WorldWideScience

Sample records for converting cold war

  1. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  2. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims.......This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...

  3. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  4. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  5. Talking resolved the cold war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    ... nuclear nation. Historians will remind us that, in the midst of the Cold War with a nuclear arms race between the United States and the former U.S.S.R., the top leaders, Reagan and Gorbachev (who had little reason to trust each other), met in Reykjavik, Iceland, and discussed the reduction of nuclear weapons. The result of their talks was t...

  6. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  7. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given in accordance... make recommendations to the National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The...

  8. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  9. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  10. Sizing Post-Cold War Nuclear Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oelrich, I

    2001-01-01

    This study addresses the utility of, and need for, nuclear weapons a decade after the end of the Cold War with special focus on the numbers and types of nuclear weapons appropriate for particular requirements...

  11. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...... of democratic stability. However, so far no-one has attempted to systematically identify deviant democracies before 1989. This research note does so via a large-N analysis of 125 countries during the first part of the third wave of democratization, i.e., in the period 1975-1988. 11 deviant democracies...

  12. Educational Exchange as a Cold War Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    American President Harry S. Truman called the Cold War a "struggle for the minds of men," and assigned journalists an important role in the conflict. This study finds that the U.S. Depeartment of State, via the American Embassy in Copenhagen, consciously attempted to shape Danish journalits' view...

  13. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    King.4 0 Undoubtedly, the majority was more of a vote against the Left than it was for the King. Nonetheless, the King returned and further insulated ...much stock in any pledge by the King to prevent such a regime would probably be less responsive to American influence and desire then it more pliable ...London: Hart- Davis, MacGibbon. 1976. Woods , Randall B., and Jones, Howard. Dawning of the Cold War: The United States’ Ouest For Order. Athens

  14. The Cold War is over. What now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  15. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  16. The cold wars a history of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Matricon, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Among the most peculiar of matter¡¦s behaviors is superconductivity„oelectric current without resistance. Since the 1986 discovery that superconductivity is possible at temperatures well above absolute zero, research into practical applications has flourished. The Cold Wars tells the history of superconductivity, providing perspective on the development of the field and its relationship with the rest of physics. Superconductivity offers an excellent example of the evolution of physics in the twentieth century: the science itself, its foundations, and its social context. The authors also introduce the reader to the fascinating scientific personalities, including 2003 Nobel Prize winners Alexei Alexeievich Abrikosov and Vitali Ginzburg, and political struggles behind this research.

  17. Accidental nuclear war--a post-cold war assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, L; Blair, B G; Helfand, I; Lewis, G; Postol, T; Sidel, V; Levy, B S; Abrams, H; Cassel, C

    1998-04-30

    In the 1980s, many medical organizations identified the prevention of nuclear war as one of the medical profession's most important goals. An assessment of the current danger is warranted given the radically changed context of the post-Cold War era. We reviewed the recent literature on the status of nuclear arsenals and the risk of nuclear war. We then estimated the likely medical effects of a scenario identified by leading experts as posing a serious danger: an accidental launch of nuclear weapons. We assessed possible measures to reduce the risk of such an event. U.S. and Russian nuclear-weapons systems remain on a high-level alert status. This fact, combined with the aging of Russian technical systems, has recently increased the risk of an accidental nuclear attack. As a conservative estimate, an accidental intermediate-sized launch of weapons from a single Russian submarine would result in the deaths of 6,838,000 persons from firestorms in eight U.S. cities. Millions of other people would probably be exposed to potentially lethal radiation from fallout. An agreement to remove all nuclear missiles from high-level alert status and eliminate the capability of a rapid launch would put an end to this threat. The risk of an accidental nuclear attack has increased in recent years, threatening a public health disaster of unprecedented scale. Physicians and medical organizations should work actively to help build support for the policy changes that would prevent such a disaster.

  18. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  19. Technophilic hubris and espionage styles during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrakis, Kristie

    2010-06-01

    During the Cold War the United States developed an espionage style that reflected its love affair with technology (technophilia) whereas the Soviet Union and the East Bloc continued a tradition of using humans to collect intelligence. This essay places the origins and development of these espionage styles during the Cold War in historical and social context, and assesses their strengths and weaknesses by drawing on examples from particular cases. While the United States won the Cold War, the East Bloc won the spy wars because of a more effective espionage style. I conclude with some reflections on the uses of history for future policy, and suggest areas for further study.

  20. Secret Science: Exploring Cold War Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the early Cold War - from the immediate postwar period through the 1960s - the United States military carried out extensive scientific studies and pursued technological developments in Greenland. With few exceptions, most of these were classified - sometimes because new scientific knowledge was born classified, but mostly because the reasons behind the scientific explorations were. Meteorological and climatological, ionospheric, glaciological, seismological, and geological studies were among the geophysical undertakings carried out by military and civilian scientists--some in collaboration with the Danish government, and some carried out without their knowledge. This poster will present some of the results of the Exploring Greenland Project that is coming to a conclusion at Denmark's Aarhus University.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi, cancer and the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 1946, the international community of cancer researchers was inspired by the announcement that two Soviet scientists, Nina Kliueva and Grigorii Roskin, had discovered anticancer properties in culture extracts made from the South American protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, and had produced a preparation--named after its discoverers KR--which showed clear therapeutic effects on cancer patients. Research teams from various countries enthusiastically pursued the promising new line of investigation. The story of the rise and fall of interest in the anticancer properties of T. cruzi in different countries suggests that during the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War competition between the superpowers played an important role in shaping the research agendas of cancer studies.

  2. Human rhinoviruses: the cold wars resume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M

    2008-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most common cause of viral illness worldwide but today, less than half the strains have been sequenced and only a handful examined structurally. This viral super-group, known for decades, has still to face the full force of a molecular biology onslaught. However, newly identified viruses (NIVs) including human metapneumovirus and bocavirus and emergent viruses including SARS-CoV have already been exhaustively scrutinized. The clinical impact of most respiratory NIVs is attributable to one or two major strains but there are 100+ distinct HRVs and, because we have never sought them independently, we must arbitrarily divide the literature's clinical impact findings among them. Early findings from infection studies and use of inefficient detection methods have shaped the way we think of 'common cold' viruses today. To review past HRV-related studies in order to put recent HRV discoveries into context. HRV infections result in undue antibiotic prescriptions, sizable healthcare-related expenditure and exacerbation of expiratory wheezing associated with hospital admission. The finding of many divergent and previously unrecognized HRV strains has drawn attention and resources back to the most widespread and frequent infectious agent of humans; providing us the chance to seize the advantage in a decades-long cold war.

  3. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War......-instability paradox explains Cold War Europe and nuclear South Asia and will, conditional on Iranian and North Korean revisionism, predict the impact of nuclear weapons development on these states’ conflict propensities....

  5. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  6. US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

  7. Spinifex People as Cold War Moderns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Castillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} Aboriginal Australian contemporary artists create works that express indigenous traditions as well as the unprecedented conditions of global modernity. This is especially true for the founders of the Spinifex Arts Project, a collective established in 1997 to create so-called “government paintings”: the large-scale canvases produced as documents of land tenure used in negotiations with the government of Western Australia to reclaim expropriated desert homelands. British and Australian nuclear testing in the 1950s displaced the Anangu juta pila nguru, now known to us as the Spinifex people, from their nomadic lifeworld. Exodus and the subsequent struggle to regain lost homelands through paintings created as corroborating evidence for native title claims make Spinifex canvases not simply expressions of Tjukurpa, or “Dreamings,” but also artifacts of the atomic age and its impact on a culture seemingly far from the front lines of cold war conflict.

  8. American historians on the Cold War: A historiographical interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...

  9. Science and technology in the global Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2014-01-01

    The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Unio...

  10. Past as Prelude: The Defense Debate in the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    could not say that there was an effective hierarchical system of management established. I Debate within the administration (sometimes spilling over...II AD-A235 558 I JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY I PAST AS PRELUDE: THE DEFENSE DEBATE IN THE COLD WAR BY I CURTIS M- MASIELLO I A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE...hmbod_________ REPORT DOCLktENTATION PAGE j V X-.e Z - U’--A: _ = Harch 1991 Final 1945-1988 Past as Prelude: The Defense Debate in the Cold War 5. AL𔄁e_9

  11. Peace Education after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Mary-Wynne

    1996-01-01

    Considers school violence prevention programs as well as the role students can play in international efforts to prevent war. Examines the peace and global education efforts of nongovernmental organizations. Finds a pertinent example in the Philippines where students declared their school a "zone of peace." (MJP)

  12. The Cold War and American Aid to Nigeria | Adeniji | Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cold War and American Aid to Nigeria. Abolade Adeniji. Abstract. No Abstract Available Lagos Historical Review Vol.3 2003: 112-131. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/lhr.v3i1.32508 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Tracing Cold War in Post-Modern Management's Hot Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTracing Cold War in post-modern managerial science and ideology one encounters hot issues linking contemporary liberal dogmas and romanticized view of organizational leadership to the dismantling of a welfare state disguised as a liberation of an individual employee, empowerment of an

  14. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  15. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  16. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  17. Terrorism in Post Cold War Iraq and Palestine: Causes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of terrorism in world politics is historical. In the Cold War era, this phenomenon was aided by the covert or overt activities of the extant superpowers; the United States and Soviet Union, and their client states. In the face of the collapse of communism and the emergence of the US as the only surviving ...

  18. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  19. Swedish Military Bases of the Cold War The Making of a New Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Strömberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union completely transformed the military-political situation in the Nordic countries. The movement from invasion defence to input defence in Sweden has made many of the subter-ranean modern fortresses and permanent defence systems of the Cold War unnec-essary. The current problem is what the administration authorities will do with the superfluous military buildings: let them fall into decay, preserve or reuse them – and for what purpose? The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the cultural as well as spatial foundation of a new genre of heritage industry in Sweden – the cultural heritage of the Cold War – whose value is negotiated through a range of processes by the different stakeholders involved – emotional, social and cultural processes as well as legal and economic processes. The subterranean fortresses of Hemsö and Aspö are used as empirical case studies in the article. They both describe the making of a cultural heritage and illustrate the problems related to the ambitions of convert-ing cultural heritage into tourist attractions. One of the conclusions is that the previous making of the industrial cultural heritage in the 1980s and 1990s has many things in common with the one of the Cold War. The “post-military” landscape of bunkers and rusting barbed wires is regarded with the same romanticism and with similar preservation ideologies and economic interests as the post-industrial landscape was earlier. Similar negotiation issues appear, and these negotiations are carried out by similar stakeholders. The difference is that the military culture heritage of the Cold War was developed through a deeply centralized selection process directed by administration authori-ties, but was also influenced by certain persuasion campaigns and preservation actions made by local stakeholders such as retired officers and municipality ad-ministrations.

  20. UNITED STATES DURING THE COLD WAR 1945-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Mujiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available United States and the Soviet Union is a country on the part of allies who emerged as the winner during World War II. However, after reaching the Allied victory in the situation soon changed, man has become an opponent. United States and the Soviet Union are competing to expand the influence and power. To compete the United States strive continuously strengthen itself both in the economic and military by establishing a defense pact and aid agencies in the field of economy. During the Cold War the two are not fighting directly in one of the countries of the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, if understood, teradinya the Korean War and the Vietnam War is a result of tensions between the two countries and is a direct warfare conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War ended in conflict with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as the winner of the country.

  1. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  2. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  3. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-10-26

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning &apos

  4. China’s Bargaining Strategies after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2014-01-01

    Applying bargaining theory of international conflicts, we examine the successes and challenges of China’s strategic choices in its ascent after the Cold War. We suggest that China needs to alleviate information and commitment problems in order to rise peacefully. Since 2008, China’s “peaceful rise...... disputes. China should engage in rule-based, institution building, such as a security community between China and ASEAN, to reinforce its peaceful rise commitments....

  5. ANFSQ-7 the computer that shaped the cold war

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    One of the most impressive computer systems ever was the vacuum tube based behemoth AN/FSQ-7, which was the heart of the ""Semi Automatic Ground Environment"". Machines of this type were children of the Cold War and had a tremendous effect not only on this episode in politics but also generated a vast amount of spin-offs which still shape our world.

  6. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  7. Understanding the Global Cold War Legacy: Narrating through Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Klein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War brought the shrinking and dismantling of vast nuclear weapons complexes. As a result, some landscape architects will find themselves reclaiming a new, very specific type of Cold War landscape: those degraded by nuclear arms testing, production and waste storage. Nuclear landscapes pose multiple and complex challenges. Before designing nuclear reclamations, one must ask: what are the issues? If designers misunderstand the nuclear landscape 'problem', it will be 'solved' in the wrong way. My position is based on the assumption that society desires these landscapes to be reclaimed safely and in ways that allow them to educate the public. Landscape architects can find ways to reclaim nuclear landscapes safely while leaving narratives for generations to come. Perhaps it is too early to describe how nuclear reclamations will look. It is not too early to discuss what designs for nuclear reclamations should accomplish. This paper raises questions critical to the design of nuclear reclamations, both globally and locally. Near precedents - past reclamations that narrate other types of degraded landscapes - are discussed, and it is noted how we can learn from them when considering nuclear landscape reclamation. This paper does not articulate a specific design theory or solution to Cold War nuclear landscapes, but rather, it seeks to pose critical questions that designers should ask. These questions will be broad because we consider nuclear landscapes globally. The questions will require in-depth investigation of local issues as each unique nuclear landscape is considered.

  8. China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei FAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.

  9. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable.

  10. Implications of Sino-American Strategic Competition on Southeast Asia's Post-Cold War Regional Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suryodipuro, Sidharto

    2003-01-01

    .... The study of international politics after the Cold War has rediscovered the importance of regional interaction as the framework for understanding countries' security strategies and the great powers...

  11. "This war for men's minds": the birth of a human science in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of work on the history of the human sciences during the Cold War. This work, however, does not engage with one of the leading human sciences of the period: linguistics. This article begins to rectify this knowledge gap by investigating the influence of linguistics and its concept of study, language, on American public, political and intellectual life during the postwar and early Cold War years. I show that language emerged in three frameworks in this period: language as tool, language as weapon, and language as knowledge. As America stepped onto the international stage, language and linguistics were at the forefront: the military poured millions of dollars into machine translation, American diplomats were required to master scores of foreign languages, and schoolchildren were exposed to language-learning on a scale never before seen in the United States. Together, I argue, language and linguistics formed a critical part of the rise of American leadership in the new world order - one that provided communities as dispersed as the military, the diplomatic corps, scientists and language teachers with a powerful way of tackling the problems they faced. To date, linguistics has not been integrated into the broader framework of Cold War human sciences. In this article, I aim to bring both language, as concept, and linguistics, as discipline, into this framework. In doing so, I pave the way for future work on the history of linguistics as a human science.

  12. Spies, Assassins, and Statesmen in Mexico’s Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil G. Pansters

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Essay Eclipse of the Assassins. The CIA, Imperial Politics, and the Slaying of Mexican Journalist Manuel Buendía, by Russell H. Bartley and Sylvia Erickson Bartley. University of Wisconsin Press, 2015. Mexico’s Cold War. Cuba, the United States, and the Legacy of the Mexican Revolution, by Renata Keller. Cambridge University Press, 2015. The Logic of Compromise in Mexico. How the Countryside Was Key to the Emergence of Authoritarianism, by Gladys I. McCormick. The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

  13. NEMESIS: Keeping Russia an Enemy through Cold War Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Crosston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the openly adversarial neoconservative foundation under George Bush to the supposedly more ‘engaged’diplomatic interaction under Barack Obama. What will be exposed is a fairly uninspired and non-innovative American policy that not only fails to consider Russian initiatives from Russia’s own national security perspectives, but aims to contain it within a continued Cold War box that not only sours opportunities for collaboration but guarantees the absence of partnership in areas of global security. This piece examines the consequences of imagining Russia only as nemesis. 

  14. Cold War: marxist readings on a bipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Zurita, María Delicia

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar las opiniones y reflexiones que algunos exponentes del marxismo realizaron sobre la Guerra Fría durante los años de mayor esplendor de este enfrentamiento bipolar hasta el final del mismo, la caída de la Unión Soviética. The present work seeks to analyse opinions and reflections by certain Marxist exponents as regards the Cold War along the period of highest bipolar confrontation until its end, i.e. the fall of the Soviet Union. Sección Estu...

  15. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  16. U.S. and Soviet foreign aid during the Cold War: A case study of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a historical perspective of Ethiopia's position in the international aid game at the Horn of Africa during the Cold War era (1945-1991). The main conclusions of this study are threefold. First, the countries of Ethiopia and Somalia became classic examples of pawns in Cold War

  17. The Third World Perspective on the Cold War: Making Curriculum and Pedagogy Relevant in History Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-01-01

    American and global history curriculum frameworks for high schools across the 50 states generally present the topic of the Cold War from the Western political perspective and contain material about the impact of the US-Soviet ideological rivalry on American society. This article argues that since the Cold War impacted the lives of people in the…

  18. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2007-01-01

    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  19. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  20. Revolutionary Networks. Women's Political and Social Activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfiglioli, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my dissertation, I show the liveliness of women’s political and social activism in Italy and Yugoslavia in the early Cold War period (1945-1957), demonstrating that women’s antifascist organizations played...

  1. Use of Electrically Heated Metal Catalytic Converter in Cold Starting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The easiest way to preheat the converter is to use electric resistance heaters. The electrical systems on most cars provide enough energy or power to heat the catalytic converter fast enough. So, in this research the main converter remains its usual position, whereas the heated catalyst is placed close to the exhaust manifold ...

  2. The post-cold war decade in the Caucasus: the wars in Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the conflict in Chechnya, its origins, development and international repercussions within the context of the Russian Federation and the more general context of the Caucasus, which since the end of the cold war has experienced the appearance of new conflicts and the re-emergence of old ones, largely as a result of the economic and strategic value given to the region due both to the region’s lying on the most direct route between the Caspian and Black Seas and well as to its natural gas and petroleum reserves.

  3. The Universe, the Cold War, and Dialectical Materialism

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Ideological considerations have always influenced science, but rarely as directly and massively as in the Soviet Union during the early Cold War period. Cosmology was among the sciences that became heavily politicized and forced to conform to the doctrines of Marxism-Leninism. This field of science developed entirely differently in the Communist countries than in the West, in large measure because of political pressure. Certain cosmological models, in particular of the big bang type, were declared pseudo-scientific and idealistic because they implied a cosmic creation, a concept which was taken to be religious. The result of the ideological pressure was not an independent Soviet cosmology, but that astronomers and physicists abandoned cosmological research in the Western sense. Only in the 1960s did this situation change, and cosmology in the Soviet Union began to flourish. The paper examines the relationship between science and political ideology in the case of the Soviet Union from about 1947 to 1963, and i...

  4. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  5. Cold War in Southern Africa Kalter Krieg im Südlichen Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds. (2008, Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed. (2009, Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008, The Hot “Cold War”: The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 pp. Review Article: Kalter Krieg im Südlichen Afrika Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds. (2008, Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 S. Sue Onslow (ed. (2009, Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 S. Vladimir Shubin (2008, The Hot “Cold War”: The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 S.

  6. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  7. Cold War Space Sleuths The Untold Secrets of the Soviet Space Program

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Cold War Space Sleuths reads like a Cold War espionage novel, but the reality of the story about the dedicated amateur observers bent on finding out about Soviet spaceflight during the Cold War is just as exciting and absorbing. Told in the sleuth's own words, each chapter unfolds a piece of the hidden history of what was happening behind the Iron Curtain. Coming from all over the world, including Russia itself, the amateur spies give first-hand accounts of often-forgotten aspects of the Cold War space race. Amongst others, their stories include: - the history of the Kettering Group; - looking inside the Russian archives; - unsolved mysteries, such as why cosmonauts were airbrushed out of the official archives; - reading between the lines of the Soviet media; - the impact of Gorbachev's glasnost on sleuthing; - new research, including chapters by James Oberg, Asif Siddiqi, and Bart Hendrickx.

  8. Transcending Rationalism and Constructivism: Chinese Leaders’ Operational Codes, Socialization Processes, and Multilateralism after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper challenges both rationalist and constructivist approaches in explaining China’s foreign policy behavior toward multilateral institutions after the Cold War. Borrowing insights from socialization theory and operational code analysis, this paper suggests a ‘superficial socialization...

  9. Japan's Post-Cold War North Korea Policy: Hedging toward Autonomy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fouse, David

    2004-01-01

    Japan's policy toward North Korea in the post-Cold War era can be understood in the context of a general desire to increase its influence vis-a-vis competitors in Asia, such as China and Russia, while...

  10. Hot water after the Cold War: Water policy dynamics in (semi-)authoritarian states

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter P Mollinga

    2010-01-01

    ...? The article situates the question in the post-Cold War global water governance dynamics, argues that the state is a useful and required entry point for water policy analysis, explores the meaning of (semi...

  11. Nuclear De-Alerting and the Search for Post-Cold War Nuclear Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fortney, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...... you just can't seem to get rid of it." While no longer the predominant defense issue, many still grapple with the strategic nuclear issue, wondering what we need to do with our "Cold War" nuclear arsenal...

  12. Scaling up: human genetics as a Cold War network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindee, Susan

    2014-09-01

    In this commentary I explore how the papers here illuminate the processes of collection that have been so central to the history of human genetics since 1945. The development of human population genetics in the Cold War period produced databases and biobanks that have endured into the present, and that continue to be used and debated. In the decades after the bomb, scientists collected and transferred human biological materials and information from populations of interest, and as they moved these biological resources or biosocial resources acquired new meanings and uses. The papers here collate these practices and map their desires and ironies. They explore how a large international network of geneticists, biological anthropologists, virologists and other physicians and scientists interacted with local informants, research subjects and public officials. They also track the networks and standards that mobilized the transfer of information, genealogies, tissue and blood samples. As Joanna Radin suggests here, the massive collections of human biological materials and data were often understood to be resources for an "as-yet-unknown" future. The stories told here contain elements of surveillance, extraction, salvage and eschatology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Red Dawn – the final episode of the Cold war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period of renewal of the Cold war, after 1980, movies which abandon the idea of the dentate appear, and they represent the response to Soviet expansion taking place under the auspices of diminished military confrontation. Of course, the Hollywood reaction to the real expansion of communism was not at adequate response, but it is a part of the wider restructuring of American politics regarding the Soviet Union, which was evidenced by strengthening defenses through the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, forcible intervention in Grenada, helping anti-communist movements around the world etc. In opposition to part of the US political scene which shut down attempts to stop the spread of communism across the world, action through popular culture, especially film, created a new climate in which multifaceted pressures on the socialist block were prepared. The movie Red Dawn can be considered part of the reaction of US politics on the particularistic view of the dentate as a shield for military and political spread of the USSR in Africa and other parts of the world. This pressure played on the inherent weaknesses of Soviet society in the 1980’s, a society which, after a brief period of failed transformation fell apart at the start of the final decade of the 20th century.

  14. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my

  15. new perspectives on southern africa's late cold war conflicts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    former proxy of South Africa, continued the civil war for another dozen years. The landmines remained. In many towns and villages in Angola the maimed and the wounded are still to be seen. In the northern part of Namibia (then called South West Africa) the bush war (or border war) against SWAPO raged since the 1960s.

  16. Cold War Transgressions: Christian Realism, Conservative Socialism, and the Longer 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Thomas Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the convergence of the Protestant left and traditionalist right during the 1950s. Reinhold Niebuhr and the World Council of Churches challenged Cold War liberalism from within. As they did, they anticipated and even applauded the anti-liberalism of early Cold War conservatives. While exploring intellectual precursors of the New Left, this essay forefronts one forgotten byproduct of the political realignments following World War II: The transgressive politics of “conservative socialism.” Furthermore, this work contributes to growing awareness of ecumenical Christian impact within American life.

  17. Do not panic: Hawkwind, the Cold War and “the imagination of disaster”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ihde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English rock band, Hawkwind, was amongst the founders of the genre known as “space rock”. From the early 1970s to the early 1990s, their work also included references to Cold War issues. An examination of their concert appearances, musical output and printed matter reveals that relevant material often reflected the “imagination of disaster” made famous in an essay by Susan Sontag. As well, there are correlations between the waxing and waning of Cold War tensions, and the presence and absence of such themes in their work. Thus, their work provides an example of how popular music could serve as a barometer of the impact of the Cold War on popular culture.

  18. The United States in the framework of ASEAN security : post-Cold War prospects and alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoufer, Robert Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to examine the role of the United States in the framework of ASEAN security in the post-Cold War world. Toward that end, the thesis examines the evolution of U.S. involvement in the political-economic-military development of the states that came together as ASEAN. It then seeks to identify the components of America's security strategy for the region relevant to the post-Cold War environment and, therefore,...

  19. Do not panic: Hawkwind, the Cold War and “the imagination of disaster”

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Ihde

    2015-01-01

    The English rock band, Hawkwind, was amongst the founders of the genre known as “space rock”. From the early 1970s to the early 1990s, their work also included references to Cold War issues. An examination of their concert appearances, musical output and printed matter reveals that relevant material often reflected the “imagination of disaster” made famous in an essay by Susan Sontag. As well, there are correlations between the waxing and waning of Cold War tensions, and the presence and abse...

  20. Global Inequality and Global Poverty Since the Cold War. How robust is the optimistic narrative?

    OpenAIRE

    Edward, Peter; Sumner, Andy

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how the growth in global consumption since the end of the Cold War, has impacted on the co-evolution of global inequality and poverty. It is often suggested that this era of growth has led to a dramatic reduction in global poverty and to the emergence of both a new global middle class and a more equal world. We argue that this dominant and optimistic narrative on globalisation since the Cold War is considerably more methodologically fragile than it at first seems. Further...

  1. Howard Hughes and the Cold War Aviation Film Jet Pilot (1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andrew Voeltz

    2016-10-01

    War.  But sexual intimacy, conspicuous consumption, and aviation technology also inserted themselves into the perfect safetly of American domestic bliss. This paper will analyze how the eccentric Cold War romantic comedy Jet Pilot (1957 so associated with the compulsiveness of Howard Hughes, produced and written by Jules Furthman, directed ( partially by Josef von Sternburg and starring John Wayne and Janet Leigh, reflects all these themes making it the paradigmatic Cold Film that remains a camp classic from the American popular cultyre of the 1950s.

  2. Oil and geopolitics: the oil crises of the 1970s and the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of the geopolitics of oil in the 1970s provides important insights into the nature and dynamics of the Cold War. Possession of ample domestic oil supplies and the ability to ensure access to foreign oil reserves were significant elements in the power position of the United States in its Cold War competition with the Soviet Union. U.S. oil production peaked in 1970,however, making the United States increasingly dependent on oil imports and ending its ability to provide oil to it...

  3. Voicing Asia: Post-Cold War Novels, Geopolitics, and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Sunny Yang

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores how novels and geopolitics differently represent a voice as "Asian." By incorporating cases studies of how U.S. policy "voiced" culturally representative anti-communist voices, it highlights the historical and formal specificity of post-Cold War Asian novelistic

  4. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  5. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  6. The Cold War within American Higher Education: Rutgers University as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas F.

    This book examines the impact of anticommunism on American campuses, using Rutgers University (New Jersey) from 1950 through 1965 as a case example. Following an introductory chapter which provides background information, chapter 2 discusses the period January 1950 to August 1952, when Cold War politics intensified at Rutgers University and the…

  7. Die Koue Oorlog: Die Wêreld se Langste Oorlog? / The Cold War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It lasted for almost fifty years and historians will one day have to assign it its rightfUl place in the history of the twentieth century. ... The Cold War also represents the longest peace period in the modern history of Europe. It is also ... On several occasions heighthened international tension brought the world on the brink of'lt'ar.

  8. Post-cold war international relations and foreign policies in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that international relations in Africa have changed especially in content since the abatement of the Cold War. These changes have been accelerated by the pressures unleashed by the international environment, including the reality of Africa's marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along ...

  9. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  10. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  11. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  12. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  13. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  14. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  15. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  16. The Fate of German Studies After the End of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendahl, Peter Uwe

    1998-01-01

    Both declining second-language enrollments in colleges and universities and the rapid metamorphosis of higher education are linked to the end of the Cold War. The strong state as the protector of the university's relative independence has ended, and the business sector is the new standard for measuring performance. In this context, German…

  17. Structural and Institutional Changes in NATO after the End of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O K Petrovich-Belkin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some fundamental structural and organizational changes which took place in NATO after the end of the Cold War. In particular the article touches upon some issues associated with the NATO expansion and with the origin of new authorities and cooperation programs in the North Atlantic Alliance.

  18. History and the End of the Cold War: A Whole New Ball Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, J. Garry

    1992-01-01

    Contends end of the Cold War and demise of communism caught most historians by surprise. Questions whether increased military spending by Unites States was the primary cause of the fall of the Soviet Union and communist nations in Europe. Argues world is still a dangerous place, and the Unites States must be diplomatically skillful and encourage…

  19. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  20. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  1. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  2. Neither Acceptable Nor Certain - Cold War Antics for 21st Century Precautionary Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Hanekamp (Jaap)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPrecaution is regarded as the paradigmatic approach to uncertainty. Either proposed as a form of radical prevention or, as put forward recently, as an innovative normative procedure to handle uncertainties in advancing human activities, it nevertheless finds its source in Cold War

  3. Engineering Science Education and the Indian Institutes of Technology: Reframing the Context of the "Cold War and Science" (1950-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a revival of research interest in the Cold War, and on science during the Cold War, from a revised social theoretic perspective. Part of this reframing is evident in explorations of the relationship underpinning the Cold War discourse and modernisation theory. Drawing on this new turn, this article switches the…

  4. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  5. Causes of the Vietnam War: An Academic Look at Wilsoniasm and Cold War Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belanger, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    At the end of World War II Europe was divided by two ideological super powers. President Truman had hoped that newly conquered Eastern Europe would hold free elections and determine their own course of government...

  6. The Built Environment of Cold War Era Servicewomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    what they apparently feared would be a masculinizing experience for the young women involved.”87 Similarly, “there was, and continued to be, a...the rise of feminism , and, of course, the anti- government and anti-war movement. “During this period, the country be- came immersed in computers, the...especially the role of women in the military. The women’s movement and the growth of feminism resulted not only in the proposal (but not ratification

  7. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  8. 1948 AND THE COLD WAR IN MALAYA: SAMPLINGS OF MALAY REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary report of an on-going research on the reactions of the Malays in Malaya to the coming of the Cold War to the region, with particular reference to the importance of the year 1948. For the majority of the Malays, the Cold War was most popularly associated with the Emergency, which British authorities had declared in the effort to quell the armed uprising mounted by the MCP. The vast majority of Malays in Malaya were not interested in the on-going Cold War between the Western bloc led by the United States on the side the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union on the other. The preoccupations of the Malays during the immediate post-Pacific War period was nationalism and the concomitant effort to gain independence for Malaya from Britain. In particular, they had been rather anxious that the Malays, who were the native of the land, were not robbed of the custodianship over Malaya and political privileges of the Malays in independent Malaya. Consumed with these issues, the Malays had little interests in external affairs. It was perhaps the lack of Malay support that foredoomed the fate of communism in Malaya.

  9. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  10. The “Turkish crisis” of the Cold War period and the south Caucasian republics

    OpenAIRE

    Gasanly, Jamil

    2009-01-01

    The author traces the ups and downs of Soviet-Turkish relations during World War II and immediately after it and concentrates on the most important points along this far from easy road. He amply draws on declassified archive documents from the United States, Russia, Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, and Azerbaijan to recreate a true picture of the time when the Turkish crisis was developing into another seat of the Cold War while the leaders of the Armenian and Georgian Soviet republics acted as obed...

  11. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Buechler, C.R. [Peterson, AFB, CO (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  12. Political Evolution at NATO Level in Post Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cătălin Tomiţă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the post Cold era sounds like that: „The world has changed dramatically. The Alliance has made an essential contribution. The peoples of North America and the whole of Europe can now join in a community of shared values based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As an agent of change, a source of stability and the indispensable guarantor of its members' security, our Alliance will continue to play a key role in building a new, lasting order of peace in Europe: a Europe of cooperation and prosperity”[1].

  13. Eugene Onegin the Cold War Monument: How Edmund Wilson Quarreled with Vladimir Nabokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Conley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tale of how Edmund Wilson quarreled with Vladimir Nabokov over the latter’s 1964 translation of Eugene Onegin can be instructively read as a politically charged event, specifically a “high culture” allegory of the Cold War. Dissemination of anti-Communist ideals (often in liberal and literary guises was the mandate of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, whose funding and editorial initiatives included the publication of both pre-Revolution Russian literature and, more notoriously, the journal Encounter (1953-1990, where Nabokov’s fiery “Reply” to Wilson appeared. This essay outlines the propaganda value of the Onegin debate within and to Cold War mythology.

  14. Polish International Relations Studies and Post-Historiography, Disciplinary Development after the Cold War.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Haliżak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the methodological and institutional development of international studies in Poland, which were formed under the influence of the unique historical experience resulting from Poland’s geographical location between Germany and Russia. This unfavourable geopolitical location was overcome after the Cold War, when Poland joined Western institutions: NATO and the European Union. The integration with the West provided a qualitatively new impetus for the development of international studies and especially the issues of security and European integration; moreover, entirely new possibilities of academic cooperation opened up in the field of international relations studies. The article focus on the following issues: first, the historical tradition of international relations studies in Poland until the end of the Cold War; and second, the process of autonomisation of international studies in Poland as a discipline of social sciences after the fall of communism.

  15. Competing with the Soviets science, technology, and the state in Cold War America

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2013-01-01

    For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the sup...

  16. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  17. Not Just About the Science: Cold War Politics and the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2016-12-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.

  18. European Security Organizations in the Post-Cold-War Security Environment. The New Frame of European Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugai, Veaceslav

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, it gives an over view of the transformations that occurred within NATO and OSCE in the post-Cold War period, which have created and developed new security mechanisms and policies for dealing with crises...

  19. Between anti-communist hysteria and anti-yankee resentment. Salvador Abascal and cold war scenarios in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alejandro García Naranjo

    2015-01-01

    nation, over Mexico and the world. Confronted with Cold War scenarios, this public leader discredited both communism and the United States for “threatening”, the catholic integrity of the country, in several ways.

  20. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jager, Sheila M

    2007-01-01

    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  1. "Noi Donne" and "Famiglia Cristiana": Communists, Catholics, and American Female Culture in Cold War Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    Italy's Cold War cultural contest for the hearts and minds of Italian women was a three way struggle between the Catholic Church, the Italian Communists, and the United States. The arrival of American consumer products and models in postwar Italy and their growing influence on upper to middle-class, and eventually working-class women, provided the two domestic groups, who previously had been engaged in a bipolar struggle with each other, with a common enemy - the materialistic, immoral, and a...

  2. Norwegian and Danish Defence Policy in the Post-Cold War period : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Saxi, Håkon Lunde

    2009-01-01

    Norway and Denmark are two countries with a great many similarities. The two states share a common Scandinavian language and culture, very similar democratic political systems, generous welfare states, and even membership in the same military alliance. However, this dissertation will argue that, in the field of defence policy, the two countries have pursued markedly different paths in the post-Cold War era. Investigating the period 1990–2008, the study argues that Norway showed reluctance to ...

  3. Social paranoia and absurdist fiction in Cold War America and Soviet Russia: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the theme of social paranoia as depicted in the Absurdist fiction of Cold War America and Soviet Russia. The central hypothesis informing this research maintains that, despite the ideology of moral and cultural “Otherness” constructed and reinforced by both nations throughout much of twentieth century, the US and the Soviet Union more often than not functioned as mirror images of paranoia and suspicion. Much of the fiction produced in Russia from the Revolution onwards an...

  4. Policy Jolts in U.S. Arms Transfers: The Post Cold War Security Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Misheloff, Jane

    1999-01-01

    This research addresses the subject of conventional arms transfers in the Post Cold War Era. ("Conventional arms" herein are defined as high cost, state-of-the-art weapons systems in aerospace, land vehicles, missiles and naval vessels. ") The rapid and startling changes in the international political environment that took place in the late 1980's forced the U.S. and her Western Allies to reexamine their national defense budgets. The Bush Administration responded to the situation with new ...

  5. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  6. Other Than War: The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    1998, after the bombings of the American embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania, as part of Operation Resolute Response. Prior to...of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Washington, DC • 2013 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Schubert, Frank N. Other than war : the ...seeking to reassert political control of the formerly secessionist states and the newly free black population. Recently returned to Congress , southern

  7. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  8. Mathematical models, rational choice, and the search for Cold War culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2010-06-01

    A key feature of the social, behavioral, and biological sciences after World War II has been the widespread adoption of new mathematical techniques drawn from cybernetics, information theory, and theories of rational choice. Historians of science have typically sought to explain this adoption either by reference to military patronage, or to a characteristic Cold War culture or discursive framework strongly shaped by the concerns of national security. This essay explores several episodes in the history of game theory--a mathematical theory of rational choice--that demonstrate the limits of such explanations. Military funding was indeed critical to game theory's early development in the 1940s. However, the theory's subsequent spread across disciplines ranging from political science to evolutionary biology was the result of a diverse collection of debates about the nature of "rationality" and "choice" that marked the Cold War era. These debates are not easily reduced to the national security imperatives that have been the focus of much historiography to date.

  9. Nowhere to run, rabbit: the cold-war calculus of disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2017-06-01

    During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine. This makes Fenner at least a partial exception to other senior disease ecologists in the region, most of whom learned their ecology from examining responses to agricultural challenges and animal husbandry problems in settler colonial society. Here I consider the local ecologies of knowledge in southeastern Australia during this period, and describe the particular cold-war intellectual niche that Fenner and Ratcliffe inhabited.

  10. A REASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 1948 MADIUN UPRISING TO THE COLD WAR IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine McGregor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which the Madiun Uprising of 1948 shaped the Cold War in Indonesia. The uprising resulted in severe and lasting antagonisms between the Indonesian Communist Party and members of the Islamic Party Masyumi due to reprisals against Masyumi members after the failure of the uprising and the death of key members of the Communist Party at the hands of the Republic. Although 1948 can be seen as an important flash point in the Cold War for Indonesia, it was not a significant turning point because the communist party recovered from this episode. After surveying a range of interpretations of the Madiun uprising and its significance internationally, this paper provides an overview of the ongoing significance of the Madiun uprising to the image of the Indonesian Communist Party in the 1950s and 1960s. The paper examines an early history war between the Communist Party and Masyumi over how the events at Madiun would be remembered. These debates signal continuing and intense hostility towards the communist party from Masyumi supporters, which endured throughout and even after the 1965–1966 anti-communist killings.

  11. Reanalysis of Korean War Anthropological Records to Support the Resolution of Cold Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily K

    2017-09-01

    Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented. These comparisons demonstrate commonalities and continuing patterns of errors that are useful in refining both research on Korean War cold case records and forensic anthropological analyses performed using methods developed from the 1950s identifications. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2009-10-01

    Between 1959 and 1962, Senator Estes Kefauver led a congressional investigation into the pricing practices of U.S. drug firms. As part of its defense, the industry mobilized the rhetoric of cold war and promoted the industry as a critical national asset in the global war against communism. The industry argued that any effort to undermine corporate innovation by inviting, as Kefauver proposed, greater government involvement in drug development threatened the public's health and invited socialism-in the form of socialized medicine-into the domestic political economy. This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda.

  13. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  14. Hot Water after the Cold War – Water Policy Dynamics in (Semi-Authoritarian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article of the special section introduces the central question that the section addresses: do water policy dynamics in (semi-authoritarian states have specific features as compared to other state forms? The article situates the question in the post-Cold War global water governance dynamics, argues that the state is a useful and required entry point for water policy analysis, explores the meaning of (semi-authoritarian as a category, and finally introduces the three papers, which are on China, South Africa and Vietnam.

  15. Developing powers: modernization, economic development, and governance in Cold War Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Alexander Nunan; AS Morrison; Kelly, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, scholars have recognized economic development and modernization as crucial themes in the history of the twentieth century and the ‘global Cold War.’ Yet while historians have written lucid histories of the role of the social sciences in American foreign policy in the Third World, far less is known on the Soviet Union’s ideological and material support during the same period for countries like Egypt, India, Ethiopia, Angola, or – most prominently – Afghanistan. This dis...

  16. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  17. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    This dissertation presents an analysis and discussion of the Soviet cultural diplomatic activities towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991. The overall aim of the dissertation is to answer three questions: 1.How were the activities organized and financed? 2.What forms of activities took......, and the so-called public organizations, the International level contains various international front organizations (e.g. the World Peace Council or Cominform), and the national level contains the national affiliates of international peace organizations (e.g.“Fredens Tilhængere”), the Danish-Soviet friendship...

  18. Romance, revolution and regulation: colonialism and the US-Mexico border in American Cold War film.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The 1950s saw perhaps the largest number of American films set on and around the US-Mexico border of any period of the twentieth century. This thesis investigates why this concentration of films appeared at this point in time. It argues that rather than responding to the changes in policy and practice along the borderline that were taking place in the 1950s, these films engage with cold war politics as they explore the relationship between the United States and Mexico through ideas of romance...

  19. "Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Robert Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. By explicating the political consequences of changing flows of agricultural exports and imports in one specific context, this essay serves as case study of the role of agriculture in the global context of the Cold War.

  20. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  1. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  2. The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshal...... and capital, sanctioning a class compromise between them, and contributing to stabilize and maintain a social democratic hegemony in the labor movement.......Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshall...... Plan, for the Nordic trade unions in following their British and American colleagues in breaking with the World Federation of Trade Unions and establishing the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions? In Denmark, American authorities came to function as a kind of mediator between labor...

  3. Emission Treatment towards Cold Start and Back Pressure in Internal Combustion Engine against Performance of Catalytic Converter: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, regulation for the vehicles emissions has becoming more stringent in order to reduce the effect of pollutant gases that was being released by the vehicles exhaust. The development of catalytic converter is to resolve the pollution emission aspect. There are lots of improvements done by the researchers towards improving catalytic converter, yet there are still key issues which give negative impact to the environment. One of the problems that are being concern by among of researchers is the cold-start and back pressure problems that usually occur in the composition of catalytic converter. Presented here is a review of cold-starts and back pressure problems together with several alternatives taken by not affecting the performance of vehicles engine and fuel consumption. The review also includes alternative system development and selection of materials to resolve these problems.

  4. Making a homefront without a battlefront: The manufacturing of domestic enemies in the early Cold War culture 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Gabilliet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the Cold War was an undeclared conflict without actual battlefront one of its earliest charcteristics was the emergence in the United States of a homefront-based “war culture” targetting domestic enemies. 1947 witnessed the rise in news media of anxieties over alleged threats to domestic stability: in the first few months of the year, a Crime Scare reactivating pre-war concerns about the Mob and, in the summer, the first reported UFO sightings. In both cases the media and public resp...

  5. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  6. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon

  7. An Expansion of the Rhetorical Vision Component of the Symbolic Convergence Theory: The Cold War Paradigm Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Ernest G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Uses the Cold War rhetorical vision as a paradigm case illustrating the emerging theory of group consciousness, part of Symbolic Convergence Theory. Explains that three streams of communication (consciousness creating, consciousness raising, and consciousness sustaining) characterize the life cycle of a rhetorical vision. Demonstrates that…

  8. The Cold War and Academic Governance: The Lattimore Case at Johns Hopkins. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    During the Cold War era, when many institutions of higher learning sacrificed faculty in the face of political pressure, the Owen Lattimore case represents a situation where university administrators stood firm. This book explores what happened when pressure was put on Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) to punish a faculty member who expressed…

  9. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, "Minerva," and the Quest for Instituting "Science Studies" in the Age of Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the "cultural cold wars." In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote "science studies" as a distinct--and politically relevant--area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for…

  10. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  11. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse.

  12. Between the West and Asia: "Humanistic" Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.

  13. Ideological Cooperation versus Cold War Realpolitik - The SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valur Ingimundarson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between the East German Socialist Unity Party (SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party (SEI during the Cold War. It details the structural limitations of ideological cooperation between the two parties – Iceland’s NATO membership and the U.S. military presence – as well as its possibilities, especially in the 1950s, through the governmental participation of the SEI. Special attention is devoted to the role played by Einar Olgeirsson, the chairman of the SEI 1939–1968, who was instrumental in forging and developing political, economic, and cultural ties with the SED and the German Democratic Republic. The article argues that this experiment in transnational solidarity between socialist parties from two radically different political systems failed in the end due to several factors, including ideological differences and the political and economic development in Iceland.

  14. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  15. Bridging the Cold War and the 21st century: chronicling the history of Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    A historical perspective is given for Sandia National Laboratories from its beginnings as a small engineering group at an offshoot of Los Alamos Laboratory to a facility of 7000 people at its main facility in Albuquerque, another 1000 people in Livermore, California and test ranges in Tonopah, Nevada and Kauai, Hawaii. The Sandia army base became the Z division of Los Alamos and $25 million construction program began the structures that would carry out a test program for nuclear weapons during the cold war. Bell System/AT&T stewardship of the site continued from 1949 to 1993, when Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin) was chosen as the new contractor. Management decisions, personnel, and political aspects of the Laboratory are presented up to 1997 and forecasts are given for future policy and programs of Sandia.

  16. Building the general relativity and gravitation community during the Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Lalli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents a new perspective on the history of general relativity. It outlines the attempts to establish an institutional framework for the promotion of the field during the Cold War. Readers will learn the difficulties that key figures experienced and overcame during this period of global conflict. The author analyzes the subtle interconnections between scientific and political factors. He shows how politics shaped the evolution of general relativity, even though it is a field with no military applications. He also details how different scientists held quite different views about what “political” meant in their efforts to pursue international cooperation. The narrative examines the specific epistemic features of general relativity that helped create the first official, international scientific society. It answers: Why did relativity bring about this unique result? Was it simply the product of specific actions of particular actors having an illuminated view of international relations in the...

  17. Détente from the Air: Monitoring Air Pollution during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Rachel

    During the period of détente in the 1970s, a Norwegian proposal to construct an air pollution monitoring network for the European continent resulted in the first concrete collaboration between the communist and capitalist blocs after the 1975 Helsinki Accords. Known as the "European-wide monitoring programme" or EMEP, the network earned considerable praise from diplomats for facilitating cooperation across the Iron Curtain. Yet as this article argues, EMEP was strongly influenced by the politics of détente and the constraints of the Cold War even as it helped to decrease tensions. Concerns about national security and sharing data with the enemy shaped both the construction of the monitoring network and the modeling of pollution transport. The article also proposes that environmental monitoring systems like EMEP reveal the ways in which observational technologies can affect conceptions of the natural world and the role of science in public policy.

  18. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  19. "Shocking" masculinity: Stanley Milgram, "obedience to authority," and the "crisis of manhood" in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances.

  20. Sino­Pakistan Relations and the Challenges of Post-­Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy, and the largest exporter of goods with 9.6 per cent of the global share. Moreover, the last two decades have seen China emerging as an international and regional power of the 21st century. Thus, in order to continue with the economic benefits, China wants peace and stability as well as to play an active role on international and regional fronts. On the other hand, Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, is a major power of South Asia. While having a developed infrastructure and vibrant political and security institutions, Pakistan is nevertheless currently facing many challenges on the economic front, including political instability and religious extremism. This paper is an attempt to analyze the challenges faced by both China and Pakistan in the post-Cold War era.

  1. The Congress for Cultural Freedom seen from the dynamics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ruiz Durán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how, at the height of the Cold War, the British intelligence services responded to the new spy system created by the Comintern developing a secret campaign of political and cultural propaganda, under the cover of prestigious foundations to channel intellectuals in defense of a liberal democracy. This spy system expected to carry out propaganda secret operations and manipulate the intellectuals from almost the very beginning of the Soviet Revolution. The keystone to win the battle of consciences was the Congress for Cultural Freedom and its editorials, magazines, exhibitions, scholarships, concerts, congresses and conferences. Finally, it will be noted how the Congress for Cultural Freedom implemented the political conception of "non-communist left" to sustain the social democracy in the Western bloc.

  2. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD: A GLOBAL LEADER OR HEGEMON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jonev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper deal with the role of the USA in the post-Cold War world and their position from the standpoint of relevant indicators and theoretical considerations. This work also refers to path that the United States took from isolationism to the world domination and considers justification of the position of the USA in the period after the Cold War from the point of hegemonic stability theories, while at the end indicates the diversity of understanding of contemporary thinkers regarding the position of the United States as the hegemon or rather “just” a global leader. This paper does not prejudge the final definition of the position of the USA in international relations, but aims to launch discussions on the necessity and justification of the existence of such vision on a global scale.

  4. Beyond the Cold-War Reprise of the Arctic Super-Powers. Decoding the Structural Meaning of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McMurtry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Ukraine crisis” repeats a script as old as the Cold War, of which the Arctic was one of its main theatres and that, as suggested by Irina Zhilina in her 2013 study about NATO in the far north for issue 8(1 of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, could regain such a role, were frictions between East and West to resurface. And they have resurfaced. The ongoing Cold-War-like narrative vis-à-vis Ukraine features rising attacks by corporate states and media on the traditional whipping boy of Russia. As usual, “escalating the crisis” is the other Arctic super-power: the US. As usual, alarm about “increasing lawless aggression” is projection of US policy itself.

  5. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  6. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  7. Cold (and hot) wars: Superconductivity and society, from Weissberg-Cibulsky 1931 to the 2003 Nobel prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysand, Georges [Groupe de Physique des Solides, Universites Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and Denis Diderot Paris 7, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit de Rustrel-Pays d' Apt (Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis), La Grande Combe, 84400 Rustrel (France)

    2005-03-01

    Far from being a continous flow from its discovery down to its explanation, the actual history of superconductivity has been affected by numerous socio-political turbulences all along the XXth century, through hot and Cold wars. From the 30's to the 2003 Nobel prize for physics most of these turbulences are overviewed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. To Be or to Become ‘European’? ‘Westernizing’ Narratives in Post-Cold War Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dragomir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish ‘westernizing’ narrative emphasizes Finland’s ‘westernness’, i.e. the idea that Finland and Finns have always been western and part of the ‘European family’. The recent past is not seen as an obstacle for this interpretation. Thus, according to this type of discourse, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and ‘liberated’ from the constraints of the Cold War, Finland could finally ‘return’ to the West, to Europe, to its ‘natural’ origins. This article examines in short what might be called the post-Cold War narrative of Finnish westernness as it appears in the English language sources. It argues that the westernizing narrative is very important in justifying Finland’s post-Cold War position in the international politics, especially its position in the European politics. The article is divided in two parts. The first one examines the narrative of the westernness of Finland, Finns or Finnish ‘identity’ as it appears in some scientific writings, press materials and political texts. Within this narrative an important element is the re-evaluation of Finland’s international position during the Cold War. Therefore, the Finnish security ‘solution’ – by some called ‘Nordic and neutral identity’ – is either criticized, attacked and characterized as an aberration and betrayal of the ‘Finnish western identity’, or accepted as the only possible ‘instrument for pursuing national security interests’ in those times. The second part of the article advances some explanations for this narrative and addresses questions such as: why was it developed, by whom, and how successful was it? The article shows how highly political is the (representation of Finnish history and how much its ‘western character’ is related to Finland’s current political situation and goals in Europe. It also reveals how important the ideology is in backing a political choice.

  9. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    interdependence,” U.S. mili - tary operations remain an amalgamation of component opera- tions, designed for optimal employment of organic capabilities...Wilson, and Laurinda L. Zeman all offered valuable advice about the concepts examined in the study. Jerry Sollinger gave the draft manuscript his...period since the end of the Cold War has wit- nessed significant conflict, the “war” dimension of the range of mili - tary operations is where the

  10. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations.

  11. Indonesian Political Islam: Capitalist Development and the Legacies of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi R. Hadiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the genesis of Indonesian political Islam and its interactions with the nationalist secular state in the immediate post-colonial era while examining some of the origins of the ‘radical’ stream that has garnered much attention in the current post-authoritarian period. It puts forward the idea that, rather than an outcome of Indonesian democratisation, this stream was in fact the product of authoritarian New Order rule. The article also considers some parallels in the trajectories of political Islam more generally in Indonesia, the Middle East and North Africa, especially as a kind of populist response to the tensions and contradictions of global capitalism. It addresses the city of Surakarta (Solo as a case study and highlights the importance of Cold War politics in moulding political Islam in Indonesia and elsewhere. The approach emphasises historical and sociological factors shaping political Islam that have tended to be relegated to the background in prevalent security-oriented analyses concerned with issues of terrorism and violence.

  12. Cold War competition and food production in China, 1957-1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how Mao's grand strategy for Cold War competition inflicted a catastrophic agricultural failure in China and victimized tens of millions of Chinese peasants. It argues that Khrushchev's 1957 boast about the Soviet Union surpassing the United States in key economic areas inspired Mao to launch an industrialization program that would push the People's Republic past Great Britain in some production categories within fifteen years. Beginning in 1958 Mao imposed unrealistic targets on Chinese grain production to extract funds from agriculture for rapid industrial growth. Maoists placed relentless pressure on communist cadres for ruthless implementation of the Great Leap Forward. Contrary to Maoist plans, China's grain output in 1959-1960 declined sharply from 1957 levels and rural per capita grain retention decreased dramatically. Throughout China, party cadres' mismanagement of agricultural production was responsible for the decline in grain output, and the communist state's excessive requisition of grain caused food shortages for the peasants. But the key factor determining the famine's uneven impact on the peasantry in the provinces was the degree to which provincial leaders genuinely and energetically embraced Maoist programs. This is illustrated by a close examination of the Great Leap famine in Anhui Province.

  13. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Between the West and Asia: “Humanistic” Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan’s international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective “humanistic” was used to underscore the originality of Japan’s family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan’s delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and “underdeveloped” Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western “acceptors” subjected to the population control programs. PMID:29046737

  15. The Molecular Basis of Evolution and Disease: A Cold War Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2017-03-28

    This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen's The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution. Beyond atomic fallout, these advances constituted a rationale for the promotion of genetic surveys of human populations in the Third World, in connection with international health programs. Light is shed not only on the experimental roots of the molecular challenge but on the broader geopolitical context where the rising role of biomedicine and public health (particularly the malaria eradication campaigns) had an impact on evolutionary biology.

  16. Petrobarter: oil, inequality, and the political imagination in and after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    Petrobarter--the exchange of oil for goods and services without reference to monetary currency--has been a widespread and underappreciated practice among corporations, states, and state agencies over the past half century. Analyzing this practice with reference to anthropological theories of barter adds to our understandings of two significant and intertwined concerns in contemporary social science: (1) the production and reproduction of inequality at various scales, from subnational regions to the international system as a whole, and (2) the generation and fate of mobilizing political imaginaries that challenge the abstracted, universalizing imaginaries so often associated with monetized exchange, especially in capitalist contexts. Barter exchanges featuring oil are, therefore, as analytically significant as the much more commonly studied transactions of oil and money. Ethnographic and historical case studies of petrobarter are drawn from the Perm region of the Russian Urals in the post-Soviet period and the global oil trade in the early Cold War. This view from the perspective of the socialist and postsocialist world, it is argued, provides an instructive counterpoint to the many existing studies of oil and money, both in and beyond anthropology, that are situated in the European-American colonial and postcolonial periphery.

  17. The use of blood-type tattoos during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elizabeth K; Laumann, Anne E

    2008-03-01

    We have seen a number of individuals who received blood-type tattoos on the left side of the chest as schoolchildren in northwest Indiana during the 1950s. To investigate the history of blood-type tattooing. Historical research was conducted using newspaper and journal articles found in medical libraries, online archives, American Medical Association archives, Chicago Historical Society records, local medical society documents, in addition to personal interviews. Blood-type tattoos were used during the Cold War to enable rapid transfusions as part of a "walking blood bank" in case of atomic attack. Nationwide blood-typing programs occurred to inform individuals of their own blood types and to provide local communities with lists of possible donors. The blood-type tattooing program was part of this effort, but community-wide tattooing occurred only in two parts of the United States: Lake County, Indiana, and Cache and Rich counties, Utah. In these communities, during 1951 and 1952, schoolchildren were tattooed to facilitate emergency transfusions. Events occurred more than 50 years ago, so we relied on original documents and interviews from individuals involved in the program who are still alive. The use of blood-type tattoos was short lived, lasting less than a year, and ultimately failed because physicians did not trust tattoos for medical information.

  18. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Field Stations in the Cold War Arctic: Pedagogy and Practice in the Physical Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the first decades of Cold War America, the number of university-affiliated geophysical institutes expanded rapidly--and recruited new graduate students as they did. But how did these new recruits learn the ropes of their new profession? How did young scientists learn which concepts to take seriously, and which ones to discard--and how important were experiences gained outside the seminar room? How did they learn to design instruments, and develop research programs? Archival collections are often silent about graduate training, since many scientists began saving letters only after their professional careers were launched. But an important set of oral history interviews with individuals at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory sheds light on these questions. Interviews of researchers who were graduate students during the 1950s--including participants in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58--reveals the importance of opportunities to pursue wide-ranging investigations on research ships and remote field stations. This poster explores a particularly intriguing case, on a high-latitude ice island.

  20. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  1. The cold war context of the golden jubilee, or, why we think of mendel as the father of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2012-01-01

    In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both an intriguing instance of scientific commemoration and as an early example of Cold War political theatre. Instead of condemning either Lysenko or Soviet genetics, the Golden Jubilee would celebrate Mendel - and, not coincidentally, the practical achievements in plant and animal breeding his work had made possible. The American geneticists' focus on the achievements of Western genetics as both practical and theoretical, international, and, above all, non-ideological and non-controversial, was fully intended to demonstrate the success of the Western model of science to both the American public and scientists abroad at a key transition point in the Cold War. An implicit part of this article's argument, therefore, is the pervasive impact of the Cold War in unanticipated corners of postwar scientific culture.

  2. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented.

  3. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  4. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  5. James V. Neel and Yuri E. Dubrova: Cold War debates and the genetic effects of low-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna M; Stawkowski, Magdalena E

    2015-01-01

    This article traces disagreements about the genetic effects of low-dose radiation exposure as waged by James Neel (1915-2000), a central figure in radiation studies of Japanese populations after World War II, and Yuri Dubrova (1955-), who analyzed the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In a 1996 article in Nature, Dubrova reported a statistically significant increase in the minisatellite (junk) DNA mutation rate in the children of parents who received a high dose of radiation from the Chernobyl accident, contradicting studies that found no significant inherited genetic effects among offspring of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Neel's subsequent defense of his large-scale longitudinal studies of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation consolidated current scientific understandings of low-dose ionizing radiation. The article seeks to explain how the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data remain hegemonic in radiation studies, contextualizing the debate with attention to the perceived inferiority of Soviet genetic science during the Cold War.

  6. La Nación, Peronism, and the Origins of the Cold War in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Román, José Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the international dimension of Argentine domestic policies by exploring one of the strategies of the conservative daily newspaper La Nación, between 1946 and 1950, in order to challenge Juan Perón’s hegemony. La Nación presented the Peronist regime as akin to the totalitarian regimes established under the Soviet Union’s vigilance. This is not surprising, but revealing the complex ideological mechanisms employed by La Nación in its strategy is a noteworthy endeavor. This work will provide a thorough exploration of the process through which La Nación shifted from its former opposition to Peronism, initially identified as a Nazi-Fascist movement, to a new articulation of the regime as a totalitarian one. To some extent this was not so different from the strategy that the United States’ (US intellectual elites were carrying out in order to justify their struggle against a former ally in war as a continuation of purpose and not a rupture. Yet, the most interesting aspect of this evolution in the Argentine case is that it emerged in an autonomous way as a result of specific national and international phenomena. This shows that the characteristics of the early phase of the Cold War were shaped by transnational processes of convergence rather than US hegemony alone.Este artículo analiza la dimensión internacional de la política interna argentina explorando la estrategia del diario conservador La Nación, entre 1946 y 1950 en su enfrentamiento con el gobierno de Juan Domingo Perón. La Nación presentó el régimen peronista como similar a los regímenes totalitarios establecidos bajo el control de la Unión Soviética. Esto no resulta sorprendente, pero comprender los complejos mecanismos ideológicos empleados por La Nación en esta estrategia es un objetivo relevante de investigación. Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado del proceso que permitió a La Nación transformar su descripción del peronismo como

  7. The 1965 coup and reformasi 1998: two critical moments in Indonesia-Malaysia relations during and after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksum, Ali; Bustami, Reevany

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the significant impact of the two crucial moments in Indonesia namely, the 1965 coup and reformasi (reformation) in May 1998 and the impact towards the Indonesia-Malaysia relationship. History had demonstrated that both events were followed by some changes in the bilateral relationship. The 1965 coup for instance resulted the fall of Sukarno and the collapse of PKI, while reformasi brought the fall of Suharto and the collapse of New Order. However, it was undeniable that the demands of international situation especially during and after the Cold War were significant factor in driving of those events.

  8. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-06-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly.

  9. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  10. Production of ultra cold neutrons with a solid deuterium converter; Produktion von ultrakalten Neutronen mit einem festen Deuteriumkonverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Andreas

    2008-10-28

    Spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries is an attractive topic in modern particle physics. Understanding qualitative and quantitative the parameters involved in these kind of processes could help to explain the unbalanced presence in the universe of matter (baryons) with respect to antimatter (anti-baryons). Due to their intrinsic properties, ultra cold neutrons (UCN) are excellent candidates for experiments measuring with high level of accuracy parameters like the electric dipole moment (EDM), the neutron lifetime ({tau}{sub n}), the axial-vector coupling constant (g{sub A}), or in search of quantum effects of gravity. In this work the setup of a source for ultra cold neutrons with a solid deuterium converter is described, which serves as a prototype for a new, strong UCN source, that is currently designed and constructed at the FRMII in Garching. The prototype source has been taken into operation and important parameters have been measured. These experimental results have been compared with theoretical models to prove calculations for the performance of the new source at the FRMII. (orig.)

  11. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  13. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  14. Political Leaders after the Cold War. The Case of Slobodan Milošević: Toxic vs. Charismatic Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Popoiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War is often associated with the close of the year 1989, characterizedby the regaining of independence in Eastern Europe countries that were under dictatorships.The endof the Cold War was also connected with the fall of the Berlin Wall or with the disintegration of theSoviet Union in 1991. This paper is aimed to present Slobodan Milošević, analyzed as a toxic but alsoas a charismatic leader. Furthermore, this paper analyses the role of this political leader in Serbia andalso in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The paper presents the concept of “toxic” leader, with thepurpose of identifying characteristics of this type of leaders. In order to perceive the complexity of theconcept, the paper is focused on a multidimensional study that should emphasize the intentions, thebehaviors, the character of a “toxic” leader, the impact and also the consequences of his decisions andactions. Focusing on Slobodan Milošević, this paper also outlines essential aspects which describe“charismatic” leaders and addresses the challenging possibility of the “charismatic” leaders being“toxic” leaders simultaneously.

  15. Post-Cold War Russia/West relations: U.S. Foreign policy initiatives, sources of friction, and prospects for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Lasica, Kristen Anne.

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzes U.S. foreign policy initiatives toward Russia between 1993- 2000. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the West found itself in a period of global transition during which they had an opportunity to redefine the post-Cold War security arena and secure enduring peace and cooperation between historically adversarial blocs, The key to creating this system was immediate, full-fledged Russian inclusion. Yet due to remaining Cold War-biases and misaligned U.S. policies, Russia has ...

  16. The Relation between Hollywood and the New Threat Perception of the USA after the End of the Cold War from the Perspective of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Deger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available After the end of Cold War, the USA became the only super power and there was no threat perception from outside, in other words no enemy anymore. In fact, throughout history the USA faced different threats, that is to say, enemies. The terrorist events experienced in America after the end of Cold War brought about that the new enemy was Middle Easterners. Accordingly, the place of cinema in postmodernism is very significant as it becomes the reflection of the zeitgeist and the mindset of the era in which the film is shot.

  17. Book Review: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk).......Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk)....

  18. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  19. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963; Experten im Kalten Krieg. Kriegserfahrungen und Friedenskonzeptionen US-amerikanischer Kernphysiker 1920-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  20. Hollywood "Takes" on Domestic Subversion: The Role of Women in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role Hollywood and films had in defining the image of women in post-World War II in the United States. Focuses on the film, "Mildred Pierce," and offers a discussion of the content of this film. Includes a film based lesson plan and three accompanying handouts. (CMK)

  1. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  2. How Relevant was U.S. Strategy in Winning the Cold War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-17

    revolutionary radical who once boasted that China could win a nuclear war simply because there were more Chinese than anybody else, to a careful and...his periodic rearrangements of his schedule to meet the wishes of Mrs. Reagan’s astrologer . Obviously, though, it will take some time for our

  3. "If You Had Told Me before That These Students Were Russians, I Would Not Have Believed It": An International Project about the (New) "Cold War"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Bjorn; Zuiker, Itzél; Wubbels, Theo; Kamman, Maurits; Akkerman, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Bjorn Wansink and his co-authors have aligned their teaching of a recent and controversial historical issue--the Cold War--in the light of a contemporary incident. This article demonstrates a means of ensuring that students understand that different cultures' views of their shared past are nuanced, rather than monolithic--a different concept in…

  4. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the…

  5. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  6. Maintaining the Critical Balance: The United States, NATO, and the European Security Equilibrium in the Post-Cold War Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    International Crisis ( Bern , Switzerland: International Academic Publishers, 2008), 52. 25 capabilities, technologies and national agendas among NATO...contribution to the collective defense of Western Europe as one largely consisting of provision of resources and equipment, strategic bombing and control of...Cold War International Crisis. Bern , Switzerland: International Academic Publishers, 2008. Powaski, Ronald E. Toward an Entangling Alliance

  7. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  8. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  9. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  10. Nationalism, Mass Politics, and Sport: Cold War Case Studies at Seven Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    stick to a place where institutions abound in labyrinth - filled bureaucracies of state sponsored government in what we now know as the modern...was constant. Soon after World War II, Canada began pulling away from “ the shadow of Britain and surfaced as an important middle power.”303 Canada...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources

  11. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  12. From Kites through Cold War: The Evolution of United States Air Force Manned Airborne ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    D.C.: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998), 1. 86 Gill Robb Wilson, “The Memories of a Pioneer,” Flying 61, no. 2 (August 1957): 41-51. 87...the Mexican Punitive Expedition of 1916,” (Washington, D.C.: Air Force History and Museums Program, 2003), 5; Hennessy, The United States Army Air ...Marne, 1914: The Opening of World War I and the Battle That Changed the World (New York, NY: Random House, 2009), 230. 29 Mead, Eye in the Air , 56

  13. Cold War salons, social science, and the cure for modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Cole, Jamie

    2009-06-01

    This essay examines how post-World War II Americans linked their understanding of domestic society and international affairs by using a common lens of psychological and characterological analysis for both. That lens was fashioned by social scientists and developed to study conformity and its opposite, creative and autonomous selfhood. Creativity offered a means to achieve the liberal national society they desired. Social scientists managed their technical definitions of conformity and autonomy as a way of defining reasonable political sentiment. This essay details how, ultimately, the forms of self and sociality they advocated for America were grounded in the kinds of community and interpersonal interaction they valued in their own professional lives.

  14. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  15. The War on Cancer: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Is Fighting the Good Fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Located on the north shore of Long Island in New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (Figure 1) started out with a marine biology emphasis at the end of the 19th century, but it soon established itself as a prominent cancer research facility. That strong emphasis on cancer work continues today as this private, not-for-profit research institution enters its 127th year (Figure 2).

  16. Labor in the US foreign policy during early cold war : the Marshall Plan and American-Turkish labor relations, 1945-1955

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Sera

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. American foreign policy, parallel to the rise of the working class as of the 1860s, has included a new policy actor: labor. Likewise, in the aftermath of World War II and emergence of bipolar world, the United States of America actively made use of labor unions and rendered it an intrinsic Cold War value. This thesis describes America’s use of labor tool in its struggle against communism after providing a general account of labor moveme...

  17. Spines of Steel: A Case of Surgical Enthusiasm in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Just as the prevalence of scoliosis began to decline precipitously after World War II, American orthopedic surgeon Dr. Paul R. Harrington devised a new, invasive surgical system whereby implantable prosthetic metal rods and hooks were used to straighten curved backs. By the 1970s, "Harrington rods" had become the gold standard of surgical scoliosis care in the United States, replacing more conventional methods of exercise, bracing, and casting. This article situates the success of Harrington rods within a much larger and historically longer debate about why, when compared to those in other nations, American surgeons appear to be "more aggressive" and "knife-happy." Using Harrington's papers and correspondence, I argue that patients played a vital role in the rise of spinal surgery. As such, this article examines not only how surgical enthusiasm has been historically measured, defined, and morally evaluated, but also how scoliosis became classified as a debility in need of surgical management.

  18. NETmundial: only a landmark event if 'Digital Cold War' rhetoric abandoned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While internet privacy has been a central concern for quite a long time, the revelations by Edward Snowden about the US National Security Agency’s massive surveillance programme have highlighted the extent to which it is a core political issue. The privacy-surveillance controversy has prompted what is perhaps the most prominent and ambitious call in internet governance history to break the dominance of the United States' control over internet infrastructure: the Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance, or NETmundial (April 2014. The article analyses the current state of multi-stakeholderism in internet governance in light of this event. In particular, it argues for the necessity to leave the ‘Digital Cold War’ rhetoric behind if the internationalisation and the globalisation of internet governance is to move to the next level.

  19. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Punto Fijo pact when he ran for election on the National Convergence ticket, created an environment ripe for the growth of populist politics. Granting...1999 (although Caldera played a role in the demise of Punto Fijo as mentioned earlier). Chávez created the MBR-200 (Movimiento Bolivariano...Castañeda, Jorge G . Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War. New York: Vintage, 1994. Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire

  20. American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era: The U.S. Navy and the Emergence of a Maritime Strategy, 1989-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    diplomacy, and crisis management, made little headway. They were struggling against the inertia of American and institutional Cold War thinking...no. 7 (July 1991): 107–108. 13 Diamond, discussion with the author. 95 told Diamond that after a troubled night of sleep , he agreed that the...security challenges; the lack of capacity or fortitude among U.S. allies and partners; institutional inertia and resistance to change that inhibited

  1. Organizing complexity: the hopeful dreams and harsh realities of interdisciplinary collaboration at the rand corporation in the early cold war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Historians argue that in the early Cold War an interdisciplinary research culture defined the RAND Corporation. However, a significant epistemological gap divided the members of RAND's Social Science Division (SSD) from the rest of the organization. While the social scientists used qualitative methods, most RAND researchers embraced quantified approaches and derided the social sciences as unscientific. This encouraged RAND's social scientists to develop a political-military simulation that embraced everything-politics, culture, and psychology-that RAND's other analysts largely ignored. Yet the fact that the SSD embraced gaming, a heuristic practiced throughout RAND, suggests that the political simulation was nonetheless inspired by social scientists' engagement with their colleagues. This indicates that the concept of interdisciplinarity should move beyond its implication of collaboration to incorporate instances in which research agendas are defined against but also shaped by colleagues in other disciplines. Such a rethinking of the term may make it possible to trace how varieties of interdisciplinary interaction historically informed knowledge production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Connected Enemies? Programming Transfer between East and West During the Cold War and the Example of East German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Beutelschmidt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available #piccshare_pic_options, #piccshare_pic_options > *, #piccshare_tint, #piccshare_logo { border-radius: 0; -moz-border-radius: 0; border: none; margin: 0; padding: 0; }This article examines GDR television from a media-historical perspective with special focus on the inter- and transnational communication between Eastern and Western Europe in the Cold War until the dissolution of the separate spheres of power in 1990. It focuses on the development and function of the “Organisation Internationale de diffusion et de Télévision Radio” (OIRT, which was founded in 1946, and their network “Intervision”, founded in 1960, both centred in Prague. The OIRT, as an umbrella organization, coordinated cooperation between the TV-stations in the socialist community and represented their interests to the “European Broadcasting Union” (UER/EBU and the “Eurovision” system. While “Intervision” handled the direct program traffic between the stations, exchange of movies and occasionally TV series was an autonomous field. A central conclusion is that the program transfer had a hand in a partial rapprochement and dialogue between East and West. In addition, these permanent relations triggered an early synchronization process with a tendency to cross-culture productions – even if the partial opening in Eastern Europe before 1990 brought only limited pluralism and could not contribute to genuine participation.  

  3. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views on Cold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malagón Filiberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  4. A literature review of medical aspects of post-cold war UN peacekeeping operations: trends, lessons learnt, courses of action and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2016-08-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of 'force protection' and optimising operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will conform to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of medical aspects crucial to UN PKOs. The intent of this article is to report on a review of principal medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKOs. This review was assembled through a comprehensive, grounded, systematic iterative inquiry of open-source articles. This inquiry revealed that the principal medical aspects in post-Cold War UN missions were the following: (1) the changed nature of UN PKOs, (2) new challenges in terms of proximity and distance to medical care, (3) expanded need for preventive medicine and disease contagion prevention and (4) increased propensity for psychological morbidity and need for intervention. Post Cold War, the dramatically changed nature of UN PKOs has resulted in new challenges mainly in terms of medical logistics, preventive medicine and psychiatry. The changed nature of post-Cold War UN PKOs altered the character of medical support most notably regarding (1) a need for emphasis on immediate response proximate to medical events and rapid transport over long distances and traversing barriers to higher levels of care, (2) proactive contagion and hazard identification and prevention and (3) interventions designed to reduce psychological morbidity. Recommendations are offered about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in identified medical aspects of PKOs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  5. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi, cancer and the Cold War Trypanosoma cruzi, câncer e a Guerra Fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Krementsov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 1946, the international community of cancer researchers was inspired by the announcement that two Soviet scientists, Nina Kliueva and Grigorii Roskin, had discovered anticancer properties in culture extracts made from the South American protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, and had produced a preparation - named after its discoverers KR - which showed clear therapeutic effects on cancer patients. Research teams from various countries enthusiastically pursued the promising new line of investigation. The story of the rise and fall of interest in the anticancer properties of T. cruzi in different countries suggests that during the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War competition between the superpowers played an important role in shaping the research agendas of cancer studies.No verão de 1946, a comunidade internacional que desenvolve pesquisas sobre o câncer, inspirou-se no anúncio de que dois cientistas soviéticos, Nina Kliueva e Grigorii Roskin, descobriram propriedades anticancerígenas em cultura extraída do protozoário existente na América Latina, o Trypanosoma cruzi e produziram um preparado que foi denominado com as iniciais KR - em sua homenagem. Grupos de pesquisadores de diversos países buscaram com entusiasmo as promessas dessa nova linha de investigação. A história da ascensão e queda do interesse nas propriedades anticâncer do T. cruzzi em diferentes países sugere que durante a segunda metade do século 20, a Guerra Fria teve um papel importante na definição das agendas de pesquisas sobre o câncer.

  7. Bringing radical behaviorism to revolutionary Brazil and back: Fred Keller's Personalized System of Instruction and Cold War engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akera, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    This article traces the shifting epistemic commitments of Fred S. Keller and his behaviorist colleagues during their application of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to higher education pedagogy. Building on prior work by Alexandra Rutherford and her focus on the successive adaptation of Skinnerian behaviorism during its successive applications, this study utilizes sociologist of science Karin Knorr Cetina's concept of epistemic cultures to more precisely trace the changes in the epistemic commitments of a group of radical behaviorists as they shifted their focus to applied behavioral analysis. The story revolves around a self-paced system of instruction known as the Personalized System of Instruction, or PSI, which utilized behaviorist principles to accelerate learning within the classroom. Unlike Skinner's entry into education, and his focus on educational technologies, Keller developed a mastery-based approach to instruction that utilized generalized reinforcers to cultivate higher-order learning behaviors. As it happens, the story also unfolds across a rather fantastic political terrain: PSI originated in the context of Brazilian revolutionary history, but circulated widely in the U.S. amidst Cold War concerns about an engineering manpower(sic) crisis. This study also presents us with an opportunity to test Knorr Cetina's conjecture about the possible use of a focus on epistemic cultures in addressing a classic problem in the sociology of science, namely unpacking the relationship between knowledge and its social context. Ultimately, however, this study complements another historical case study in applied behavioral analysis, where a difference in outcome helps to lay out the range of possible shifts in the epistemic commitments of radical behaviorists who entered different domains of application. The case study also has some practical implications for those creating distance learning environments today, which are briefly explored in the conclusion. © 2017 Wiley

  8. ‘Introducing the Sensational Black Panther!’ Fantastic Four #52–53, the Cold War, and Marvel’s Imagined Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lund

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses 'Fantastic Four' #52–53 (July–August 1966, in which Black Panther, Marvel’s first black superhero, premiered. It argues that the character as he appeared in these issues is best read as an example of ‘white on black’ representation, or white images of blacks centered on white interests, filtered through Marvel’s then-prevalent Cold War focus. The article first looks at the Fantastic Four as Cold Warriors to contextualize Black Panther. It then goes on to look at how Wakanda, Black Panther’s tribe, and Klaw, the storyline’s villain, are configured in relation to this context, in order to highlight the importance in the story of Cold War conceptions of and fears about the process of decolonization that was taking place on the African continent. Finally, it argues that Black Panther is rhetorically ‘Americanized,’ to better fit with US self-conceptions and to alleviate worries about what Africa’s then-recent decolonization might mean for United States of America.

  9. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  10. Identity and Narration in Chris Marker's La Jetée and the Appearance of the Internet as a Symptom of Cold-War Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Charlie

    2001-01-01

    CHRIS MARKER'S 29 minute film, La Jetée, first appeared in 1962 in the era of the Cold War, an era which also gave birth to the Internet. The Internet appeared in 1968 as the DARPA network, invented by Paul Baran at Rand Corporation; Baran had been looking at packet-switching since at least 1964 with the idea of building resilience into communications networks (de Rosnay 1995). Taking in turn the three themes of: image, time and narration, this text attempts to show how the building of the In...

  11. Review of Cold War Freud, Psychiatry in Communist Europe, and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Communist Culture: Ideological Battles in the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco

    2017-08-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Freud by D. Herzog (2016), Psychiatry in Communist Europe edited by M. Savelli and S. Marks (2015), and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, psychoanalysis and communist culture: Ideological battles in the Cold War] by H. Vezzetti. On the whole, the three books show how the Cold War influenced, in various ways, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic cultures. Beyond the Iron Curtain, as one can perceive from the book edited by Savelli and Marks (2015), politics explicitly set the agenda for the psychological sciences, using them even to invent ad hoc nosologies, useful for purposes related to power. In the United States, on the other hand, as Herzog (2016) pinpoints, the political situation affected the same field, even if indirectly, as in the Christianization of a discipline-psychoanalysis-the creator of which proudly declared himself an atheist Jew. In other Western countries, the relationship between psychiatry and power could bring about paradoxical results. From Vezzetti's (2016) book, one can ascertain that psychiatric culture might assume an overtly opposing stance toward political power. Vezzetti scans the case of Argentina, and partly of France, but they were not isolated cases. In Italy, for example, a movement of radical psychiatrists understood their role as a necessary opposition to political power, having as an aim the "liberation" of patients locked up in the psychiatric hospitals (Foot, 2015). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation (1943-1987): a case study of the interface between physics and biology during the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macuglia, Daniele [Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    During its active period (1943-1987) the Hanford Nuclear Reservation shaped the history of US nuclear research. It also constitutes an interesting case study of the interface between physics, biology and the politics of Cold War society. Although supposed to turn the US into a stronger military force during the Cold War, the remarkable biological consequences of the nuclear research carried out in the facility ended up overshadowing its original political purpose. The high-level of radioactive waste harmed thousands of people living in the area, causing relevant environmental disasters which make the site the most contaminated area in the US even today. Nuclear research is uniquely dangerous since radiation can cause severe consequences both in terms of lives injured and environmental damage. I address various ways in which nuclear physics and biology were used - and abused - at the Hanford Site to combine the needs of politics with the needs of a healthy society. This paper further investigates the moral responsibility of science to society and the way in which biological research informed nuclear physics about the deleterious consequences of radiation on environment and on the human body.

  13. The first UN world conference on women (1975 as a cold war encounter: Recovering anti-imperialist, non-aligned and socialist genealogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfiglioli Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay addresses contemporary discussions on women’s transnationalism and women’s agency by looking at the first conference of the UN Decade for Women held in Mexico City in 1975, and at its specific embedding in Cold War geopolitics. Through an engagement with different feminist and activists voices, and particularly with the less visible anti-imperialist, Non-Aligned and socialist genealogies of women’s activism expressed during the meeting, the essay argues that the paradigm of Western feminist knowledge production needs to be revisited, in order to encompass multiple forms of women’s political agency that are not expressed through the liberal framework of women’s individual autonomy from the state. By juxtaposing Betty Friedan’s and Vida Tomšič’s stances during the Mexico City event, the paper shows that women’s political agency during the Cold War era took different forms, which included both the refusal and the acceptance of women’s activism within existing national and international institutions.

  14. A Review of Supplementary Medical Aspects of Post-Cold War UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trends, Lessons Learned, Courses of Action, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of force protection and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will adjust to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of all medical aspects of UN PKO operations, including those considered supplementary, that is, less crucial but contributing nonetheless. Medical aspects considered paramount and key to UN PKOs have received relatively thorough treatment elsewhere. The intent of this article is to report on ancillary and supplemental medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKO operations assembled through an iterative inquiry of open-source articles. Recommendations are made about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in such medical aspects of PKOs and relevance of US/NATO/European Union models and research.

  15. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    so-called ‘China Can Say No literature’ that became accepted as mass- consumption goods rather than academic works.” 27 Amid the anti-Western...Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at www.japanfocus.org/ products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his

  16. Cosmopolitan Counterpoint : Overt and Covert Musical Warfare and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War, 1945-1961

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenkamp, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Around 1950, when the members of the anti-Nazi alliance found themselves locked into a political and ideological stalemate that none of them could afford to escalate into another ‘hot’ war, culture assumed unprecedented significance as the domain for the performance of superpower rivalries and the

  17. Trade and Technology: Maintaining the U.S.-Japan Security Relationship in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Minister, Lee Kuan Yew , to express his displeasure that Japan has not been "open and frank about the atrocities and horrors committed", adding that...Journal 8, no. 4 (Fall 1991): 581. 33 apprehensive. Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew summed up Japan’s involvement in the Gulf War by stating

  18. The Post-Cold War Defense Draw Down: The Defense Industry’s Response, Trends, and Changing Business Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    defense establishment, this mission change has resulted in military spending reductions of a scale which has not occurred since the end of World War II...While all Americans rejoice in the fact that the United States will be able to devote fewer resources to military spending , it is important to examine

  19. Creativity, Freedom and the Crash: How the Concept of Creativity Was Used as a Bulwark against Communism during the Cold War, and as a Means to Reconcile Individuals to Neoliberalism Prior to the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    At first glance, creativity in the classroom and global capitalism have little in common, yet scratch beneath the surface of "creativity" and we find a discourse of economic and cultural freedom that was used as a bulwark against communism during the Cold War, and more recently to reconcile individuals to neoliberalism in the post-Cold…

  20. A Few Considerations on the Role of the President Ronald Reagan in the Collapse of the Communism and the End of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadrian Gorun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This short analysis tries to emphasize Ronald Reagan’s role to the collapse of Communist system in Central and Eastern Europe. During his first years as president, he took a hard line against Soviet Union. He described this superpower as „Evil Empire’’, suporting all anti-Communist movements from all over the world. Since 1985, a new era of American-Soviet relations has just begun. Reagan and Gorbachev held four summit conferences between 1985 and 1988: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third in Washington, D.C., and the fourth in Moscow. Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to the end of the Cold War and to the end of the Communist system.

  1. Representations of Peronism as totalitarianism in the view of the Socialist Party during a Cold War period in Argentina (1950-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artinian, Juan Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes forms of cultural production that opposed Peronism in Argentina between 1950 and 1955 in the context of the Cold War. It focuses on representations created by Argentina’s Socialist Party. This party created a series of discourses opposed to Peronism using local and transnational categories that were framed by the country’s own view of the Cold War. The Socialist Party used these discourses to stigmatize Perón’s Argentina as a species of totalitarian state. This article sought to go beyond the traditional perspectives of Cold War historiography, whose focus is on diplomatic and military history and the bulk of whose analysis is devoted to dissecting the United States’ attempts to establish hegemony over Latin America or to describing the phenomenon of justicialismo’s “third position.” This article, on the other hand, sought to use cultural analysis to explore Latin America’s own agency in its adoption of language pertaining to the early Cold War period. Socialists crafted a stylized, and sometimes exaggerated, discourse in which imagery belonging to fascism and, to a lesser extent, Stalinism after the rise of the Iron Curtain, was combined with the local figure of nineteenth century governor Juan Manuel de Rosas.Este artículo analiza formas culturales que se opusieron al Peronismo en Argentina entre 1950 y 1955 en el contexto de la Guerra Fría. El artículo se focaliza en las representaciones creadas por el Partido Socialista Argentino. Este partido creó una serie de discursos opuestos al peronismo a través de categorías e ideas trasnacionales y locales enmarcadas en nociones propias de la Guerra Fría. Así el Partido Socialista estigmatizó al peronismo como una forma de estado totalitario. Este artículo busca ir más allá de las visiones tradicionales de la historiografía sobre la Guerra Fría basadas en la historia diplomática o militar donde gran parte del análisis daba cuenta de los intentos

  2. Commemorating a war that never came:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  3. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  4. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Premiere of the Post-Cold War Crisis in Balkans: CIA Documents on the Disintegration of Former Yugoslavia (1989-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Köse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the Cold War came to an end, many revisionist powers predicted the disintegration of Yugoslavia, an uneasy alliance of seven nations that had been held together only by Josip Broz Tito’s iron fist. Chief amongst the interested parties was the United States, hegemon of the new unipolar world order. For years, American intelligence agencies warned of the dangers threatening the Bosnian Muslims, a secessionist ethno-religious minority in the centre of the former Yugoslavian borders; and yet, the United States did not act to protect the Bosnian Muslims. Tensions in the region boiled over into civil war, and the world was shocked as the Bosnian Muslims were the target of attempted genocide, most notably at Srebrenica. This paper will focus on the CIA estimate reports written by field officers on the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the US foreign policy towards the probable crisis in the region. The ethnic cleansing efforts targeting Bosnian Muslims, the awareness of US field officers of this process, and whether there were any pre-emptive measures to stop such brutal acts against humanity will also be analysed during this paper.

  6. Breaking the Code for Operational Planners: A Comparative Analysis of National Security Strategies Since the End of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-04

    them; worship as they please; educate their children—male and female; own property; and enjoy the benefits of their labor . These values of freedom...President, National Security Strategy of the United States, (March 1990), 1. 10 Ibid., 21. 50 infrastructures, labor and social disruptions, and... Mercado , Leo A., The National Security Strategy and National Interests, Quantity or Quality? Thesis (Carlisle Barracks: United States Army War College

  7. Between the Cold War and the Global South: Argentina and Third World Solidarity in the Falklands/Malvinas Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Paresa Krepp

    Full Text Available Abstract This article looks at Argentine attempts to mobilize the Third World support by framing the Falklands/Malvinas War as a North-South conflict. Despite fundamental ideological divisions, the Organization of American States (OAS and the Non-Aligned Movement offered support to Argentina, while the NATO powers - the European Economic Community (EEC and the United States − backed Great Britain. The Falklands/Malvinas was thus a conflict where nationalist agendas linked up with global narratives of decolonization and the Global South.

  8. The Ideological, Structural Analysis of the Russian Image Representation in the Cold War Times’ Film ‘White Nights’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the ideological, structural analysis of the Russian image representation in the “cold war” times’ film ‘White nights’ (USA, 1985. Following the methodology developed by U. Eco the author selected three systems which are significant in a product: the author’s ideology, market conditions which determined the plot, the creating process and success of media text (or, at least, promoted the first, the second and the third; narrative techniques, ideological and social trends, stereotypes

  9. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  10. Receptor visualization and the atomic bomb. A historical account of the development of the chemical neuroanatomy of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J M; Mengod, G

    2017-07-27

    This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). Coincident with that, new drug treatments for these disorders were introduced. War science also created an important number of tools and instruments, such as the radioisotopes, that played a significant role in the development of our story. The scientific context was marked by the development of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and the introduction in the early 80's of the DNA recombinant technologies. The concepts of chemical neurotransmission in the brain and of receptors for drugs and transmitters, although proposed before the war, where not generally accepted. Neurotransmitters were identified and the mechanisms of biosynthesis, storage, release and termination of action by mechanisms such as reuptake, elucidated. Furthermore, the synapse was seen with the electron microscope and more important for our account, neurons and their processes visualized in the brain first by fluorescence histochemistry, then using radioisotopes and autoradiography, and later by immunohistochemistry (IHC), originating the Chemical Neuroanatomy. The concept of chemical neurotransmission evolved from the amines, expanded to excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, then to neuropeptides and finally to gases and other "atypical" neurotransmitters. In addition, coexpression of more than one transmitter in a neuron, changed the initial ideas of neurotransmission. The concept of receptors for these and other messengers underwent a significant evolution from an abstract

  11. EU and US security policy from the cold war era to the 21st century: the institutional evolution of cfsp and the factors that determine the American military supremacy

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Metaxas, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the main parameters that define security policy in Europe and the United States. A historical review on the principal economic, political and military agreements in these two dipoles of power is presented from the dawn of Cold War to nowadays. We also examine the institutional integration of European defense strategy from the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 to nowadays, and the crucial effects of the 11/9/2001 terroristic attack on US security policy implementation. A c...

  12. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2012-11-01

    At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  13. Star and National Myths in Cold War Allegories: Marlene Dietrich’s Star Persona and the Western in Fritz Lang’s Rancho Notorious (1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaria Loyo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fritz Lang’s film Rancho Notorious offered Lang himself the chance to direct a western in which he could develop a double focus, contrasting indigenous American against foreign influences. He was helped in this by Marlene Dietrich, who had begun her career as a symbol of modernization and consumer culture. Lang used Dietrich in the film to comment on aspects of modernity and, at the same time, to offer an allegorical reading of American nationalism of the McCarthy era. Through Dietrich’s character, Altar, the boss of the Chuck-a-Luck ranch and the criminal world it embodied, Lang critiqued the emerging Cold War ideology of the man as patriarchal figure and bread-winner. At the same time, by moving Dietrich progressively towards the centre of the film, he produced an amalgam of the women’s film and the Western genre that suggested the pointlessness of the male aggression the Western itself had traditionally embodied.

  14. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  15. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  16. From World War to Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    The development of media attitudes to the Soviet Union from an alliance-loyalty attitude to division of aiitudes into support for and oppositon to and fear of the Soviet Union. A third voice accepted Soviet claims that they sought peace and cooperation with the West.......The development of media attitudes to the Soviet Union from an alliance-loyalty attitude to division of aiitudes into support for and oppositon to and fear of the Soviet Union. A third voice accepted Soviet claims that they sought peace and cooperation with the West....

  17. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  18. Strategic Adaptation in the 'Long War'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boisselle, James C

    2007-01-01

    .... Also called the Global War on Terrorism, this struggle takes place in an international security environment that has evolved greatly since the end of the Cold War and that now includes many new actors...

  19. United States Marine Corps Post-Cold War Evolutionary Efforts: Implications for a Post-Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    the unfailing ability of marines to maintain a high spirit , even when the means of producing the most effective accomplishments are constantly being... levels would remain high and adequate funding guaranteed to keep the expensive end items available for training and in storage ready for a confrontation...War. Troop levels during the Vietnam War would be the largest in Marine Corps history, since World War II, and proved the Marine Corps’ capacity for

  20. Adapting to the new world: Mexico’s International Strategy of Economic Development at the outset of the Cold War, 1946-1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pettinà, Vanni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at analyzing Mexico’s attempts to overcome the obstacles that the new international context, shaped by the end of World War II (WWII and the beginning of the Cold War, posed for the country’s economic development plans. Drawing largely on new Mexican primary sources along with American, British, and multilateral organizations’ documents, this work will focus on the strategy that the Miguel Alemán administration (1946-1952 designed in order to adapt to the adverse conditions that the bipolar conflict generated for Latin America’s industrial developmental projects. This article will show that in spite of the adverse setting, the Alemán government was able to create and launch an ambitious plan for economic industrialization that implemented developmental measures on a large scale. In addition, this work will also show that a crucial ingredient for the initial success of Mexico’s economic strategy was the country’s capacity to attract economic aid and political support from Washington. Paradoxically, this happened at a time when the United States’ (US economic and political backing of Latin American developmental projects had become a scarce currency in the Western Hemisphere.Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los intentos de México para superar los obstáculos que el nuevo contexto internacional, dibujado por el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y por el comienzo de la Guerra Fría, planteó para los planes de desarrollo económico del país. Basado en gran parte sobre nuevas fuentes documentales mexicanas, además de estadounidenses, británicas y de organizaciones internacionales multilaterales, este trabajo se centra en la estrategia que la administración de Miguel Alemán (1946-1952 puso en marcha para adaptarse a las condiciones adversas que el conflicto bipolar generó para los proyectos de desarrollo industrial de América Latina. Este artículo muestra que, a pesar del escenario adverso, la

  1. Pre Cold War British Spy Fiction, the “albatross of self” and lines of flight in Gravity’s Rainbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Wishart Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In his introduction to 'Slow Learner' Thomas Pynchon suggests that an influence in his short story ‘Under the Rose’ was the spy fiction he had read as a child.  What he takes from the form, he says, is an enjoyment of  “lurking, spying, false identities, psychological games.” I hope to show that this youthful reading has interesting things to tell us about Pynchon’s writing beyond ‘Under the Rose’ and in more complex ways than his quote suggests. To do this I want to focus on that perennial issue of spy fiction - the maintenance and manipulation of identity. Negotiating ideas of subjectivity is a core concern in Pynchon’s work and to consider it I want to use the four spy novelists he mentions in the 'Slow Learner' introduction - John Buchan, E. Phillips Oppenheim, Helen MacInnes and Geoffrey Household. This is a more disparate quartet of authors than Pynchon’s grouping suggests and I want to employ them to consider a variety of strategies used to ‘build character’ and the way Pynchon’s work approaches these strategies.  This allows a reflection on questions of disguise, doubles, animals and the nomad within the context of a variety of postcolonial theories and aspects of Deleuze and Guattari’s “nomadology”. 'V 'would appear an obvious place to see connections to spy fiction, but, though I touch on some aspects of this novel, my focus will be very much on 'Gravity’s Rainbow' because it has a much more concerted focus on the subject of Empire. Some intriguing echoes are to be found in the work of Pynchon in these authors and I hope to show how Pynchon’s attempts to formulate US “superimperialism” (Aijaz Ahmad are reflected in the imperial concerns of what I would term the pre-Cold War British Spy fiction that engaged Pynchon in his youth.

  2. Characterization of a solid deuterium converter for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the framework of the Mini-D{sub 2} project at the FRM-II reactor in Munich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorella, D.

    2007-02-07

    Spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries is an attractive topic in modern particles physic. Understanding qualitative and quantitative the parameters involved in these kind of processes could help to explain the unbalanced presence in the universe of matter (baryons) with respect to antimatter (anti-baryons). Due to their intrinsic properties, ultra cold neutrons (UCN) are excellent candidates in experiments measuring with high level of accuracy parameters like the electric dipole moment (EDM), the axial-vector coupling constant (g{sub A}), the neutron lifetime ({tau}{sub n}) or in search of quantum effect of gravity. In this work are presented several contributions in the framework of the Mini-D2 project, an innovative strong UCN source under construction at the FRM-II reactor in Munich. An important component of this facility, the solid deuterium UCN converter, is one subject of the thesis. (orig.)

  3. Correspondents and the Cold War. How foreign correspondents acted during the chancellery of Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982 in Germany and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Birkner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of foreign correspondents during the Cold War. More specifically, it focuses on the case study of the relationship between former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and foreign correspondents in Germanyand abroad. A synthesis of historical research and qualitative analysis of documentsand interviews provides a behind-the-scenes look at media diplomacy during the 70s andearly 80s. From the perspective of system theory and the concept of mediatization, mediaand politics are understood as separate but equal social systems that interact with eachother. This case study is based on documents from the private archives of Helmut Schmidtand from the annals of his party, the German Social Democrats, as well as interviews conducted with Schmidt and former journalist and correspondent Gerd Ruge. Analysis of theinterviews and the private and secret correspondence of Schmidt with journalists affordsan inside view into the role foreign correspondents played during the Cold War when communicationacross the Iron Curtain was especially challenging. Our conclusions show howimportant foreign correspondents are in international relations, while also demonstrating that aspects of international diplomacy, though involving journalists, were not necessarily included in media coverage. This study helps to clarify the complex interactions between media and politics. On the basis of our explorative research, a model is proffered of possible relations and interactions between politicians and foreign correspondents. As sources of information and means of communication, foreign correspondents exert a strong influence on the fates of nations and governments, before and behind the scenes. Esta proposta aborda o papel dos correspondentes estrangeiros durante a Guerra Fria. Mais especificamente, centra-se no estudo de caso da relação entre o ex-chanceler alemão Helmut Schmidt e os correspondentes estrangeiros na Alemanha e no exterior. A s

  4. Review on “Reich of the black sun. Nazi secret weapons & the cold war allied legend” by Joseph P. Farrell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malugin Sergey Borisovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Farrell thinks that during World War II Nazi Germany has created and successfully tested, and could have even used the plutonium bomb in a combat situation. Also it is likely that German scientists managed to make a significant step towards the creation – if not the testing – of a bomb constructed by a method of accelerated division, a bomb that has a small critical mass and a great devastating effect. This statement, however radical it may seem, in author’s opinion, can resolve many inconsistencies and contradictions in political and strategic history of the war.

  5. Doing Something: Mandates for the Use of Force by the United Nations in Peace Operations Since the End of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Beth . 2004. The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force. History: Reviews of New Books 32, no. 2 (Winter): 79-79. Gutman...Transition. Boston: Little Brown. Kirkpatrick , Jeane J. 2007. Making war to keep peace. New York: Regan Books. Kittredge, Jeremiah. 2003. Presidents

  6. Bob H. Reinhardt: The End of A Global Pox. America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era : The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2015, 268 pp., Hard cover, Illustrated, Figure, Maps, Table, Notes, Bibliography, Index., $39.95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2017-04-01

    This review examines in detail Bob H. Reinhardt's meticulous analyses of smallpox eradication within the broad context of American liberalism, Cold War politics, and the exercise of technological, medical, and political power on the part of the United States. As a result, his book provides a unique perspective on the eradication of smallpox.

  7. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Jacobs, Thomas L. McNaugher, David Shlapak, Michael Spirtas, John Stillion, Alan Vick, Peter A. Wilson, and Laurinda L. Zeman all offered valuable...to ground forces. In the aftermath of the Vietnam War, the focus of the U.S. mili - tary shifted to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and...view, now see the Afghan campaign as evidence that the American mili - tary can be redesigned to emphasize long-range precision strike at the

  8. Catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, B.

    1991-08-22

    A catalytic converter is provided which is economical to manufacture and is not readily poisoned by contaminants in a gas stream such as would be encountered in the operation of an internal combustion engine, whereby an improved life expectancy of the unit can be achieved. The converter of the invention comprises a sintered porous body including molybdenum or a molybdenum-containing compound or a molybdenum complex. A method of forming a catlytic converter unit comprises forming a slurry including molybdenum or a molybdenum compound, forming the slurry into a sintered body member, and hardening or curing the same to form a self-sustaining body member. A method for treating an exhaust gas using the above catalytic converter is also disclosed. A preferred embodiment for an internal combustion engine is described. Examples of different catalytic compositions are included. 13 figs.

  9. Cold Mountain: filme y novela. La tradición clásica en una historia de la Guerra de Secesión / Cold Mountain: movie and novel. The classic tradition in a history of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carmona Centeno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La novela de Charles Frazier, Cold Mountain, y su adaptación al cine por Anthony Minghella llevan al público a hacer una interpretación mitológica de ambas obras, pero mientras que el director, para ello, explota el recurso del arquetipo odiseico, el novelista, por su parte, introduce, además de dicho recurso, multitud de pasajes, citas y alusiones a la Odisea, a la mitología clásica y al mundo grecolatino en general. Por esta razón, Cold Mountain es un valioso modelo para los profesores de Latín, Griego y Cultura Clásica que pretendan mostrar, de forma clara y amena, la pervivencia e importancia del mundo clásico en la actualidad.Abstract: Charles Frazier’s novel, Cold Mountain, and Anthony Minghella’s screen version lead the public to interpret both of them in a mythological way. However, while the director exploits the odysseic archetype as resource, the novelist, on the other hand, introduces, apart from that, a lot of passages, quotations and allusions to Odyssey, classical mithology and Greco-Roman world in general. For this reason, Cold Mountain is a valuable model to Latin, Greek and Classical Culture teachers who want to show, in a clear and pleasant way, the survival and the importance of the classical world nowadays.

  10. Data Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; Nuijten, Petrus A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    A data converter comprises a discrete- time sigma delta modulator e.g. for driving a Class-D power amplifier. The low-pass filter of the sigma delta modulator is modified by adding a suitably positioned pole to lower the oscillation frequency (limit cycle) of the sigma delta modulator in order to

  11. Data Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A data converter comprises a discrete-time sigma delta modulator e.g. for driving a Class-D power amplifier. The low-pass filter of the sigma delta modulator is modified by adding a suitably positioned pole to lower the oscillation frequency (limit cycle) of the sigma delta modulator in order to

  12. Data Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A data converter comprises a discrete-time sigma delta modulator e.g. for driving a Class-D power amplifier. The low-pass filter of the sigma delta modulator is modified by adding a suitably positioned pole to lower the oscillation frequency (limit cycle) of the sigma delta modulator in order to

  13. Wavelength Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Wolfson, David

    1999-01-01

    . It is predicted that jitter accumulation can be minimised by using a 9-10 dB ratio between the signal and CW power also assuring a high extinction ratio. Using this guideline simulations show that 20 cross-gain modulation converters can be cascaded at 10 Gbit/s with only ~20 ps of accumulated jitter...... and an extinction ratio of ~10 dB.The regenerative capabilities of the cross-phase converters are described and verified experimentally at 20 Gbit/s, where the noise redistribution and improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio clearly is demonstrated by controlling the input power to an EDFA. In a similar experiment...... at 2.5 Gbit/s, the regeneration causes a reduction of the required input power to an in-line EDFA of ~6 dB for a power penalty of 1 dB at a bit error rate of 10-9. If two converters are concatenated the power requirement is reduced ~8 dB. Obviously, the power reduction allows for longer spans between...

  14. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  15. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    HUMANITARIAN LAW. Chukwuma Osakwe, Nigerian Defence Academy, and. Ubong Essien Umoh, University of Uyo. Abstract. The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict ...

  16. TURNER LECTURE Military education and the study of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    class and requiring the mastery of a specified body of knowledge are mostly the result of modem technology. .... Vietnam War. At its conclusion, an eager young participant leapt to his feet and declared that the .... complex in the aftermath of the Cold War's end, and with war unlikely to disappear as a means of regulating ...

  17. Convertible barge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, R.E.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a convertible barge, comprising: a. a deck; b. modules positioned on the deck in end to end relation and at least some of which contain pipeline processing equipment. The modules being removably attached to the deck, each module comprising a floor, ceiling, and a pair of side walls extending longitudinally of the barge between the ends; and c. means defining a closable opening comprising a roll-up door in at least one end of the modules for passing a pipeline portion from the module to a respectively adjacent module as the pipeline is being processed, for sealing the module during storage and for providing passageways between the modules and a view of pipe laying operations during use. A method for converting a barge to a lay barge, comprising: a. positioning on a deck of the barge in end to end relation of modules each of which has a floor, ceiling, and a pair of sidewalls extending longitudinally of the barge between the ends; b. providing pipeline process stations in at least some of the modules; c. removably attaching the modules to the deck; and d. providing a roll-up door in at least one of the modules ends of each module for passing a pipeline portion from the module to a respectively adjacent module as the pipeline is being processed and for providing passageways between the modules and a view of pipe laying operations during use.

  18. On Strategy: The War on Terror in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Robert D. Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy, Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War (New York, Vintage Books, 2000). Creveld, Transformation of War. 62...document_387_NCW_Book_LowRes.pdf (accessed 02/23/06); Huntington, “Clash of Civilizations,” Kaplan, Coming Anarchy, Shattering The Dreams of The Post Cold War. Pre...technology, it just demands lucid and incisive thinking. However, this is not a strong point of the Americans, who are slaves to technology in their

  19. The conduct of an Inter-state War and multiple dimensions of territory: 1998-2000 Eritrea-Ethiopia war

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Magnólia Dias

    2011-01-01

    Inter-state wars are not one of the most salient features in the post-Cold War era. The literature on contemporary armed conflict, particularly those in the aftermath of the Cold War, tends to overlook the centrality of territory in the causation of war. However, a border incident between Eritrea and Ethiopia in 1998 led to a crisis which escalated. The war lasted two and a half years, leading to an estimated 100.000 casualties. The article’s central claim shows the centrality of territory in...

  20. Ukrainian Hybrid War – Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotărescu Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.

  1. From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? Game of chess of the world power between preventive war and futurable raw material politics in the age of the greenhouse; Von kalten Energiestrategien zu heissen Rohstoffkriegen? Schachspiel der Weltmaechte zwischen Praeventivkrieg und zukunftsfaehiger Rohstoffpolitik im Zeitalter des globalen Treibhauses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roithner, T. (comp.)

    2008-07-01

    The 24th international summer academy, held in Stadtschlaining (Burgenland, Austria) between 8th July and 13th July, 2007, is engaged with the reasons to the conflicts and military conflicts at the end of the fossil energy age. The following lectures are held: (a) From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? (Thomas Roithner); (b) Inauguration of the 24th international summer academy 2007 (Gerald Mader); (c) A change of consciousness also changes unconsciously the being (Hans Lukits); (d) Oil in fire - Conflicts of resources as a fuel for global discord (Wolfgang Sachs); (e) Safety discourses on both sides of the Atlantic - in times o peak oil and climatic change (Elmar Altvater); (f) From energy security to the war of resources: the resource politics of China, Russia and India (Andreas Zumach); (g) Why is there no alternative to the retreat from Afghanistan? (Peter Strutynski); (h) Do ''Peak Oil'' and nuclear energy solve the climate problem? (Helga Kromp-Kolb, Wolfgang kromp); (i) Water - the material from that conflicts consist? (Juerg Staudenmann, Karin Scheurer); (j) US strategy for the regions of Middle East and Caucasus in the unipolar world order (Matin Baraki); (k) What are the influences of oil on the conflict with Iran? (Udo Steinbach); (l) Geopolicy and resources: The grasp of the USA at Africa (Werner Ruf); (m) New colonization of Africa: China, USA and Europe in the struggle for resources (Karin Kneissl); (n) Securing resources and energy politics in Latin America: US politics, EU politics or independent world politics (Peter Stania); (o) More scarcely becoming raw materials - a source for armament and war planning? (Luehr Henken); (p) Battle groups - intervening groups for securing resources (Gunther Hauser); (q) Organization of the globalization as fateful question - which future lies before us? (Franz-Josef Radermacher); (r) No peace without change of renewable resources (Hermann Scheer); (s) Peaceable, forced or

  2. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  3. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  4. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  5. After the War: Nation-Building from FDR to George W. Bush

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobbins, James; Poole, Michele A; Long, Austin; Runkle, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    .... The authors start with a review of the post World War II occupations of Germany and Japan. The end of the Cold War brought a second spate of such missions -- in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo...

  6. Convertible Stadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Air flotation technology used in NASA's Apollo program has found an interesting application in Hawaii's Aloha Stadium near Honolulu. The stadium's configuration can be changed, by moving entire 7,000-seat sections on a cushion of air, for best accommodation of spectators and participants at different types of events. In most stadiums, only a few hundred seats can be moved, by rolling sections on wheels or rails. At Aloha Stadium, 28,000 of the 50,000 seats can be repositioned for better spectator viewing and, additionally, for improved playing conditions. For example, a stadium designed primarily for football may compromise the baseball diamond by providing only a shallow outfield. Aloha's convertibility allows a full-size baseball field as well as optimum configurations for many other types of sports and special events. The photos show examples. The stadium owes its versatility to air flotation technology developed by General Motors. Its first large-scale application was movement of huge segments of the mammoth Saturn V moonbooster during assembly operations at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloupka, Allan B.; Finn, Kevin P.; Parsons, Duane A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    When the nation's top scientists and military leaders converged on Los Alamos, New Mexico in the 1943, to work on the Manhattan Project, the facilities they used to conduct their top-secret work were quickly constructed and located in the middle of what eventually became the Los Alamos town site. After one of these early facilities caught on fire, it seemed wise to build labs and production facilities farther away from the homes of the town's residents. They chose to build facilities on what was then known as Delta Prime (DP) Mesa and called it Technical Area 21, or TA-21. With wartime urgency, a number of buildings were built at TA-21, some in as little as a few months. Before long, DP Mesa was populated with several nondescript metal and cinder-block buildings, including what became, immediately following the war, the world's first plutonium production facility. TA-21 also housed labs that used hazardous chemicals and analyzed americium, tritium and plutonium. TA-21 was a bustling center of research and production for the next several decades. Additional buildings were built there in the 1960's, but by the 1990's many of them had reached the end of their service lives. Labs and offices were moved to newer, more modern buildings. When Los Alamos National Laboratory received $212 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in July 2009 for environmental cleanup projects, about $73 million of the funds were earmarked to decontaminate and demolish 21 of the old buildings at TA-21. Although some D and D of TA-21 buildings was performed in the 1990's, many of the facilities at DP Site remained relatively untouched for nearly three decades following their final operational use. In 2006, there were over three dozen buildings or structures on the mesa to be removed so that soil cleanup could be completed (and the land made available for transfer and reuse). The total footprint of buildings across the mesa was

  8. The Cold War final stage in La Vanguardia: fear, pacifism and propaganda (1979-1984 | El último ciclo de la Guerra Fría en La Vanguardia: miedo, pacifismo y propaganda (1979-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Morera Hernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the speeches issued by La Vanguardia at the end of détente between the blocks, in the period from 1979 to 1984. From a historical context of the period, we proceed to content analysis, quantitative and qualitative, around two topics: disarmament and terrorism. In moments of high tension of the Cold War, of great historical and political relevance, but above all, time for a big ideological friction, the head’s attitude was characterized by rigor and weighting. The denouncement of the irresponsability of the blocks to attend policy strategies, the rearmament, European marginality and the terrorist threat, are the main concerns extracted from the study. | Este artículo analiza los discursos emitidos por La Vanguardia con motivo del fin de la distensión entre los bloques en el período que abarca desde 1979 hasta 1984. A partir de una contextualización histórica concreta, nos ocupamos del vaciado de prensa y análisis de contenido, cuantitativo y cualitativo, en torno a dos bloques temáticos: el desarme y el terrorismo. En unos años de máxima tensión de la Guerra Fría, de gran trascendencia histórica y política, pero sobre todo, de máxima fricción ideológica, la actitud de la cabecera catalana estuvo caracterizada por el rigor y la ponderación. La denuncia de la irresponsabilidad de los bloques por atender a estrategias políticas, junto con el rearme, la marginalidad europea y la amenaza terrorista, son las principales preocupaciones argumentales que surgen del estudio.

  9. ‘Writing about China’ Latin American travelogues during the Cold War: Bernardo Kordon’s ‘600 millones y uno’ (1958), and Luis Oyarzún’s ‘Diario de Oriente, Unión Soviética, China e India’ (1960)

    OpenAIRE

    Montt Strabucchi, María

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how travelogues of Latin American travellers to the People’s Republic of China during the Cold War, provided knowledge which informed the Latin American political, economic and cultural discussions of the time. Through an analysis of the travel accounts of the Argentinean Bernardo Kordon’s 600 millones y uno (1958), and the Chilean Luis Oyarzún’s Diario de Oriente, Unión Soviética, China e India (1960), the texts reveal the authors as explorers and interpreters of a model ...

  10. The Air Force and the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Correll, John T

    2005-01-01

    ...), the Air Defense Command (ADC), the Composite Air Strike Force (CASF), and ICBMs. Chapter 4, Nuclear Strategies and Concepts, focuses on Khrushchev's fanning of the fires, counterforce and countervalue, missiles and bombers, and the space program...

  11. From Cold War to Arctic Battle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland and the whole Arctic region is becoming a geopolitical hot spot. The opening of new potential sail routes to Asia and the possible exploitation of oil, gas and other natural resources like rare earth minerals are creating a window of opportunity for Greenland. What are the risks and who...

  12. The Cold War: An Assessment of Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Consequently, "traditional social orders lay smashed, colonial regimes had been discredited, underground nationalist parties had flourished, and...SDI", Foreign Affairs. Spring, 1988. Larson, Deborah W. Origins of Containment: A Psycological E.x.planation Princton Univ. Press, 1985. Lippmann

  13. East European Security After the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Czechoslovak government to sell Skoda to Volkswagen rather than Renault is a notable example of this tendency). Hence, France has a smaller economic stake in...comption scandals involving scores of high-level Italian politicians and business leaders, has also reduced Italy’s ability to play the type of leading...become a "German colony." 4 German firms, such as Volkswagen , Siemens, and Mercedes, have been attracted by the relatively high educational level and

  14. Lithuania's new Cold War / Egdunas Racius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Racius, Egdunas

    2004-01-01

    Autori hinnangul varjutavad Leedu poliitikat jätkuvalt külma sõja aegsed arusaamad ja Leedu poliitilises spektris suudetakse eristada vaid kahte rühma - läänemeelseid ja venemeelseid poliitikuid

  15. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  16. Germ Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Kris

    2009-01-01

    It's estimated that at least 22 million school days are lost every year because of colds caught by students and faculty, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). There's still no cure for the common cold, but there is a time-honored way to prevent it: handwashing, ideally with good old soap and water. It's still the best…

  17. Internally Driven Post-War Reconstruction and Development: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the end of the Cold War, the remedy offered to war-torn countries by the international community has consisted of approaches and processes that focus exclusively on external actors and experts creating stability and institutions, building peace and working on economic reconstruction and development. However, to ...

  18. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8695 of July 26, 2011 National Korean War..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War... for the Korean peninsula. Our veterans' courage and sacrifice have enabled the Republic of Korea to...

  19. The United States Military and the War on Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randolph, David E

    1992-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought wrenching changes to the U.S. Armed Forces. At a time when declining budgets and building down are the order of the day, there is one area where the military's role is actually growing: the war on drugs...

  20. The War Powers Resolution: Intent Implementation and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Given the uncertainty of the post-Cold War period, this condition is not only dangerous but unacceptable. Recommendations for change are laid out in...intended. The wording in the Constitution was even changed in the final drafts to give Congress the authority to "declare" war instead of "make" war. The...was a political milestone in that it had some very significant and long lasting impacts on our society. The Political Cliimate . When Richard Nixon was

  1. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der e...

  2. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  3. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice. Atten...

  4. The Gulf War as a fall out of the changing global balance | Amaechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... intervention attempts during the Cold War era. Invariably, the hasty resort to war was a mere fall-out of the collapse of the Eastern bloc and the emergence of the US as a sole super power, and so points to the looming negative effects of a uni-polar global balance. Key words: Gulf war, Global balance, Iraq, UN intervention ...

  5. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  6. Redes transnacionales, antiperonismo y Guerra Fría: Los orígenes de la Asociación Argentina por la Libertad de la Cultura Transnational networks, anti-Peronism and Cold War: the origins of the Asociación Argentina por la Libertad de la Cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nállim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora los procesos locales y transnacionales que llevaron a la creación de la Asociación Argentina por la Libertad de la Cultura en diciembre de 1955. La Asociación era la filial del Congreso por la Libertad de la Cultura, fundado en 1950 en Berlín como parte de la estrategia cultural estadounidense durante la Guerra Fría. Basado en el análisis de un amplio espectro de publicaciones e instituciones, el texto rastrea la densa red de relaciones personales, institucionales, ideológicas y políticas entre los intelectuales antiperonistas argentinos y entre ellos y sus colegas extranjeros que llevaron a la fundación de la Asociación. Estas relaciones, desarrolladas desde la década de 1930 y profundizadas por la experiencia peronista y la Guerra Fría, fueron facilitadas por trayectorias y temáticas comunes tales como la defensa de la libertad política y cultural y de la superioridad del mundo occidental, el antifascismo y el anticomunismo. El análisis, parte de un proyecto más amplio en curso, sienta las bases para el estudio futuro de la historia de la Asociación y de las redes intelectuales anticomunistas en América Latina durante la Guerra Fría.This article explores the local and transnational processes that resulted in the creation of the Asociación Argentina por la Libertad de la Cultura in December, 1955. The Asociación was a branch of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, which was created in Berlin in 1950 as part of the American cultural strategy during the Cold War. Based on the analysis of a broad group of publications and institutions, the text traces the dense network of personal, institutional, ideological and political relations among the anti-Peronist Argentine intellectuals and between them and their European colleagues that led to the creation of the Asociación. Those relations, developed since the 1930s and deepened by the Peronist experience and the Cold War, were facilitated by common trajectories

  7. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  8. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  9. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on air-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on air-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  10. Technologies for converter topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu

    2017-02-28

    In some embodiments of the disclosed inverter topologies, an inverter may include a full bridge LLC resonant converter, a first boost converter, and a second boost converter. In such embodiments, the first and second boost converters operate in an interleaved manner. In other disclosed embodiments, the inverter may include a half-bridge inverter circuit, a resonant circuit, a capacitor divider circuit, and a transformer.

  11. Power Converters for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Visintini, R.

    2015-06-15

    Particle accelerators use a great variety of power converters for energizing their sub-systems; while the total number of power converters usually depends on the size of the accelerator or combination of accelerators (including the experimental setup), the characteristics of power converters depend on their loads and on the particle physics requirements: this paper aims to provide an overview of the magnet power converters in use in several facilities worldwide.

  12. Climate not to blame for African civil wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-01-01

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system. PMID:20823241

  13. The anthropology of war and peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  14. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Headache Cold sore Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Cold Urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management of physical urticaria. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2013;111:235. Nov. 21, 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cold-urticaria/basics/definition/CON-20034524 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...

  16. Power converters definitions, classification and converter topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces power conversion principles and defines the terminology. The concepts of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the notions of commutation cell and soft commutation are introduced and discussed.

  17. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  18. High speed data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed MA

    2016-01-01

    This book covers high speed data converters from the perspective of a leading high speed ADC designer and architect, with a strong emphasis on high speed Nyquist A/D converters. For our purposes, the term 'high speed' is defined as sampling rates that are greater than 10 MS/s.

  19. Electrical Power Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical power converter for converting electrical power of a power source connected or connectable at an input to electrical DC-power at an output, wherein between the input and the output a first circuit of submodules is provided, wherein said first circuit of submodules and the power source

  20. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2001-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  1. Digital to Analog Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.; van den Boom, Jeroen M.; Dijkmans, Eise C.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter (DAC) for converting a digital signal (DS) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a first supply voltage (UL) into an analog signal (UOUT) having a maximum voltage range which corresponds to a second supply voltage (UH). The first supply voltage (UL) is

  2. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author).

  3. Common cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many health problems, including colds. DO NOT use antibiotics if they are not needed. Breastfeed infants if possible. Breast milk is known to protect against respiratory tract infections in children, even years after you stop breastfeeding. Drink plenty of fluids to help your immune ...

  4. Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War: How Russia, China, and Iran are Eroding American Influence Using Time-Tested Measures Short of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    representative of standard—and long- standing—practices in international behavior.6 The bilateral, nuclear- era Cold War theories of military escalation that...4 Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War of-war actions that Russian president Vladimir Putin has been willing to take in Crimea...the realist precept of international anarchy. Various schools of realism describe this differently, but, at its core, realism views interstate

  5. Microminiature thermionic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2001-09-25

    Microminiature thermionic converts (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures. Methods of manufacturing those converters using semiconductor integrated circuit fabrication and micromachine manufacturing techniques are also disclosed. The MTCs of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. Existing prior art thermionic converter technology has energy conversion efficiencies ranging from 5-15%. The MTCs of the present invention have maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  6. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental...

  7. The Turn Towards Unity: Converting Crises into Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human progress is stimulated by external threats and pressures. Values distilled from long experience possess the essential knowledge and power needed for continuous development and evolution. Successive waves of foreign invasions following the collapse of the Roman Empire coalesced the tribes of England into a nation state. Centuries of incessant warfare finally compelled the countries of Western Europe to evolve a regional union within which war has become unthinkable. Most recently, the rising incidence of terrorism has compelled national security institutions to forge a network for global coordination unimaginable during the Cold War. Challenges met are converted into opportunities. Opportunities missed degenerate into problems. All crises are psychological in origin. The remedy always calls for a change of attitude and values. The greatest threats confronting human beings today do not come from external aggressors. They are the result of problems that affect humanity as a whole and can only be addressed collectively by the entire human race. International financial instability, unemployment, terrorism, proliferation of nuclear weapons and climate change are indications that humanity is entering a higher phase in social evolution that compels us to evolve more effective instruments for governance at the global level. No nation or group of nations acting on its own can protect itself from these threats. Effective action to address these issues is unlikely to come from governments whose source of power and very identity are based on national sovereignty and separateness. Mechanisms for global governance will not be effective unless founded upon universally accepted values in fact as well as in principle, a condition violated by the undemocratic character of the UN system. Power relents only in the face of greater power. Power that exceeds that of the five permanent members of the Security Council can only come from representatives of humanity

  8. Total war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In principle, this paper presents critics of Freud's concept of death drive and deals with the consequences of its drawing in the theoretical plane. Namely, the death drive is, besides the original pleasure principle, imported into the selfmediation dialectic of subjectivity. By that, as if a scientific foundation and justification had been given to one of the central tendencies in Western European thought: to the idea of original opposition or eternal war. In our time, violence has entered widely into theoretical reality, which is best witnessed by Derida's thought. Nevertheless, the concept of death drive presents only one of the possible lines of the development of psychoanalysis, the line which is fully avoided in papers and praxis of one different psychoanalyst - very much used but not enough acknowledged - Wilhelm Reich. Reich, namely, succeeded in explanation of masochism problem (as one of the main motives for presenting of death drive by inversion of the pleasure principle, and such interpretation gave results in therapy while the concept of death drive had shown itself apsolutely fruitless (unproductive in that field. In that sense, one could say that it is the matter of different ethoi.

  9. Microsatellite CONVERT Input File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Microsatellite data formatted for the software CONVERT, which includes dataset numerical IDs, sampling site names, and locus identifiers. Rows 291-294 provides...

  10. Advanced converter technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banic, C. V.; Eckhouse, S. A.; Kornbrust, F. J.; Lifman, K.; Peterson, J. L.; Rosati, R. W.; Young, D.

    An advanced converter system for use in electrochemical energy storge was defined. Improved and experimental apparatus are designed to measure these characteristics and to enable better definition of the battery power conditioner interface. Improvement of energy storage system performance through modification of battery converter characteristics is investigated. Power conditioning based on fuel cell use was evaluated. It is concluded that this high switching frequency concept has the potential for significantly reducing the size and cost of battery plant power conditioners.

  11. Stabilizing southeastern Europe, financial legacies and European lessons from the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe John R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays brief attention, although more than the recent flood of 1914 centenary books, to economic causes of the First World War before turning to it fateful economic consequences for Southeastern Europe. The Austrian lack of economic leverage over Serbia is cited as a reason for its resort to the military option. At the war’s end, the option of the victorious powers to provide significant economic relief to the region where the conflict had begun was not taken. After tracking the brief, limited assistance provided, the paper reviews to the massive economic problems confronting four of the five of independent states, neglecting Albania as a special case, that could now be called Southeastern Europe. First Greece and then Bulgaria faced forced inflow of refugees. Romania and the Yugoslav Kingdom faced the economic integration of large new, formerly Austro-Hungarian lands. All of them were left not only with war deaths and destruction but also with large war debts, or in Bulgaria’s case, reparations. The paper concentrates on the primary Western response to these four economies, an effort led by the Bank of England to replace immediate postwar inflation with the deflation needed to reestablish currencies with prewar convertibility to gold, now with Pound Sterling added to a gold reserve standard. Independent central banks, the major positive legacy of this initiative, were to lead the way. But the financial stability that all four economies did eventually achieve in the 1920s served only to reduce their war debts. Otherwise, maintaining the fixed and overvalued exchange rates restricted domestic credit, encouraged protective tariffs, and did not attract the foreign capital, especially new state loans, that this emphasis on a single, European financial framework had promised. A concluding section considers the lessons learned from a postwar period that promoted economic disintegration by the 1930s. Looking at the period since the end of

  12. Gameplay Mode: War, Simulation, and Technoculture

    OpenAIRE

    Crogan, P.

    2011-01-01

    From flight simulators and first-person shooters to MMPOG and innovative strategy games like 2008’s Spore, computer games owe their development to computer simulation and imaging produced by and for the military during the Cold War. To understand their place in contemporary culture, Patrick Crogan argues, we must first understand the military logics that created and continue to inform them. Gameplay Mode situates computer games and gaming within the contemporary technocultural moment, connect...

  13. Coping with Cold Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Living With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Cold Sores Print A ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  14. Engaging North Korea: An Element of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheeseman, Jr, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    .... With North Korea becoming a confirmed nuclear power, the potential for radical instability in the Northeast Asian region exists to a greater degree than ever seen before in the post-Cold War era...

  15. Military Exercises in Korea: A Provocation or a Deterrent to War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, John S

    2006-01-01

    The 53-year alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea (ROK) has been a deterrent to the Stalinist North Korean state along the most heavily militarized zone remaining of the Cold War era...

  16. U.S.-Russian Cooperation in the War Against International Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petruncio, Emil T

    2002-01-01

    .... troops had been placed on heightened alert - a move which would have prompted Soviet Russia to respond in kind during the Cold War - Putin called Bush to assure him he would not add to already...

  17. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  18. Spanish exiles and the dilemma of the Cold War. Prieto, Esplá, Araquistáin and Llopis | Exiliados españoles en la encrucijada de la Guerra Fría. Prieto, Esplá, Araquistáin y Llopis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis Angosto Vélez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal attitudes were a determining factor in the position of Spanish Republican exiles regarding the question of restoring democracy in Spain at the beginning of the Cold War. After the Second World War had ended, many exiles came cherish a hope that such a development might be possible with the help of the victorious democracies, particularly the United States and the United Kingdom. They failed, however, to reach agreement as to which tactic to use in order to enlist this help, with some arguing in favour of giving the leading role to the government in exile, while others felt it was preferable to strike an agreement between all Spanish anti-Francoist groups in order to present a united democratic front to the new international institutions which had emerged in the post-war climate. The subtleties of both positions may be examined through a study of influential figures such as Indalecio Prieto, Carlos Esplá, Rodolfo Llopis and Luis Araquistán, of whom we now have a greater knowledge thanks to recent biographies, which form the basis of this work. | Las actitudes personales es un factor determinante de la posición del exilio republicano español ante el problema de la restauración de la democracia en España en la coyuntura del inicio de la Guerra Fría. Finalizada la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en los medios del exilio se generalizó la esperanza de que tal cosa era posible gracias a la ayuda de las democracias vencedoras, en particular de Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido. Sin embargo, no hubo unanimidad sobre la táctica a seguir para recabar esa ayuda, pues mientras unos abogaron por conceder el máximo protagonismo al gobierno en el exilio, otros consideraron más oportuno establecer un acuerdo entre las fuerzas antifranquistas españolas para presentar un frente democrático unido ante las nuevas instituciones internacionales surgidas del conflicto mundial. Ambas posturas presentan matices que pueden ser examinados a partir del talante

  19. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...... about war and masculine rationalties; gender relations in social movements of rebellion and national transformation; and masculinity in civil society under conditions of war and post-war....

  20. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  1. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    economic, and politica ! institutions. And like independence, war shaped the "course taken by the new nation as it faced its future. The consequences...Cruden, The War That Never Ended: The American Ci’,il War (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1973), p. 176. 139 190 NOTES. CHAPTER 2 15. Thonas Weber . The

  2. Early Korean War Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  3. Civil Wars, Child Soldiers and Post Conflict Peace Building in West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    presidential election in July 1997. The new political dispensation was a welcomed respite for the citizens of Liberia that survived the civil .... Intentions; Zeeuw, Building Peace in War-Torn Societies). It was little wonder Amadu Sesay (2003: 220) observed in his concluding remarks that,. While the chief cold war warrior; the ...

  4. Historiografie hladomoru na Ukrajině v letech 1932–1933. Odraz ukrajinské tragédie v sovětské a západní historiografii v době studené války jako zdroj pro porozumění kontroverzní diskusi o hladomoru v současné historické debatě / Historiography of the famine in Ukraine in 1932-1933. Reflections of the ukrainian tragedy in the soviet and western histiography in times of cold war as a source for an understanding of the controversial discussion about famine in current historical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Tumis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this study is an effort to understand how the research on famine in the Western and Eastern milieu in times of the Cold War has influenced the current debate as the topic of famine has become part of the worldwide discussion. It helped to form two general paradigms of famine interpretations which can be entitled Ukrainian/Western model and Soviet/Russian model.

  5. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low...... head hydroturbines are converting the potential energy of the stored water into power. A key to success for the SSG will be the low cost of the structure and its robustness. The construction of the pilot plant is scheduled and this paper aims to describe the concept of the SSG wave energy converter...... and the studies behind the process that leads to its construction. The pilot plant is an on-shore full scale module in 3 levels with an expected power production of 320 MWh/y in the North Sea. Location, wave climate and laboratory tests results will be used here to describe the pilot plant and its characteristics....

  6. Particle-In-Cell Simulations of a Thermionic Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of thermionic converters are presented where cesium is used as a work function reducing agent in a nano-fabricated triode configuration. The cathode and anode are spaced on the order of 100 μm, and the grid structure has features on the micron scale near the anode. The hot side is operated near 1600 K, the cold side near 600 K, and the converter has the potential to convert heat to DC electrical current upwards of 20% efficiency. Affordable and robust thermionic converters have the potential to displace century old mechanical engines and turbines as a primary means of electrical power generation in the near future. High efficiency converters that operate at a small scale could be used to generate power locally and alleviate the need for large scale power transmission systems. Electron and negative cesium ion back emission from the anode are considered, as well as device longevity and fabrication feasibility.

  7. Cuba após a Guerra Fria: mudanças econômicas, nova agenda diplomática e o limitado diálogo com os EUA Cuba after the Cold War: economic change, new diplomatic agenda and the limited dialogue with the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Santoro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuba passou por muitas transformações após a Guerra Fria. A economia está mais diversificada e o país logrou escapar do isolamento internacional, estabelecendo parcerias com China, União Européia e América Latina. Além disso, a transformação na comunidade cubano-americana coloca em posições de influência ativistas mais jovens, com maior disposição para o diálogo com os Estados Unidos, inclusive em temas comerciais. Contudo, é difícil que as negociações avancem em pontos controversos, pela relutância de Havana em liberalizar o regime político.Cuba has undergone several transformations after the Cold War. The economy has become more diversified and the country has been able to overcome international isolation, and in so doing establish partnerships with China, the European Union and Latin America. In addition, the changes in the Cuban-American community have put younger activists who are more willing to enter into dialogue with the United States, on such matters for example as foreign trade. However, it is difficult for the negotiations to solve more controversial points because of the continued reluctance of Havana to liberalize the political regime.

  8. Exportação de democracia na política externa norte-americana no pós-Guerra-Fria: doutrinas e o uso da força Exporting of democracy in American foreign policy in the post-Cold War period: the doctrine and the use of force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Castro Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os pilares da política externa americana no pós-guerra fria, mirando o lugar que ai ocupa democracia e sua relação com segurança. Busca-se mais especificamente as bases da doutrina da política externa que justificam a exportação de democracia pelo uso da força. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo quantitativa e qualitativa de 415 discursos dos Presidentes e Secretários de Estado entre 1989 e 2008.The article analyses the pillars of the American foreign policy in the post-cold war period, focusing on the importance democracy vis-à-vis security plays in it as well as their relationship. More specifically the work aims to define the bases of the doctrine of the foreign policy that justify exporting democracy by the use of force. It was used quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 414 speeches of the Presidents and Secretaries of States in the period 1989-2008.

  9. Tests Of A Stirling-Engine Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, George

    1995-01-01

    Report describes acceptance tests of power converter consisting of pair of opposed free-piston Stirling engines driving linear alternators. Stirling engines offer potential for extremely long life, high reliability, high efficiency at low hot-to-cold temperature ratios, and relatively low heater-head temperatures.

  10. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  11. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  12. Angiotensin-converting enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Rømer, F K; Cortes, D

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical or radiolog...

  13. Thermionic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Jr., James E.

    1977-08-09

    A thermionic device for converting nuclear energy into electrical energy comprising a tubular anode spaced from and surrounding a cylindrical cathode, the cathode having an outer emitting surface of ruthenium, and nuclear fuel on the inner cylindrical surface. The nuclear fuel is a ceramic composition of fissionable material in a metal matrix. An axial void is provided to collect and contain fission product gases.

  14. Definition of Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, F

    2015-01-01

    The paper is intended to introduce power conversion principles and to define common terms in the domain. The concept s of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the commutation cell and soft commuta tion are introduced and discussedd.

  15. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  16. The war veteran identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how war veterans perceive themselves and how they answer the question 'Who am I?'. War veterans face many challenges in the process of re-socialization from a state of war and war traumatization to a peacetime society. There are several reasons why their re-socialization is a slow process: the first one is that a war engagement is in itself a highly stressful situation which carries traumas of different degrees, the other reason is the changed system of values in relation to war engagement. Namely, at the time they went to war, they had a strong social support, but at the time of their return and today this support is lost to the point of judgment. And the third reason which limits their re-socialization is the situation of social transition they found on their return from war, which specifically means that a large percentage of the population in general, and thus the war veterans after returning from the war, lost their jobs, creating a large social group of 'transition losers'. Such a condition often generates an identity crisis. This set of socio-cultural circumstances together with the ontological insecurity carried by war trauma generate an identity crisis, which is manifested among the respondents in nihilistic answers when responding to questions about their own personality. Studying the identity of war veterans, it was found that a strong attachment to the veteran identity is dominant. In fact, this paper discusses the different ways in which this attachment is refracted in the personality and identity of subjects, from negative attitudes to the pride in belonging to a group of war veterans and personal fulfillment in the activism in associations of war participants.

  17. The War on Drugs - America's Other War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruske, Jr, James S

    2008-01-01

    The United States Coast Guard, with the assistance of the United States Navy, has been engaged in interdicting drugs in the maritime environment since Richard Nixon declared the War on Drugs thirty-seven years ago...

  18. The microminiature thermionic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Luke, James R.; Zavadil, Kevin R.

    2001-02-01

    A new generation of thermionic converter, the microminiature thermionic converter (MTC) has been fabrication using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) fabrication methods and micromachining manufacturing (MM) techniques. The use of IC and MM techniques allows the fabrication of MTCs with micron scale cathode to anode spacing and with anode and cathode materials which will have work functions ranging from 1 eV to 2.5 eV. The use of small cathode to anode spacing and variable electrode work functions gives the MTC the potential to convert heat energy to relatively large current densities (up to 10s of Amps/cm2) at relatively high conversion efficiencies (~25%), well within the range of high end conventional electrical generation equipment. Tests of prototype MTCs have demonstrated energy conversion at several emitter and collector temperatures. Power generated by the prototype MTC is less than expected because of less than optimal emission characteristics encountered with the low work function materials used for the first MTC prototypes. Work is in progress to improve the thermionic emission characteristics of the low work function electrodes. .

  19. Cold symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  20. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Your Parents - or Other Adults Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  1. Cold antihydrogen and CPT

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; Bowden, N S; Oxley, P; Storry, C H; Wessels, M; Speck, A K; Estrada, J; Yesley, P S; Grzonka, D; Oelert, Walter; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Walz, J

    2002-01-01

    Progress in the quest for cold antihydrogen includes the first substantial accumulation of cold positrons and the first demonstration of positron cooling. Stacking of cold antiprotons is key to using the new antiproton decelerator facility at CERN. (22 refs).

  2. Jemen - the Proxy War

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-01-01

    The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occas...

  3. The War Transformed Love

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Paris Diderot University - Paris 7 “The war transformed love”, wrote Blaise Cendrars, who himself lived through this dramatic experience. But what else? How did men and women experience the Great War, not only in their affective, romantic and sexual relationships, but more generally in everything forging their relationships: family life, intimacy, the public and the private spheres, work, writing, images, the body and the soul? A poilu's postcard, 1916 The war was first the triumph of the or...

  4. The Conduct of an Inter-state War and Multiple Dimensions of Territory: 1998-2000 Eritrea-Ethiopia war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Magnólia Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-state wars are not one of the most salient features in the post-Cold War era. The literature on contemporary armed conflict, particularly those in the aftermath of the Cold War, tends to overlook the centrality of territory in the causation of war. However, a border incident between Eritrea and Ethiopia in 1998 led to a crisis which escalated. The war lasted two and a half years, leading to an estimated 100.000 casualties. The article’s central claim shows the centrality of territory in its multiple dimensions for the understanding of the war that opposed the two sovereign states.As guerras inter-estatais não são uma das características mais salientes do pós-Guerra Fria. A literatura que analisa os conflitos contemporâneos, em particular aqueles ocorridos no pós-Guerra Fria, tendencialmente não reconhece centralidade ao território enquanto causa de conflito. No entanto, um incidente fronteiriço entre a Eritreia e a Etiópia em 1998 despoletou uma crise que viria a escalar, resultando num conflito de dois anos e meio com cerca de 100.000 vítimas. A tese central do presente artigo sublinha a centralidade do território nas suas múltiplas dimensões para o entendimento da guerra que opôs os dois Estados soberanos.

  5. Multilevel converters -- A new breed of power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.; Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Multilevel voltage source converters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for high-power applications. The multilevel voltage source converters typically synthesize the staircase voltage wave from several levels of dc capacitor voltages. One of the major limitations of the multilevel converters is the voltage unbalance between different levels. The techniques to balance the voltage between different levels normally involve voltage clamping or capacitor charge control. There are several ways of implementing voltage balance in multilevel converters. Without considering the traditional magnetic coupled converters, this paper presents three recently developed multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded-inverters with separate dc sources. The operating principle, features, constraints, and potential applications of these converters will be discussed.

  6. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  7. War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2009-01-01

    .... One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution (WPR...

  8. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  9. X-Y Converter Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A New breed of a buck boost converter, named as the XY converter family is proposed in this article. In the XY family, 16 topologies are presented which are highly suitable for renewable energy applications which require a high ratio of DC-DC converter; such as a photovoltaic multilevel inverter...... system, high voltage automotive applications and industrial drives. Compared to the traditional boost converter and existing recent converters, the proposed XY converter family has the ability to provide a higher output voltage by using less number of power devices and reactive components. Other distinct...... features of the XY converter family are i) Single control switch ii) Provide negative output voltage iii) Non-isolated topologies iv) High conversion ratio without making the use of high duty cycle and v) modular structure. XY family is compared with the recent high step-up converters and the detailed...

  10. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  11. Resonant power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to resonant energy conversion in power electronics. It is a practical, systematic guide to the analysis and design of various dc-dc resonant inverters, high-frequency rectifiers, and dc-dc resonant converters that are building blocks of many of today's high-frequency energy processors. Designed to function as both a superior senior-to-graduate level textbook for electrical engineering courses and a valuable professional reference for practicing engineers, it provides students and engineers with a solid grasp of existing high-frequency technology, while acquainting them wit

  12. Cold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  13. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J

    2005-01-01

    .... Combat now spans both war and "not war" in the new "military operation other than war", and the process of the military government has been completely replaced by the new "civil administration...

  14. The Island that came in from the Cold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    by mercantile and religious forms of colonialism, then by administrative colonialism, cold war colonialism, ‘modernisation’ colonialism – and now resource driven neoliberal colonialism. But we can also ask the more provocative question: Is climate change discourse a form of colonialism? In many parts...

  15. Optimization of power generating thermoelectric modules utilizing LNG cold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Soo

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical investigation to optimize thermoelectric modules, which convert LNG cold energy into electrical power, is performed using a novel one-dimensional analytic model. In the model the optimum thermoelement length and external load resistance, which maximize the energy conversion ratio, are determined by the heat supplied to the cold heat reservoir, the hot and cold side temperatures, the thermal and electrical contact resistances and the properties of thermoelectric materials. The effects of the thermal and electrical contact resistances and the heat supplied to the cold heat reservoir on the maximum energy conversion ratio, the optimum thermoelement length and the optimum external load resistance are shown.

  16. Children and War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Mary

    1984-01-01

    War is a stressful social condition that can be considered a form of child abuse. The holocaust experience, Vietnam, and World War II have all had significant effects on children's emotions and behavior. Problems that arise from these traumatic events are explored. (DF)

  17. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  18. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  19. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  20. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  1. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  2. Women and War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Camerablu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional representation of war the protagonist is always the man, the soldier, portrayed in his full virility, strength and justified aggressiveness. In every public discourse on war women are presented as the personification of something to be protected and even the country itself, the homeland, that is in danger of being invaded by the enemy. However this stereotype is far from portraying the full range of women’s activity in war. In many cases throughout history, from the mythical Antigone to the forgotten heroism of resistance of women against Nazi-German occupation in the Second World War, women have taken action both to save human lives and to preserve the values of their communities that war threatens to destroy. Avoiding an essentialist and reductive interpretation that identifies tout court women with peace, this issue explores women’s wartime experiences.

  3. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  4. Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, F.

    2008-09-01

    The presented bidirectional DC/DC converter design concept is a further development of an already existing converter used for low battery voltage operation.For low battery voltage operation a high efficient low parts count DC/DC converter was developed, and used in a satellite for the battery charge and battery discharge function.The converter consists in a bidirectional, non regulating DC/DC converter connected to a discharge regulating Buck converter and a charge regulating Buck converter.The Bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter performs with relatively high efficiency even at relatively high currents, which here means up to 35Amps.This performance was obtained through the use of power MOSFET's with on- resistances of only a few mille Ohms connected to a special transformer allowing paralleling several transistor stages on the low voltage side of the transformer. The design is patent protected. Synchronous rectification leads to high efficiency at the low battery voltages considered, which was in the range 2,7- 4,3 Volt DC.The converter performs with low switching losses as zero voltage zero current switching is implemented in all switching positions of the converter.Now, the drive power needed, to switch a relatively large number of low Ohm , hence high drive capacitance, power MOSFET's using conventional drive techniques would limit the overall conversion efficiency.Therefore a resonant drive consuming considerable less power than a conventional drive circuit was implemented in the converter.To the originally built and patent protected bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter, is added the functionality of regulation.Hereby the need for additional converter stages in form of a Charge Buck regulator and a Discharge Buck regulator is eliminated.The bidirectional DC/DC converter can be used in connection with batteries, motors, etc, where the bidirectional feature, simple design and high performance may be useful.

  5. Fluorescent radiation converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluorescence radiation converter is described which includes a substantially undoped optically transparent substrate and a waveshifter coating deposited on at least one portion of the substrate for absorption of radiation and conversion of fluorescent radiation. The coating is formed to substantially 1000 g/liter of a solvent, 70 to 200 g/liter of an organic polymer, and 0.2 to 25 g/liter of at least one organic fluorescent dye. The incoming incident radiation impinges on the coating. Radiation is absorbed by the fluorescent dye and is re-emitted as a longer wavelength radiation. Radiation is trapped within the substrate and is totally internally reflected by the boundary surface. Emitted radiation leaves the substrate ends to be detected.

  6. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  7. Farewell to „eternal peace“? New wars and their moral and legal challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborowski Holger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay first discusses modern wars and the idea of „eternal peace“ as developed in modernity. It shows how in the 20th century the reality of war (as well as the concept of peace was already transformed due to the development of new technologies such as the nuclear bomb. Now, peace was replaced by a „cold war“. The essay then goes on to introduce the concept of post-national wars (as opposed to modern national wars. It argues that this concept fails fully to describe contemporary warfare. What is needed is a deeper analysis that considers most recent technological developments such as the world wide web or drone technology and the way these technologies paradigmatically change the concept and reality of war (and of peace, too. The essay concludes by arguing that the moral and legal challenges of this kind of war deserve more attention than they are getting in the current discussion.

  8. Cold Signaling and Cold Response in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Miura; Tsuyoshi Furumoto

    2013-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental stresses. Freezing or extremely low temperature constitutes a key factor influencing plant growth, development and crop productivity. Plants have evolved a mechanism to enhance tolerance to freezing during exposure to periods of low, but non-freezing temperatures. This phenomenon is called cold acclimation. During cold acclimation, plants develop several mechanisms to minimize potential damages caused by low temperature. Cold respons...

  9. Integrated power electronic converters and digital control

    CERN Document Server

    Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T

  10. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely

  11. Advanced power electronics converters PWM converters processing AC voltages

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Euzeli

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, which can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces a new method to present power electronics converters called Power Blocks Geometry. Applicable for courses focusing on power electronics, power electronics converters, and advanced power converters. Offers a comprehensive set of simulation results to help understand the circuits presented throughout the book

  12. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  13. Terrorism, war, and peace

    OpenAIRE

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability...

  14. Political Bias and War

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Morelli, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    We examine how countries' incentives to go to war depend on the "political bias" of their pivotal decision makers. This bias is measured by a decision maker’s risk/ reward ratio from a war compared to that of the country at large. If there is no political bias, then there are mutually acceptable transfers from one country to the other that will avoid a war in the presence of commitment or enforceability of peace treaties. There are cases with a strong enough bias on the part of one or both co...

  15. Impedance source power electronic converters

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ellabban, Omar; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of pow...

  16. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of power electronics into industries and sustainable energy conversion systems. Compares impedance source converter/inverter applications in renewable energy power generation and electric vehicles as well......Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable...

  17. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s........ Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...

  18. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  19. The Canons of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel J. Freeman

    2007-01-01

    .... This Note draws upon the complete set of judicial opinions assessing authorizations for the use of military force in order to propose context-specific canons for interpreting war powers statutes...

  20. Dom Quixote reencontra Sancho Pança: relações internacionais e direito internacional antes, durante e depois da Guerra Fria Don Quixote meets Sancho Panza again: international relations and international law before, during and after the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Abdalla Medina de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a relação histórica entre as disciplinas acadêmicas de Relações Internacionais e do Direito Internacional a fim de proporcionar compreensão mais acurada acerca do atual debate interdisciplinar. Dessa forma, concepções convencionais sobre as principais teorias de Relações Internacionais - realismo e liberalismo - são discutidas, sendo estas teorias apresentadas sob novo enfoque. O liberalismo é concebido no contexto da convergência observada entre os estudiosos da política internacional e os juristas internacionais até o desenvolvimento de uma visão cética no campo do Direito Internacional, que é responsável pela criação do realismo em Relações Internacionais. O debate interdisciplinar pós-Guerra Fria é abordado por meio de três teorias distintas: institucionalismo, liberalismo e construtivismo. Argumenta-se que o construtivismo oferece maiores oportunidades para cooperação mais profunda entre estudiosos da política internacional e juristas internacionais. Isso se deve às conexões entre o construtivismo e a teoria crítica, o que permite unir construtivistas e teóricos legais críticos em uma Agenda Crítica para Relações Internacionais e Direito Internacional neste começo do século XXI.This article deals with the relation between the academic disciplines of International Relations and International Law in a historical perspective, so that an accurate comprehension of the current interdisciplinary debate can be brought to the fore. Thus, conventional conceptions about the main theories of International Relations - realism and liberalism - are discussed, and those theories are presented in a new light. Liberalism is conceived in the context of the convergence of international politics scholars and international lawyers until the development of a skeptical view in the field of International Law, which is responsible for the creation of realism in International Relations. The post-Cold War

  1. Images of the Second World War in Austrian Literature after 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Müller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.

  2. The War for Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Fight The current conflict has roots in both Yemen’s history and the Sunni-Shia conflict. However, it has become a bloody , multi-faceted war. The...Iran: Ayatollah Khomeini.” Iran Chamber Society, accessed 15 February 2016, http://www.iranchamber.com/history/rkhomeini/ayatollah_khomeini.php...Studies Institute, US Army War College, Jun 2014, accessed 15 Feb 2016 via https://www.ciaonet.org/attachments/26548/uploads, 21-5, 66 2Iran Chamber

  3. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  4. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  5. [The war victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H

    1994-10-01

    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  6. Romania and the New Cold War Security Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    countries, in which case further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB...between the West led by the US and the East led by the Soviet Union, this new dispute inherited the previous brand legacy, including the name...of official documentation, materials, books and articles referring to both the past and the present. It will refer to some sources presenting the

  7. US-Russian Cooperation in the Post Cold War Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Albright remembered this episode in surreal frustration: “I thought to myself, ‘Either I am dreaming or this is the worst movie I have ever seen. In one...Russia’s tax code. He described the shared threat of Central Asian extremists and terrorists, but cautioned prophetically , “Do not try to squeeze...and dreams …Whether Russia’s leaders overcome their nostalgia for another time and reconcile themselves to the sources of power and the exercise of

  8. POST-COLD WAR MILITARY INTERVENTION IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of strenuous lobbying by officials within the US executive coupled with increased media attention raised the profile of Somalia during this period. By 14 August 1991, the Bush administration had ordered a major airlift of relief supplies – Operation. Provide Relief to Somalia. The airlift represented a major intensification in US ...

  9. After the Cold War: Living with Lower Defense Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    similar if less severe situation, ropolitan arcas aue also relatively strong. Twelve of ,a herc dcfense cuts have further depresed a regional the top 15...in the biotechnology field was nutrient reclamation. GE Corporate Research Laboratory engineers developed a genetically altered microbe that could

  10. Metternich and China's Post-Cold War Grand Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    Liselotte Odgaard argumenterer i dette brief for, at Kinas samlede sikkerhedsstrategi siden den kolde krig, er baseret på at undgå en rolle som en sekundær magt i det internationale system. Kinas bestræbelse på at undgå rollen som sekundær magt sammenlignes med strategien som den østrigske udenri...

  11. Evolution of NATO in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    digital-internacional. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S. Hernández, 25 Nov. 1996. Internet address: http://www.elpais.es 13 Ministerio de Defensa...Udvalg. Dansk og Europæisk Sikkerhed. Copenhagen, Det Sikkerheds- og Nedrustningspolitiske Udvalg, 1995. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S

  12. Cold war against the hydrates; Kald krig mot hydratene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winge, Christina B.

    2003-07-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like clumps formed by water and natural gas. They present an expensive problem for the oil companies. They clog the oil pipes and often cause production stoppage. The hydrates also pose a great risk when they are to be removed, because this requires heating, which may lead to pressure increase and explosion. The article describes current research at SINTEF, Norway, which may lead to a method for bringing the oil up from the depth in ordinary steel pipes, without insulation and heating element.

  13. In Search of A Post-Cold War Security Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    to lead, we must demonstrate vision. In the words of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus : The absence or ineffectiveness of leadership implies the absence of...of History in American Foreign Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), 51. 3. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus , Leaders: The Strategies for...61, and Burt Nanus , Visionary Leadership (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992). 4. Management theorist Russell L. Ackoff, in his book Redesigning the

  14. Divided dreamworlds? The cultural cold war in East and West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, P.; Scott-Smith, G.; Segal, J.

    2012-01-01

    While the divide between capitalism and communism, embodied in the image of the Iron Curtain, seemed to be as wide and definitive as any cultural rift, Giles Scott-Smith, Joes Segal, and Peter Romijn have compiled a selection of essays on how culture contributed to the blurring of ideological

  15. The Post Cold War National Security Role of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-05

    such as buckwheat, red beans, laver ( edible seaweed ) and green tea. Japanese self-sufficiency in food crops is at an extremely low level compared with...assistance includes the supply of materials , development surveys, investments and loans for development projects, assistance in building and operating...raw materials (with crude oil accounting for 15 % of the total) and foodstuffs, and the majority of exports are industrial goods. Japan tries to open

  16. Optimal control and cold war dynamics between plant and herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Candace; Ellner, Stephen P; Holden, Matthew H

    2013-08-01

    Herbivores eat the leaves that a plant needs for photosynthesis. However, the degree of antagonism between plant and herbivore may depend critically on the timing of their interactions and the intrinsic value of a leaf. We present a model that investigates whether and when the timing of plant defense and herbivore feeding activity can be optimized by evolution so that their interactions can move from antagonistic to neutral. We assume that temporal changes in environmental conditions will affect intrinsic leaf value, measured as potential carbon gain. Using optimal-control theory, we model herbivore evolution, first in response to fixed plant strategies and then under coevolutionary dynamics in which the plant also evolves in response to the herbivore. In the latter case, we solve for the evolutionarily stable strategies of plant defense induction and herbivore hatching rate under different ecological conditions. Our results suggest that the optimal strategies for both plant and herbivore are to avoid direct conflict. As long as the plant has the capability for moderately lethal defense, the herbivore will modify its hatching rate to avoid plant defenses, and the plant will never have to use them. Insights from this model offer a possible solution to the paradox of sublethal defenses and provide a mechanism for stable plant-herbivore interactions without the need for natural enemy control.

  17. "World-Mindedness": The Lisle Fellowship and the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine a little known but long-standing group, the Lisle Fellowship, that endeavored to open the world to college students and foster international understanding--or "world-mindedness," as the organization's founders called it--ultimately with the goal to contribute to the ideal of world peace. It will also, in…

  18. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    industrial elites guaranteed economic plenty. In Honduras, due to aborted liberal reforms, the elites and the military cooperated without military domination... industrial elites that allowed the elites to prosper. All it cost those elites was granting the military a monopoly on political power from 1932 to 1979...medios ordinarios para el mantenimiento de la paz interna, la tranquilidad y la seguridad pública, el Presidente de la República podrá disponer de la

  19. new perspectives on southern africa's late cold war conflicts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    a Russian translator deployed in Angola, now a senior academic at a military academy in Russia. Hopefully this work would one day be translated and published in some South African language. Dosman talks about Cuito Canavale. This is about the closest that military historians and observers of strategy and tactics would ...

  20. Cold War Axioms in the Post-Vietnam ERa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-25

    adversaries centered on the monolithic character of the Soviet bloc and the central role of comunist influence in disorder and violence within the less...shift in leadership views of China is the venerable political adage that, "My enemy’s enemy is my friend." It is worth noting, however, that less...nationalistic (re - -. 54) and also least likely to view conflict among comunist nations as peruanent (r. - -.84). 1 7 The Third World Not long after

  1. The Pontecorvo Affair A Cold War Defection and Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetti, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1950, newspapers around the world reported that the Italian-born nuclear physicist Bruno Pontecorvo and his family had mysteriously disappeared while returning to Britain from a holiday trip. Because Pontecorvo was known to be an expert working for the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment, this raised immediate concern for the safety of atomic secrets, especially when it became known in the following months that he had defected to the Soviet Union. Was Pontecorvo a spy? Did he know and pass sensitive information about the bomb to Soviet experts? At the time, nuclear scientist , security personnel, Western government officials, and journalists assessed the case, but their efforts were inconclusive and speculations quickly turned to silence. In the years since, some have downplayed Pontecorvo’s knowledge of atomic weaponry, while others have claimed him as part of a spy ring that infiltrated the Manhattan Project.

  2. Post Cold War Role of the United Nations Security Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    AD-A236 430 The v aim 1m im ft am m - at 6w ii u4 dot 1001 nm- as Viim it On Dpumt of Da1 ot of its shL 40cwufmy =I - b. =~ bep . p.aUi. "d kt km bw...and ten other members as follows:30 - Canada - Colombia - Cote d’Ivoire - Cuba - Ethiopia - Finland - Malaysia - Romania - Yemen - Zaire Voting Pattern...assume in future if it follows this path. Cuba is not willing to assume that historical responsibility. 4 3 - The Foreign Minister of Malaysia

  3. Diplomacy in a Post Cold-War World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Roy A

    1998-01-01

    .... The author borrows from the German philosopher Hegel for this framework and applies the tool of the dialectic (the clash of contradictory ideas) to examine diplomacy in the context of Realism and Idealism. This method offers an opportunity to sort through the facts bearing on the subject and compare theory with the actual practice of statecraft.

  4. The Future of the High North: Cooperation or Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Norwegian regulations.”193 Despite the pragmatic collaboration, interpretation of the treaty continues to be contested, with the U.K., Spain, Iceland ...must take the relationship between Russia and the U.S. and NATO into consideration. With Norway´s strong political, cultural , social, and security ties...United States, Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Norway and Russia), known as the Arctic Five (although Iceland desires to be recognized as coastal state

  5. Strategic Stability in the Cold War: Lessons for Continuing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    crops and livestock,” including “ plant pathogens intended to wipe out the entire American wheat supply.”41 While many unanswered questions remain...deals with Moscow and/or Beijing without consulting them. The perennial risks of deception and manipulation – and of misunderstanding – would also

  6. Cold Wars and Hot Issues (management of responsibilities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHRM research rarely focusses on ethical issues and on moral legacies embedded in employees' cultural software. Ignoring the latter can result in a failure to assess important criteria of strategic HRM policies, which should not stop at the factory door nor at the state borders. Recent

  7. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  8. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  9. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000557.htm Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a rare blood disorder in ...

  10. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering

  11. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  12. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  13. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of power electronics into industries and sustainable energy conversion systems. Compares impedance source converter/inverter applications in renewable energy power generation and electric vehicles as well......Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable...... and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key...

  14. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key......Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable...... control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of power electronics into industries and sustainable energy conversion systems. Compares impedance source converter/inverter applications in renewable energy power generation and electric vehicles as well...

  15. War liver injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nebojša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.

  16. An Explorative Note on Tourism Development along Former War Front Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Jansen-Verbeke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current research about the pro-active role of tourism in valorizing war memories and landscapes still is in an explorative stage; learning from case studies, all marked by their political context, in time and space, and mainly describing local and/or regional key issues. Obviously, creating landscapes of memories for contemporary uses and visitors’ experiences implies a trans-disciplinary understanding of the process of changing values (heritage landscapes and of the intrinsic dynamics of tourism development. Shifting values and creativity in linking histories of war sites and their narratives with places and people today, leads to branding ‘sites of memories’ in the mindset of residents and visitors.We briefly scan four very different examples of border areas with a war history, that became landmarks on the tourist’ maps today.  The challenge for tourism development in former war related sites is to identify the dynamics - in time and space - to assess the political and economic forces and to identify shifts in the process of remembrance and valorization of war heritage sites, in terms of interests in war memories, narratives and experiences. These are now strategically integrated in national, regional and local tourism development planning.Historical military front zones, political borders in past wars, presently marked as tourism destinations, are on the research agenda of ‘War and Tourism’.  The observations below on four different former  war border zones with their specific landmarks and memoryscapes, are inspiring for current tourism development. Four different war border zones were briefly  explored “The Great Wall in China” “The Roman Limes”, The “Wire of Death”  in the  First World War  and the ”Iron Curtain” in the Cold War. These observations can inspire future research on tourismification of war heritage.

  17. Shaping the National Guard in a Post-War Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    armed Nike Missile launcher sites during the Cold War, and in the late 1990s, the NG formed civil support teams capable of an early response to...predictability for deployments, with an emphasis on AC/RC integration.81 In short, the reserve component has become a critical part of national strategy and...fiscal constraints, innovative and unpopular decisions must be considered. Some have gone so far as to suggest a move back to pre-1947, and making

  18. Between "Official" and "Unofficial" Temperatures: Introducing a Complication to the Hot and Cold Ethnicity Theory from Odessa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Abel

    2014-01-01

    The end of the cold war prompted most of the former Soviet republics to face ethnic issues that had remained latent or intangible for decades. Whilst some ethnic groups were actively campaigning for their rights, some others seemed uninterested in being represented politically. The recent theory of hot and cold ethnicity has been conceived to…

  19. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    designed to bring about an early decision rather than being bogged down in a costly war of attrition. Among Chinese combatants, cultural references to World War I abounded. One officer described a period of relative peace as reminiscent of All Quiet on the Western Front. A young pilot found inspiration......Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier...

  20. Illusion Of Defeat: Egyptian Strategic Thinking And The 1973 Yom Kippur War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-04

    stating that due to strategy failing to recover from losing its way during the Cold War, one might conclude that it is dead. Doing so, he says, would...know it or not.26 This is key, as a common view among some is that the perceived bipolar world of the Cold War was a much simpler time, when actually...to his Axis sympathies and desire for Germany to remove the British from Egypt.94 Upon his release from jail , Sadat rejoined the Free Officers

  1. Radiation tolerant power converter controls

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B; King, Q; Uznanski, S

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's most powerful particle collider. The LHC has several thousand magnets, both warm and super-conducting, which are supplied with current by power converters. Each converter is controlled by a purpose-built electronic module called a Function Generator Controller (FGC). The FGC allows remote control of the power converter and forms the central part of a closed-loop control system where the power converter voltage is set, based on the converter output current and magnet-circuit characteristics. Some power converters and FGCs are located in areas which are exposed to beam-induced radiation. There are numerous radiation induced effects, some of which lead to a loss of control of the power converter, having a direct impact upon the accelerator's availability. Following the first long shut down (LS1), the LHC will be able to run with higher intensity beams and higher beam energy. This is expected to lead to signifi...

  2. New fault tolerant matrix converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Edorta; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Inigo; Ormaetxea, Enekoitz; Alegria, Inigo Martinez de; Martin, Jose Luis [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of the Basque Country, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Ibanez, Pedro [TECNALIA, Energy Unit, Parque Tecnologico de Zamudio, E-48170 Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    The matrix converter (MC) presents a promising topology that will have to overcome certain barriers (protection systems, durability, the development of converters for real applications, etc.) in order to gain a foothold in the industry. In some applications, where continuous operation must be insured in the case of a system failure, improved reliability of the converter is of particular importance. In this sense, this article focuses on the study of a fault tolerant MC. The fault tolerance of a converter is characterized by its total or partial response in the case of a breakage of any of its components. Taking into consideration that virtually no work has been done on fault tolerant MCs, this paper describes the most important studies in this area. Moreover, a new method is proposed for detecting the breakage of MC semiconductors. Likewise, a new variation of SVM modulation with failure tolerance capacity is presented. This guarantees the continuous operation of the converter and the pseudo-optimum control of a PMSM. This paper also proposes a novel MC topology, which allows the flexible reconfiguration of this converter, when one or several of its semiconductors are damaged. In this way, the MC can continue operating at 100% of its performance without having to double its resources. In this way, it can be said that the solution described in this article represents a step forward towards the development of reliable matrix converters for real applications. (author)

  3. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  4. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  5. Multilevel converters for industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Sergio Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Modern semiconductor devices have reached high current and voltage levels, and their power-handling limits can be extended if they are used in multilevel converter configurations. To create high-performance and reliable control designs, however, engineers need in-depth understanding of the characteristics and operation of these topologies. Multilevel Converters for Industrial Applications presents a thorough and comprehensive analysis of multilevel converters with a common DC voltage source. The book offers a novel perspective to help readers understand the principles of the operation of volta

  6. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key...... control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of power electronics into industries and sustainable energy conversion systems. Compares impedance source converter/inverter applications in renewable energy power generation and electric vehicles as well...... as different industrial applications. Provides an overview of existing challenges, solutions and future trends. Supported by calculation examples, simulation models and results....

  7. Life without war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Douglas P

    2012-05-18

    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war.

  8. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  9. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  10. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states to ...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008.......The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  11. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  12. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  13. Teaching about World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines a unit approach to World War II that emphasizes totalitarianism, the military conduct of the war, and the Holocaust. Advocates using a variety of teaching strategies, methods, and materials. Includes several examples of innovative materials and activities. (MJP)

  14. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Post-war Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International forums and organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, have played a considerable role in societal developments since the end of World War II. Many changes in post-war Danish public schools like standardized educational testing were formed in dialogue with or initiated...... in such forums or organizations. This contribution explores the importance of these connections by focussing on the period from 1945 to around 1990, i.e., from the end of World War II when Danish education was characterized by a high degree of national unity as a contrast to the strife of the inter-war years......, and up to the end of the Cold War. Exploring the transnational angle is a highly relevant and interesting research topic because it contributes to a deeper understanding of the origin, development and design of Danish school policy and school practice, and the influence from transnational spaces....

  15. Space Theory and Strategy: War From the High Ground Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    genius, however, could not eradicate the Spanish guerrilla forces converting the battlefield to a battlespace of a prolonged war. The nature of... Colonizing the moon and other celestial bodies could represent an epic change to humankind’s evolution as humans become an interplanetary species.82 These...Fallows, “The Coming Age of Space Colonization ,” The Atlantic, 20 March 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/03/the-coming-age-of

  16. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  17. Wind/water energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1979-01-01

    Device will convert wind, water, tidal or wave energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Is comprised of windmill-like paddles or blades synchronously geared to orient themselves to wind direction for optimum energy extraction.

  18. Time-to-digital converters

    CERN Document Server

    Henzler, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of time-to-digital converters on analog and digital conversion principles. It includes a theoretical investigation into quantization, linearity, noise and variability, and it details a range of advanced TDC architectures.

  19. Analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewyn, L. L. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    An analog to digital converter circuit arrangement is reported that is suitable for use in ultra fast pulse height analysis. The circuit uses series connected tunnel diodes to quantize a voltage signal into discrete levels.

  20. Laser system with wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus comprising a diode laser (10) providing radiation in a first wavelength interval, a radiation conversion unit (12) having an input and an output, the radiation converter configured to receive the radiation in the first wavelength interval from the diode...... laser at the input, the radiation conversion unit configured to convert the radiation in the first wavelength interval to radiation in a second wavelength interval and the output configured to output the converted radiation, the second wavelength interval having one end point outside the first...... wavelength interval. Further, the invention relates to a method of optically pumping a target laser (14) in a laser system, the laser system comprising a laser source providing radiation at a first frequency, the laser source being optically connected to an input of a frequency converter, the frequency...

  1. In Defence of New Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kaldor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on ‘new wars’. It argues that ‘new wars’ should be understood not as an empirical category but rather as a way of elucidating the logic of contemporary war that can offer both a research strategy and a guide to policy. It addresses four components of the debate: whether new wars are ‘new’; whether new wars are war or crime; whether the data supports the claims about new wars; and whether new wars are ‘post-Clausewitzean’. It argues that the obsession with the ‘newness’ of wars misses the point about the logic of new wars; that there is a blurring of war and crime but it is important to address the political elements of new wars; that, although the data should be used with caution, it does seem to offer support for some elements of the new war thesis; and that the argument is indeed post-Clausewitzean because new wars are not ‘contests of wills’ but more similar to a mutual enterprise. It concludes that the debate has greatly enriched the overall argument.

  2. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  3. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  4. Radiation tolerant power converter controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.; Dinius, A.; King, Q.; Uznanski, S.

    2012-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's most powerful particle collider. The LHC has several thousand magnets, both warm and super-conducting, which are supplied with current by power converters. Each converter is controlled by a purpose-built electronic module called a Function Generator Controller (FGC). The FGC allows remote control of the power converter and forms the central part of a closed-loop control system where the power converter voltage is set, based on the converter output current and magnet-circuit characteristics. Some power converters and FGCs are located in areas which are exposed to beam-induced radiation. There are numerous radiation induced effects, some of which lead to a loss of control of the power converter, having a direct impact upon the accelerator's availability. Following the first long shut down (LS1), the LHC will be able to run with higher intensity beams and higher beam energy. This is expected to lead to significantly increased radiation induced effects in materials close to the accelerator, including the FGC. Recent radiation tests indicate that the current FGC would not be sufficiently reliable. A so-called FGClite is being designed to work reliably in the radiation environment in the post-LS1 era. This paper outlines the concepts of power converter controls for machines such as the LHC, introduces the risks related to radiation and a radiation tolerant project flow. The FGClite is then described, with its key concepts and challenges: aiming for high reliability in a radiation field.

  5. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  6. Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R

    1994-03-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars.

  7. Current status of converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasialasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of modern converter steelmaking and related with the evaluation of converter technology applied during the last decades and further to the future. The history of steelmaking has been briefly reviewed from bloomeries and early-steelmaking processes to the progress of modern converter process. The pneumatic converter processes were developed in the 1850`s and thereafter the basis for the rapid growth of steel industries was established for the next 100 years. The world production of steel has not continuously grown but fluctuating quite much. It reached 723 Mt in 1994. The production is believed to grow the forecast for the year 2003 being approximately 800 Mt. Electric arc furnace production is estimated to reach 280 Mt by 2003, and BOFIOH will reach 520 Mt by 2003. The current status of the converter steelmaking process is briefly described both on its theoretical bases and practical technological progresses. Developments which significantly improve the process are briefly discussed. Several more recent developments such as combined oxygen blowing process, increased scrap melting, post combustion and hot metal pretreatment are discussed. The future progress will be in further development of these process characteristics as well as in eventual emerging of the continuous converter process. (author)

  8. Blending Science & Art: Cold War Lessons for Strategy Development in Postmodern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    GIG ) is worth the loss of security provided by service diversity. 23 Statements assuring the GIG can promise effective operation during attacks and... economy , and a CNN broadcast of an exposed corpse of a US soldier in the streets of Mogadishu shakes the determination of Americans and alter the world’s

  9. Deterrence from Cold War to Long War: Lessons from Six Decades of RAND Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    missile warfare, a snap judgment to launch was made, even though the warning was in error. RAND analysts were not unconcerned with the first-strike...nuclear weapons could be constructed that would deliver large amounts of prompt radiation in the form of high-energy neutrons (see Cohen, 1960). These...The weapons that Cohen envisioned would become known as enhanced radiation weapons or, more infamously, neutron bombs. They were widely decried by

  10. POW/MIA Issues. Volume 2. World War II and the Early Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    information included their home addresses, date and circumstances of their capture, and specific details about things such as Cox’s " tattoo marks of a snake...Government attaches to it. 124 From Moscow #758, to State (Secret), November 13, 1954, 611.61251/11-1354. 125Letter to Mr. Thomas Marchuk from Waiter

  11. The Evolution of the Sonobuoy from World War II to the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    www.radiomilitari.com/r.html. 31. Waverly Amateur Radio Society – Photo Gallery, http://www.vk2bv.org/gallery/arr-3. 32. HIJMS Submarine I-52: Tabular Record of...A, April 1965. HOLLER UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 344 19. Photos courtesy of Captain Jerry Mason, USN Retired. 20. Naval Sonar, Bureau of Naval

  12. The New Geopolitics of Educational Aid: From Cold Wars to Holy Wars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores shifts in the nature, volume, trajectory and content of aid to education in the wake of post-9/11 Western preoccupations with the rise of Islamic radicalism. The paper develops a framework for understanding the dynamics of how educational aid appears to be becoming increasingly politicized in strategic conflict and post-conflict…

  13. Engine Cold Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ENGINE COLD START INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 469 by Douglas M. Yost Gregory A. T. Hansen U.S...not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ENGINE COLD START INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 469 by Douglas M. Yost...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engine Cold Start 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-09-C-0100 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas

  14. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    seems as questionable as alchemy . Congress had little choice. It had no authority to tax individuals or to levy duties on trade. The country had no banks... plasma , penicillin and sulfa drugs. air and motor transport of the wounded. and field hospitals tested during World War I also dramatically reduced

  15. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    in the future. The “extreme 20th century” will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be narrated as more extreme, and its temporal bindings become easier to observe. The much celebrated “revolutions in military affairs” will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away...

  16. Images of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William C.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the rise of photography during the Civil War period, and discusses current photographic technology. Examines photography entrepreneurs, and expounds on notable individuals in photography. Describes types of photographs taken, problems encountered in gathering pictures, and popular responses to photography. Concentrates on Civil War…

  17. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  18. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  19. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    governments and terrorists, warlords, separatists, and in and among nations’ populations. Mary Kaldor echoes this 4 view, arguing that states are...19-20. 7 Mary Kaldor , “Elaborating the ‘New War’ Thesis,” in Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Jan Angstrom, eds., Rethinking the Nature of War (New York

  20. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the unremitting pressures of conflict; and the fundamental nature of war, including the psychological aspects of battle, where soldiers are engaged...this regard edmund burke was particularly perceptive in his understanding of the baleful influence that second- and third-order effects could

  1. The Simulation of DFIG Grid Side Converter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LU Yan-Ling; LU Jian-qiang; BAO Jie

    2017-01-01

    Firstly,DFIG basic structure of grid side converter was analyzed according to basic principles of voltage converter, and a mathematical model of grid side converter was established in the three-phase...

  2. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  3. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  4. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  5. COLD-WORKED HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  6. The Boost Converter – Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dc-to-dc boost converter is a single-switch, single-inductor, switching circuit used to efficiently transform energy from one dc voltage level to a greater voltage level of the same relative polarity. For a specific resistive load range, as the duty cycle decreases, the boost converter inductor enters a discontinuous current mode of operation - the output load current having decreased to a definable level. This paper analyses the fact that a further reduction of load current, as the duty cycle decreases towards zero, will always result in the re-emergence of a continuous inductor current condition. Further, at the other load extreme, high-current, progressively for increasing load current, starting at low duty cycle conditions, the minimum inductor current always increases from a fixed normalised current level, for a specific load range. These and other hitherto unexplored boost converter properties are analysed and verified mathematically and with PSpice simulations. 

  7. Simplified design of data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1997-01-01

    Simplified Design of Data Converters shows how to design and experiment with data converters, both analog-to-digital and digital to analog. The design approach here is the same one used in all of John Lenk's best-selling books on simplified and practical design. Throughout the book, design problems start with guidelines for selecting all components on a trial-value basis, assuming a specific design goal and set of conditions. Then, using the guideline values in experimental circuits, the desired results are produced by varying the experimental component values, if needed.If you are a w

  8. The War on Terror and the Crisis of Postcoloniality in Africa | Omeje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back in the early 1990s when a section of the American foreign policy think tank and the intelligentsia were euphorically forecasting scenarios for the consolidation of western victory in the Cold War, James Woolsey, then head of the US Central Intelligence Agency forewarned that the widely celebrated victory and transition ...

  9. Children Play War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bankova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary the author represents the children’s play of war as a reflection of the reality in which the children live and at the same time as one of the most vivid examples of how important the peace is for the comprehensive development of the human personality.

  10. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  11. The Afghan Air War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    corrup- tion, and build a pure Islamic state. The actual resul t was oppression, austeri ty, and the decay of basic government funct ions. Women ...were forced to wear the al l -conceal ing burkha and soccer - stadium executions and amputat ions terrorized ci t izens. Al though the Tal iban in 2001... Bull -s Eye War: Pinpoint Bombing Shifts Role of GI Joe” Washington Post, Dec. 2, 2001. 27 Jumper, remarks at AFA’s February 2002 symposium in Orlando

  12. Children Play War

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bankova

    2017-01-01

    The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary) the author represents the child...

  13. On Political War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    history before Hitler: leaving foreign wars aside, deaths through internal repressive measures conducted for ideological reasons amounted in Soviet Russia ... history have suggested keys to an understanding of the individual and social forces behind conflict. Their views have seldom stood the test of reality...who feared damage to his trade initiative), it later surfaced and served as a basis for a history of Muscovy written by Milton. A useful reminder for

  14. Understanding War in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Works of art or history books showing human faces or female forms were destroyed. The animals in the Kabul Zoo were tortured or killed by Taliban...agronomists to help Afghan agriculture and animal husbandry enter the 21st century. In terms of reconstruction and development, the coalition, rein...in 114 Understanding War in Afghanistan Kabul that is linked into the provinces and districts and able to perform the basic security and welfare

  15. 'The most beautiful of wars' : Carl von Clausewitz and small wars

    OpenAIRE

    Scheipers, Sibylle

    2017-01-01

    Carl von Clausewitz was both an avid analyst of small wars and people’s war and, during the wars of liberation, a practitioner of small war. While Clausewitz scholars have increasingly recognised the centrality of small wars for Clausewitz’s thought, the sources and inspirations of his writings on small wars have remained understudied. This article contextualises Clausewitz’s thought on small wars and people’s war in the tradition of German philosophical and aesthetic discourses around 1800. ...

  16. The Effect of War on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…

  17. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Sally

    2011-07-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.

  18. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  19. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching

  20. A digital to analog converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Jan R.; Annema, Anne J.

    2006-01-01

    A digital to analog converter for a multibit digital input signal has a set of conversion elements for the positive signal excursions and a set of conversion elements for the negative signal excursions. In each set the conversion elements are selected according to a dynamic element matching