations, the cross-resistance or sensitivity of an HMBA-resistant MEL cell variant, and differences in c-myb expression during induction, these differentiation-inducing hybrid polar compounds can be grouped into two subsets, HMBA/EMBA and SAHA/CBHA. This classification may prove of value in selecting and planning prospective preclinical and clinical studies toward the treatment of cancer by differentiation therapy.

  4. A novel and well-defined benchmarking method for second generation read mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second generation sequencing technologies yield DNA sequence data at ultra high-throughput. Common to most biological applications is a mapping of the reads to an almost identical or highly similar reference genome. The assessment of the quality of read mapping results is not straightforward and has not been formalized so far. Hence, it has not been easy to compare different read mapping approaches in a unified way and to determine which program is the best for what task. Results We present a new benchmark method, called Rabema (Read Alignment BEnchMArk, for read mappers. It consists of a strict definition of the read mapping problem and of tools to evaluate the result of arbitrary read mappers supporting the SAM output format. Conclusions We show the usefulness of the benchmark program by performing a comparison of popular read mappers. The tools supporting the benchmark are licensed under the GPL and available from http://www.seqan.de/projects/rabema.html.

  5. Acceleration of Enantioselective Cycloadditions Catalyzed by Second-Generation Chiral Oxazaborolidinium Triflimidates by Biscoordinating Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirupathi, Barla; Breitler, Simon; Mahender Reddy, Karla; Corey, E J

    2016-08-31

    The activation of second-generation fluorinated oxazaborolidines by the strong acid triflimide (Tf2NH) in CH2Cl2 solution leads to highly active chiral Lewis acids that are very effective catalysts for (4 + 2) cycloaddition. We report herein that this catalytic activity can be further enhanced by the use of Tf2NH in combination with the biscoordinating Lewis acid TiCl4 or SnCl4 as a coactivator. The effective increase in acidity of an exceedingly strong protic acid is greater for biscoordinating TiCl4 and SnCl4 than for monocoordinating salts, even the strong Lewis acids AlBr3 and BBr3 in CH2Cl2 or CH2Cl2/toluene. The increase in the effective acidity of Tf2NH can be understood in terms of a stabilized cyclic anionic complex of Tf2N(-) and TiCl4, which implies a broader utility than that described here. The utility of Tf2NH-TiCl4 activation of fluorinated oxazaborolidines is documented by examples including the first enantioselective (4 + 2) cycloaddition to α,β-unsaturated acid chlorides.

  6. Identification of Anthropogenic Climate Change Using a Second-Generation Reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B; Wiglet, T; Simmons, A; Kallberg, P; Kelly, G; Uppala, S; Ammann, C; Boyle, J; Bruggemann, W; Doutriaux, C; Fiorino, M; Mears, C; Meehl, G; Sausen, R

    2004-06-02

    Changes in the height of the tropopause provide a sensitive indicator of human effects on climate. A previous attempt to identify human effects on tropopause height relied on information from 'first-generation' reanalyses of past weather observations. Climate data from these initial model-based reanalyses have well-documented deficiencies, raising concerns regarding the robustness of earlier detection work that employed these data. Here, we address these concerns using information from the new second-generation ERA-40 reanalysis. Over 1979 to 2001, tropopause height increases by nearly 200 meters in ERA-40, partly due to tropospheric warming. The spatial pattern of height increase is consistent with climate model predictions of the expected response to anthropogenic influences alone, significantly strengthening earlier detection results. Atmospheric temperature changes in two different satellite datasets are more highly correlated with changes in ERA-40 than with those in a first-generation reanalysis, thus illustrating the improved quality of temperature information in ERA-40. Our results provide support for claims that human activities have warmed the troposphere and cooled the lower stratosphere over the last several decades of the 20th century, and that both of these changes in atmospheric temperature have contributed to an overall increase in tropopause height.

  7. Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks Model for Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI Daytime Cloud Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Taravat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A multilayer perceptron neural network cloud mask for Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager images is introduced and evaluated. The model is trained for cloud detection on MSG SEVIRI daytime data. It consists of a multi-layer perceptron with one hidden sigmoid layer, trained with the error back-propagation algorithm. The model is fed by six bands of MSG data (0.6, 0.8, 1.6, 3.9, 6.2 and 10.8 μm with 10 hidden nodes. The multiple-layer perceptrons lead to a cloud detection accuracy of 88.96%, when trained to map two predefined values that classify cloud and clear sky. The network was further evaluated using sixty MSG images taken at different dates. The network detected not only bright thick clouds but also thin or less bright clouds. The analysis demonstrated the feasibility of using machine learning models of cloud detection in MSG SEVIRI imagery.

  8. KGmax curves associated with second generation intact stability criteria for different types of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnaert, Francois; Billard, Jean-Yves; Laurens, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    Currently, second generation intact stability criteria are being developed and evaluated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). In this paper, we briefly present levels 1 and 2 assessment methods for the criteria of pure loss of stability and parametric roll failure modes. Subsequently, we show the KGmax curves associated with these criteria. We compute these curves for five different types of ships and compare them with the curves embodied in the current regulations. The results show that the safety margin ensured by the first level-1 method of calculation for both pure loss of stability and parametric roll seems to be excessive in many cases. They also show that the KGmax given by the second level-1 method and by the level-2 method may be very similar. In some cases, the level-2 method can be more conservative than the second level-1 method, which is unanticipated by the future regulation. The KGmax curves associated with parametric roll confirm that the C11 container ship is vulnerable to this failure mode. The computation of the second check coefficient of parametric roll level 2 (C2) for all possible values of KG reveals the existence of both authorized and restricted areas on the surface formed by both the draft and KG, which may replace the classical KGmax curves. In consequence, it is not sufficient to check that C2 is lower than the maximum authorized value ( R PR0) for a fixed ship's loading condition.

  9. Probing unexplored territories with MUSE: a second generation instrument for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, R; Böhm, P; Boudon, D; Brau-Nogue, S; Caillier, P; Capoani, L; Carollo, C M; Champavert, N; Contini, T; Daguise, E; Dalle, D; Delabre, B; Devriendt, J; Dreizler, S; Du Bois, J; Dupieux, M; Dupin, J P; Emsellem, E; Ferruit, P; Franx, M; Gallou, G; Gerssen, J; Guiderdoni, B; Hahn, T; Hofmann, D; Jarno, A; Kelz, A; Köhler, C; Kollatschny, W; Kosmalski, J; Laurent, F; Lilly, S J; Lizon, J; Loupias, M; Lynn, S; Manescau, A; McDermid, R M; Monstein, C; Nicklas, H; Pares, L; Pasquini, L; Pecontal-Rousset, A; Pécontal, E; Pellò, R; Petit, C; Picat, J P; Popow, E; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Reiss, R; Renault, E; Roth, M; Schaye, J; Soucail, G; Steinmetz, M; Stroebele, S; Stuik, R; Weilbacher, P; Wozniak, H; De Zeeuw, P T

    2006-01-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph under preliminary design study. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin**2 sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec**2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The simultaneous spectral range is 465-930 nm, at a resolution of R~3000. MUSE couples the discovery potential of a large imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a high-quality spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. This makes MUSE a unique and tremendously powerful instrument for discovering and characterizing objects that lie beyond the reach of even the deepest imaging surveys. MUSE has also a high spatial resolution mode with 7.5x7.5 arcsec**2 field of view sampled at 25 milli-arcsec. In this mode MUSE should be able to obtain diffraction limited data-cubes in the 600-930 nm wavelength range. Although the MUSE design has been optimized f...

  10. Effect of first and second generation biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, A. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Islam, Rubayat

    2016-07-01

    The biodiesel is a potential source of alternative fuel which can be used at different proportions with diesel fuel. This study experimentally investigated the effect of blend percentage on diesel engine performance and emission using first generation (soybean) and second generation (waste cooking) biodiesel. The characterization of the biodiesel was done according to ASTM and EN standards and compared with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. A multi-cylinder test bed engine coupled with electromagnetic dynamometer and 5 gas analyzer were used for engine performance and emission test. The investigation was made using B5, B10 and B15 blends for both biodiesels. The study found that brake power (BP) and brake torque (BT) slightly decreases and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) slightly increases with an increase in biodiesel blends ratio. Besides, a significant reduction in exhaust emissions (except NOx emission) was found for both biodiesels compared to ULSD. Soybean biodiesel showed better engine performance and emissions reduction compared with waste cooking biodiesel. However, NOx emission for B5 waste cooking biodiesel was lower than soybean biodiesel.

  11. The educational integration of second generation southern Italian migrants to the north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ballarino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: After WW2 Italy experienced a huge internal migration from the south to the northern Italian regions. More than two million individuals moved up north, and the majority of them settled down permanently. How were southern internal migrants integrated into northern Italian society? Despite the theoretical and substantial relevance of the topic, there has been little systematic research on it. Objective: This work studies the assimilation of this migration flux from a long-term perspective, comparing the school outcomes of the children of southern migrants to those of both northerners' children and children of southern families who did not move. Methods: To this aim, logit models of three different school transitions are applied to data from the Italian Longitudinal Household Survey (ILHS, a retrospective panel survey that includes detailed life-course information on a representative sample of roughly 11,000 Italians. Results: There is no difference between the educational performance of both generation 2 and the mix generation and that of the northerners. However, strong and significant disadvantages were found with regard to generation 1.5, due to the disruption in individual school experience caused by the migration itself. Conclusions: The Italian educational system played an important role in facilitating the integration of the second generation of Southern immigrants, but it was less able to assimilate those who had already begun their studies in the south before following their parents to the north.

  12. Characterization of the Second Generation Cryopreserved Dendrobium Bobby Messina Using Histological and RAPD Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jeyanthi James Antony

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the morphological, histological and molecular diff erences in the second generation of the PVS2 cryopreserved Dendrobium Bobby Messina [DBM] (18 months old culture plantlets. Morphological analyses indicated that similarities and diff erences in cryopreserved DBM plantlets comparing to control stock culture based on selected morphological criteria. Morphological criteria, such as root length, number of shoot per explant and shoot length displayed diff erences, while the other three criteria, leaf diameter, leaf length and PLBs size were similar in cryopreserved compared to the control stock culture plant. Higher amount of homogenous cell population and denser cytoplasm were observed in cryopreserved PLBs compared to control stock culture PLBs based on histological analysis. This suggests the existance of somatic embryogenesis development mechanism taking place during the recovery and regeneration of the cryopreserved PLBs. However, RAPD analyses based on 10 primers indicated that cryopreserved DBM regenerated from vitrifi cation method generated a total of 20 to 39.9% polymorphic bands as compared to stock culture indicating potential somaclonal variation. Hence, an increase percentage of polymorphics bands in cryopreserved plantlets 18 months post cryopreservation as compared to previous report of 10% polymorphic bands in cryopreserved DBM 3 months post cryopreservation.

  13. KGmax Curves Associated With Second Generation Intact Stability Criteria for Different Types of Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois Grinnaert; Jean-Yves Billard; Jean-Marc Laurens

    2016-01-01

    Currently, second generation intact stability criteria are being developed and evaluated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). In this paper, we briefly present levels 1 and 2 assessment methods for the criteria of pure loss of stability and parametric roll failure modes. Subsequently, we show the KGmax curves associated with these criteria. We compute these curves for five different types of ships and compare them with the curves embodied in the current regulations. The results show that the safety margin ensured by the first level-1 method of calculation for both pure loss of stability and parametric roll seems to be excessive in many cases. They also show that the KGmax given by the second level-1 method and by the level-2 method may be very similar. In some cases, the level-2 method can be more conservative than the second level-1 method, which is unanticipated by the future regulation. The KGmax curves associated with parametric roll confirm that the C11 container ship is vulnerable to this failure mode. The computation of the second check coefficient of parametric roll level 2 (C2) for all possible values of KG reveals the existence of both authorized and restricted areas on the surface formed by both the draft and KG, which may replace the classical KGmax curves. In consequence, it is not sufficient to check that C2 is lower than the maximum authorized value (RPR0) for a fixed ship’s loading condition.

  14. Effect of first and second generation biodiesel blends on engine performance and emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, A. K., E-mail: azad.cqu@gmail.com, E-mail: a.k.azad@cqu.edu.au; Rasul, M. G., E-mail: m.rasul@cqu.edu.au; Bhuiya, M. M. K., E-mail: m.bhuiya@cqu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia); Islam, Rubayat, E-mail: rubayat12@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    The biodiesel is a potential source of alternative fuel which can be used at different proportions with diesel fuel. This study experimentally investigated the effect of blend percentage on diesel engine performance and emission using first generation (soybean) and second generation (waste cooking) biodiesel. The characterization of the biodiesel was done according to ASTM and EN standards and compared with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. A multi-cylinder test bed engine coupled with electromagnetic dynamometer and 5 gas analyzer were used for engine performance and emission test. The investigation was made using B5, B10 and B15 blends for both biodiesels. The study found that brake power (BP) and brake torque (BT) slightly decreases and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) slightly increases with an increase in biodiesel blends ratio. Besides, a significant reduction in exhaust emissions (except NO{sub x} emission) was found for both biodiesels compared to ULSD. Soybean biodiesel showed better engine performance and emissions reduction compared with waste cooking biodiesel. However, NO{sub x} emission for B5 waste cooking biodiesel was lower than soybean biodiesel.

  15. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with nitazoxanide and second generation thiazolides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmet B Keeffe; Jean-Francois Rossignol

    2009-01-01

    Nitazoxanide, the first thiazolide, was originally developed for the treatment of Cryptosporidium parvum. More recently, antiviral activity of nitazoxanide against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus was recognized in in vitro systems. These basic studies led to phase Ⅱ clinical trials that demonstrated the safety and efficacy of nitazoxanide in combination with peginterferon, with or without ribavirin, in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. The sustained virologic response rate was 79% and 80% in two studies, which was higher than the response rate of 50% with the standard of care with peginterferon plus ribavirin. In very preliminary studies of patients with chronic hepatitis B, nitazoxanide suppressed serum HBV DNA and led to loss of hepatitis B e antigen in the majority of patients and hepatitis B surface antigen in approximately a quarter of patients. Randomized controlled studies of naive and nonresponder patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 are underway, new second generation and controlled release thiazolides are being developed, and future studies of patients with chronic hepatitis B are planned.

  16. Comparison of voiding cystourethrography and urosonography with second-generation contrast agents in simultaneous prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świętoń, Dominik; Rybczyńska, Dorota; Czarniak, Piotr; Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Kaszubowski, Mariusz; Szurowska, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Background The invasiveness and exposure to radiation in voiding cystourethrography led to the introduction of alternative methods of diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, including contrast enhanced voiding urosonography. While there is a limited number of studies comparing these methods using new generation ultrasound contrast agents, none of them compared both methods simultaneously. This study is aimed at assessing agreement between contrast enhanced voiding urosonography with second-generation ultrasound contrast agents and voiding cystourethrography. Methods From April 2013 to May 2014, 83 children (37 female and 46 male), mean age 3.5 years, age range from 1 month to 17.5 years, underwent prospective simultaneous assessment by contrast enhanced voiding urosonography and voiding cystourethrography, with a total of 166 uretero-renal units evaluated. Results The sensitivity of voiding cystourethrography and contrast enhanced voiding urosonography were comparable, amounting to 88%, however, neither reached 100% for the entire studied population. The negative predictive value of voiding urosonography and voiding cystourethrography was 97%, and there was no difference between both methods. Conclusion Voiding cystourethrography and contrast enhanced voiding urosonography are comparable methods in diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, and can be performed alternatively. However, some limitations of contrast enhanced voiding urosonography must be remembered.

  17. The Adaptation of the Immigrant Second Generation in America: Theoretical Overview and Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro; Fernández-Kelly, Patricia; Haller, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises a research program on the new immigrant second generation initiated in the early 1990s and completed in 2006. The four field waves of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS) are described and the main theoretical models emerging from it are presented and graphically summarised. After considering critical views of this theory, we present the most recent results from this longitudinal research program in the forum of quantitative models predicting downward assimilation in early adulthood and qualitative interviews identifying ways to escape it by disadvantaged children of immigrants. Quantitative results strongly support the predicted effects of exogenous variables identified by segmented assimilation theory and identify the intervening factors during adolescence that mediate their influence on adult outcomes. Qualitative evidence gathered during the last stage of the study points to three factors that can lead to exceptional educational achievement among disadvantaged youths. All three indicate the positive influence of selective acculturation. Implications of these findings for theory and policy are discussed.

  18. [A comparative analysis of effectiveness, tolerance and cost of second generation antidepressants in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    While French authorities point to the need for rational prescribing, especially concerning psychotropic drugs, few data on the prescription of second-generation antidepressants (SGA) are synthesized for clinicians' use. Our objective is to carry out a comparative analysis of effectiveness and tolerability / acceptability of SGA. Considering the benefit/risk ratio and the cost (generic), the first-line treatment for a major depressive episode may be currently sertraline (50 mg / d). It may however have more digestive side effects than other SSRIs (due to the serotonin action), which calls for caution while increasing doses. Fluoxetine seems relevant in treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia (20mg / d) and in bulimia (60mg / d). Fluvoxamine seems relevant in the case of sexual side effects with a previous SSRI, in treatment of anxiety disorders (it's affinity for sigma receptors may confer a specific action) and in psychotic depression. Mirtazapine may be a treatment of interest when a fast remission of depressive symptoms (especially insomnia) is warranted but its tolerance profile makes it difficult to use.

  19. Adaptive Wavelets Based on Second Generation Wavelet Transform and Their Applications to Trend Analysis and Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chen-dong; JIANG Hong-kai; HE Zheng-jia

    2004-01-01

    In order to make trend analysis and prediction to acquisition data in a mechanical equipment condition monitoring system, a new method of trend feature extraction and prediction of acquisition data is proposed which constructs an adaptive wavelet on the acquisition data by means of second generation wavelet transform (SGWT). Firstly, taking the vanishing moment number of the predictor as a constraint, the linear predictor and updater are designed according to the acquisition data by using symmetrical interpolating scheme. Then the trend of the data is obtained through doing SGWT decomposition, threshold processing and SGWT reconstruction. Secondly, under the constraint of the vanishing moment number of the predictor, another predictor based on the acquisition data is devised to predict the future trend of the data using a non-symmetrical interpolating scheme. A one-step prediction algorithm is presented to predict the future evolution trend with historical data. The proposed method obtained a desirable effect in peak-to-peak value trend analysis for a machine set in an oil refinery.

  20. Vancouver Coastal Health's Second Generation Health Strategy: A need for a reboot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Chan, Sophy

    2017-03-01

    In this commentary, we consider the motivations and implications of Vancouver Coastal Health's place-based population health strategy called the Downtown Eastside Second Generation Health Strategy (2GHS) in light of a broader historical view of shifting values in population and public health and structural health reforms in Canada over the past three decades. We argue that the tone and content of the 2GHS signals a shift towards a neoliberal clientelist model of health that treats people as patients and the DTES as a site of clinical encounter rather than as a community in its own right. In its clinical emphasis, the 2GHS fails to recognize the political dimension of health and well-being in the DTES, a community that faces compounding health risks associated with colonialism, gentrification, human displacement, the criminalization of poverty, sex work, and the street economy. Furthermore, we suggest that in its emphasis on allocating funding based on a rationalist model of health system access, the 2GHS undermines well-established insights and best practices from community-driven health initiatives. Our aim is to provide a provocation that will encourage public health policy-makers to embrace community-based leadership as well as the broader structural health determinants that are at the root of the current circumstances of people in the DTES and other marginalized communities in Canada.

  1. Mental health problems of second generation children and adolescents with migration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceri, Veysi; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha; Özer, Ürün; Kadak, Tayyib; Winkler, Dietmar; Dogangün, Burak; Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan

    2017-06-01

    Despite the growing number of young second-generation immigrant (SGI) children and adolescents, studies about their mental health are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the mental health problems of SGI children and adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey. In a clinical sample the mental health of 54 SGIs and 50 native children and adolescents were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Children's Global Assessment Scale. The assessments were carried out by a blinded rater. SGI children had higher rates of psychiatric disorders such as depression (p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p = 0.011) and anxiety disorders (p = 0.013), more comorbid disorders and lower functionality scores compared to their native counterparts (p = 0.001). SGI children seem to have higher rates of psychiatric disorders most probably due to migration-induced burdens. The professionals treating SGI children should have more awareness for these problems to be able to approach them in a culture and language sensitive way.

  2. Use of Second generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of focal liver lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is often the first imaging modality employed in patients with suspected focal liver lesions.The role of US in the characterisation of focal liver lesions has been transformed with the introduction of specific contrast media and the development of specialized imaging techniques. Ultrasound now can fully characterise the enhancement pattern of hepatic lesions, similar to that achieved with contrast enhanced multiphasic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). US contrast agents are safe,well-tolerated and have very few contraindications.Furthermore, real-time evaluation of the vascularity of focal liver lesions has become possible with the use of the newer microbubble contrast agents. This article reviews the enhancement pattern of the most frequent liver lesions seen, using the second generation US contrast media. The common pitfalls for each type of lesion are discussed. The recent developments in US contrast media and specific imaging techniques have been a major advance and this technique, in view of the intrinsic advantages of US, will undoubtedly gain popularity in the years to come.

  3. Summary and early findings from a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Kinney, Kristopher L.; Shockman, Christine

    2003-04-02

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This paper discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The underlying principle of this project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform. Such data are an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. This project has demonstrated that the IMDS is valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. One objective of this project was to evaluate the costs and benefits of the IMDS. The system cost about $0.70 per square foot, which includes the design, hardware, software, and installation, which is about 30% less than the previous IMDS in San Francisco. A number of operational problems have been identified with the IMDS.

  4. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the second generation phosphorus-viologen “molecular asterisk”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandukov, A. E.; Katir, N.; Majoral, J. P.; El Kadib, A.; Caminade, A. M.; Bousmina, M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2013-11-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the second generation phosphorus-viologen "molecular asterisk" G2 built from cyclotriphosphazene core with 12 viologen units and 6 terminal phosphonate groups have been recorded and analyzed. The experimental X-ray data of 1,1-bis(4-formylbenzyl)-4,4‧-bipyridinium bis(hexaflurophosphate) was used in molecular modeling studies. The optimization of isolated 1,1-bis(4-formylbenzyl)-4,4‧-bipyridinium (BFBP) molecule without counter ions PF6- does not lead to significant changes of dihedral angles, thus the molecular conformation does not depend on interactions with the counter ions. The structural optimization and normal mode analysis were performed for G2 on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are predicted in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that G2 has a kind of "egg timer" structure with planar Osbnd C6H4sbnd CHdbnd Nsbnd N(CH3)sbnd fragments and slightly non-planar cyclotriphosphazene core. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of G2 were interpreted by means of potential energy distribution.

  5. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the second generation phosphorus-viologen "molecular asterisk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V L; Vandukov, A E; Katir, N; Majoral, J P; El Kadib, A; Caminade, A M; Bousmina, M; Kovalenko, V I

    2013-11-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the second generation phosphorus-viologen "molecular asterisk" G2 built from cyclotriphosphazene core with 12 viologen units and 6 terminal phosphonate groups have been recorded and analyzed. The experimental X-ray data of 1,1-bis(4-formylbenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium bis(hexaflurophosphate) was used in molecular modeling studies. The optimization of isolated 1,1-bis(4-formylbenzyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (BFBP) molecule without counter ions PF6(-) does not lead to significant changes of dihedral angles, thus the molecular conformation does not depend on interactions with the counter ions. The structural optimization and normal mode analysis were performed for G2 on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are predicted in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that G2 has a kind of "egg timer" structure with planar OC6H4CHNN(CH3) fragments and slightly non-planar cyclotriphosphazene core. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of G2 were interpreted by means of potential energy distribution.

  6. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D

    2013-09-01

    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  7. The occurrence of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in non-target raptor species in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2013-04-15

    Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are commonly used for rodent pest control in Norway resulting in the potential exposure of non-target raptor species. In this study the occurrence of flocoumafen, difethialone, difenacoum, bromadiolone and brodifacoum was determined in the livers of five species of raptors found dead in Norway between 2009 and 2011. The SGARs brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum and flocoumafen were detected in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) and eagle owl (Bubo bubo) livers at a total SGAR concentration of between 11 and 255 ng/g in approximately 70% of the golden eagles and 50% of the eagle owls examined in this study. In the absence of specific golden eagle and eagle owl toxicity thresholds for SGARs, a level of >100 ng/g was used as a potential lethal range, accepting that poisoning may occur below this level. Thirty percent (7/24) of the golden eagle and eagle owl livers contained total SGAR residue levels above this threshold. Further estimation of the potential mortality impact on the sampled raptor populations was not possible.

  8. Analysis of quality raw data of second generation sequencers with Quality Assessment Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria PC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second generation technologies have advantages over Sanger; however, they have resulted in new challenges for the genome construction process, especially because of the small size of the reads, despite the high degree of coverage. Independent of the program chosen for the construction process, DNA sequences are superimposed, based on identity, to extend the reads, generating contigs; mismatches indicate a lack of homology and are not included. This process improves our confidence in the sequences that are generated. Findings We developed Quality Assessment Software, with which one can review graphs showing the distribution of quality values from the sequencing reads. This software allow us to adopt more stringent quality standards for sequence data, based on quality-graph analysis and estimated coverage after applying the quality filter, providing acceptable sequence coverage for genome construction from short reads. Conclusions Quality filtering is a fundamental step in the process of constructing genomes, as it reduces the frequency of incorrect alignments that are caused by measuring errors, which can occur during the construction process due to the size of the reads, provoking misassemblies. Application of quality filters to sequence data, using the software Quality Assessment, along with graphing analyses, provided greater precision in the definition of cutoff parameters, which increased the accuracy of genome construction.

  9. First application of second-generation steel-free deck slabs for bridge rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Ruth; Klowak, Chad; Mufti, Aftab A.; Tadros, Gamil; Bakht, Baidar; Loewen, Eric

    2004-07-01

    The arching action in concrete deck slabs for girder bridges is utilized fully in steel-free deck slabs. These concrete slabs, requiring no tensile reinforcement, are confined longitudinally by making them composite with the girders, and transversely by external steel straps connecting the top flanges of external girders. Between 1995 and 1999, five steel-free deck slabs without any tensile reinforcement were cast on Canadian bridges. All these slabs developed fairly wide full-depth cracks roughly midway between the girders. While extensive fatigue testing done in the past three years has confirmed that the presence of even wide cracks does not pose any danger to the safety of the structures, wide cracks are generally not acceptable to bridge engineers. The developers of the steel-free deck slabs have now conceded that these slabs should be reinforced with a crack-control mesh of nominal glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. Steel-free deck slabs with crack-control meshes are being referred as the second generation slabs. With the help of testing on full-scale models, it has been found that deck slabs with GFRP bars have the best fatigue resistance and those with steel bars the worst.

  10. Mixed Culture PHA Production With Alternating Feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, C.S.S.; Duque, A.F.; Carvalho, Gilda

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a sustainable alternative to conventional plastics that can be obtained from industrial wastes/by-products using mixed microbial cultures (MMC). MMC PHA production is commonly carried out in a 3-stage process consisting of an acidogenic stage, a PHA producing culture...... selection stage, and a PHA production phase. This work investigated the performance robustness and microbial population dynamics of a PHA producing MMC when subjected to a feedstock shift, mimicking a seasonal feedstock scenario, from cheese whey to sugar cane molasses. Research was focused...... on the possibility of tailoring PHA through the selection of feedstock: either using feedstocks with different compositions or mixing two or more fermented substrates with different organic acid profiles. This knowledge is expected to contribute to the extended application of this promising process for resource...

  11. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Laura [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Feedstock Platform Review meeting.

  12. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  13. Second-generation Stellar Disks in Dense Star Clusters and Cluster Ellipticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-05-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) and nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are typically composed of several stellar populations, characterized by different chemical compositions. Different populations show different ages in NSCs, but not necessarily in GCs. The youngest populations in NSCs appear to reside in disk-like structures as observed in our Galaxy and in M31. Gas infall followed by formation of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs may similarly form disk-like structures in the clusters nuclei. Here we explore this possibility and follow the long-term evolution of stellar disks embedded in GCs, and study their effects on the evolution of the clusters. We study disks with different masses by means of detailed N-body simulations and explore their morphological and kinematic signatures on the GC structures. We find that as a SG disk relaxes, the old, first-generation stellar population flattens and becomes more radially anisotropic, making the GC structure become more elliptical. The SG stellar population is characterized by a lower velocity dispersion and a higher rotational velocity compared with the primordial older population. The strength of these kinematic signatures depends both on the relaxation time of the system and on the fractional mass of the SG disk. We therefore conclude that SG populations formed in flattened configurations will give rise to two systematic trends: (1) a positive correlation between GC ellipticity and fraction of SG population and (2) a positive correlation between GC relaxation time and ellipticity. Therefore, GC ellipticities and rotation could be related to the formation of SG stars and their initial configuration.

  14. Validation of a Meteosat Second Generation solar radiation dataset over the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation plays a key role in the Earth's energy balance and is used as an essential input data in radiation-based evapotranspiration (ET models. Accurate gridded solar radiation data at high spatial and temporal resolution are needed to retrieve ET over large domains. In this work we present an evaluation at hourly, daily and monthly time steps and regional scale (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula of a satellite-based solar radiation product developed by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF using data from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. Product performance and accuracy were evaluated for datasets segmented into two terrain classes (flat and hilly areas and two atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudy sky, as well as for the full dataset as a whole. Evaluation against measurements made with ground-based pyranometers yielded good results in flat areas with an averaged model RMSE of 65 W m−2 (19%, 34 W m−2 (9.7% and 21 W m−2 (5.6%, for hourly, daily and monthly-averaged solar radiation and including clear and cloudy sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Hilly areas yielded intermediate results with an averaged model RMSE (root mean square error of 89 W m−2 (27%, 48 W m−2 (14.5% and 32 W m−2 (9.3%, for hourly, daily and monthly time steps, suggesting the need of further improvements (e.g., terrain corrections required for retrieving localized variability in solar radiation in these areas. According to the literature, the LSA SAF solar radiation product appears to have sufficient accuracy to serve as a useful and operative input to evaporative flux retrieval models.

  15. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  16. The first insight into the tissue specific taxus transcriptome via Illumina second generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Cheng Hao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Illumina second generation sequencing is now an efficient route for generating enormous sequence collections that represent expressed genes and quantitate expression level. Taxus is a world-wide endangered gymnosperm genus and forms an important anti-cancer medicinal resource, but the large and complex genomes of Taxus have hindered the development of genomic resources. The research of its tissue-specific transcriptome is absent. There is also no study concerning the association between the plant transcriptome and metabolome with respect to the plant tissue type. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed the de novo assembly of Taxus mairei transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In a single run, we produced 13,737,528 sequencing reads corresponding to 2.03 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 36,493 unique sequences. Based on similarity search with known proteins, 23,515 Unigenes were identified to have the Blast hit with a cut-off E-value above 10⁻⁵. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome difference of three Taxus tissues using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 3.15 million tags per sample and identified a large number of genes associated with tissue specific functions and taxane biosynthetic pathway. The expression of the taxane biosynthetic genes is significantly higher in the root than in the leaf and the stem, while high activity of taxane-producing pathway in the root was also revealed via metabolomic analyses. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and enriched metabolic pathways with regard to the differentially expressed genes were revealed for the first time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provides the most comprehensive sequence resource available for Taxus study and will help define mechanisms of tissue

  17. Ablation of Barrett's esophagus using the second-generation argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Lei Dong; Jia Liu; Xiao-lan Lu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the second-generation argon plasma coagulation (VIO APC) in ablation of Barrett's esophagus. Methods Eighteen patients with Barrett's esophagus (12 males, median age of 55 years, median length of 2.1 cm,1 low-grade dysplasia, 13 cases of short segment Barrett's esophagus) received VIO APC, which was performed at a power setting of 40W and argon gas flow at 1. 5-2. 0 L/min, "forced" mode, in 1-3 sessions (mean 1.3). All the patients received treatment with high-dose proton pump inhibitors. The main complaints before ablation were upper abdominal pain in 12 patients (66%), sour regurgitation in 14 patients (77%), and dysphagia or odynophagia in 7 patients (38%). Two patients (11%) had esophageal hiatal hernia. Results The percentage of patients in whom ablation was endoscopically achieved proximal to the gastroesophageal junction was 77. 8%(14/18), and histologically achieved in 66. 7% (12/18). Berried glands were observed in 2 patients who had achieved endoscopic ablation, the areas of Barrett's mucosa were reduced by more than 60% in the other 4 patients. After treatment, 4 patients had transient retrosternal pain and 3 patients had mild epigastric discomfort. One patient had small amounts of hemorrhage during the process, and it ceased after norepinephrine and thrombosin were administered through endoscope biopsy channel. No esophageal stricture or other severe adverse events was observed. During 11.8 (4-15) months' follow-up, the patients who had achieved the complete ablation had no evidence of relapse of Barrett's esophagus. Conclusion VIO APC with a relatively low power setting can effectively ablate the Barrett's mucosa with special intestinal metaplasia when standard APC has been done. No severe adverse events were observed. Long-term follow-up is needed to assess cancer prevention and the durability of the neo-squamous epithelium.

  18. Inhibition of mouse brown adipocyte differentiation by second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jee-Eun; Cho, Yoon Mi; Kwak, Su-Nam; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyung Won; Jung, Hyosan; Jeong, Seong-Whan; Kwon, Oh-Joo

    2012-09-30

    Brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are the most commonly used drugs for schizophrenia with several advantages over first-line drugs, however, it can cause clinically-significant weight gain. To reveal the involvement of brown adipocytes in SGA-induced weight gain, we compared the effect of clozapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone, SGA with different propensities to induce weight gain, on the differentiation and the expression of brown fat-specific markers, lipogenic genes and adipokines in a mouse brown preadipocyte cell line. On Oil Red-O staining, the differentiation was inhibited almost completely by clozapine (40 μM) and partially by quetiapine (30 μM). Clozapine significantly down-regulated the brown adipogenesis markers PRDM16, C/EBPβ, PPARγ2, UCP-1, PGC-1α, and Cidea in dose- and time-dependent manners, whereas quetiapine suppressed PRDM16, PPARγ 2, and UCP-1 much weakly than clozapine. Clozapine also significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of lipogenic genes ACC, SCD1, GLUT4, aP2, and CD36 as well as adipokines such as resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. In contrast, quetiapine suppressed only resistin and leptin but not those of lipogenic genes and adiponectin. Ziprasidone (10 μM) did not alter the differentiation as well as the gene expression patterns. Our results suggest for the first time that the inhibition of brown adipogenesis may be a possible mechanism to explain weight gain induced by clozapine and quetiapine.

  19. Comparison between First- and Second-Generation Cryoballoon for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Conti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cryoballoon (CB ablation has emerged as a novel treatment for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF. The second-generation Arctic Front Advance (ADV was redesigned with technical modifications aiming at procedural and outcome improvements. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the two different technologies over a long-term follow-up. Methods. A total of 120 patients with PAF were enrolled. Sixty patients underwent PVI using the first-generation CB and 60 patients with the ADV catheter. All patients were evaluated over a follow-up period of 2 years. Results. There were no significant differences between the two groups of patients. Procedures performed with the first-generation CB showed longer fluoroscopy time (36.3±16.8 versus 14.2±13.5 min, resp.; p=0.00016 and longer procedure times as well (153.1±32 versus 102±24.8 min, resp.; p=0.019. The overall long-term success was significantly different between the two groups (68.3 versus 86.7%, resp.; p=0.017. No differences were found in the lesion areas of left and right PV between the two groups (resp., p=0.61 and 0.57. There were no significant differences in procedural-related complications. Conclusion. The ADV catheter compared to the first-generation balloon allows obtaining a significantly higher success rate after a single PVI procedure during the long-term follow-up. Fluoroscopy and procedural times were significantly shortened using the ADV catheter.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and obesity among users of second generation antipsychotics: A global challenge for modern psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Leonel E; Gaspar, Pablo A; Silva, H; Risco, L; Arena, Pamela; Cubillos-Robles, Karen; Jara, Belen

    2015-11-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine, are among the most effective therapies to stabilize symptoms schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum disorders. In fact, clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone have improved the quality of life of billions SZ patients worldwide. Based on the broad spectrum of efficacy and low risk of extrapyramidal symptoms displayed by SGAs, some regulatory agencies approved the use of SGAs in non-schizophrenic adults, children and adolescents suffering from a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, increasing number of reports have shown that SGAs are strongly associated with accelerated weight gain, insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and increased cardiovascular risk. These metabolic alterations can develop in as short as six months after the initiation of pharmacotherapy, which is now a controversial fact in public disclosure. Although the percentage of schizophrenic patients, the main target group of SGAs, is estimated in only 1% of the population, during the past ten years there was an exponential increase in the number of SGAs users, including millions of non-SZ patients. The scientific bases of SGAs metabolic side effects are not yet elucidated, but the evidence shows that the activation of transcriptional factor SRBP1c, the D1/D2 dopamine, GABA2 and 5HT neurotransmitions are implicated in the SGAs cardiovascular toxicity. Polypharmacological interventions are either non- or modestly effective in maintaining low cardiovascular risk in SGAs users. In this review we critically discuss the clinical and molecular evidence on metabolic alterations induced by SGAs, the evidence on the efficacy of classical antidiabetic drugs and the emerging concept of antidiabetic polyphenols as potential coadjutants in SGA-induced metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  2. Long-term evaluation of COSMO forecast models over Germany using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelberg, S.; Crewell, S.; Böhme, T.; Fischer, J.; Akkermans, T.; Seifert, A.; van Lipzig, N.; Reinhardt, T.; Selbach, C.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a better model performance in matters of precipitation forecast based on two years observations (2007-2008) data from the German Weather Service’s (DWD) operational COSMO model. This study shows a better capability of tracking and labeling different sources of measured atmospheric components such as Brightness temperatures (BTs), water vapor and cloud cover. In this project, BTs observed with the geostational satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) were compared with calculated synthetical BTs from the forward operator RTTOV [Radiative Transfer for Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder]. 6.2 µm upper troposphere water vapor and the 10.8 µm cloud detection channel were considered. Comparisons of the systematical deviations were performed showing absolute deviations as well as statistical measures. Results show that diurnal cycle detection of day/night dependencies are linked to surface heating and cloud cover development. Furthermore, the annual cycle observations allow to distinguish between typical seasonal appearance of clouds. This study shows (1) shortcomings data assimilation relation; (2) over-forecasting of cloud height, spatial cloud cover and diurnal dependencies; and (3) convective cloud development deficits. The largest observed bias is linked to the BTs 10.8 µm data. The latter likely linked to the difference in cloud observation and forecast in the upper troposphere. In brief, this model show a better classification of different weather condition types; providing additional insight into model deficits - such conditions were shown for northerly/north-westerly (maritime) flows model forecasts to be too dry (cold) and for southerly (continental) flows to be too humid (warm).

  3. Second generation laser-heated microfurnace for the preparation of microgram-sized graphite samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Smith, A. M.; Long, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present construction details and test results for two second-generation laser-heated microfurnaces (LHF-II) used to prepare graphite samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ANSTO. Based on systematic studies aimed at optimising the performance of our prototype laser-heated microfurnace (LHF-I) (Smith et al., 2007 [1]; Smith et al., 2010 [2,3]; Yang et al., 2014 [4]), we have designed the LHF-II to have the following features: (i) it has a small reactor volume of 0.25 mL allowing us to completely graphitise carbon dioxide samples containing as little as 2 μg of C, (ii) it can operate over a large pressure range (0-3 bar) and so has the capacity to graphitise CO2 samples containing up to 100 μg of C; (iii) it is compact, with three valves integrated into the microfurnace body, (iv) it is compatible with our new miniaturised conventional graphitisation furnaces (MCF), also designed for small samples, and shares a common vacuum system. Early tests have shown that the extraneous carbon added during graphitisation in each LHF-II is of the order of 0.05 μg, assuming 100 pMC activity, similar to that of the prototype unit. We use a 'budget' fibre packaged array for the diode laser with custom built focusing optics. The use of a new infrared (IR) thermometer with a short focal length has allowed us to decrease the height of the light-proof safety enclosure. These innovations have produced a cheaper and more compact device. As with the LHF-I, feedback control of the catalyst temperature and logging of the reaction parameters is managed by a LabVIEW interface.

  4. Second generation laser-heated microfurnace for the preparation of microgram-sized graphite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin; Smith, A.M.; Long, S.

    2015-10-15

    We present construction details and test results for two second-generation laser-heated microfurnaces (LHF-II) used to prepare graphite samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ANSTO. Based on systematic studies aimed at optimising the performance of our prototype laser-heated microfurnace (LHF-I) (Smith et al., 2007 [1]; Smith et al., 2010 [2,3]; Yang et al., 2014 [4]), we have designed the LHF-II to have the following features: (i) it has a small reactor volume of 0.25 mL allowing us to completely graphitise carbon dioxide samples containing as little as 2 μg of C, (ii) it can operate over a large pressure range (0–3 bar) and so has the capacity to graphitise CO{sub 2} samples containing up to 100 μg of C; (iii) it is compact, with three valves integrated into the microfurnace body, (iv) it is compatible with our new miniaturised conventional graphitisation furnaces (MCF), also designed for small samples, and shares a common vacuum system. Early tests have shown that the extraneous carbon added during graphitisation in each LHF-II is of the order of 0.05 μg, assuming 100 pMC activity, similar to that of the prototype unit. We use a ‘budget’ fibre packaged array for the diode laser with custom built focusing optics. The use of a new infrared (IR) thermometer with a short focal length has allowed us to decrease the height of the light-proof safety enclosure. These innovations have produced a cheaper and more compact device. As with the LHF-I, feedback control of the catalyst temperature and logging of the reaction parameters is managed by a LabVIEW interface.

  5. Long-Term Weight Change after Initiating Second-Generation Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arterburn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: To examine the relationship between the choice of second-generation antidepressant drug treatment and long-term weight change; (2 Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between choice of antidepressant medication and weight change at two years among adult patients with a new antidepressant treatment episode between January, 2006 and October, 2009 in a large health system in Washington State. Medication use, encounters, diagnoses, height, and weight were collected from electronic databases. We modeled change in weight and BMI at two years after initiation of treatment using inverse probability weighted linear regression models that adjusted for potential confounders. Fluoxetine was the reference treatment; (3 Results: In intent-to-treat analyses, non-smokers who initiated bupropion treatment on average lost 7.1 lbs compared to fluoxetine users who were non-smokers (95% CI: −11.3, −2.8; p-value < 0.01; smokers who initiated bupropion treatment gained on average 2.2 lbs compared to fluoxetine users who were smokers (95% CI: −2.3, 6.8; p-value = 0.33. Changes in weight associated with all other antidepressant medications were not significantly different than fluoxetine, except for sertraline users, who gained an average of 5.9 lbs compared to fluoxetine users (95% CI: 0.8, 10.9; p-value = 0.02; (4 Conclusion: Antidepressant drug therapy is significantly associated with long-term weight change at two years. Bupropion may be considered as the first-line drug of choice for overweight and obese patients unless there are other existing contraindications.

  6. Model-based quality assessment and base-calling for second-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Héctor Corrada; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2010-09-01

    Second-generation sequencing (sec-gen) technology can sequence millions of short fragments of DNA in parallel, making it capable of assembling complex genomes for a small fraction of the price and time of previous technologies. In fact, a recently formed international consortium, the 1000 Genomes Project, plans to fully sequence the genomes of approximately 1200 people. The prospect of comparative analysis at the sequence level of a large number of samples across multiple populations may be achieved within the next five years. These data present unprecedented challenges in statistical analysis. For instance, analysis operates on millions of short nucleotide sequences, or reads-strings of A,C,G, or T's, between 30 and 100 characters long-which are the result of complex processing of noisy continuous fluorescence intensity measurements known as base-calling. The complexity of the base-calling discretization process results in reads of widely varying quality within and across sequence samples. This variation in processing quality results in infrequent but systematic errors that we have found to mislead downstream analysis of the discretized sequence read data. For instance, a central goal of the 1000 Genomes Project is to quantify across-sample variation at the single nucleotide level. At this resolution, small error rates in sequencing prove significant, especially for rare variants. Sec-gen sequencing is a relatively new technology for which potential biases and sources of obscuring variation are not yet fully understood. Therefore, modeling and quantifying the uncertainty inherent in the generation of sequence reads is of utmost importance. In this article, we present a simple model to capture uncertainty arising in the base-calling procedure of the Illumina/Solexa GA platform. Model parameters have a straightforward interpretation in terms of the chemistry of base-calling allowing for informative and easily interpretable metrics that capture the variability in

  7. A Rotation Scaling and Cropping Inavariant Second Generation Watermarking Scheme Based on Hough Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIZhen; ZHANGJihong; XIAOWeiwei

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,a scheme which follows the seconde generation watermarking(2GW)paradigm is proposed.The goal of this proposed scheme is basically to increase the robustness against geometric attacks.The host image is decomposed with the wavelet packet.The bit stream of binary watermark is coded into several patterns with salient feature.The circular feature is used in this paper,because:(a)the computational complexity of the method grows rapidly with more complex shapes.(b) the circle is rotation -invariant and partially scale-invariant.(c)the circular feature can be detected by Hough transform effectively.These patterns are embedded into wavelet packet coefficients according to human perceptual charac teristics.A new HVS mask based on wavelet transform is proposed with consideration of local texture characteristics.The introduction of HVS caharacteristics boosts the performance of the whole scheme.Then,the watermarked image is generated by WP reconstruction.For the detection of watermark,the geometric distortion is calibrated for the contaminated watermarked image, then it is decomposed with the same WP used in embedding procedure.Hough transform is used to detect the circular features in the WP Coefficients.This scheme has the following characteristis:(a)robustness against the common geometric attacks(rotation,scaling,cropping,and etc)is improved significantly.(b)human perceptual characteristics is taken into consideration,so the tradeoff between invisibility and robustness is improved.Results of extensive experiments indicate that this proposed scheme is significantly effective in resisting various attacks such as rotation,scaling,JPEG compressing,adding noise,etc.

  8. [Measurement of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAK) with a second generation assay in patients with Graves' disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöphel, K; Wunderlich, G; Koch, R; Franke, W G

    2000-01-01

    The detection of TSH-receptor-antibodies (TRAb) in patients (pts) with Graves' disease (GD) is routinely used in nuclear medicine laboratories. It is performed by commercial, porcine radioreceptorassays (RRA) measuring TSH binding inhibitory activity. A second generation assay using the human, recombinant TSH-receptor was developed during the last years. The manufacturer composed this new assay as a coated tube RRA (CT RRA) and claimed a higher sensitivity for GD. TRAb was measured in 207 pts with various thyroid disorders and 205 healthy controls using the new coated tube RRA (Fa. B.R.A.H.M.S. Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) as well as a conventional RRA (Fa. Medipan Diagnostica GmbH, Selchow, Germany): 60 pts suffering from GD showing a relapse after antithyroid drug treatment and before radioiodine therapy, 109 pts with disseminated autonomia (DA) and 38 pts suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A ROC-analysis was performed to find the optimal decision threshold level for positivity. We found 42/60 TRAb-positive pts with GD in the established RRA (threshold 6 U/L) and 52/60 in the CT RRA, respectively. The sensitivity increased from 70% (RRA) to 86.7% (CT RRA). The CT RRA found 2 false positives (one Hashimoto's and one healthy control) and the RRA detected 3 Hashimoto's and 2 healthy controls as false positive. The increased sensitivity of CT RRA for GD provides an advantage compared to conventional RRA, especially in GD-patients relapsing after antithyroid drug treatment. Functional sensitivity and Interassay-variation of CT RRA are very precisely compared to conventional RRA. Handling of the new assay is also improved.

  9. Enzalutamide as a second generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Julius Semenas,1 Nishtman Dizeyi,2 Jenny Liao Persson1 1Division of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden; 2Division of Urological Research, Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre, Malmö, Sweden Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common malignancy, and the third leading cancer-related cause of death among men of the Western world. Upon PCa progression into metastatic disease, androgen deprivation therapy is applied as the first-line treatment, and has been shown to be effective in most patients, leading to a decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen and relief of disease-related symptoms. However, advanced PCa almost inevitably progresses to a castration-resistant state, and is currently regarded as incurable. The large body of evidence indicates that PCa cells remain dependent on androgen receptor (AR signaling even in an androgen-deprived environment. As such, development of drugs that target AR and AR signaling pathways have become one of the major milestones in treatment of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC. Nevertheless, currently available therapies that target AR signaling are still regarded as palliative and more potent therapies are in great need. Over the past few years, a wide range of novel therapies has entered clinical trial for treatment of CRPC, including androgen synthesis inhibitors (abiraterone acetate, chemotherapeutic agents (docetaxel and cabazitaxel, and immunotherapies (sipuleucel-T. In this context, enzalutamide (previously referred to as MDV3100 is a novel second generation antiandrogen that has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in men with metastatic CRPC in several clinical trials. In this paper we summarize recently completed and ongoing clinical trials of enzalutamide, and briefly discuss the efficacy of the novel antiandrogen therapy and its limitations for treatment of

  10. Expression from second-generation feline immunodeficiency virus vectors is impaired in human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mary A; Case, Scott S; Carbonaro, Denise A; Yu, Xiao-Jin; Petersen, Denise; Sabo, Kathleen M; Curran, Michael A; Engel, Barbara C; Margarian, Hovanes; Abkowitz, Janis L; Nolan, Garry P; Kohn, Donald B; Crooks, Gay M

    2002-11-01

    Vectors based on the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been developed as an alternative to those based on another lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), because of theoretical safety advantages. We compared the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in human and feline hematopoietic progenitors using second-generation HIV-1 and FIV-based vectors. Vector pairs were tested using either human cytomegalovirus or murine phospho-glycerate kinase (PGK) internal promoters and were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). Vector proviral copy numbers were similar in human and feline hematopoietic primary cells and cell lines transduced by HIV-1 or FIV vectors, demonstrating that both vectors are able to transfer genes efficiently to these cell types. HIV-1 vectors were well expressed in human primary hematopoietic cells and cell lines. However, transgene expression from FIV vectors was almost undetectable in human hematopoietic cells. In contrast, the FIV vector was expressed well in primary hematopoietic feline cells and human non-hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that low transgene expression from the FIV vector is a phenomenon specific to human hematopoietic cells. Northern blot analysis demonstrated decreased vector transcript levels in human CEM cells transduced with FIV relative to cells transduced with HIV-1, despite high vector copy numbers. No evidence of vector transcript instability was seen in studies of transduced CEM cells treated with actinomycin D. We conclude that FIV vectors can transfer genes into human hematopoietic cells as effectively as HIV-1 vectors, but that unknown elements in the current FIV backbone inhibit expression from FIV vectors in human hematopoietic cells.

  11. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. evaluar la efectividad y seguridad del uso de catéteres venosos centrales de segunda generación, impregnados en clorhexidina y sulfadiazina de plata, comparados con otros catéteres impregnados o no impregnados, para prevención de infección de la corriente sanguínea. revisión sistemática con metaanálisis. La búsqueda fue realizada en las bases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; fueron consultados anales de congresos y registros de ensayos clínicos. fueron identificados 1.235 estudios, 97 preseleccionados y cuatro incluidos. En la infección de la

  12. First-generation versus second-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation for treatment of cartilage defects of the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Salzmann, Gian; Feucht, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    membrane was utilized in second generation ACI. To date, however, no study has proven the superiority of this modification in terms of long-term clinical outcome. The purpose of this matched-pair analysis was therefore to compare the clinical long-term outcome of first and second generation ACI...... treated with first generation ACI. In both groups, four patients (17.4%) received surgical reintervention during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a collagen membrane in combination with autologous chondrocytes (second generation ACI) leads to superior clinical long-term outcome compared to first......PURPOSE: Since the introduction of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for the treatment of cartilage defects, the initial technique has undergone several modifications. Whereas an autologous periosteum flap was used for defect coverage in first generation ACI, a standardized collagen...

  13. Forest feedstocks : systems for recovery of residual biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, J. [FP Innovations, Vancouver, BC (Canada). FERIC Div.

    2007-07-01

    Interest in forest feedstock is growing due to high energy costs, the need for energy self-sufficiency and climate change issues. The Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) epidemic in British Columbia has also contributed to the growing interest in forest feedstock. This presentation discussed the potential for wood to be used for liquid fuels conversion, pellets and biorefineries. The extraction of energy from residue biomass was reviewed with reference to traditional sources such as hog fuel and black liquor, as well as new sources that consider the changing landscape. These include harvest residues, MPB-killed stands, burned stands, non-merchantable stands, and stumps. Early thinning and FireSmart treatments were outlined along with the value of purpose-grown energy plantations. The variety of available recovery methods and equipment was demonstrated, including whole-tree chippers; disc and drum chippers; grinders and shredders; overhead conveyor systems; blower attachments; and, wheel-mounted equipment. The performance of each method and equipment was reviewed along with challenges regarding the transportation of a low-value, low bulk-density material over long distances. Although residue bundlers have been developed, it was suggested that it may be more cost effective to convert the feedstock in the field using a mobile biorefinery, and then transport the denser fuel. It was shown that although a range of equipment is available, nothing has been designed specifically for full-tree residue. It was noted that coordination with conventional harvesting is desirable, but may not be possible in all cases. Lessons from studies have indicated that the distance from the mill is a major cost factor and that the debris should be prepared in advance to shipping. tabs., figs.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Resistance to First- and Second-Generation ALK Inhibitors in ALK-Rearranged Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainor, Justin F; Dardaei, Leila; Yoda, Satoshi; Friboulet, Luc; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Katayama, Ryohei; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Gadgeel, Shirish; Schultz, Katherine; Singh, Manrose; Chin, Emily; Parks, Melissa; Lee, Dana; DiCecca, Richard H; Lockerman, Elizabeth; Huynh, Tiffany; Logan, Jennifer; Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Le, Long P; Muniappan, Ashok; Digumarthy, Subba; Channick, Colleen; Keyes, Colleen; Getz, Gad; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Heist, Rebecca S; Lennerz, Jochen; Sequist, Lecia V; Benes, Cyril H; Iafrate, A John; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Shaw, Alice T

    2016-10-01

    Advanced, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung cancer is currently treated with the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib followed by more potent, second-generation ALK inhibitors (e.g., ceritinib and alectinib) upon progression. Second-generation inhibitors are generally effective even in the absence of crizotinib-resistant ALK mutations, likely reflecting incomplete inhibition of ALK by crizotinib in many cases. Herein, we analyzed 103 repeat biopsies from ALK-positive patients progressing on various ALK inhibitors. We find that each ALK inhibitor is associated with a distinct spectrum of ALK resistance mutations and that the frequency of one mutation, ALK(G1202R), increases significantly after treatment with second-generation agents. To investigate strategies to overcome resistance to second-generation ALK inhibitors, we examine the activity of the third-generation ALK inhibitor lorlatinib in a series of ceritinib-resistant, patient-derived cell lines, and observe that the presence of ALK resistance mutations is highly predictive for sensitivity to lorlatinib, whereas those cell lines without ALK mutations are resistant. Secondary ALK mutations are a common resistance mechanism to second-generation ALK inhibitors and predict for sensitivity to the third-generation ALK inhibitor lorlatinib. These findings highlight the importance of repeat biopsies and genotyping following disease progression on targeted therapies, particularly second-generation ALK inhibitors. Cancer Discov; 6(10); 1118-33. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Qiao and Lovly, p. 1084This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1069. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Wavelength Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Wolfson, David;

    1999-01-01

    at 2.5 Gbit/s, the regeneration causes a reduction of the required input power to an in-line EDFA of ~6 dB for a power penalty of 1 dB at a bit error rate of 10-9. If two converters are concatenated the power requirement is reduced ~8 dB. Obviously, the power reduction allows for longer spans between....... It is predicted that jitter accumulation can be minimised by using a 9-10 dB ratio between the signal and CW power also assuring a high extinction ratio. Using this guideline simulations show that 20 cross-gain modulation converters can be cascaded at 10 Gbit/s with only ~20 ps of accumulated jitter...... and an extinction ratio of ~10 dB.The regenerative capabilities of the cross-phase converters are described and verified experimentally at 20 Gbit/s, where the noise redistribution and improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio clearly is demonstrated by controlling the input power to an EDFA. In a similar experiment...

  16. Progress in the production of bioethanol on starch-based feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Savić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass, such as sugar, starch, or lignocellulosic materials, is one of the alternative energy resources, which is both renewable and environmentally friendly. Although, the priority in global future ethanol production is put on lignocellulosic processing, which is considered as one of the most promising second-generation biofuel technologies, the utilizetion of lignocellulosic material for fuel ethanol is still under improvement. Sugar- based (molasses, sugar cane, sugar beet and starch-based (corn, wheat, triticale, potato, rice, etc. feedstock are still currently predominant at the industrial level and they are, so far, economically favorable compared to lingocelluloses. Currently, approx. 80 % of total world ethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of simple sugars by yeast. In Serbia, one of the most suitable and available agricultural raw material for the industrial ethanol production are cereals such as corn, wheat and triticale. In addition, surpluses of this feedstock are being produced in our country constantly. In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in bioethanol production and biomass availability is given, pointing out the progress possibilities on starch-based production. The progress possibilities are discussed in the domain of feedstock choice and pretreatment, optimization of fermentation, process integration and utilization of the process byproducts.

  17. Second generation leptoquark search in pp¯ collisions at √s=1.8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Yu.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Galjaev, A. N.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C. S.; Gao, S.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Goncharov, P. I.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gu, W.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lanou, R. E.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mandrichenko, I. V.; Mangeot, Ph.; Mani, S.; Mansoulié, B.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Milder, A.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rusin, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Taketani, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Teiger, J.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.; Wang, L. Z.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wen, F.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, Y. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1995-11-01

    We report on a search for second generation scalar leptoquarks with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp¯ collider at √s=1.8TeV. This search is based on 12.7pb-1 of data. Second generation leptoquarks are assumed to be produced in pairs and to decay into a muon and quark with branching ratio β or into a neutrino and quark with branching ratio 1-β. We obtain cross section times branching ratio limits as a function of leptoquark mass and set lower limits on the leptoquark mass at the 95% confidence level.

  18. Genotoxic potential of diesel exhaust particles from the combustion of first- and second-generation biodiesel fuels-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Magdalena; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Brzoska, Kamil; Wojewodzka, Maria; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Kruszewski, Marcin; Lankoff, Anna

    2017-09-09

    Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from traffic emissions is associated with higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, accelerated progression of atherosclerotic plaques, and possible lung cancer. While the impact of DEPs from combustion of fossil diesel fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of DEPs from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its mutagenicity and genotoxicity, as well as possible adverse health risks. The objective of the present work was to compare the genotoxicity of DEPs from combustion of two first-generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a second-generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel) fuel. Our results revealed that particulate engine emissions from each type of biodiesel fuel induced genotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as the increased levels of single-strand breaks, the increased frequencies of micronuclei, or the deregulated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling pathways. We also found that none of the tested DEPs showed the induction of oxidative DNA damage and the gamma-H2AX-detectable double-strand breaks. The most pronounced differences concerning the tested particles were observed for the induction of single-strand breaks, with the greatest genotoxicity being associated with the B7-derived DEPs. The differences in other effects between DEPs from the different biodiesel blend percentage and biodiesel feedstock were also observed, but the magnitude of these variations was limited.

  19. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  20. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  1. Second-generation PFBC systems R and D. Monthly report, July 1--July 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.

    2000-08-01

    No work was performed on Phase 2; the two remaining Multi Annular Swirl Burner test campaigns are on hold pending selection of a new test facility (replacement for the shut down UTSI burner test facility) and identification of associated testing costs. Phase 3 of the Second-Generation PFB Combustion Plant conceptual design prepared in 1987 is being updated to reflect the benefit of pilot plant test data and the latest advances in gas turbine technology. The updated plant is being designed to operate with 95% sulfur capture and a single Siemens Westinghouse (SW) 501G gas turbine. Using carbonizer and gas turbine data generated by Foster Wheeler (FW) and SW respectively, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology prepared preliminary plant heat and material balances based on carbonizer operating temperatures of 1,700 and 1,800 F, the former yielded the higher plant efficiency and has been selected for the design update. The 501G gas turbine ha san air compressor discharge temperature of 811 F and an exhaust temperature of 1,140 F. Both of these streams represent high sources of heat and must be cooled, the air to 600 F to be compatible with a 650 F PCFB pressure vessel design temperature and the exhaust for a 275 F stack gas temperature. Because of their relatively high temperature, they can be used for feed water heating, steam generation and/or steam superheating and reheating. As a result, the plant could have one boiler (the PCFB boiler), or as many as three boilers if their cooling is used to generate steam. Three different plant arrangements using one, two and then three boilers were considered with the three-boiler arrangement minimizing the feedwater flow/steam turbine size and maximizing the plant efficiency. After reviewing the three arrangements it was felt the operating complexity associated with a three-boiler plant did not justify the 1/2 point increase in plant efficiency it provided and a two-boiler plant was selected.

  2. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers high impact, policy relevant ecosystem services at a Continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) with willow, poplar, eucalyptus and other broadleaf species and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on above named ecosystem services, impact on food security, land management practices and impacts from climate change. We will present results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and

  3. Running On-Demand Strong Ground Motion Simulations with the Second-Generation Broadband Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Somerville, P. G.; Collins, N.; Olsen, K. B.; Imperatori, W.; Jones, M.; Archuleta, R. J.; Schmedes, J.; Jordan, T. H.; Broadband Platform Working Group

    2010-12-01

    We have developed the second-generation Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform by integrating scientific modeling codes into a system capable of computing broadband seismograms (0-10 Hz) for historical and scenario earthquakes in California. The SCEC Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) software development group. SCEC scientific groups have contributed software modules to the Broadband Platform including rupture generation, low-frequency deterministic seismogram synthesis, high-frequency stochastic seismogram synthesis, and non-linear site effects. These complex scientific codes have been integrated into a system that supports easy on-demand computation of broadband seismograms. The SCEC Broadband Platform is designed to be used by both scientific and engineering researchers familiar with ground motion simulations. Users may calculate broadband seismograms for both historical earthquakes (validation events including Northridge, Loma Prieta, and Landers) and user-defined earthquakes. Users may select among various codebases for rupture generation, low-frequency synthesis, high-frequency synthesis, and incorporation of site effects, with the option of running a goodness-of-fit comparison against observed or simulated seismograms. The platform produces a variety of data products, including broadband seismograms, rupture visualizations, and goodness-of-fit plots. The Broadband Platform was implemented using software development best practices that support software accuracy, reliability, and ease of use, including version control, user documentation, acceptance tests, and formal software releases. Users can install the platform on their own machine, verify that it is installed correctly, and run their own simulations on demand. The Broadband Platform enables users to run complex ground motion modeling codes without

  4. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Montemagni,1,2 Tiziana Frieri,1,2 Paola Rocca1,2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Psychiatry, University of Turin, 2Department of Mental Health, Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL Torino 1 (TO1, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy Abstract: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL. Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other

  5. Tardive Dyskinesia Prevalence in the Period of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Maren; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsi; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-03-01

    Comparison of tardive dyskinesia (TD) prevalence during contemporaneous treatment with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and/or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). PubMed/MEDLINE/Google Scholar search (January 1, 2000-September 30, 2015) without language restriction using (tardive dyskinesia OR tardive) AND (antipsychotic*) plus specific names of SGAs. Of 8,895 hits, we screened 203 full-text articles for cross-sectional, rating scale-based TD rates during SGA, FGA, or FGA+SGA treatment. Forty-one studies were used for random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Two authors independently extracted data on overall and antipsychotic class-wise TD rates and on TD moderators. The global mean TD prevalence was 25.3% (95% CI = 22.7%-28.1%) across all 41 studies (N = 11,493, mean age = 42.8 years, male = 66.4%, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders = 77.1%). TD prevalence varied greatly: Rates were lower with current SGA treatment (20.7%; 95% CI = 16.6%-25.4%, N = 5,103) vs current FGA treatment (30.0%; 95% CI = 26.4%-33.8%, N = 5,062; Q = 9.17, P = .002). This difference remained significant after controlling for moderators: higher age (Z = 2.85, P = .004; number of studies = 39 ) and region (39 studies; Asia vs Europe, Z = 1.55, P = .12; Asia lower than United States, Z = 2.6, P = .009; Asia lower than other regions, Z = 2.42, P = .015). Additional moderators of TD prevalence included longer illness duration (R² = 0.15; P = .03; 21 studies) and frequency of parkinsonism (R² = 0.23, P = .017; number of studies = 19). Particularly low TD prevalence (7.2%; number of studies = 4) was found in the treatment arms with FGA-naive subjects relative to SGA-treated cohorts with likely prior FGA exposure (23.4%; P Z = -2.55, P = .011) and FGA + SGA vs FGAs (risk ratio = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.71-0.90, Z = -3.56, P < .001). Reports on TD severity, provided by 10 studies, were of insufficient quality for meta-analysis. Rating scale-based TD remains highly prevalent, with

  6. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMICS OF A NOMINAL 500 MWe SECOND-GENERATION PFB COMBUSTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; H. Goldstein; D. Horazak; R. Newby

    2003-09-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48 percent, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a gas turbine combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design and an economic analysis was previously prepared for this plant. When operating with a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine, a 2400psig/1000 F/1000 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine, and projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data, the plant generated 496 MWe of power with an efficiency of 44.9 percent (coal higher heating value basis) and a cost of electricity 22 percent less than a comparable PC plant. The key components of this new type of plant have been successfully tested at the pilot plant stage and their performance has been found to be better than previously assumed. As a result, the referenced conceptual design has been updated herein to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine. The use of this advanced gas turbine, together with a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine increases the plant efficiency to 48.2 percent and yields a total plant cost of $1,079/KW (January 2002 dollars). The cost of electricity is 40.7 mills/kWh, a value 12 percent less than a comparable PC plant.

  7. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.

  8. Large scale single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in unsequenced genomes using second generation high throughput sequencing technology: applied to turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, H.H.D.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Veenendaal, A.; Dibbits, B.W.; Chin-A-Woeng, T.F.C.; Dunnen, den J.T.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - The development of second generation sequencing methods has enabled large scale DNA variation studies at moderate cost. For the high throughput discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in species lacking a sequenced reference genome, we set-up an analysis pipeline based on a

  9. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…

  10. Mis/Representations of Asian/Americans in the Curricula: Perspectives from Second-Generation Japanese American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores how six second-generation Japanese American youth recalled learning about cultural diversity at their high schools, particularly information that was intended to represent their identities as ethnic and racial minorities. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate how the participants made sense of curricular…

  11. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…

  12. The position of the Turkish and Moroccan second generation in Amsterdam and Rotterdam: The TIES study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.; Heering, L.

    2008-01-01

    This first publication of the TIES Project (Towards the Integration of the European Second Generation) examines the social stratification and views of the second Dutch generation of Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands. Drawing on research carried out in 2006-7 the Dutch-born

  13. Phrenic nerve paralysis during cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation: a comparison between the first- and second-generation balloon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Arroyo, R.; Chierchia, G.B.; Conte, G.; Levinstein, M.; Sieira, J.; Rodriguez-Manero, M.; Giovanni, G.; Baltogiannis, Y.; Wauters, K.; Asmundis, C. de; Sarkozy, A.; Brugada, P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phrenic nerve palsy (PNP) is the most frequently observed complication during cryoballoon ablation (CB; Arctic Front, Medtronic, MN) occurring in roughly 7%-9% of the cases. The new second-generation cryoballoon ablation Arctic Front Advance (CB-A) (Arctic Front) has recently been launch

  14. Risk Taking in First and Second Generation Afro-Caribbean Adolescents: An Emerging Challenge for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Kim; Archibald, Cynthia; Liehr, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    School nurses are well positioned to address risk-taking behaviors for adolescents in their care. The purpose of this mixed-method exploratory study was to explore risk taking in Afro-Caribbean adolescents in South Florida, comparing first- to second-generation adolescents. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an immigrant group…

  15. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  16. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks, fi

  17. First- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes: predictors of choice and effects on urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Kimber, Catherine; Puwanesarasa, Yasothani; Soar, Kirstie

    2015-04-01

    To (1) estimate predictors of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) choice; and (2) determine whether a second-generation device was (i) superior for reducing urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms (WS) and (ii) associated with enhanced positive subjective effects. Mixed-effects experimental design. Phase 1: reason for e-cigarette choice was assessed via questionnaire. Phase 2: participants were allocated randomly to first- or second-generation e-cigarette condition. Urge to smoke and WS were measured before and 10 minutes after taking 10 e-cigarette puffs. University of East London, UK. A total of 97 smokers (mean age 26; standard deviation 8.7; 54% female). Single-item urge to smoke scale to assess craving and the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale (MPSS) to assess WS. Subjective effects included: satisfaction, hit, 'felt like smoking' and 'would use to stop smoking' (yes versus no response). Equal numbers chose each device, but none of the predictor variables (gender, age, tobacco dependence, previous e-cigarette use) accounted for choice. Only baseline urge to smoke/WS predicted urge to smoke/WS 10 minutes after use (B =0.38; P appear to be similarly effective in reducing urges to smoke during abstinence, but second-generation devices appear to be more satisfying to users. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marina O S; da Cunha, Marcelo Pereira; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore, the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol production process, may be used as fuels, increasing the amount of surplus bagasse. In this work, simulations of the integrated bioethanol production process from sugarcane, surplus bagasse and trash were carried out. Selected pre-treatment methods followed, or not, by a delignification step were evaluated. The amount of lignocellulosic materials available for hydrolysis in each configuration was calculated assuming that 50% of sugarcane trash is recovered from the field. An economic risk analysis was carried out; the best results for the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process were obtained for steam explosion pretreatment, high solids loading for hydrolysis and 24-48 h hydrolysis. The second generation ethanol production process must be improved (e.g., decreasing required investment, improving yields and developing pentose fermentation to ethanol) in order for the integrated process to be more economically competitive.

  19. Efficiency of including first-generation information in second-generation ranking and selection: results of computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.Z. Ye; K.J.S. Jayawickrama; G.R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Using computer simulation, we evaluated the impact of using first-generation information to increase selection efficiency in a second-generation breeding program. Selection efficiency was compared in terms of increase in rank correlation between estimated and true breeding values (i.e., ranking accuracy), reduction in coefficient of variation of correlation...

  20. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  1. Economic feasibility of second generation ethanol with and without indirect greenhouse gas reduction benefits : a simulation for Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagares Tavora, F.; Bakker, R.R.; Stojanovic, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of second generation ethanol from sugar cane, whereby traditional ethanol production is combined with the use of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. By applying cost-benefit analysis, this study evaluated the viability of the

  2. Is Social Mobility Spatial? Characteristics of Immigrant Metros and Second Generation Outcomes: 1940–1970 and 1970–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-White, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Research on immigrant and second generation outcomes has often examined their locations, following ideas that geographic dispersion facilitates social mobility, and that characteristics of the ethnic environment enable or constrain progress. I contend that second generation socioeconomic outcomes depend in part on the location choices and characteristics of a previous immigrant generation. Further, I suggest that this relationship reflects the changing geography of immigrants and labour markets, rather than geographically unfolding assimilation. Using the 1940, 1970, and 2000 Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files from the US Census, I regress second and 1.5 generation wage and educational outcomes in 1970 and 2000 on metro-area characteristics of a previous generation (1940 and 1970, respectively). Current labour market and second generation characteristics are included as controls and to facilitate interpretation. Characteristics of a previous immigrant generation’s location were more important for second generation outcomes in the 1940–1970 period, while current place characteristics become more significant by 2000. There is evidence of selection operating through the positive intergenerational effects of places where immigrants’ educational levels were high a generation ago. Metro-level immigrant concentration and manufacturing employment also have generally positive effects, although variations across generations and by nationality suggest their significance for social mobility is inadequately understood. The historical immigrant geographies of the US, and the ways in which metro labour market conditions intersect with immigrants’ locational choices, both within and between generations, are thus a critical piece of the economic and spatial assimilation puzzle.

  3. Substance Use Disorders Among First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Adults in the United States: Evidence of an Immigrant Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Clark, Trenette T; Terzis, Lauren D; Córdova, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of studies have examined the “immigrant paradox” with respect to the use of licit and illicit substances in the United States. However, there remains a need for a comprehensive examination of the multigenerational and global links between immigration and substance use disorders among adults in the United States. Method: The present study, using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, aimed to address these gaps by comparing the prevalence of substance use disorders of first-generation (n = 3,338) and second-generation (n = 2,515) immigrants with native-born American adults (n = 15,733) in the United States. We also examined the prevalence of substance use disorders among first-generation emigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America in contrast to second-generation and native-born Americans. Results: The prevalence of substance use disorders was highest among native-born Americans, slightly lower among second-generation immigrants, and markedly lower among first-generation immigrants. Adjusted risk ratios were largest among individuals who immigrated during adolescence (ages 12–17 years) and adulthood (age 18 years or older). Results were consistent among emigrants from major world regions. Conclusions: Consistent with a broad body of literature examining the links between the immigrant paradox and health outcomes, results suggest that nativity and age at arrival are significant factors related to substance use disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants in the United States. PMID:25343653

  4. Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Drug-Naive Adolescents After 12 Months of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjo, Christina Power; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Bojesen, Anders Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental illness is often accompanied by poor physical health and shorter life expectancy. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are suspected of increasing cardiovascular risk, possibly through development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the risk of adverse outcome is even higher...

  5. Overweight and obesity in young Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese migrants of the second generation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dijkshoorn; M. Nicolaou; J.K. Ujcic-Voortman; G.M. Schouten; A.J. Bouwman-Notenboom; M.P.H. Berns; A.P. Verhoeff

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in overweight and obesity of second-generation Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese migrants v. first-generation migrants and the ethnic Dutch. We also studied the influence of sociodemographic factors on this association. Design: Data were collected in 2008 in a cross-

  6. German-American Bilingualism: Cui Malo? Mother Tongue and Socioeconomic Status among the Second Generation in 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphoefner, Walter D.

    1994-01-01

    Utilizes language data from the 1940 Census Public Law Sample to measure the socioeconomic impact of a foreign mother tongue by comparing second-generation Germans who grew up speaking German and English, respectively. Results show that the disadvantages of a foreign mother tongue proved to be negligible for this group. (GR)

  7. Empirical features of the second-generation target zone models : Mean-reverting fundamentals and endogenous devaluation risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knot, K.H.W.; Dijkstra, T.K.; de Haan, J.

    1999-01-01

    We show that within Bertola and Svensson's second-generation target zone model, mean-reverting interventions and endogenous devaluation risk are closely interrelated. Over the period 1983-93 we analyze the degree of mean reversion in the underlying fundamental process as well as the term structure o

  8. Biocatalysis for the application of CO2 as a chemical feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Alissandratos; Easton, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalysts, capable of efficiently transforming CO2 into other more reduced forms of carbon, offer sustainable alternatives to current oxidative technologies that rely on diminishing natural fossil-fuel deposits. Enzymes that catalyse CO2 fixation steps in carbon assimilation pathways are promising catalysts for the sustainable transformation of this safe and renewable feedstock into central metabolites. These may be further converted into a wide range of fuels and commodity chemicals, thro...

  9. A second-generation Bacillus cell factory for rare inositol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosei; Takanaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Some rare inositol stereoisomers are known to exert specific health-promoting effects, including scyllo-inositol (SI), which is a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer disease. We recently reported a Bacillus subtilis cell factory that performed the efficient production of SI from the cheapest and most abundant isomer myo-inositol (MI). In the cell factory all “useless” genes involved in MI and SI metabolism were deleted and overexpression of the key enzymes, IolG and IolW, was appended. It converted 10 g/L MI into the same amount of SI in 48 h of cultivation. In this addendum, we discuss further improvement in the cell factory and its possible applications. PMID:25482235

  10. A second-generation Bacillus cell factory for rare inositol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosei; Takanaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Some rare inositol stereoisomers are known to exert specific health-promoting effects, including scyllo-inositol (SI), which is a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer disease. We recently reported a Bacillus subtilis cell factory that performed the efficient production of SI from the cheapest and most abundant isomer myo-inositol (MI). In the cell factory all "useless" genes involved in MI and SI metabolism were deleted and overexpression of the key enzymes, IolG and IolW, was appended. It converted 10 g/L MI into the same amount of SI in 48 h of cultivation. In this addendum, we discuss further improvement in the cell factory and its possible applications.

  11. MAKER2: an annotation pipeline and genome-database management tool for second-generation genome projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Carson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-generation sequencing technologies are precipitating major shifts with regards to what kinds of genomes are being sequenced and how they are annotated. While the first generation of genome projects focused on well-studied model organisms, many of today's projects involve exotic organisms whose genomes are largely terra incognita. This complicates their annotation, because unlike first-generation projects, there are no pre-existing 'gold-standard' gene-models with which to train gene-finders. Improvements in genome assembly and the wide availability of mRNA-seq data are also creating opportunities to update and re-annotate previously published genome annotations. Today's genome projects are thus in need of new genome annotation tools that can meet the challenges and opportunities presented by second-generation sequencing technologies. Results We present MAKER2, a genome annotation and data management tool designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 is a multi-threaded, parallelized application that can process second-generation datasets of virtually any size. We show that MAKER2 can produce accurate annotations for novel genomes where training-data are limited, of low quality or even non-existent. MAKER2 also provides an easy means to use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality; and it can use these data to update legacy annotations, significantly improving their quality. We also show that MAKER2 can evaluate the quality of genome annotations, and identify and prioritize problematic annotations for manual review. Conclusions MAKER2 is the first annotation engine specifically designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 scales to datasets of any size, requires little in the way of training data, and can use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality. It can also update and manage legacy genome annotation datasets.

  12. MAKER2: an annotation pipeline and genome-database management tool for second-generation genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark

    2011-12-22

    Second-generation sequencing technologies are precipitating major shifts with regards to what kinds of genomes are being sequenced and how they are annotated. While the first generation of genome projects focused on well-studied model organisms, many of today's projects involve exotic organisms whose genomes are largely terra incognita. This complicates their annotation, because unlike first-generation projects, there are no pre-existing 'gold-standard' gene-models with which to train gene-finders. Improvements in genome assembly and the wide availability of mRNA-seq data are also creating opportunities to update and re-annotate previously published genome annotations. Today's genome projects are thus in need of new genome annotation tools that can meet the challenges and opportunities presented by second-generation sequencing technologies. We present MAKER2, a genome annotation and data management tool designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 is a multi-threaded, parallelized application that can process second-generation datasets of virtually any size. We show that MAKER2 can produce accurate annotations for novel genomes where training-data are limited, of low quality or even non-existent. MAKER2 also provides an easy means to use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality; and it can use these data to update legacy annotations, significantly improving their quality. We also show that MAKER2 can evaluate the quality of genome annotations, and identify and prioritize problematic annotations for manual review. MAKER2 is the first annotation engine specifically designed for second-generation genome projects. MAKER2 scales to datasets of any size, requires little in the way of training data, and can use mRNA-seq data to improve annotation quality. It can also update and manage legacy genome annotation datasets.

  13. Second Generation PFBC Systems R&D - Phase 2 and Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson

    1999-10-25

    When DOE funds were exhausted in March 1995, all Phase 2 activities were placed on hold. In February 1996 a detailed cost estimate was submitted to the DOE for completing the two remaining Phase 2 Multi Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) topping combustor test campaigns; in August 1996 release was received from FETC to proceed with the two campaigns to: (1) test the MASB at proposed demonstration plant full to minimum load operating conditions; (2) identify the lower oxygen limit of the MASB; (3) demonstrate natural gas to carbonizer fuel gas switching; and (4) demonstrate operation with ''low temperature'' compressor discharge air rather than high temperature ({approx} 1600 F) vitiated air. The 18 in. MASB was last tested at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in a high-oxygen configuration and must be redesigned/modified for low oxygen operation. A second-generation PFB combustion plant incorporating an MASB based topping combustor has been proposed for construction at the City of Lakeland's McIntosh Power Plant under the U.S. DOE Clean Coal V Demonstration Plant Program. This plant will require the MASB to operate at oxygen levels that are lower than those previously tested. Preliminary calculations aimed at defining the operating envelope of the demonstration plant MASB have been completed. The previous MASB tests have been performed at UTSI in a facility constructed to support the development of MHD power generation. Because of a loss of MHD funding, the UTSI facility closed October 1998. On February 2, 1999, Siemens Westinghouse proposed a 12-week study that would identify the cost of modifying the MASB for Lakeland low oxygen operation conditions and conducting tests 3 and 4 above at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). On February 22, 1999, Siemens Westinghouse was given release to proceed with this study and results/recommendations were received on April 22, 1999. Siemens Westinghouse recommended a two

  14. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency N0x Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter, M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-12-31

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO{sub x} control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO{sub x} control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO{sub x} control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO{sub x} control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO{sub x} levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO{sub x} control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO{sub x} control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each

  15. Study on the academic future of second-generation immigrants in Setubal and Faro (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Llorent

    2015-05-01

    research we gather information from all the Luso-African secondary schools in two cities with the largest number of Portuguese immigrants (Setúbal and Faro. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire developed, aimed at the students of Portuguese-speaking Africa and was divided into seven major groups of scales: characteristics of parents, school career, self-motivation to continue studying, professional expectations about the future, characterization and evaluation of the school setting, and characterization of expectations after secondary school. The extracted data includes social, familial, economic, educational and school children of immigrants, called second-generation immigrants or Luso-Africans. Thus, we find relations between their prospects and their social and family situation variables that influence school and their school and their social integration. After interpretation and analysis of extracted data, we conclude that the most influential factor in expectations, with the Luso-African students who complete their secondary school studies, is the interest of the parents regarding the formation of the children.

  16. An integral analysis for second generation bioethanol production via a dynamic model-based simulation approach: stochastic nonlinear optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    -effectiveness. The objective of this study is to perform an integral analysis for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock using a rigorous dynamic modelling approach for the whole process. The bioethanol production includes different sections such as, pre-treatment of the substrate, enzymatic hydrolysis...

  17. Wastepaper as a feedstock for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Riley, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using wastepaper as a cheap feedstock for production of ethanol is discussed. As the single largest material category in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, wastepaper is the main target of efforts to reduce the volume of MSW. And in the process for producing ethanol from lignocellulosics, the feedstock represents the highest cost. If wastepaper could be obtained cheaply in large enough quantities and if conversion process cost and efficiency prove to be similar to those for wood, the cost of ethanol could be significantly reduced. At the same time, the volume of wastepaper that must be disposed of in landfills could be lessened. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  19. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  20. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  1. Optimization pretreatment condition of sweet sorghum bagasse for production of second generation bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiyani, Yanni; Waluyo, Joko; Triwahyuni, Eka; Burhani, Dian; Muryanto, Primandaru, Prasetyo; Riandy, Andika Putra; Sumardi, Novia

    2017-01-01

    The bagasse residue of Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) consist of cellulose 39.48%; hemicellulose 16.56% and lignin 24.77% that can be converted to ethanol. Pretreatment is of great importance to ethanol yield. In this study, pretreatment process was conducted in a 5-liter reactor using NaOH 10% at various temperature 110, 130, 150°C and reaction time 10, 20, 30 minutes and optimizing severity parameter (log R0 between 1.3 - 2.9). The statistical analysis using two way anova showed that third variations of temperature give different effects significant on lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content at 95% the confidence level. The optimum pretreatment of bagasse sorghum were obtained with Log R0 value between 2.4-2.9. High severity value in pretreatment condition reduce lignin almost 84-86%, maximum reducing lignin content was 86% obtained at temperature 150°C for 20 minutes reaction time and cellulose increased almost two times the initial content.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  4. Economic injury level for second-generation cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in two-year-old Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ying; Pedigo, Larry P; Colletti, Joe P; Hart, Elwood R

    2002-04-01

    The cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., is a major defoliating pest of Populus in North America. As the use of Populus in short-rotation woody crop plantations continues to increase, there are increasing economic and environmental needs to develop rational pest management programs to reduce the impact of this insect. Our objective was to determine the economic injury levels for the second generation of the cottonwood leaf beetle during plantation establishment. Integrating the cost of the management, market value, insect injury, and host response to the injury, the economic injury levels for second generation cottonwood leaf beetle on 2-yr-old Populus were determined to be from 0.2 to 0.9 egg masses per actively growing terminal.

  5. New treatment options for HIV salvage patients: an overview of second generation PIs, NNRTIs, integrase inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amelia; Barber, Tristan; Nelson, Mark

    2008-07-01

    Since 1996, the prognosis of those living with HIV and AIDS has improved significantly due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Treatment failure can occur clinically, immunologically or virologically. Until recently, treatment options for those individuals harboring resistance to the three initial licensed classes of drug have been limited. These three classes are the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). New drugs are now available in these classes (second generation NNRTIs and novel PIs) as well as new classes of drugs, integrase inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists and fusion inhibitors. If these new drugs are used appropriately with other active antiretroviral agents, it is probable that antiretroviral therapy can achieve the optimum outcome of HIV therapy - durable suppression of HIV viraemia. This article is a review of currently available antiretroviral agents including the new classes and second generation drugs, resistance pathways and treatment options for salvage therapy.

  6. Halophytes Energy Feedstocks: Back to Our Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Of the Earth s landmass, approx.43% is arid or semi-arid, and 97% of the Earth s water is seawater. Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants (micro and macro) that can prosper in seawater or brackish waters and are common feedstocks for fuel and food (fuel-food feedstocks) in depressed countries. Two types, broadly classed as coastal and desert, can be found in marshes, coastal planes, inland lakes, and deserts. Major arid or semi-arid halophyte agriculture problems include pumping and draining the required high volumes of irrigation water from sea or ocean sources. Also, not all arid or semi-arid lands are suitable for crops. Benefits of halophyte agriculture include freeing up arable land and freshwater resources, cleansing the environment, decontaminating soils, desalinating brackish waters, and carbon sequestration. Sea and ocean halophyte agriculture problems include storms, transport, and diffuse harvesting. Benefits include available nutrients, ample water, and Sun. Careful attention to details and use of saline agriculture fuel feedstocks are required to prevent anthropogenic disasters. It is shown that the potential for fuel-food feedstock halophyte production is high; based on test plot data, it could supply 421.4 Quad, or 94% of the 2004 world energy consumption and sequester carbon, with major impact on the Triangle of Conflicts.

  7. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  8. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of pla

  9. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  10. Return migration in Western Europe: current policy trends and their implications, in particular for the second generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entzinger, H

    1985-06-01

    Return migration in Western Europe is examined, with a focus on government policy trends and their implications. The need for international cooperation between sending and receiving countries is emphasized. The effects of migration policies on migrants now and in the future are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the questions posed by the expressed desire of a significant percentage of second-generation migrants to return to the countries of their parents' origin. (summary in FRE, SPA)

  11. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development. PMID:25298617

  12. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized ove...

  13. Association of first- and second-generation air bags with front occupant death in car crashes: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carin M; Cummings, Peter; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-07-15

    First-generation air bags entail a decreased risk of death for most front seat occupants in car crashes but an increased risk for children. Second-generation air bags were developed to reduce the risks for children, despite the possibility of decreasing protection for others. Using a matched cohort design, the authors estimated risk ratios for death for use of each generation of air bag versus no air bag, adjusted for seat position, restraint use, sex, age, and all vehicle and crash characteristics, among 128,208 automobile occupants involved in fatal crashes on US roadways during 1990-2002. The authors then compared adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) between the two generations of air bags. Among front seat occupants, the aRR for death with a first-generation air bag was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94); the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.00) (p = 0.83 for comparison of aRRs). Among children under age 6 years, the aRR with a first-generation air bag was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.30), while the aRR with a second-generation air bag was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.93) (p = 0.20 for comparison of aRRs). The differences in aRRs between first- and second-generation air bags among other subgroups were small and not statistically significant.

  14. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Bilastine, a Second-Generation Antihistamine, in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Togawa, Michinori; Yamaya, Hidetoshi; Rodríguez, Mónica; Nagashima, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Bilastine is a novel second-generation antihistamine for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of bilastine following single and multiple oral doses in healthy Japanese subjects. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were compared with those reported in Caucasian subjects. Methods In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pa...

  15. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  16. Field applications of the second-generation Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) for remote detection of harmful algae: 2006-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Dianne I.; Marin III, Roman; Doucette, Gregory J.; Mikulski, Christina; Jones, Kelly; Jensen, Scott; Roman, Brent; Alvarado, Nilo; Feldman, Jason; Scholin, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We assess the application of the second-generation Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) for the detection of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in field and laboratory settings using two molecular probe techniques: a sandwich hybridization assay (SHA) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). During spring 2006, the first time this new instrument was deployed, the ESP successfully automated application of DNA probe arrays for various HAB species and other planktonic taxa, but non-specific ...

  17. Effect of second-generation antiepileptic drugs on diplopia: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haiyan; Qu, Wensheng; Kang, Huicong; Hu, Xiaoqing; Zhen, Guohua; Zhu, Suiqiang; Xue, Zheng

    2012-08-01

    Different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may cause similar adverse effects, one of which is diplopia. However, the AEDs causing diplopia and the dose-response effect of each drug remains uncertain. In this study, we compared several second-generation AEDs to find out whether they would contribute to the risk of diplopia and their effect-causing dose. A meta-analysis was performed on 19 studies in agreement with our inclusion criteria. The results showed that eight commonly used second-generation AEDs (gabapentin, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, pregabalin, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide) could cause diplopia. The reported odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.406 to 7.996. Ranking risks from the highest to the lowest ORs of the eight AEDs of any dose resulted in the following order: use of oxcarbazepine (7.996), levetiracetam (7.472), lamotrigine (5.258), vigabatrin (3.562), pregabalin (3.048), topiramate (2.660), gabapentin (1.966), zonisamide (1.406). Taking into account the ORs above, we can conclude that second-generation AEDs of any dose may cause diplopia. However, the levetiracetam-caused diplopia needs to be further studied according to the data (OR, 7.472; 95% confidence interval, 0.375-148.772). These findings ask for better concerns about patients' quality of life when giving antiepileptic treatments.

  18. Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework: a guide to developing and implementing second-generation mobile applications for behavioral health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Jennifer; Staplefoote-Boynton, B Lynette; Martinez, Angel; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Meeker, Daniella; Scharf, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Advances in mobile technology and mobile applications (apps) have opened up an exciting new frontier for behavioral health researchers, with a "second generation" of apps allowing for the simultaneous collection of multiple streams of data in real time. With this comes a host of technical decisions and ethical considerations unique to this evolving approach to research. Drawing on our experience developing a second-generation app for the simultaneous collection of text message, voice, and self-report data, we provide a framework for researchers interested in developing and using second-generation mobile apps to study health behaviors. Our Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework breaks the app development process into four phases: (1) information and resource gathering, (2) software and hardware decisions, (3) software development and testing, and (4) study start-up and implementation. At each phase, we address common challenges and ethical issues and make suggestions for effective and efficient app development. Our goal is to help researchers effectively balance priorities related to the function of the app with the realities of app development, human subjects issues, and project resource constraints.

  19. Effectiveness of insecticides in controlling the first and second generations of the Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-04-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of table and wine grape (Vitis spp.) varieties in Cyprus. Many different insecticide combinations were applied for three consecutive years (2006-2008) in a Sultana seedless table grape vineyard, aimed at controlling the first and second generations of this pest under warm and dry Mediterranean climatic conditions. In Cyprus, Sultana is the main early maturing table grape variety grown in the country. L. botrana has two generations and a partial third on this export variety, of which the first two generations are the most destructive. Applications were made according to pheromone trap captures of males. One application was used against the first and two applications against the second generation of L. botrana. A high rate of bunch damage was observed in the untreated rows during all years, reaching 56.7, 62.5, and 69.2% in 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Differences between insecticide treatments and the untreated control were statistically significant. The treatment combination of lufenuron, spinosad, and indoxacarb as well as the combination of chlorpyrifos, spinosa and indoxacarb, used against the first and second generations of L. botrana, were the most effective compared with the untreated control. Satisfactory control of the pest also was observed with other combinations such as lufenuron, cypermethrin, and Bacillus thuringiensis; chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and B. thuringiensis; and lufenuron, deltamethrin, and azadirachtin.

  20. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azekawa T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takaharu Azekawa, Shizuko Ohashi, Akira ItamiShioiri Mental Clinic, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, JapanBackground: Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting.Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936 who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703 diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic.Results: Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant.Conclusion: Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Keywords: retrospective study, second-generation antipsychotics, effectiveness, treatment continuation, schizophrenia, aripiprazole

  1. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  2. Supply Deficit of Feedstock Oils for Carbon Black

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bingyan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Feedstock oils used for carbon blackproduction mainly include ethylene tar,anthracene oil and coal tar. With thegrowing output of carbon black in re-cent years, demand for feedstock oilshas increased constantly.

  3. Second Generation Wavelet Applied to Lossless Compression Coding of Image%第二代小波应用于图象的无损压缩编码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the second generation wavelet transform is applied to image lossless coding, according to its characteristic of reversible integer wavelet transform. The second generation wavelet transform can provide higher compression ratio than Huffman coding while it reconstructs image without loss compared with the first generation wavelet transform. The experimental results show that the second generation wavelet transform can obtain excellent performance in medical image compression coding.

  4. Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks for Producing Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    Vision2020 and ITP directed the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project to identify industrial options and to determine the work required to make alternative, renewable and novel feedstock options attractive to the U.S. chemicals industry. This report presents the Alternative, Renewable and Novel Feedstocks project findings which were based on a technology review and industry workshop.

  5. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  6. Thoughts on Optimization of Aromatic Feedstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jian

    2002-01-01

    This article refers to four cases of process unit combinations with different throughputs of aromatics unit for production of 450 kt/a paraxylene at a certain petrochemical complex in order to against a representative case (provided with an 800-kt/a CCR unit and a 600-kt/a disproportionation unit) and the feasibility and advantage of using prolysis gasoline as aromatic feedstock is studied.

  7. Early results of first versus second generation Amplatzer occluders for left atrial appendage closure in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloekler, Steffen; Shakir, Samera; Doblies, Janosch; Khattab, Ahmed A; Praz, Fabien; Guerios, Ênio; Koermendy, Dezsoe; Stortecky, Stefan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Buellesfeld, Lutz; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Moschovitis, Aris; Jaguszewski, Milosz; Landmesser, Ulf; Nietlispach, Fabian; Meier, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    Transcatheter left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion has been proven to be an effective treatment for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. For this purpose, the Amplatzer cardiac plug (ACP) was introduced. Its second generation, the Amulet, was developed for easier delivery, better coverage, and reduction of complications. To investigate the safety and efficacy of first generation versus second generation Amplatzer occluders for LAA occlusion. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the LAA occlusion registries of the Bern and Zurich university hospitals. Comparison of the last consecutive 50 ACP cases versus the first consecutive 50 Amulet cases in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. For safety, a periprocedural combined endpoint, which is composed of death, stroke, cardiac tamponade, and bailout by surgery was predefined. For efficacy, the endpoint was procedural success. There were no differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics. The percentage of associated interventions during LAA occlusion was high in (78% with ACP vs. 70% with Amulet p = ns). Procedural success was similar in both groups (98 vs. 94%, p = 0.61). The combined safety endpoint for severe adverse events was reached by a similar rate of patients in both groups (6 vs. 8%, p = 0.7). Overall complication rate was insignificantly higher in the ACP group, which was mainly driven by clinically irrelevant pericardial effusions (24 vs. 14%, p = 0.31). Death, stroke, or tamponade were similar between the groups (0 vs. 2%, 0 vs. 0%, or 6 vs. 6%, p = ns). Transcatheter LAA occlusion for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation can be performed with similarly high success rates with first and second generations of Amplatzer occluders. According to this early experience, the Amulet has failed to improve results of LAA occlusion. The risk for major procedural adverse events is acceptable but has to be taken into account when

  8. Screening of natural yeast isolates under the effects of stresses associated with second-generation biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Rajni; Jakeer, Shaik; Gaur, Naseem A

    2016-05-01

    Robust microorganisms are required for sustainable second-generation biofuel production. We evaluated the growth and fermentation performance of six natural isolates that were derived from grape wine and medicinal herbs using a wide range of carbon sources, rice and wheat straw hydrolysates as well as stress conditions associated with second-generation ethanol production. Sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and species-specific PCR amplification of the HO gene region assigned the natural isolates to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial DNA revealed that natural yeast isolates are genetically closer to the laboratory strain BY4741 than to the CEN.PK strains. Dextrose fermentation by a natural isolate, MTCC4780, under semi-anaerobic conditions produced maximum ethanol yields of 0.44 g/g and 0.39 g/g, respectively, with and without the stresses encountered during lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation. However, MTCC4780 produced ethanol yields of 0.48 g/g, 0.42 g/g and 0.45 g/g, respectively, with glucose, rice and wheat straw enzymatic hydrolysate fermentation in a bioreactor. The isolates MTCC4781 and MTCC4796 showed higher growth and fermentation performance than did MTCC4780 in the presence of elevated temperature and pre-treatment inhibitors. Taken together, the MTCC4780, MTCC4781 and MTCC4796 strains have the potential to serve as a platform for lignocellulosic ethanol production under stresses associated with second-generation biofuel production.

  9. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  10. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauerman, V. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The best types of refineries for processing western Canadian bitumen-based feedstock (BBF) were identified and a potential market for these feedstock for year 2007 was calculated. In addition, this power point presentation provided an estimation of potential regional and total demand for BBF. BBF included Athabasca bitumen blend, de-asphalted blend, coked sour crude oil (SCO), coked sweet SCO, hydrocracked SCO and hydrocracked/aromatic saturated SCO (HAS). Refinery prototypes included light and mixed prototypes for primary cracking units, light and heavy prototypes for primary coking units, as well as no coking, coking severe and residuum prototypes for primary hydrocracking units. The presentation included graphs depicting the natural market for Western Canadian crudes as well as U.S. crude oil production forecasts by PADD districts. It was forecasted that the market for bitumen-based feedstock in 2007 will be tight and that the potential demand for bitumen-based blends would be similar to expected production. It was also forecasted that the potential demand for SCO is not as promising relative to the expected production, unless price discounting or HAS will be available. 11 figs.

  11. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of a second-generation poly(phenylene-pyridyl) dendron with a dodecyl-decorated periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, N. N.; Markin, A. V.; Kuchkina, N. V.; Yuzik-Klimova, E. Yu.; Shushunov, A. N.; Shifrina, Z. B.

    2016-12-01

    The heat capacity of a partially crystalline second-generation poly(phenylene-pyridyl) dendron with a dodecyl-decorated periphery is studied by high-precision adiabatic vacuum and differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range of 6 to 530 K. The thermodynamic characteristics of the glass's transition and melting are determined from the calorimetric data and the degree of its crystallinity is estimated (α = 30%). Standard thermodynamic functions (Cp°, H°- H°(0), S°- S°(0), and G°- H°(0)) for a partially crystalline dendron in the range of T → 0 to 480 K are calculated.

  13. Commercial Application of the Second Generation RHT Catalysts for Hydroprocessing the Residue with Low Sulfur and High Nitrogen Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Zhicai; Zhao Xinqiang; Liu Tao; Dai Lishun; Nie Hong

    2014-01-01

    The RHT technology and the second generation RHT catalysts were applied in design of an 1.7Mt/a VRDS unit at the SINOPEC Changling Branch Co. The commercial application result demonstrated that the RHT catalysts showed good activity and stability in processing low-sulfur and high-nitrogen residue. The ifrst long period run of unit for processing high Fe and high Ca content residue was achieved. The reasons for excessive pressure drop of R-101 were ascribed to Fe and Ca deposition as well as coke formation.

  14. The effect of second-generation antipsychotic drugs on sleep parameters in patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jaime M

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbances predominantly take the form of insomnia in patients with unipolar disorder, while patients with bipolar disorder show a decreased need for sleep. Sleep impairment in these patients is a risk factor for the development of a major depressive episode and suicidal behavior. Administration of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone as augmentation therapy or monotherapy to unipolar and bipolar disorder patients, respectively, has been shown to improve sleep continuity and sleep architecture. Thus, their use by these patients could ameliorate their sleep disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Drug-Naive Adolescents After 12 Months of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjo, Christina Power; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Bojesen, Anders Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental illness is often accompanied by poor physical health and shorter life expectancy. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are suspected of increasing cardiovascular risk, possibly through development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the risk of adverse outcome is even higher...... if obesity or metabolic aberration starts in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: Drug-naive adolescents were recruited after contact with an outpatient Psychosis Team. Changes relative to baseline in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG...

  16. An Equilibrium Search Model of the Labor Market Entry of Second-Generation Immigrants and Ethnic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kromann, Lene

    Using a search model for Danish labor market entrants, we are one of the first studies to test whether second‐generation immigrants have the same job‐offer arrival and layoff rates as ethnic Danes have. We contribute to the search literature by incorporating matching as a way to ensure sub...... do on the labor market, though not with respect to layoffs. This result is mainly driven by the group of high school graduates and those with a primary school education only. Second generation immigrants with vocational education, males in particular, face both significantly lower arrival rates when...... unemployed and significantly higher layoff rates than those of their ethnic Danish twins....

  17. Supply and Economics of Tall Oil for the Manufacture of Second-Generation Biodiesel in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alfred (Arbokem Inc., P.O. Box 34173, Vancouver V6J 4N1 (Canada)). E-mail: arbokem@arbokem.com

    2008-10-15

    Tall oil is a co-product of the alkaline pulping of coniferous wood for the manufacture of cellulosic pulp. In view of the escalating-cost trend of purchased fossil-fuel energy, pulp mills are prioritizing the use of tall oil for lime-kiln operations, instead of sales to external manufacturers of fatty acids and rosin. There is an attractive economic opportunity to use tall oil for the production of higher-value second-generation biodiesel with concomitant partial off-set of the fossil fuel used in lime-kiln operation. Additional incremental income could be realized with the co-manufacture of phytosterols from tall oil

  18. Synthesis and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Second-Generation Dendronized Poly(ether Monomers Initiated by Ruthenium Carbenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Pablo E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP of second-generation dendronized monomers is described. Using the highly active and fast-initiating third-generation ruthenium complex [(H2IMes(pyr2Cl2RuCHPh], moderate to high molecular weight polymers (430-2230 kDa are efficiently synthesized with low dispersities (Ð = 1.01-1.17. This study highlights the power of the metathesis approach toward polymer synthesis in a context where monomer structure can significantly impede polymerization.

  19. Novae from isolated white dwarfs as a source of helium for second generation stars in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarone, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    We explore the possible contribution of classical and recurrent novae from isolated white dwarfs accreting from the intracluster medium to the abundances of "second generation" globular cluster stellar populations. We show that under reasonable assumptions the helium abundances of clusters can be enhanced substantially by these novae and argue that novae should be considered as an important, and perhaps even dominant channel in the evolution of the intracluster medium. We also discuss a possible test for whether helium enhancement really is the cause of the multiple main sequences in globular clusters that is independent of the positions of stars in the color-magnitude diagram.

  20. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  1. Coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for energy valorization from model biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Kim, Andrew H; Usack, Joseph G; Tester, Jefferson W; Angenent, Largus T

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction converts food waste into oil and a carbon-rich hydrothermal aqueous phase. The hydrothermal aqueous phase may be converted to biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Here, the feasibility of coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for the conversion of food waste into energy products was examined. A mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, representing food waste, underwent hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350°C. The anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was examined through conducting biochemical methane potential assays. The results demonstrate that the anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was lower when the temperature of hydrothermal processing increased. The chemical composition of the hydrothermal aqueous phase affected the anaerobic biodegradability. However, no inhibition of biodegradation was observed for most samples. Combining hydrothermal and anaerobic digestion may, therefore, yield a higher energetic return by converting the feedstock into oil and biomethane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Search for Single Production of First and Second Generation Leptoquarks in pp collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David

    Leptoquarks are theoretical particles proposed by various extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. They couple to both quarks and leptons, explaining the correspondence between the three generations of quarks and leptons in the Standard Model that are essential to ensure its renormalizability. Experimental constraints indicate that leptoquarks would only couple to a single generation, and this thesis describes searches performed with the CMS detector for leptoquarks of the first or second generation, produced singly and decaying to final states containing either two electrons and one jet or two muons and one jet. The search is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at the LHC with center-of-mass energy √s = 8TeV recorded with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb-1. No signal-like excess is observed. Upper limits are set on leptoquark cross sections at the 95% confidence level via the CLS modified frequentist method. Single production of first-generation leptoquarks with a coupling lambda = 1 and branching fraction B(LQ → eq) = 1 is excluded for masses below 1755 GeV, and second-generation leptoquarks with a coupling lambda = 1 and branching fraction B(LQ → muq) = 1 is excluded for masses below 660 GeV. These lower limits on leptoquark mass are the most stringent limits for single production of leptoquarks to date.

  3. Schema therapy, motivational interviewing, and collaborative-mapping as treatment for depression among low income, second generation Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilemann, MarySue V; Pieters, Huibrie C; Kehoe, Priscilla; Yang, Qing

    2011-12-01

    US-born Latinos report significantly more depression than foreign-born Latinos in the US, and Latinas have twice the rate of depression than Latino men. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of an innovative, short-term program of Schema Therapy (ST) combined with Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques to reduce depression and increase resilience among second generation Latinas of low income in the US. In addition to blending ST and MI strategies with a focus on resilience, a novel technique called collaborative-mapping was a crucial strategy within treatment. Scheduling for sessions was flexible and patients had unlimited cell phone access to the therapist outside of sessions, although few used it. A mixed linear regression model for BDI-II scores of 8 women who completed all eight 2-h sessions demonstrated that the treatment significantly decreased BDI-II scores during the course of treatment (p = .0003); the average decreasing rate in BDI-II scores was 2.8 points per visit. Depression scores remained sub-threshold for 12 months after treatment completion. Resilience scores significantly increased after treatment completion and remained high at all follow-up visits through 1 year (p therapy, which resulted in an appealing, desirable, and accessible depression treatment for this severely understudied, underserved sample of low income, second generation Latinas in the US.

  4. Lost and found: evidence of Second Generation stars along the Asymptotic Giant Branch of the globular cluster NGC 6752

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Mucciarelli, A; Salaris, M; Ferraro, F R; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Stetson, P B; Cassisi, S; Savino, A

    2016-01-01

    We derived chemical abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg and Al in 20 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752. All these elements (but Mg) show intrinsic star-to-star variations and statistically significant correlations or anticorrelations analogous to those commonly observed in red giant stars of globular clusters hosting multiple populations. This demonstrates that, at odds with previous findings, both first and second generation stars populate the AGB of NGC 6752. The comparison with the Na abundances of red giant branch stars in the same cluster reveals that second generation stars (with mild Na and He enrichment) do reach the AGB phase. The only objects that are not observed along the AGB of NGC 6752 are stars with extreme Na enhancement. This is also consistent with standard stellar evolution models, showing that highly Na and He enriched stars populate the bluest portion of the horizontal branch and, because of their low stellar masses, evolve directly to the white dwarf cooling...

  5. The challenges of commercializing second-generation transgenic crop traits necessitate the development of international public sector research infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J; Bi, Yong-Mei; Coneva, Viktoriya; Han, Mei; Good, Allen

    2014-10-01

    It has been 30 years since the first transformation of a gene into a plant species, and since that time a number of biotechnology products have been developed, with the most important being insect- and herbicide-resistant crops. The development of second-generation products, including nutrient use efficiency and tolerance to important environmental stressors such as drought, has, up to this time, been less successful. This is in part due to the inherent complexities of these traits and in part due to limitations in research infrastructure necessary for public sector researchers to test their best ideas. Here we discuss lessons from previous work in the generation of the first-generation traits, as well as work from our labs and others on identifying genes for nitrogen use efficiency. We then describe some of the issues that have impeded rapid progress in this area. Finally, we propose the type of public sector organization that we feel is necessary to make advances in important second-generation traits such as nitrogen use efficiency.

  6. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azekawa, Takaharu; Ohashi, Shizuko; Itami, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936) who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703) diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic. Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant. Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  7. A hybrid fault diagnosis method based on second generation wavelet de-noising and local mean decomposition for rotating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwen; He, Zhengjia; Guo, Wei; Tang, Zhangchun

    2016-03-01

    In order to extract fault features of large-scale power equipment from strong background noise, a hybrid fault diagnosis method based on the second generation wavelet de-noising (SGWD) and the local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed in this paper. In this method, a de-noising algorithm of second generation wavelet transform (SGWT) using neighboring coefficients was employed as the pretreatment to remove noise in rotating machinery vibration signals by virtue of its good effect in enhancing the signal-noise ratio (SNR). Then, the LMD method is used to decompose the de-noised signals into several product functions (PFs). The PF corresponding to the faulty feature signal is selected according to the correlation coefficients criterion. Finally, the frequency spectrum is analyzed by applying the FFT to the selected PF. The proposed method is applied to analyze the vibration signals collected from an experimental gearbox and a real locomotive rolling bearing. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has better performances such as high SNR and fast convergence speed than the normal LMD method.

  8. Assessing Site Availability of Aspen and Northern Hardwoods for Potential Feedstock Development in Michigan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of wood and wood byproducts as biomass feedstocks is of increasing interest as a source of ethanol and electricity. Second generation woody feedstock sources in Michigan, e.g., hybrid poplar and hybrid willow (Populus spp., and native forests, particularly aspen and northern hardwoods, are a potential source of woody biomass for these uses. This study provides a geographic information system (GIS framework for assessing the current spatial extent of aspen and northern hardwoods and their proximity to roads. Additionally, the potential for expanding the area of these feedstock sources based on pre-European settlement vegetation cover is assessed. Utilizing GIS technology to compile, edit and analyze available geospatial data (e.g., present day and pre-European settlement land use/cover, soils, road infrastructure, and land ownership for counties located in the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula and northern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan provides a robust framework for various management scenarios to be evaluated in a cost effective manner and foster better decision making.

  9. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  10. Second-generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion plant: Conceptual design and optimization of a second-generation PFB combustion plant. Phase 2, Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Horazak, D.

    1992-10-01

    After many years of experimental testing and development work, coal-fired pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion combined-cycle power plants are moving toward reality. Under the US Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program, a 70-MWe PFB combustion retrofit, utilizing a 1525{degrees}F gas turbine inlet temperature, has been built and operated as a demonstration plant at the American Electric Power Company`s Tidd Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. As PFB combustion technology moves closer and closer to commercialization, interest is turning toward the development of an even more efficient and more cost-effective PFB combustion plant. The targeted goals of this ``second-generation`` plant are a 45-percent efficiency and a cost of electricity (COE) that is at least 20 percent lower than the COE of a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing. In addition, plant emissions should be within New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the plant should have high availability, be able to burn different ranks of coal, and incorporate modular construction technologies. In response to this need, a team of companies led by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). The key components in the proposed second-generation plant are the carbonizer, CPFBC, ceramic cross-flow filter, and topping combustor. Unfortunately, none of these components has been operated at proposed plant operating conditions, and experimental tests must be conducted to explore/determine their performance throughout the proposed plant operating envelope. The major thrust of Phase 2 is to design, construct, test, and evaluate the performance of the key components of the proposed plant.

  11. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  12. Plant triacylglycerols as feedstocks for the production of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; Benning, Christoph; Ohlrogge, John

    2008-05-01

    Triacylglycerols produced by plants are one of the most energy-rich and abundant forms of reduced carbon available from nature. Given their chemical similarities, plant oils represent a logical substitute for conventional diesel, a non-renewable energy source. However, as plant oils are too viscous for use in modern diesel engines, they are converted to fatty acid esters. The resulting fuel is commonly referred to as biodiesel, and offers many advantages over conventional diesel. Chief among these is that biodiesel is derived from renewable sources. In addition, the production and subsequent consumption of biodiesel results in less greenhouse gas emission compared to conventional diesel. However, the widespread adoption of biodiesel faces a number of challenges. The biggest of these is a limited supply of biodiesel feedstocks. Thus, plant oil production needs to be greatly increased for biodiesel to replace a major proportion of the current and future fuel needs of the world. An increased understanding of how plants synthesize fatty acids and triacylglycerols will ultimately allow the development of novel energy crops. For example, knowledge of the regulation of oil synthesis has suggested ways to produce triacylglycerols in abundant non-seed tissues. Additionally, biodiesel has poor cold-temperature performance and low oxidative stability. Improving the fuel characteristics of biodiesel can be achieved by altering the fatty acid composition. In this regard, the generation of transgenic soybean lines with high oleic acid content represents one way in which plant biotechnology has already contributed to the improvement of biodiesel.

  13. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time.

  14. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  15. Creating textured substrate tapes of Cu-Fe alloys for second-generation high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Gervas'eva, I. V.; Suaridze, T. R.; Rodionov, D. P.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2014-10-01

    It is established that Cu-1.6 at % Fe alloy tapes obtained through cold rolling to 98.9% followed by recrystallization annealing possess a sharp cube texture, which opens prospects of using thin tapes of this alloy as substrates for second-generation high-temperature superconductors. The optimum regime of annealing is determined that allows an alloy with sharp biaxial texture containing more than 97% cubic grains to be obtained. The yield stress of a 90-μm-thick Cu-1.6 at % Fe alloy tape upon recrystallization annealing at 800°C for 1 h amounts to 78 MPa, which is about three times higher than the value for a pure copper tape with sharp cube texture.

  16. A comparison of the effectiveness of 6S and SMAC in correcting for atmospheric interference of meteosat second generation images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard; Fensholt, R.; Rasmussen, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    by the Spinning Enhanced Visible & InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In order to examine the accuracy of the SMAC we compare its results to those computed by the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV1.1), a highly accurate radiative transfer code......-to-high solar or viewing zenith angles (greater than 40°) or in areas with a high ozone or water vapor content (greater than 0.2 cm/atm and 1.5 gm/cm for ozone and water vapor respectively) returning a particularly high relative error. Nevertheless, as the SMAC is up to 3000 times faster in processing a SEVIRI...

  17. Second Generation Coil Design of the Nb3Sn low-beta Quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Ballarino, A; Cavanna, E; Bossert, R; Cheng, D; Dietderich, D; Ferracin, P; Ghosh, A; Hagen,P; Holik, E; Perez, J C; Rochepault, E; Schmalzle, J; Todesco, E; Yu, M

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Large Hadron Collider Luminosity upgrade (HiLumi-LHC) program, the US LARP collaboration and CERN are working together to design and build a 150 mm aperture Nb3Sn quadrupole for the LHC interaction regions. A first series of 1.5 m long coils were fabricated and assembled in a first short model. A detailed visual inspection of the coils was carried out to investigate cable dimensional changes during heat treatment and the position of the windings in the coil straight section and in the end region. The analyses allow identifying a set of design changes which, combined with a fine tune of the cable geometry and a field quality optimization, were implemented in a new, second-generation, coil design. In this paper we review the main characteristics of the first generation coils, describe the modification in coil lay-out, and discuss their impact on parts design and magnet analysis.

  18. Second generation antihistamines: assessment of the efficacy of treatment and tolerance of some preparations of this group (preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata A. Czarny-Działak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Second generation antihistamines are key medicines in the treatment of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Aim of the research: To compare the effectiveness of selected antihistamines and frequency of side effects in the course of their therapy in the patient opinion. Material and methods : The study was conducted on a group of 40 patients taking rupatadine, bilastine, levocetirizine and fexofenadine. The method of diagnostic survey was used, having the character of a preliminary examination in view of the small number of people involved in the study. Results: Among the 40 patients, side effects of the medicines only appeared in 3 respondents, which is 1.2%. Conclusions : The new generation antihistamines in light of our studies appear to be safe and associated with few side effects. Due to the small number of surveyed people we treat these tests as preliminary to further analysis of the effectiveness of selected antihistamines.

  19. Comparison of pretreatment methods for rye straw in the second generation biorefinery: effect on cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cantu, Lilia; Schreiber, Andreas; Schütt, Fokko; Saake, Bodo; Kirsch, Christian; Smirnova, Irina

    2013-08-01

    The increasing interest in lignocellulose-based biorefineries boosts the further development of the needed pretreatment methods for preprocessing biomass. There are a large number of different processes that are being investigated; however research is made mostly based on different types of biomass with the same pretreatment or several modifications of the same process for a given type of biomass. In this work a comparison of promising chemical pretreatments using the same biomass was performed. Organosolv (OS), Steam (SE) and Liquid-Hot-Water (LHW) processes were used for the pretreatment of rye straw and the treated solids further enzymatically hydrolyzed. Best results for carbohydrate and lignin yield were found for the OS pretreatment followed close by the LHW and SE with similar results. All of the processes showed satisfactory performance for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for application in the second generation biorefinery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FEATURES SOCIALIZATION STUDENTS OF THE BOARDING SCHOOL IN THE FAR NORTH IN CONDITIONS OF INTRODUCTUIN OF THE GEF SECOND GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimin Aleksei Valerevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study the features of the socialization of students, of the efficiency of primary school textbooks, with the introduction of the federal state educational standards of the second generation-specific institution. Methodology. Questionnaire and the study of literature and documents. Results. As a result of the original research report the presence of three groups of students, requiring consideration of ethnic features when planning learning activities. The features of the formation of ethnic socialization boarding schools. The conclusions about the lack of effectiveness of the selection and application of teaching and learning materials to meet the specific conditions of the environment of students - students of the boarding school, to work towards improving the quality of training of the teaching staff of boarding schools. Practical implications. Methodical and personnel support of the educational process in the open secondary boarding schools in the Far North.

  1. Demonstrating the feasibility of probing the neutron star equation of state with second-generation gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Agathos, Michalis; Broeck, Chris Van Den; Vitale, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Fisher matrix and related studies have suggested that with second-generation gravitational wave detectors, it may be possible to infer the equation of state of neutron stars using tidal effects in binary inspiral. Here we present the first fully Bayesian investigation of this problem. We simulate a realistic data analysis setting by performing a series of numerical experiments of binary neutron star signals hidden in detector noise, assuming the projected final design sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO- Virgo network. With an astrophysical distribution of events (in particular, uniform in co-moving volume), we find that only a few tens of detections will be required to arrive at strong constraints, even for some of the softest equations of state in the literature. Thus, direct gravitational wave detection will provide a unique probe of neutron star structure.

  2. Review of small-angle coronagraphic techniques in the wake of ground-based second-generation adaptive optics systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mawet, Dimitri; Lawson, Peter; Mugnier, Laurent; Traub, Wesley; Boccaletti, Anthony; Trauger, John; Gladysz, Szymon; Serabyn, Eugene; Milli, Julien; Belikov, Ruslan; Kasper, Markus; Baudoz, Pierre; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian; Oppenheimer, Ben; Barrett, Harrisson; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Devaney, Nicolas; Girard, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Mennesson, Bertrand; Mouillet, David; Murakami, Naoshi; Poyneer, Lisa; Savransky, Dmitri; ́erinaud, Christophe V; Wallace, James K

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle coronagraphy is technically and scientifically appealing because it enables the use of smaller telescopes, allows covering wider wavelength ranges, and potentially increases the yield and completeness of circumstellar environment - exoplanets and disks - detection and characterization campaigns. However, opening up this new parameter space is challenging. Here we will review the four posts of high contrast imaging and their intricate interactions at very small angles (within the first 4 resolution elements from the star). The four posts are: choice of coronagraph, optimized wavefront control, observing strategy, and post-processing methods. After detailing each of the four foundations, we will present the lessons learned from the 10+ years of operations of zeroth and first-generation adaptive optics systems. We will then tentatively show how informative the current integration of second-generation adaptive optics system is, and which lessons can already be drawn from this fresh experience. Then, w...

  3. Second-generation histone deacetylase 6 inhibitors enhance the immunosuppressive effects of Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Jay H; Butler, Kyle V; Akimova, Tatiana; Hancock, Wayne W; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-01-26

    Second-generation Tubastatin A analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit selectively histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Substitutions to the carboline cap group were well-tolerated with substitution at the 2-position of both β- and γ-carbolines being optimal for HDAC6 activity and selectivity. Some compounds in this series were determined to have subnanomolar activity at HDAC6 with more than 7000 fold selectivity for HDAC6 versus HDAC1. Selected compounds were then evaluated for their ability to augment the immunosuppressive effect of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. All compounds tested were found to enhance the ability of regulatory T cells to inhibit the mitotic division of effector T cells both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that further investigation into the use of these compounds for the treatment of autoimmune disorders is warranted.

  4. SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION AND KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS: SECOND GENERATION OF THE DOCTORATE IN SCIENCES ADMINISTRATIVE UNIVERSITY OF WEST CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Cervantes-Rosas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research work analyses the scientific production generated by the students of the second generation of the doctorate in Administrative Sciences from the Universidad de Occidente, which is located in the national program's quality postgraduates of Conacyt and fundamental objective is to generate human resources to solve the problem through research. We analysed the records of 18 student, collecting information regarding the scientific production and knowledge networks. Results show that the 73.8% of the generated output is in papers in national and international congresses, whose principal authors are PhD students. In the 28.4% of production are the co-authors are the same companions by which it can be concluded that knowledge to the interior of the PhD networks generated.

  5. A NOVEL STRAIN OF Aspergillus niger PRODUCING A COCKTAIL OF HYDROLYTIC DEPOLYMERISING ENZYMES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Bansal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The screening and isolation of fungi producing a cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes was studied. Among the various isolates obtained from different soil samples, a strain NS-2 was selected. The phylogenetic analysis of this strain showed highest homology (99% with Aspergillus niger. It was capable of producing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, amylolytic, and pectinolytic enzymes in appreciable titers on wheat bran based liquid and solid state media. The mixture of enzymes produced by this organism could effectively hydrolyze various domestic waste residues, revealing conversion efficiencies of 89 to 92% and produced high reducing sugar yields of 0.48 to 0.66 g/g of dry residue. This enzyme cocktail could potentially find a significant application in the conversion of agricultural and other waste residues having cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, and pectin as carbohydrates to produce simpler sugars which can be fermented for the production of second generation biofuels.

  6. Second-generation bio-ethanol (SGB) from Malaysian palm empty fruit bunch: energy and exergy analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Teng; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-07-01

    Recently, second-generation bio-ethanol (SGB), which utilizes readily available lignocellulosic biomass has received much interest as another potential source of liquid biofuel comparable to biodiesel. Thus the aim of this paper is to determine the exergy efficiency and to compare the effectiveness of SGB and palm methyl ester (PME) processes. It was found that the production of bio-ethanol is more thermodynamically sustainable than that of biodiesel as the net exergy value (NExV) of SGB is 10% higher than that of PME. Contrarily, the former has a net energy value (NEV) which is 9% lower than the latter. Despite this, SGB is still strongly recommended as a potential biofuel because SGB production can help mitigate several detrimental impacts on the environment.

  7. SECOND-GENERATION TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS (TKI AS SALVAGE THERAPY FOR RESISTANT OR INTOLERANT PATIENTS TO PRIOR TKIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Breccia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of target therapies, imatinib became the mainstay for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the brilliant results obtained with this drug, more than 30% of patients discontinue therapy in long-term due to several reasons, including failure and/or intolerance. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are more potent drugs and have expanded inhibition against a broad spectrum of mutations resistant to imatinib. Both nilotinib and dasatinib have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo clinical activity against different types of mutations and various forms of resistance. However, patients with T315I mutation do not obtain an advantage from these drugs and a third generation inhibitor ponatinib, a pan-BCR drug, was tested with significant results. In this review, we report the results of second- and third-generation TKIs tested as second or third line therapy in patients resistant and/or intolerant to previous inhibitors.

  8. Demonstrating the feasibility of probing the neutron-star equation of state with second-generation gravitational-wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Li, Tjonnie G F; Agathos, Michalis; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Vitale, Salvatore

    2013-08-16

    Fisher matrix and related studies have suggested that, with second-generation gravitational-wave detectors, it may be possible to infer the equation of state of neutron stars using tidal effects in a binary inspiral. Here, we present the first fully Bayesian investigation of this problem. We simulate a realistic data analysis setting by performing a series of numerical experiments of binary neutron-star signals hidden in detector noise, assuming the projected final design sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network. With an astrophysical distribution of events (in particular, uniform in comoving volume), we find that only a few tens of detections will be required to arrive at strong constraints, even for some of the softest equations of state in the literature. Thus, direct gravitational-wave detection will provide a unique probe of neutron-star structure.

  9. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  10. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-04-21

    Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Data from 3300 women participating in a prospective cohort of primary midwifery care clients (i.e. women with no complications or no increased risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium who receive maternity care by autonomous midwives) in the Netherlands (the DELIVER study) was used. Gestational age at entry and the total number of prenatal visits were aggregated into an index. The extent to which potential factors explained non-western women's prenatal care utilisation was assessed by means of blockwise logistic regression analyses and percentage changes in odds ratios. The unadjusted odds of first and second-generation non-western women making inadequate use of prenatal care were 3.26 and 1.96 times greater than for native Dutch women. For the first generation, sociocultural factors explained 43% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation, socioeconomic factors explained 33% and demographic and pregnancy factors explained 29%. For the second generation, sociocultural factors explained 66% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation. Irrespective of generation, strategies to improve utilisation should focus on those with the following sociocultural characteristics (not speaking Dutch at home, no partner or a first-generation non-Dutch partner). For the first generation, strategies should also focus on those with the following demographic, pregnancy and socioeconomic characteristics (aged ≤ 19 or ≥ 36, unplanned pregnancies, poor obstetric histories (extra-uterine pregnancy, molar pregnancy or abortion), a low educational level, below average net household income and no supplementary insurance.

  11. Simulation of carbohydrate-protein interactions: Computer-aided design of a second generation GM1 mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Anna; Galgano, Marta; Belvisi, Laura; Colombo, Giorgio

    2001-02-01

    The oligosaccharide of ganglioside GM1 [Gal β1-3GalNAc β1-4(NeuAc α2-3)Gal β1-4Glc β1-1Cer] is the cellular target of two bacterial enterotoxins: the cholera toxin (CT) and the heat-labile toxin of E.coli (LT). We recently reported that the pseudosaccharide 2[Gal β1-3GalNAc β1-4(NeuAc α2-3)DCCHD] is a high-affinity ligand for CT, and thus a functional mimic of GM1 (Bernardi, A., Checchia, A., Brocca, P., Sonnino, S. and Zuccotto, F., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121 (1999) 2032-2036). In this paper we describe the design of a second-generation mimic, formally obtained from 2 by inverting the configuration of a single stereocenter, thus transforming a N-acetyl galactosamine into a N-acetyl glucosamine. The design process involved modeling of the free ligand and its LT complex, followed by qualitative and quantitative comparison with the corresponding structures of 2. The protocol employed relied on both conformational search and molecular dynamics methodologies to account for the flexibility of both the ligand and the protein receptor. The conformational search of the LT:inhibitor complex showed that, compared to 2, the new compound can insert one more hydroxy group within the protein binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that, in turn, this may trigger a series of rearrangements and reorientations of side chains and crystallographic water molecules in the toxin, leading to new H-bond contacts which may result in enhanced affinity of the new inhibitor. FEP calculations were performed by mutating the structure of 2 in solution and in the protein complex, and the prediction was made that the second-generation mimic should be a stronger binder than its parent compound.

  12. First results on a process-oriented rain area classification technique using Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI nighttime data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thies

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for process-oriented rain area classification using Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI nighttime data is introduced. It is based on a combination of the Advective Convective Technique (ACT which focuses on precipitation areas connected to convective processes and the Rain Area Delineation Scheme during Nighttime (RADS-N a new technique for the improved detection of stratiform precipitation areas (e.g. in connection with mid-latitude frontal systems. The ACT which uses positive brightness temperature differences between the water vapour (WV and the infrared (IR channels (ΔTWV-IR for the detection of convective clouds and connected precipitating clouds has been transferred from Meteosat First Generation (MFG Metesoat Visible and Infra-Red Imager radiometer (MVIRI to Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI. RADS-N is based on the new conceptual model that precipitating cloud areas are characterised by a large cloud water path (cwp and the presence of ice particles in the upper part of the cloud. The technique considers information about both parameters inherent in the channel differences ΔT3.9-10.8, ΔT3.9-7.3, ΔT8.7-10.8, and ΔT10.8-12.1, to detect potentially precipitating cloud areas. All four channel differences are used to gain implicit knowledge about the cwp. ΔT8.7-10.8 and ΔT10.8-12.1 are additionally considered to gain information about the cloud phase. First results of a comparison study between the classified rain areas and corresponding ground based radar data for precipitation events in connection with a cold front occlusion show encouraging performance of the new proposed process-oriented rain area classification scheme.

  13. Development of synthetic chromosomes and improved microbial strains to utilize cellulosic feedstocks and express valuable coproducts for sustainable production of biofuels from corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable biorefinery must convert a broad range of renewable feedstocks into a variety of product streams, including fuels, power, and value-added bioproducts. To accomplish this, microbial-based technologies that enable new commercially viable coproducts from corn-to-ethanol biofuel fermentati...

  14. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw.

  15. Influence of feedstock sulfur content on cat cracking results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manovyan, A.K.; Pivovarova, N.A.; Tarakanov, G.V. [and others

    1995-11-01

    In the interest of expanding the resources for cat cracking feedstocks, blends of vacuum distillate and resids are being used. The feedstock components are usually subjected to hydrotreating or deasphalting in order to lower the contents of resins and sulfur. However, there has been very little study of the question of how the cracking results are influenced by resins and sulfur remaining in the feedstock after hydrotreating or deasphalting. Here, the authors are reporting on a study of the influence of feedstock sulfur content on the content of olefins in the products from cracking.

  16. Socio-economic impact of biofuel feedstock production on local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Biofuel feedstock plantations; Jatropha curcas; land grabbing; local livelihoods; ... Consequently, many European and American governments, international ...... Biofuel biomass crop farm/plantation initiatives in the Northern Region.

  17. Food Intake and Reward Mechanisms in Patients with Schizophrenia: Implications for Metabolic Disturbances and Treatment with Second-Generation Antipsychotic Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elman, Igor; Borsook, David; Lukas, Scott E

    2006-01-01

    ... $30.00www.neuropsychopharmacology.orgPerspectiveFood Intake and Reward Mechanisms in Patients with Schizophrenia: Implications for Metabolic Disturbances and Treatment with Second-Generation Antipsychotic Agents...

  18. Second-generation immigrants: Citizenship and transnationalism/Inmigrantes de segunda generación: ciudadanía y transnacionalismo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherine Wihtol de Wenden

    2014-01-01

      This article deals with a socio-historical approach of "second-generation immigrants" in France, a country which has a long story of immigration, but which has refused this historical past for a long time...

  19. Results of a Second-generation Constrained Condylar Prosthesis in Complex Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Mean 5.5-Year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Ye

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Second-generation modular CCK prostheses are a safe and practical treatment for both primary and revision knees that cannot be balanced. However, further studies focusing on different types of constrained prostheses are required to validate these results.

  20. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  1. The Rheology behind Stress-Induced Solidification in Native Silk Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laity, Peter R; Holland, Chris

    2016-10-29

    The mechanism by which native silk feedstocks are converted to solid fibres in nature has attracted much interest. To address this question, the present work used rheology to investigate the gelation of Bombyx mori native silk feedstock. Exceeding a critical shear stress appeared to be more important than shear rate, during flow-induced initiation. Compositional changes (salts, pH etc.,) were not required, although their possible role in vivo is not excluded. Moreover, after successful initiation, gel strength continued to increase over a considerable time under effectively quiescent conditions, without requiring further application of the initial stimulus. Gelation by elevated temperature or freezing was also observed. Prior to gelation, literature suggests that silk protein adopts a random coil configuration, which argued against the conventional explanation of gelation, based on hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Instead, a new hypothesis is presented, based on entropically-driven loss of hydration, which appears to explain the apparently diverse methods by which silk feedstocks can be gelled.

  2. The Rheology behind Stress-Induced Solidification in Native Silk Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Laity

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which native silk feedstocks are converted to solid fibres in nature has attracted much interest. To address this question, the present work used rheology to investigate the gelation of Bombyx mori native silk feedstock. Exceeding a critical shear stress appeared to be more important than shear rate, during flow-induced initiation. Compositional changes (salts, pH etc., were not required, although their possible role in vivo is not excluded. Moreover, after successful initiation, gel strength continued to increase over a considerable time under effectively quiescent conditions, without requiring further application of the initial stimulus. Gelation by elevated temperature or freezing was also observed. Prior to gelation, literature suggests that silk protein adopts a random coil configuration, which argued against the conventional explanation of gelation, based on hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Instead, a new hypothesis is presented, based on entropically-driven loss of hydration, which appears to explain the apparently diverse methods by which silk feedstocks can be gelled.

  3. Second generation PFBC systems R and D Phase 2 and Phase 3. Monthly technical report, July 1--July 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.

    1999-09-01

    When DOE funds were exhausted in March 1995, all Phase 2 activities were placed on hold. In February 1996 a detailed cost estimate was submitted to the DOE for completing the two remaining Phase 2 Multi Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) topping combustor test campaigns; in August 1996 release was received from FETC to proceed with the two campaigns to: (1) test the MASB at proposed demonstration plant full to minimum load operating conditions; (2) identify the lower oxygen limit of the MASB; (3) demonstrate natural gas to carbonizer fuel gas switching; and (4) demonstrate operation with low temperature compressor discharge air rather than high temperature ({approx} 1,600 F) vitiated air. The 18 in. MASB was last tested at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in a high-oxygen configuration and must be redesigned/modified for low oxygen operation. A second-generation PFB combustion plant incorporating an MASB based topping combustor will be constructed at the City of Lakeland's McIntosh Power Plant under the US DOE Clean Coal V Demonstration Plant Program. This plant will require the MASB to operate at oxygen levels that are lower than those previously tested. Preliminary calculations aimed at defining the operating envelope of the demonstration plant MASB have been completed. Phase 3--Commercial plant design update: The Second-Generation PFB Combustion Plant conceptual design prepared in 1987 is being updated to reflect the benefit of pilot plant test data and the latest advances in gas turbine technology. The updated plant is being designed to operate with 95% sulfur capture and a single Westinghouse 501G gas turbine. The 1987 study investigated two coal feeding arrangements, e.g., dry and paste feed. Paste feeding resulted in a lower cost of electricity. Paste, however, increases the water content of the carbonizer generated syngas; this increases the equilibrium partial pressure of hydrogen sulfide gas over calcium oxide/calcium carbonate and thereby

  4. Who are we? Parental influences on self-identities and self-esteem of second generation youths in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portes, Alejandro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on determinants of ethnic/national self-identities and self-esteem as a prelude to examining these outcomes among a large, statistically representative sample of second generation adolescents in Madrid and Barcelona. While these psycho-social outcomes are malleable, they still represent important dimensions of immigrant adaptation and can have significant consequences both for individual mobility and collective mobilizations. Current theories are largely based on data from the United States and other Anglophone countries. The availability of a new large Spanish survey allows us to test those theories in an entirely different socio-cultural context. In addition to having data on close to seven thousand second generation youths, the study includes a survey of the parents, allowing us to examine directly how parental factors affect adolescent psycho-social outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of results are discussed.

    Examinamos la literatura sobre los determinantes de las auto-identificaciones étnicas y nacionales y la autoestima como paso previo para el análisis de tales resultados en una muestra numerosa y estadísticamente representativa de adolescentes de segunda generación en Madrid y Barcelona. A pesar de que estas variables psico-sociales son altamente maleables en la adolescencia, representan de todos modos dimensiones importantes del proceso de adaptación de los hijos de inmigrantes con consecuencias potencialmente significativas para su avance individual y movilizaciones colectivas. Las teorías existentes sobre el tema se basan fundamentalmente en estudios conducidos en Estados Unidos y otros países anglófonos. La existencia de una nueva muestra de la segunda generación española nos permite poner a prueba estas teorías en un contexto socio-cultural enteramente distinto. Además de incluir datos sobre cerca de 7.000 jóvenes de segunda generación, el estudio incluye también una

  5. Comparative risk of seizure with use of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Yeh, I-Jin; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2016-05-01

    To compare the risk of antipsychotic-related seizure (ARS) by identifying seizures first diagnosed within 12 months after starting new antipsychotics, using a 12-year total population health claims database from Taiwan. Seizure events were identified through emergency department visits or hospitalization with a diagnosis of convulsion (ICD-9-CM: 780.3) or epilepsy (ICD-9-CM: 345). Subjects had an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, or major depressive disorders. Incidence rates of ARS were calculated by person-years of exposure. The ARS risk, adjusted for patient characteristics and medical conditions, of individual antipsychotics versus risperidone was examined by high-dimensional propensity score stratification analyses, followed by sensitivity analyses. The overall 1-year incidence rate of ARS was 9.6 (95% CI, 8.8-10.4) per 1,000 person-years (550 ARS events among 288,397 new antipsychotic users). First-generation antipsychotics were marginally associated with a higher ARS risk than second-generation antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.81; P = .061). Most antipsychotics, first- or second-generation, had comparable ARS risks versus risperidone. Notably, clozapine (aHR = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.40-6.71), thioridazine (aHR = 2.90; 95% CI, 1.65-5.10), chlorprothixene (aHR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.04-6.49), and haloperidol (aHR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.48-3.71) had higher ARS risks than risperidone, whereas aripiprazole (aHR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-1.00; P = .050) had a marginally lower ARS risk. Sensitivity analyses largely confirmed such findings. Higher vigilance for ARS is warranted during use of clozapine, chlorprothixene, thioridazine, and haloperidol. The possible lower ARS risk associated with aripiprazole can be clinically significant but needs to be confirmed by larger-scale systematic studies. The comparative ARS risks of antipsychotics supplement empirical knowledge for making judicious choices in prescribing antipsychotics.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYBRIDS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND GENERATIONS OF DURUM WINTER WHEAT OF VARIOUS CROSS-BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samofalova N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates a necessity to apply the method of interspecific hybridization in durum winter wheat breeding, using the present soft winter varieties for improvement of frost and drought tolerance at the beginning of germination; resistance to snow mold, fusariosis and bacteriosis of ears and grain. The article presents the results of a comparative study of different types of crossbreeding at interspecific and intraspecific hybridization due to germination, emergence, productivity. It has been shown that intraspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’, interspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз’ and ‘Т. аestivum оз. х T. durum оз.’ possessed the highest germination and emergence with 71,8/75,3% for direct and 60,4/82,5% for backward, 42,8 and 35,5% and 55,4 and 64,1% respectively. In backward (triplecross cross-breeding of F1 interspecific hybrids with durum winter wheat the grain germination was down to 37,4 and 36,6%, but the emergence was up to 64,1 and 69,7% and reached the level of intraspecific hybrids. According to the elements of ear (head productivity (grain mass per head, number of seeds per head, interspecific double-cross hybrids of the first and the second generation significantly conceded to intraspecific hybrids, but they matched them in a number of spikelets and grain size. The triple-cross hybrids exceed the double interspecific hybrids in this respect, but they concede to double-cross and triple-cross intraspecific hybrids. We studied the principle of splitting of interspecific hybrids of the second generation ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз.’ and ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’ (direct and backward and the triple-cross hybrids obtained from cross-breeding of interspecific and intraspecific double-cross hybrids F1 with durum winter wheat

  7. Use of second-generation antipsychotics in the acute inpatient management of schizophrenia in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhadhari S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulaiman Alkhadhari,1 Nasser Al Zain,2 Tarek Darwish,3 Suhail Khan,4 Tarek Okasha,5 Hisham Ramy,5 Talaat Matar Tadros6 1Kuwait Center for Mental Health, Safat, Kuwait; 2Al Amal Complex for Mental Health Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3Behavioural Science Pavilion, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 4Jeddah Psychiatric Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 6Ibrahim Bin Hamad Obaidallah and Seif Bin Ghubash Hospitals, Ras Alkhaimah, United Arab Emirates Background: Management of acute psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients remains a significant challenge for clinicians. Despite treatment guidelines recommending that second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs should be used as monotherapy, first-generation antipsychotics, polypharmacy, and lower than recommended doses are frequently administered in clinical practice. Minimal data exist regarding the use of SGAs in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to examine the discrepancies between current clinical practice and guideline recommendations in the region. Methods: RECONNECT-S Beta was a multicenter, noninterventional study conducted in Egypt, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates to observe the management of schizophrenic patients who were hospitalized due to an acute psychotic episode. Patients underwent one visit on the day of discharge. Demographic and medical history, together with data on antipsychotic treatment and concomitant medication during the hospitalization period and medication recommendations at discharge were recorded. Results: Of the 1,057 patients, 180 (17.0% and 692 (65.5% received SGAs as monotherapy and in combination therapy, respectively. Overall, the most frequently administered medications were given orally, and included risperidone (40.3%, olanzapine (32.5%, and quetiapine (24.6%; the doses administered varied between countries and deviated from the recommended

  8. Efficacy and safety of calcium channel blockers in heart failure : Focus on recent trials with second-generation dihydropyridines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, RJM; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Dunselman, PHJM

    2000-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) has high morbidity and mortality rates despite treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and digoxin. Adjunctive-vasodilation through calcium channel blockade has been suggested as potentially useful, However, the first-generation calc

  9. Biodiesel from non-food alternative feed-stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a potential feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production, Jojoba oil was extracted from Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) plant seeds that contained around 50-60 wt.%, which were explored as non-food alternative feedstocks. Interestingly, Jojoba oil has long-chain wax esters and is not a typical trigly...

  10. Best practices guidelines for managing water in bioenergy feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    In the quest to develop renewable energy sources, woody and agricultural crops are being viewed as an important source of low environmental impact feedstocks for electrical generation and biofuels production (Hall and Scrase 1998, Eriksson et al. 2002, Somerville et al. 2010, Berndes and Smith 2013). In countries like the USA, the bioenergy feedstock potential is...

  11. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  12. Computational design of faster rotating second-generation light-driven molecular motors by control of steric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruganti, Baswanth; Fang, Changfeng; Durbeej, Bo

    2015-09-07

    We report a systematic computational investigation of the possibility to accelerate the rate-limiting thermal isomerizations of the rotary cycles of synthetic light-driven overcrowded alkene-based molecular motors through modulation of steric interactions. Choosing as a reference system a second-generation motor known to accomplish rotary motion in the MHz regime and using density functional theory methods, we propose a three-step mechanism for the thermal isomerizations of this motor and show that variation of the steric bulkiness of the substituent at the stereocenter can reduce the (already small) free-energy barrier of the rate-determining step by a further 15-17 kJ mol(-1). This finding holds promise for future motors of this kind to reach beyond the MHz regime. Furthermore, we demonstrate and explain why one particular step is kinetically favored by decreasing and another step is kinetically favored by increasing the steric bulkiness of this substituent, and identify a possible back reaction capable of impeding the rotary rate.

  13. Metabolic Impairments Precede Changes in Hunger and Food Intake Following Short-Term Administration of Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Karl; Alshehabi, Erica; Rickels, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain and an increased incidence of metabolic diseases. The metabolic impairments are assumed a consequence of increased body adiposity secondary to central nervous system-associated increases in food intake. We have previously reported that, independent of weight gain, 9 days of olanzapine administration to control subjects is associated with insulin resistance and increases in postprandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 to a mixed meal challenge. This current report describes previously unpublished data on the effects of the SGAs olanzapine and aripiprazole compared with placebo on detailed hunger and satiety responses over the 12-day inpatient evaluation as well as postprandial ghrelin and leptin responses prior to and following administration of the 2 SGAs. We found no changes in hunger, fullness, or in the orexigenic hormone ghrelin or satiety hormone leptin, consistent with our previous report indicating no change in weight during this study. The results indicate that the SGAs are associated with metabolic changes prior to changes in hunger, satiety, and food intake, and this temporal separation suggests that there are differential mechanisms mediating SGA-associated changes in metabolism and food intake.

  14. Atypical Mg-poor Milky Way Field Stars with Globular Cluster Second-generation-like Chemical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Souto, Diogo; Dell'Agli, F.; Schiavon, R. P.; Geisler, D.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Hasselquist, Sten; Mennickent, R. E.; Cunha, Katia; Shetrone, M.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Vieira, K.; Zasowski, G.; Sobeck, J.; Hayes, C. R.; Majewski, S. R.; Placco, V. M.; Beers, T. C.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Robin, A. C.; Mészáros, Sz.; Masseron, T.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Anders, F.; Meza, A.; Alves-Brito, A.; Carrera, R.; Minniti, D.; Lane, R. R.; Fernández-Alvar, E.; Moreno, E.; Pichardo, B.; Pérez-Villegas, A.; Schultheis, M.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Fuentes, C. E.; Nitschelm, C.; Harding, P.; Bizyaev, D.; Pan, K.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.; Ivans, Inese I.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Hernández, J.; Alonso-García, J.; Valenzuela, O.; Chanamé, J.

    2017-09-01

    We report the peculiar chemical abundance patterns of 11 atypical Milky Way (MW) field red giant stars observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). These atypical giants exhibit strong Al and N enhancements accompanied by C and Mg depletions, strikingly similar to those observed in the so-called second-generation (SG) stars of globular clusters (GCs). Remarkably, we find low Mg abundances ([Mg/Fe] < 0.0) together with strong Al and N overabundances in the majority (5/7) of the metal-rich ([Fe/H] ≳ -1.0) sample stars, which is at odds with actual observations of SG stars in Galactic GCs of similar metallicities. This chemical pattern is unique and unprecedented among MW stars, posing urgent questions about its origin. These atypical stars could be former SG stars of dissolved GCs formed with intrinsically lower abundances of Mg and enriched Al (subsequently self-polluted by massive AGB stars) or the result of exotic binary systems. We speculate that the stars Mg-deficiency as well as the orbital properties suggest that they could have an extragalactic origin. This discovery should guide future dedicated spectroscopic searches of atypical stellar chemical patterns in our Galaxy, a fundamental step forward to understanding the Galactic formation and evolution.

  15. The effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs on sleep variables in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jaime M; Torterolo, Pablo; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R

    2017-06-01

    Insomnia is a common feature in schizophrenia, and is characterized by an increase of sleep latency (SL), as well as reductions in total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE). Regarding sleep architecture, non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep latency are decreased, whereas REM sleep tends to remain unchanged. According to polysomnographic studies, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone administration increased TST and/or SE in healthy subjects. Additionally, olanzapine and ziprasidone augmented SWS, while changes corresponding to REM sleep were inconsistent. Furthermore, administration of clozapine, olanzapine and paliperidone to patients with schizophrenia was followed in most instances by a significant reduction of SL and an increase of TST and SE. In addition, olanzapine and paliperidone augmented SWS and REM sleep. By contrast, quetiapine administration further disrupted sleep as judged by the increase of SL, wake time after sleep onset (WASO) and REM sleep latency, and the reduction of SWS and REM sleep. No consistent effects on sleep variables were obtained during treatment with risperidone. To date, no polysomnographic studies have been published on the effects of aripiprazole, asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on sleep in either healthy subjects or patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, this evidence supports the conclusion that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) including clozapine, olanzapine and paliperidone may ameliorate insomnia in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat-Ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD.

  17. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Amat-Ur-Rasool

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh. The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE, an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD.

  18. Second-generation autologous chondrocyte transplantation: MRI findings and clinical correlations at a minimum 5-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kon, E. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Di Martino, A., E-mail: a.dimartino@biomec.ior.it [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Filardo, G. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Tetta, C.; Busacca, M. [Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Iacono, F. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Delcogliano, M. [Orthopaedic Departement San Carlo di Nancy Hospital, Rome (Italy); Albisinni, U. [Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Marcacci, M. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of hyaluronan-based arthroscopic autologous chondrocyte transplantation at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up and to correlate it with the MRI evaluation parameters. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients were included in the study and evaluated clinically using the Cartilage Standard Evaluation Form as proposed by ICRS and the Tegner score. Forty lesions underwent MRI evaluation at a minimum 5-year follow-up. For the description and evaluation of the graft, we employed the MOCART-scoring system. Results: A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores was observed at 2 and over 5 years. The total MOCART score and the signal intensity (3D-GE-FS) of the repair tissue were statistically correlated to the IKDC subjective evaluation. Larger size of the treated cartilage lesions had a negative influence on the degree of defect repair and filling, the integration to the border zone and the subchondral lamina integrity, whereas more intensive sport activity had a positive influence on the signal intensity of the repair tissue, the repair tissue surface, and the clinical outcome. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the durability of the clinical results obtained with Hyalograft C and the usefulness of MRI as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of the repaired tissue and the outcome after second-generation autologous transplantation over time.

  19. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamite, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors' (SGS) psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS' experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46-68 years). Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  20. First and second generation γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) modulate amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide production through different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgegard, Tomas; Juréus, Anders; Olsson, Fredrik; Rosqvist, Susanne; Sabirsh, Alan; Rotticci, Didier; Paulsen, Kim; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Yan, Hongmei; Waldman, Magnus; Stromberg, Kia; Nord, Johan; Johansson, Jonas; Regner, Anna; Parpal, Santiago; Malinowsky, David; Radesater, Ann-Cathrin; Li, Tingsheng; Singh, Rajeshwar; Eriksson, Hakan; Lundkvist, Johan

    2012-04-01

    γ-Secretase-mediated cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) results in the production of Alzheimer disease-related amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. The Aβ42 peptide in particular plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis and represents a major drug target. Several γ-secretase modulators (GSMs), such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (R)-flurbiprofen and sulindac sulfide, have been suggested to modulate the Alzheimer-related Aβ production by targeting the APP. Here, we describe novel GSMs that are selective for Aβ modulation and do not impair processing of Notch, EphB2, or EphA4. The GSMs modulate Aβ both in cell and cell-free systems as well as lower amyloidogenic Aβ42 levels in the mouse brain. Both radioligand binding and cellular cross-competition experiments reveal a competitive relationship between the AstraZeneca (AZ) GSMs and the established second generation GSM, E2012, but a noncompetitive interaction between AZ GSMs and the first generation GSMs (R)-flurbiprofen and sulindac sulfide. The binding of a (3)H-labeled AZ GSM analog does not co-localize with APP but overlaps anatomically with a γ-secretase targeting inhibitor in rodent brains. Combined, these data provide compelling evidence of a growing class of in vivo active GSMs, which are selective for Aβ modulation and have a different mechanism of action compared with the original class of GSMs described.

  1. Enhanced in-field critical currents of YBCO second-generation (2G) wire by Dy additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Strickland, N [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Chapman, B [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Ross, N [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Xia, J [Industrial Research Ltd, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Li, X [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Zhang, W [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Kodenkandath, T [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Huang, Y [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Rupich, M [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The addition of dysprosium oxide nanoparticles is shown to improve the critical current in perpendicular magnetic fields for second-generation (2G) wire formed by metal-organic deposition (MOD). Typical enhancements in J{sub c} are from 0.17 MA cm{sup -2} to over 0.33 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and B{sub perp} = 1.5 T. TEM analysis shows that we are introducing (Y,Dy){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with dimensions of 10-50 nm. A simple theoretical analysis shows that the maximum pinning effect for additions is expected at excess concentrations of approximately 70% DyO{sub 1.5}, i.e. for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}+0.7DyO{sub 1.5} if the added nanoparticles are randomly dispersed and a strong pinning model is valid. An interesting feature is that the critical current in parallel field is reduced in these samples. We present evidence that shows this may be due to reduced planar defects in the YBCO.

  2. Pharmacological and clinical profile of recently approved second-generation antipsychotics: implications for treatment of schizophrenia in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Jeffrey; Janicak, Philip G

    2012-10-01

    Antipsychotics are frequently used in elderly patients to treat a variety of conditions, including schizophrenia. While extensively studied for their impact in younger populations, there is comparatively limited evidence about the effectiveness of these agents in older patients. Further complicating this situation are the high comorbidity rates (both psychiatric and medical) in the elderly; age-related changes in pharmacokinetics that lead to a heightened proclivity for adverse effects; and the potential for multiple, clinically relevant drug interactions. With this background in mind, we review diagnostic and treatment-related issues specific to elderly patients suffering from schizophrenia. We then focus on the potential role of the most recently approved second-generation antipsychotics, paliperidone (both the extended-release oral formulation and the long-acting injectable formulation), iloperidone, asenapine and lurasidone, given the limited clinical experience with these agents in the elderly. While there is limited data to support their safety, tolerability and efficacy in older patients with schizophrenia, each has unique characteristics that should be considered when used in this population.

  3. Social cognition and visual perception in schizophrenia inpatients treated with first-and second-generation antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna; Mortimer, Ann; Tylec, Aneta; Czernikiewicz, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    Social cognition captures affect recognition, social cue perception, "theory of mind," empathy, and attributional style. The aim of our study was to assess social cognition in schizophrenia inpatients being treated with first-generation antipsychotic drugs (FGAs), n=28 (perphenazine and haloperidol, FGAs) or with second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs), n=56 (olanzapine and clozapine, SGAs). Eighty-four patients completed the Facial Expression Recognition Test, the Voice Emotion Recognition Test, the Short Recognition Memory Test for Faces, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Patients also completed the Visual Object and Space Perception Test (VOSP) as a control task, which would not engage social cognition. The patients were compared with fifty healthy controls matched for age and gender. There were no significant differences on social cognitive performance between the FGA- and SGA-treatment groups. Nor was olanzapine superior to clozapine, FGAs or both. However, patients treated with FGAs performed significantly worse on VOSP compared to both groups treated with SGAs, a 10% difference. We cannot conclude that SGAs were associated with better social cognition than FGAs. However, there were small but significant advantages for SGAs in non-social visual processing function, as evaluated with the VOSP.

  4. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders among first and second generation individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Kluge, Ulrike; Penka, Simone; Vardar, Azra; von Wolff, Alessa; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Heinz, Andreas; Mösko, Mike

    2017-05-11

    This paper focuses on the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds in Germany, as there is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on this subject. In total, 662 adults with Turkish migration backgrounds were interviewed in Hamburg and Berlin by trained, bilingual interviewers using the computerized Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI DIA-X Version 2.8) to assess diagnoses according to the DSM-IVTR. The analyses showed a weighted lifetime prevalence of 78.8% for any mental disorder, 21.6% for more than one and 7.3% for five or more disorders. Any mood disorder (41.9%), any anxiety disorder (35.7%) and any somatoform disorder/syndrome (33.7%) had the highest prevalences. Despite the sociodemographic differences between the first and second generations, there were no significant differences in the lifetime prevalence between generations, with the exception of any bipolar disorder. Female gender, older age and no current partnership were significantly associated with the occurrence of any mood disorder. Overall, the results indicate a high lifetime prevalence in individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds in Germany. These initial data are highly relevant to the German clinical and psychosocial healthcare system; however, the methodological limitations and potential biases should be considered when interpreting the results.

  5. Second-generation platelet concentrate (PRF) as a pulpotomy medicament in a permanent molar with pulpitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, H; Saikalyan, S; Kulkarni, S S; Hiremath, V

    2012-01-01

      To discuss the clinical and radiographic success of a pulpotomy with second-generation platelet concentrate (PRF), in a human mature permanent molar tooth.   A 19-year-old female patient reported to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics with established pulpitis in tooth 36. The tooth had a carious pulp exposure, with a history of lingering pain. After isolation, caries removal and pulp exposure, pulpotomy with PRF was performed and a permanent restoration was placed immediately. At the first recall (+1 day), no postoperative pain was reported. At 6, 12, 18 and 22 months recall, the tooth responded positively to pulp sensibility tests, and radiographic examination revealed a normal periodontal ligament space. Positive results of this case imply the need for more studies with larger sample sizes and a longer recall period to justify the use of this novel material for the treatment of pulpitis in human permanent molar teeth. Pulpotomy with PRF could be an alternate treatment to mineral trioxide aggregate or other materials in mature permanent teeth with pulpitis. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis.

  7. Gaps induced by inversion symmetry breaking and second-generation Dirac cones in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eryin; Lu, Xiaobo; Ding, Shijie; Yao, Wei; Yan, Mingzhe; Wan, Guoliang; Deng, Ke; Wang, Shuopei; Chen, Guorui; Ma, Liguo; Jung, Jeil; Fedorov, Alexei V.; Zhang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangyu; Zhou, Shuyun

    2016-12-01

    Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has emerged as a model van der Waals heterostructure as the superlattice potential, which is induced by lattice mismatch and crystal orientation, gives rise to various novel quantum phenomena, such as the self-similar Hofstadter butterfly states. Although the newly generated second-generation Dirac cones (SDCs) are believed to be crucial for understanding such intriguing phenomena, fundamental knowledge of SDCs, such as locations and dispersion, and the effect of inversion symmetry breaking on the gap opening, still remains highly debated due to the lack of direct experimental results. Here we report direct experimental results on the dispersion of SDCs in 0°-aligned graphene/h-BN heterostructures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our data unambiguously reveal SDCs at the corners of the superlattice Brillouin zone, and at only one of the two superlattice valleys. Moreover, gaps of approximately 100 meV and approximately 160 meV are observed at the SDCs and the original graphene Dirac cone, respectively. Our work highlights the important role of a strong inversion-symmetry-breaking perturbation potential in the physics of graphene/h-BN, and fills critical knowledge gaps in the band structure engineering of Dirac fermions by a superlattice potential.

  8. THREDDS Second Generation (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services): Engaging the GIS Community and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Caron, J.; Davis, E.; Edelson, D.; Kambic, R.; Pandya, R.; Nativi, S.

    2003-12-01

    The central mission of the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) project is to make it possible for educators and researchers to publish, locate, analyze, and visualize data in a wide variety educational settings. In the initial phase THREDDS established a solid, working prototype of services and tools to enable data providers to create inventory catalogs of the data holdings at their site and educational module builders to author compound documents with embedded pointers to environmental datasets and analysis tools. These catalogs and data-interactive documents can then be harvested into digital libraries using standard protocols. THREDDS Second Generation (THREDDS2G) will further enhance collaborations among data providers, toolbuilders, researchers and educators. It will do so by expanding the team of contributors and the breadth of data in the collections, taking advantage of recent technological advancements, and integrating THREDDS technologies with emerging standards and related environmental data systems. Since much of this expansion will involve Geographic Information Systems (GIS), THREDDS will actively engage the GIS community with the disciplines and tools that make the end products more useful at all educational levels, for decision makers and for the general public.

  9. A second-generation total synthesis of (+)-discodermolide: the development of a practical route using solely substrate-based stereocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ian; Delgado, Oscar; Florence, Gordon J; Lyothier, Isabelle; O'Brien, Matthew; Scott, Jeremy P; Sereinig, Natascha

    2005-01-01

    A novel total synthesis of the complex polyketide (+)-discodermolide, a promising anticancer agent of sponge origin, has been completed in 7.8% overall yield over 24 linear steps, with 35 steps altogether. This second-generation approach was designed to rely solely on substrate control for introduction of the required stereochemistry, eliminating the use of all chiral reagents or auxiliaries. The common 1,2-anti-2,3-syn stereotriad found in each of three subunits, aldehyde 9 (C(1)-C(5)), ester 40 (C(9)-C(16)), and aldehyde 13 (C(17)-C(24)), was established via a boron-mediated aldol reaction of ethyl ketone 15 and formaldehyde, followed by hydroxyl-directed reduction to give 1,3-diol 14. Alternatively, a surrogate aldehyde 22 was employed for formaldehyde in this aldol reaction, leading to the beta-hydroxy aldehyde 20 as a common building block, corresponding to the discodermolide stereotriad. Key fragment unions were achieved by a lithium-mediated anti aldol reaction of ester 40 and aldehyde 13 under Felkin-Anh control to provide (16S,17S)-adduct 51 and a boron-mediated aldol reaction between enone 10 and aldehyde 9, exploiting unprecedented remote 1,6-stereoinduction, to give the (5S)-adduct 57.

  10. Natural Atmospheric Environment Model Development for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank; Overbey, Glenn; Batts, Glen W.; Parker, Nelson (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently began development of a new reusable launch vehicle. The program office is located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and is called the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2GRLV). The purpose of the program is to improve upon the safety and reliability of the first generation reusable launch vehicle, the Space Shuttle. Specifically, the goals are to reduce the risk of crew loss to less than 1-in-10,000 missions and decreased costs by a factor of 10 to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched to low Earth orbit. The program is currently in the very early stages of development and many two-stage vehicle concepts will be evaluated. Risk reduction activities are also taking place. These activities include developing new technologies and advancing current technologies to be used by the vehicle. The Environments Group at MSFC is tasked by the 2GRLV Program to develop and maintain an extensive series of analytical tools and environmental databases which enable it to provide detailed atmospheric studies in support of structural, guidance, navigation and control, and operation of the 2GRLV.

  11. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels.

  12. Some side effects and effcts on physical activity of second-generation antipsychotics: A study in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor Arman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to investigate the metabolic adverse effects (AEs of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs and their relationship with physical activity and non-metabolic AE in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: After exclusion of patients with metabolic syndrome, 62 patients (34 children, 28 adolescents of both genders who were candidates for SGA therapy were selected. Metabolic parameters included fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglyceride (TG, blood pressure (BP, and waist circumference (WC; non-metabolic AEs and physical activity were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after starting the treatment. Results: Mean of post-treatment FBG and TG were significantly higher than the baseline values (P 0.05. The frequency of patients with AbH-TG at the end point was not significantly higher than those with baseline AbH-TG (P = 0.10. Although no patient was obese at baseline, 11 (18% patients developed abdominal obesity at the end point (P 0.05. There was no significant correlation between metabolic and non-metabolic AE (P > 0.05. Frequency of inactive patients was significantly more than the baseline value (P-0.008, and abdominal obesity was significantly more prevalent in less active participants (P = 0.03. Conclusion: The present study showed the AE of SGA on FBG and TG, but no effect on BP and WC. We also found that children are more prone to develop abnormally high FBG.

  13. Some side effects and effcts on physical activity of second-generation antipsychotics: A study in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Soroor; Sadeghye, Tahere; Bidaki, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to investigate the metabolic adverse effects (AEs) of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and their relationship with physical activity and non-metabolic AE in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: After exclusion of patients with metabolic syndrome, 62 patients (34 children, 28 adolescents) of both genders who were candidates for SGA therapy were selected. Metabolic parameters included fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), blood pressure (BP), and waist circumference (WC); non-metabolic AEs and physical activity were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after starting the treatment. Results: Mean of post-treatment FBG and TG were significantly higher than the baseline values (P 0.05). The frequency of patients with AbH-TG at the end point was not significantly higher than those with baseline AbH-TG (P = 0.10). Although no patient was obese at baseline, 11 (18%) patients developed abdominal obesity at the end point (P 0.05). There was no significant correlation between metabolic and non-metabolic AE (P > 0.05). Frequency of inactive patients was significantly more than the baseline value (P-0.008), and abdominal obesity was significantly more prevalent in less active participants (P = 0.03). Conclusion: The present study showed the AE of SGA on FBG and TG, but no effect on BP and WC. We also found that children are more prone to develop abnormally high FBG. PMID:25538910

  14. Clinical usefulness of second-generation antipsychotics in treating children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar or schizophrenic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2011-10-01

    The onset of severe, chronic or recurrent psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders, is a dramatic clinical event often detectable during adolescence and even in childhood. At any age, pharmacotherapy, along with enhancement of social skills and family support, is the mainstay for the management of such disorders. The aim of this review is to critically analyze findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the clinical utility of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Eighteen studies were considered, all of which were unfortunately impaired by methodologic limitations, such as the paucity of long-term data and lack of a three-arm comparison (SGA vs SGA vs placebo). Nevertheless, the results of this review allow us to suggest the effectiveness of three SGAs (aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone) in the short-term treatment of both early-onset schizophrenia and bipolar mania, although such agents show different safety profiles. The use of clozapine should be strictly limited to patients with non-affective, psychotic symptoms who do not respond to any of these three SGAs. In contrast, the use of quetiapine and ziprasidone in young patients with either affective or non-affective psychosis is not yet supported by evidence-based information. Given our findings, further studies are urgently required to identify the best treatment option(s) for pediatric bipolar disorder (especially the depressive phase) and the long-term management of early-onset schizophrenia.

  15. Clear evidence for the presence of second-generation asymptotic giant branch stars in metal-poor Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Monelli, M; Cassisi, S; Stetson, P B; Zamora, O; Shetrone, M; Lucatello, S

    2015-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are known to host multiple stellar populations: a first generation with a chemical pattern typical of halo field stars and a second generation (SG) enriched in Na and Al and depleted in O and Mg. Both stellar generations are found at different evolutionary stages (e.g., the main-sequence turnoff, the subgiant branch, and the red giant branch). The non detection of SG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in several metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) GCs suggests that not all SG stars ascend the AGB phase, and that failed AGB stars may be very common in metal-poor GCs. This observation represents a serious problem for stellar evolution and GC formation/evolution theories. We report fourteen SG-AGB stars in four metal-poor GCs (M 13, M 5, M 3, and M 2) with different observational properties: horizontal branch (HB) morphology, metallicity, and age. By combining the H-band Al abundances obtained by the APOGEE survey with ground-based optical photometry, we identify SG Al-rich AGB stars in...

  16. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  17. Desvenlafaxine for major depressive disorder: incremental clinical benefits from a second-generation serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Alice I; Tourian, Karen A; Tse, Susanna Y; Paul, Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    genetic and pharmacologically-driven variations in common mechanisms involved in the disposition of antidepressant medications may contribute to variable interpatient response. This review describes the pharmacological properties underlying the safety and efficacy of desvenlafaxine, a second-generation serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). literature published between January 2006 and September 2010 evaluating desvenlafaxine was reviewed. Desvenlafaxine therapy is initiated at the therapeutic dose (50 mg/day) without a need for dose titration. Desvenlafaxine metabolism and distribution are not appreciably affected by altered function of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes or permeability glycoprotein (P-gp). Desvenlafaxine has clinically insignificant effects on the activity of CYP and P-gp. The efficacy of desvenlafaxine in treating major depressive disorder has been established. Adverse events are characteristic of the SNRI class. Notably, the rate of discontinuation due to adverse events with the 50 mg/day recommended therapeutic dose is comparable to that seen with placebo. incremental benefits with desvenlafaxine, derived from straight-forward dosing, a simple metabolic profile and lack of interaction with active transporter P-gp and CYP enzymes may contribute to more consistent response, good tolerability and lower incidence of drug-drug interactions with concomitant medications.

  18. Overcoming the drug resistance problem with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors: from enzymology to structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespan, E; Zucca, E; Maga, G

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the major pathways used by eukaryotic cells to propagate signals to the final effectors, regulating multiple aspects of the living cell, such as metabolism, growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility, genome stability and death. In this context, tyrosine kinases (TKs) play a central role in signal transduction and their overexpression or disregulated activity has been implicated in tumor onset and malignancy progression. To date, eight TKs inhibitors have been approved by FDA for the treatment of specific tumors. In spite of their efficacy, insurgence of resistance is a common feature after prolonged administration. The selective pressure by these drugs, in fact, induces clonal expansion of subsets of cancer cells harboring TKs mutations, leading to decreased inhibition potency. Alternatively, resistance to TK inhibitors can be acquired through the activation of others, often unrelated, TKs. For this reason, while stringent target selectivity of TKs inhibitors has been always considered a desirable feature in order to limit toxicity, molecules targeting different TKs have been recently shown to be promising anti-cancer agents as well. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that confer resistance to TK inhibitors, through a combination of enzymatic, structural and cellular studies, is essential in the development of second generation inhibitors active also towards drug resistant tumors.

  19. P-glycoprotein influences the brain concentrations of cetirizine (Zyrtec), a second-generation non-sedating antihistamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Joseph W; Baughman, Todd M; Humphreys, Joan E; Jordan, Kelly H; Mote, Angela L; Salisbury, Jo A; Tippin, Timothy K; Serabjit-Singh, Cosette J

    2003-10-01

    Recent in vitro studies have suggested that P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and passive membrane permeability may influence the brain concentrations of non-sedating (second-generation) antihistamines. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of Pgp-mediated efflux on the in vivo brain distribution of the non-sedating antihistamine cetirizine (Zyrtec), and the structurally related sedating (first-generation) antihistamine hydroxyzine (Atarax). In vitro MDR1-MDCKII monolayer efflux assays demonstrated that cetirizine was a Pgp substrate (B-->A/A-->B + GF120918 ratio = 5.47) with low/moderate passive permeability (PappB-->A = 56.5 nm/s). In vivo, the cetirizine brain-to-free plasma concentration ratios (0.367 to 4.30) were 2.3- to 8.7-fold higher in Pgp-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, hydroxyzine was not a Pgp substrate in vitro (B-->A/A-->B ratio = 0.86), had high passive permeability (PappB-->A + GF120918 = 296 nm/s), and had brain-to-free plasma concentration ratios >73 in both Pgp-deficient and wild-type mice. These studies demonstrate that Pgp-mediated efflux and passive permeability contribute to the low cetirizine brain concentrations in mice and that these properties account for the differences in the sedation side-effect profiles of cetirizine and hydroxyzine.

  20. The Frequency of Snowline-Region Planets from Four Years of OGLE-MOA-Wise Second-Generation Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Maoz, D.; Udalski, A.; Sumi, T.; Friedmann, M.; Kaspi, S.; Poleski, R.; Szymanski, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Kozlowski, S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the first four seasons from a second-generation microlensing survey for extrasolar planets, consisting of near-continuous time coverage of 8 deg to the 2nd power of the Galactic bulge by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE), Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA), and Wise microlensing surveys. During this period, 224 microlensing events were observed by all three groups. Over 12% of the events showed a deviation from single-lens microlensing, and for approx. 1/3 of those the anomaly is likely caused by a planetary companion. For each of the 224 events, we have performed numerical ray-tracing simulations to calculate the detection efficiency of possible companions as a function of companion-to-host mass ratio and separation. Accounting for the detection efficiency, we find that 55 +34 -22%of microlensed stars host a snowline planet. Moreover, we find that Neptune-mass planets are approx.10 times more common than Jupiter-mass planets. The companion-to-host mass-ratio distribution shows a deficit at q approx. 10 (exp -2), separating the distribution into two companion populations, analogous to the stellar-companion and planet populations, seen in radial-velocity surveys around solar-like stars. Our survey, however, which probes mainly lower mass stars, suggests a minimum in the distribution in the super-Jupiter mass range, and a relatively high occurrence of brown-dwarf companions.