WorldWideScience

Sample records for converters electric

  1. Electric current - frequency converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Kinbana, Setsuro.

    1967-01-01

    Herein disclosed is an improved simple electric current-frequency converter, the input current and output frequency linearity of which is widened to a range of four to five figures while compensating, for temperature. The converter may be used for computor processing and for telemetering the output signals from a nuclear reactor. The converter is an astable multivibrator which includes charging circuits comprising emitter-voltage compensated NPN transistors, a charged voltage detecting circuit of temperature compensated field effect transistors, and a transistor switching circuit for generating switching pulses independent of temperature. The converter exhibited a 0.7% frequency change within a range of 5 - 45 0 C and less than a 0.1% frequency drift after six hours of operation when the input current was maintained constant. (Yamaguchi, T.)

  2. Electromechanical converters for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Rujanschi, N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets fixed on the rotor and asynchronous with the short-circuit rotor. Various electrical stator winding schemes have also been compared, demonstrating the efficiency of copper utilization in toroidal windings. The electromagnetic calculus of the axial machine has particularities compared to the cylindrical machine, in the paper is presented the method of correlating the geometry of the cylindrical and axial machines. In this case the method and recommendations used in the design of such machines may be used.

  3. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from internal combustion engine (ICE). The mass production of the hybrid electric (HE) and the electric vehicle (EV) is still awaited due to subsystem inefficiencies. Increasing the efficiencies of the power converters within subsystems of these HEVs and EVs will increase the performance of the new transportation vehicles.

  4. Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Pek Yang; Henz, Martin; Weigl, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental benefits in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reductions, but energy inputs and materials impacts associated with the conversion of a CBEV are weighed against savings ...

  5. Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Rick Allen [Tijeras, NM; Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-03-03

    Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

  6. Converter applications and their influence on large electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Drubel, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Converter driven applications are applied in more and more processes. Almost any installed wind-farm, ship drives, steel mills, several boiler feed water pumps, extruder and many other applications operate much more efficient and economic in case of variable speed solutions. The boundary conditions for a motor or generator will change, if it is supplied by a converter. An electrical machine, which is operated by a converter, can no longer be regarded as an independent component, but is embedded in a system consisting of converter and machine. This book gives an overview of existing converter designs for large electrical machines. Methods for the appropriate calculation of machine phenomena, which are implied by converters are derived in the power range above 500kVA. It is shown how due to the converter inherent higher voltage harmonics and pulse frequencies special phenomena are caused inside the machine which can be the reason for malfunction. It is demonstrated that additional losses create additional tempe...

  7. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  8. Isolated step-down DC -DC converter for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukovinets, O. V.; Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.

    2018-02-01

    Modern motor-vehicle industrial sector is moving rapidly now towards the electricity-driving cars production, improving their range and efficiency of components, and in particular the step-down DC/DC converter to supply the onboard circuit 12/24V of electric vehicle from the high-voltage battery. The purpose of this article - to identify the best circuitry topology to design an advanced step-down DC/DC converters with the smallest mass, volume, highest efficiency and power. And this will have a positive effect on driving distance of electric vehicle (EV). On the basis of computational research of existing and implemented circuit topologies of step-down DC/DC converters (serial resonant converter, full bridge with phase-shifting converter, LLC resonant converter) a comprehensive analysis was carried out on the following characteristics: specific volume, specific weight, power, efficiency. The data obtained was the basis for the best technical option - LLC resonant converter. The results can serve as a guide material in the process of components design of the traction equipment for electric vehicles, providing for the best technical solutions in the design and manufacturing of converting equipment, self-contained power supply systems and advanced driver assistance systems.

  9. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The electrical low voltage load requirement in the passenger vehicle is ... oxides emissions, and 82% of carbon monoxides (CO). [4]. ... government placed an order restricting the movement ... transient and steady-state characteristics of the.

  10. Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with battery power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    At present, the application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines to drive strike machines for immersion of rod elements into the soil, strike drilling of shallow wells, dynamic probing of soils is recognized as quite effective. The pulse linear electromagnetic engine performs discrete consumption and conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work. Pulse dosing of a stream transmitted by the battery source to the pulse linear electromagnetic engine of the energy is provided by the electrical converter. The electric converters with the control of an electromagnetic strike machine as functions of time and armature movement, which form the unipolar supply pulses of voltage and current necessary for the normal operation of a pulse linear electromagnetic engine, are proposed. Electric converters are stable in operation, implement the necessary range of output parameters control determined by the technological process conditions, have noise immunity and automatic disconnection of power supply in emergency modes.

  11. Thyristor voltage converter in induction electric drives with microprocessor control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braslavsky, I.; Zuzev, A.; Shilin, S. [Electric Drive Department, Urals State Technical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper consists of some results on developed pulse model of thyristor voltage converter which is one of the most mathematically complicated unit of electric drive. The model structure and model parameter calculating method are represented. The application of the model allows to analyse stability in `locally` by the linear pulse system theory methods with talking into consideration quantise processes within the converter. Such application provides the obtaining higher accurate results comparing with the non-linear system theory approximate methods. Logarithmic frequency characteristics are used to analyse converter dynamic features and they are represented too. (orig.) 4 refs.

  12. Multi Bus DC-DC Converter in Electric Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithika, V.; Subramaniam, C.; Sridharan, R.; Geetha, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper is cotncerned with the design, simulation and fabrication of the prototype of a Multi bus DC- DC converter operating from 42V DC and delivering 14V DC and 260V DC. As a result, three DC buses are interconnected through a single power electronic circuitry. Such a requirement is energized in the development of a hybrid electric automobile which uses the technology of fuel cell. This is implemented by using a Bidirectional DC-DC converter configuration which is ideally suitable for multiple outputs with mutual electrical isolation. For the sake of reduced size and cost of step-up transformer, selection of a high frequency switching cycle at 10 KHz was done.

  13. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  14. DC electric springs with DC/DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qingsong; Cheng, Ming; Jiang, Yunlei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi-directio......The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi...... and/or constant discharging for batteries is adopted and four operating modes are analyzed as charging-positive, charging-negative, discharging-positive and discharging-negative modes. An additional mechanism for fast charging or fast discharging is also designed to secure normal operation...... of batteries. With the proposed DCES, the power fluctuations due to intermittent RESs can be passed to non-critical loads (NCLs) and batteries while power on critical loads (CLs) is kept stable. This is possibly the first attempt to design a DCES with only DC/DC converters. The performances of the proposed...

  15. Research procedure for buck-boost converter for small electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheva, Gergana; Hinov, Nikolay; Penev, Dimitar

    2017-12-01

    In the current paper is developed a mathematical model realized in Matlab for describing a buck-boost converter for control of small electric vehicle. The model is presented with differential equations which describes the processes in the converter. Through the research of this model it can be accomplished the optimal work mode of a small electric vehicles. The proposed converter can be used in a wide range of applications like small electric vehicles, smart grids and different systems for energy storage.

  16. Three-port bidirectional converter for electric vehicles : focus on high-frequency coaxial transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrich, G.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    A bi-directional multi-port converter can accommodate various energy storages and sources. Therefore, a multiport converter will be a good candidate for application as a future universal converter for (hybrid) electrical vehicles or local distribution systems. The main design challenge of the

  17. An Integrated Multifunctional Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for Electric Vehicles Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liwen Pan; Chengning Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an on-board vehicular battery charger that integrates bidirectional AC/DC converter and DC/DC converter to achieve high power density for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The integrated charger is able to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the electric traction system and to function as an AC/DC battery charger. The integrated charger topology is presented and the design of passive components is discussed. The control schemes are developed for m...

  18. Rectenna that converts infrared radiation to electrical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W.

    2016-09-06

    Technologies pertaining to converting infrared (IR) radiation to DC energy are described herein. In a general embodiment, a rectenna comprises a conductive layer. A thin insulator layer is formed on the conductive layer, and a nanoantenna is formed on the thin insulator layer. The thin insulator layer acts as a tunnel junction of a tunnel diode.

  19. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...

  20. Investigations of safety risks in converted electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolech, M.; Foster, D.L.; Lange, R. de; Rodarius, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the departments Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Automotive of TNO (Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research) several projects investigating safety aspects of electric vehicles have been conducted, including one in cooperation with KEMA and RDW of the Netherlands.

  1. The TELEC - A plasma type of direct energy converter. [Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) is a high-power density plasma device designed to convert a 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in plasma electrons, creating a high-electron temperature. Energetic electrons diffuse from the plasma and strike two electrodes having different areas. The larger electrode collects more electrons and there is a net transport of current. An electromagnetic field is generated in the external circuit. A computer program has been designed to analyze TELEC performance allowing parametric variation for optimization. Values are presented for TELEC performance as a function of cesium pressure and for current density and efficiency as a function of output voltage. Efficiency is shown to increase with pressure, reaching a maximum over 45%.

  2. The Electrostatic Wind Energy Converter : Electrical performance of a high voltage prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djairam, D.

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is converted to electrical energy by letting the wind move charged particles against the direction of an electric field. The advantage of this type of conversion is that no rotational movement, which occurs in conventional wind turbines, is required. An electrostatic wind energy

  3. Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with capacitor supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines in small power strike machines (energy impact is 0.01...1.0 kJ), where the characteristic mode of rare beats (pulse seismic vibrator, the arch crash device bins bulk materials), is quite effective. At the same time, the technical and economic performance of such machines is largely determined by the ability of the power source to provide a large instantaneous power of the supply pulses in the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor. The use of intermediate energy storage devices in power systems of rare-shock LEME makes it possible to obtain easily large instantaneous powers, forced energy conversion, and increase the performance of the machine. A capacitor power supply of a pulsed source of seismic waves is proposed for the exploration of shallow depths. The sections of the capacitor storage (CS) are connected to the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor by thyristor dischargers, the sequence of activation of which is determined by the control device. The charge of the capacitors to the required voltage is made directly from the battery source, or through the converter from a battery source with a smaller number of batteries.

  4. Advanced Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bassett, R.

    2007-01-01

    converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents the overall structure and the control aspects of an advanced power converter for universal and flexible power......More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic...

  5. Impacts on the Electrical System Economics from Critical Design Factors of Wave Energy Converters and Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Fergus; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    It is expected that ultimately, like offshore wind farms, electrical systems will make up to a quarter of the overall Capex of wave farms. This is a significant element of cost and consideration must be taken in the design of both individual wave energy converters (WECs) and arrays of WECs to ensure that these costs can be minimised. In a worst case scenario design decisions could increase the cost of the electrical system by several orders and ultimately make the technology uncompetitive. ...

  6. Hybrid Modulation of Bidirectional Three-Phase Dual-Active-Bridge DC Converters for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ching Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional power converters for electric vehicles (EVs have received much attention recently, due to either grid-supporting requirements or emergent power supplies. This paper proposes a hybrid modulation of the three-phase dual-active bridge (3ΦDAB converter for EV charging systems. The designed hybrid modulation allows the converter to switch its modulation between phase-shifted and trapezoidal modes to increase the conversion efficiency, even under light-load conditions. The mode transition is realized in a real-time manner according to the charging or discharging current. The operation principle of the converter is analyzed in different modes and thus design considerations of the modulation are derived. A lab-scaled prototype circuit with a 48V/20Ah LiFePO4 battery is established to validate the feasibility and effectiveness.

  7. Device for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy and method of manufacturing such a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Device (10) for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy, comprising at least a photovoltaic element (11) with a radiation-sensitive surface, wherein a covering layer (12) of a material comprising a silicon compound, to which a rare earth element has been added, is present

  8. CONVERTER SOLAR RADIATION INTO ELECTRICITY TO SUPPLY THE AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTOR THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility to increase the efficiency of converters of solar radiation into electricity by combining constructive photoelectric effect, See-beck thermoeffect and semiconductor solar cells, which will create integrated device to provide power semiconductor thermoelectric automobile air conditioner. 

  9. On investigation of the antenna converters of solar energy into electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Kh.S.; Akhmedov, Kh.M.; Shakh, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the current-voltage characteristics of the diode on the base of organic semiconductor nickel phthalocyanine were investigated. The diode was built in the dipole antenna. Potentialities of fabrication of solar energy converters into electric power and the design of the rectennas on the base of spiral antennas were discussed

  10. Hybrid-mode interleaved boost converter design for fuel cell electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Huiqing; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A high power interleaved boost converter is designed for a 150 kW high-power fuel cell electric vehicle application. • A hybrid-mode scheme is used: Mode I and mode II are used with each boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. • Boundary conditions for different modes are determined with respect to switching duty ratio and load conditions. • With the proposed scheme, the power density is improved by 44.2% and 34.3% in terms of the converter volume and weight. - Abstract: For Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, DC-DC power converters are essential to provide energy storage buffers between fuel cell stacks and the traction system because fuel cells show characteristics of low-voltage high-current output and wide output voltage variation. This paper presents a hybrid-mode two-phase interleaved boost converter for fuel cell electric vehicle application in order to improve the power density, minimize the input current ripple, and enhance the system efficiency. Two operation modes are adopted in the practical design: mode I and mode II are used with each boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. The operation, design and control of the interleaved boost converter for different operating modes are discussed with their equivalent circuits. The boundary conditions are distinguished with respect to switching duty ratio and load conditions. Transitions between continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode are illustrated for the whole duty ratio range. The expressions for inductor current ripple, input current ripple and output voltage ripple are derived and verified by simulation and experimental tests. The efficiency and power density improvements are illustrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  11. Study on the Control Algorithm of Two-Stage DC-DC Converter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhao Piao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast response, high efficiency, and good reliability are very important characteristics to electric vehicles (EVs dc/dc converters. Two-stage dc-dc converter is a kind of dc-dc topologies that can offer those characteristics to EVs. Presently, nonlinear control is an active area of research in the field of the control algorithm of dc-dc converters. However, very few papers research on two-stage converter for EVs. In this paper, a fixed switching frequency sliding mode (FSFSM controller and double-integral sliding mode (DISM controller for two-stage dc-dc converter are proposed. And a conventional linear control (lag is chosen as the comparison. The performances of the proposed FSFSM controller are compared with those obtained by the lag controller. In consequence, the satisfactory simulation and experiment results show that the FSFSM controller is capable of offering good large-signal operations with fast dynamical responses to the converter. At last, some other simulation results are presented to prove that the DISM controller is a promising method for the converter to eliminate the steady-state error.

  12. Analytical approaches to optimizing system "Semiconductor converter-electric drive complex"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormilicin, N. V.; Zhuravlev, A. M.; Khayatov, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the electric drives of the machine-building industry, the problem of optimizing the drive in terms of mass-size indicators is acute. The article offers analytical methods that ensure the minimization of the mass of a multiphase semiconductor converter. In multiphase electric drives, the form of the phase current at which the best possible use of the "semiconductor converter-electric drive complex" for active materials is different from the sinusoidal form. It is shown that under certain restrictions on the phase current form, it is possible to obtain an analytical solution. In particular, if one assumes the shape of the phase current to be rectangular, the optimal shape of the control actions will depend on the width of the interpolar gap. In the general case, the proposed algorithm can be used to solve the problem under consideration by numerical methods.

  13. Three-port bi-directional converter for electric vehicles: focus on high-frequency coaxial transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrich, G.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    A bi-directional multi-port converter can accommodate various energy storages and sources. Therefore, a multiport converter will be a good candidate for application as a future universal converter for (hybrid) electrical vehicles or local distribution systems. The main design challenge of the

  14. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  15. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanto, D; Ula, R K

    2017-01-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor. (paper)

  16. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  17. Thermal stress comparison in modular power converter topologies for smart transformers in the electrical distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Markus; Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A Smart Transformer (ST) can cover an important managing role in the future electrical distribution grid. For the moment, the reliability and cost are not competitive with traditional transformers and create a barrier for its application. This work conduct detail designs and analysis...... for a promising modular ST solution, which is composed of Modular Multi-level converter, Quad Active Bridge DC-DC converters, and two-level voltage source converters. The focus is put on the loading conditions and thermal stress of power semiconductor devices in order to discover critical parts of the whole...... system when performing various mission profiles in the realistic distribution grid. It is concluded that the thermal stress for all stages is low during normal operation and especially the isolation stage is stressed least....

  18. Converting chemical energy into electricity through a functionally cooperating device with diving-surfacing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengmeng; Cheng, Mengjiao; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2014-11-05

    A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving-surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Improved lifetime of chitosan film in converting water vapor to electrical power by adding carboxymethyl cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. I.; Balyan, M.; Nainggolan, I.

    2018-02-01

    A Water vapor cell based on chitosan film has been successfully fabricated in film form to convert water vapor to electrical power. In order to improve the lifetime of water vapor cell, Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) was added into 1% chitosan solution within concentration variations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5%. The result showed that the lifetime of water vapor cell increased higher by adding the higher concentration of Carboxymethyl cellulose. The highest lifetime was evidenced by adding 0.5%CMC which maintained for 48 weeks. However, the average electrical power became lower to 4.621 µW. This electrical power lower than the addition of 0.1%CMC which maintained for 5.167 µW. While, the lifetime of chitosan-0.1%CMC film of 44 weeks is shorter compared to chitosan-0.5%CMC film. Based on FTIR characterization, it was founded that the chitosan structure did not change until the addition of 0.1%CMC. This caused the electrical power of water vapor cell degenerated. Therefore, chitosan-0.5%CMC film has excellent lifetime in converting water vapor to electrical power.

  20. Power converter with maximum power point tracking MPPT for small wind-electric pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, David; Merino, Gabriel; Salazar, Lautaro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We implement a wind electric pumping system of small power. • The power converter allowed to change the operating point of the electro pump. • Two control techniques were implemented in the power converter. • The control V/f variable allowed to increase the power generated by the permanent magnet generator. - Abstract: In this work, an AC–DC–AC direct-drive power converter was implemented for a wind electric pumping system consisting of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) of 1.3 kW and a peripheral single phase pump of 0.74 kW. In addition, the inverter linear V/f control scheme and the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm with variable V/f were developed. MPPT algorithm seeks to extract water in a wide range of power input using the maximum amount of wind power available. Experimental trials at different pump pressures were conducted. With a MPPT tracking system with variable V/f, a power value of 1.3 kW was obtained at a speed of 350 rpm and a maximum operating hydraulic head of 50 m. At lower operating heads pressures (between 10 and 40 m), variable V/f control increases the power generated by the PMG compared to the linear V/f control. This increase ranged between 4% and 23% depending on the operating pressure, with an average of 13%, getting close to the maximum electrical power curve of the PMG. The pump was driven at variable frequency reaching a minimum speed of 0.5 times the rated speed. Efficiency of the power converter ranges between 70% and 95% with a power factor between 0.4 and 0.85, depending on the operating pressure

  1. Joining and Performance of Alkali Metal Thermal-to-electric Converter (AMTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Min-Soo; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Woo, Sang-Kuk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The alkali-Metal Thermal-to-electric Converter (AMTEC) is one of the promising static energy conversion technologies for the direct conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy. The advantages over a conventional energy converter are its high theoretical conversion efficiency of 40% and power density of 500 W/kg. The working principle of an AMTEC battery is the electrochemical reaction of the sodium through an ion conducting electrolyte. Sodium ion pass through the hot side of the beta”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) primarily as a result of the pressure difference. This pressure difference across the BASE has a significant effect on the overall performance of the AMTEC system. In order to build the high pressure difference across the BASE, hermeticity is required for each joined components for high temperature range of 900°C. The AMTEC battery was manufactured by utilizing robust joining technology of BASE/insulator/metal flange interfaces of the system for both structural and electrical stability. The electrical potential difference between the anode and cathode sides, where the electrons emitted from sodium ionization and recombined into sodium, was characterized as the open-circuit voltage. The efforts of technological improvement were concentrated on a high-power output and conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about the joining and performance of the AMTEC systems.

  2. An Integrated Multifunctional Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for Electric Vehicles Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an on-board vehicular battery charger that integrates bidirectional AC/DC converter and DC/DC converter to achieve high power density for application in electric vehicles (EVs. The integrated charger is able to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the electric traction system and to function as an AC/DC battery charger. The integrated charger topology is presented and the design of passive components is discussed. The control schemes are developed for motor drive system and battery-charging system with a power pulsation reduction circuit. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a 30-kW motor drive and 3.3-kW AC/DC charging prototype validate the performance of the proposed technology. In addition, power losses, efficiency comparison and thermal stress for the integrated charger are illustrated. The results of the analyses show the validity of the advanced integrated charger for electric vehicles.

  3. Electric strength of metal-ceramic brazed units of thermionic energy converters in cesium vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousenko, A.P.; Vasilchenko, A.V.; Nikolaev, Y.V.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation of electric strength characteristics of the hollow metal-ceramic brazed units of thermionic energy converters with the insulator 1 = 10-50 mm from polycrystal aluminum oxide at the temperature T = 450-750 degrees and the cesium vapour pressure P Cs = 10 - 1 -10 3 Pa has been carried out. The experimental dependencies of the break-down voltage of the brazed units on the temperature, parameter P Cs · 1 and the value of surface electric resistance of the insulators are given as well as the empiric equations obtained with the help of experimental data for calculating the break-down voltage. A mechanism of ceramic insulator influence on electric strength characteristics of the cesium gap is investigated. A breakdown model explaining this influence is proposed

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONVERTER STRUCTURES OF THE TRACTION DRIVE PROSPECTIVE MULTI-SYSTEM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES WITH DC TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Muha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structured schemes of steady-state converter are offered for traction drive of promising multisystem electric locomotives with traction engines of direct current and their comparative analysis is conducted.

  5. A generalized transformation to convert an arbitrary perfect electric conductor into another arbitrary dielectric object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lujun; Zhou Daming; Wang Jian; Li Guanhai; Li Zhifeng; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei

    2011-01-01

    A generalized transformation is proposed to design an illusion device. The device can reshape an arbitrarily shaped perfect electrical conductor (PEC) into another dielectric object with arbitrary geometry. Such a device can evolve into an ideal invisibility cloak with non-conformal boundaries if the virtual space is filled with air. Furthermore, the validity of our proposed transformation is confirmed by two specific devices. One is to convert a regular polygonal PEC cylinder into a circular dielectric cylinder. Another one is to reshape a circular PEC cylinder into a regular polygonal dielectric cylinder.

  6. Optimal Isolation Control of Three-Port Active Converters as a Combined Charger for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The three-port converter has three H-bridge ports that can interface with three different energy sources and offers the advantages of flexible power transmission, galvanic isolation ability and high power density. The three-port full-bridge converter can be used in electric vehicles as a combined charger that consists of a battery charger and a DC-DC converter. Power transfer occurs between two ports while the third port is isolated, i.e., the average power is zero. The purpose of this paper is to apply an optimal phase shift strategy in isolation control and provide a detailed comparison between traditional phase shift control and optimal phase shift control under the proposed isolation control scheme, including comparison of the zero-voltage-switching range and the root mean square current for the two methods. Based on this analysis, the optimal parameters are selected. The results of simulations and experiments are given to verify the advantages of dual-phase-shift control in isolation control.

  7. Tests on conducted electrical noise on a storage ring dc-dc converter cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical noise is produced by switching transients in the power supply converters which excite resonances formed by stray capacitance and cable inductance. This noise is present not only on the load cables, but also on ground cables of the magnet and of the converter cabinet. Since there will eventually be a large number of cabinets running at one time, tests were carried out to characterize the noise and to investigate possible techniques for reducing the levels. The tests were carried out on the test girder and converter cabinet set up in 412 area. There were four magnets installed on the girder -- two 0.5m quadrupoles, a 0.8m quadrupole, and a sextupole. These tests were carried out on one of the 0.5m quadrupoles. It should be noted that with this setup, the raw dc power was supplied at around 70V. In the final configuration, a 0.5m quad will be fed from a 40V raw supply. Consequently, the switching transients observed during the tests are likely to be higher than will occur in reality. Noise currents contain two main components: a low frequency component at around 50kHz, and a higher frequency component at around lMHz. It is the latter component which is of primary concern. Currents measured on the dc load cables typically were around one ampere, while currents into the building ground system were only a few tens of milliamps. Several methods were used to try reducing the noise currents, but only the addition of a series impedance was successful -- other methods either had no effect or increased the ground currents

  8. Electrical properties of a piezoelectric transformer for an AC-DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Wook

    2010-01-01

    The electrical properties of a ring/dot piezoelectric transformer were analyzed for applications as an AC-DC converter using the step-down behavior of a piezoelectric transformer. The ring/dot piezoelectric transformer was prepared using Pb(Mn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 and Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 modified Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 ceramics sintered at a relatively low temperature of 930 .deg. C for 90 min. When the transformer was matched with a load resistance of 1000 Ω, it transferred a maximum power of 27 W. The maximum power was produced at a dc output voltage of 30 V and a matching load resistance of 1000 Ω. While the manufactured ring/dot piezoelectric transformer released the maximum power at a resonance frequency of 71 kHz, the available frequency bandwidth was about 1 kHz at most due to strong frequency dependence of the piezoelectric transformer. The output dc current was highly improved up to 905 mA because no anisotropy of poling direction existed in the ring/dot piezoelectric transformer. Under a commercial input of 220 V ac , AC-DC converter successfully produced 27 W at 30 V dc and 905 mA.

  9. Electrical performance of GaN diode as betavoltaic isotope battery energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanquan; Yang Yuqing; Liu Yebing; Hu Rui; Li Hao; Zhong Zhengkun; Luo Shunzhong

    2013-01-01

    Two kinds of GaN PiN diodes were prepared to be the energy converters of betavoltaic batteries, and irradiated by 63 Ni and 3 H radioactive sources. The I sc was 5.4 nA and V oc was 771 mV for 63 Ni source; the I sc was 10.8 nA and V oc was 839 mV for 3 H source. These results show that their V oc are far better than silicon diodes', but their I sc are poor. And there are some differences between the theory values and experiment results. There would be greatly improving space in electrical performance of beta voltaic isotope batteries with GaN diodes as the energy converters, if the dislocation could be reduced in GaN material producing process, the Ohmic contact could be prepared very well and the diodes configuration could be designed more optimizedly in the future. (authors)

  10. On the Suitability of Interleaved Switched Capacitor Converter as an Interface for Electric Vehicle Dual Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjadi, Zahra; Williamson, Sheldon

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the analysis and novel hybrid controller design for an interleaved 2-quadrant switched capacitor (SC) bidirectional DC/DC converter for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) dual energy storage system. The designed novel control strategy enables simpler dynamics compared to a standard buck converter with input filter, good regulation capability, low EMI, lower source current ripple, ease of control, and continuous input current waveform in both buck as well as boost modes of operation.

  11. Electrical performance characteristics of high power converters for space power applications. Final report, 1 January 1988-30 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, T.A.; King, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    The first goal of this project was to investigate various converters that would be suitable for processing electric power derived from a nuclear reactor. The implementation is indicated of a 20 kHz system that includes a source converter, a ballast converter, and a fixed frequency converter for generating the 20 kHz output. This system can be converted to dc simply by removing the fixed frequency converter. This present study emphasized the design and testing of the source and ballast converters. A push-pull current-fed (PPCF) design was selected for the source converter, and a 2.7 kW version of this was implemented using three 900 watt modules in parallel. The characteristic equation for two converters in parallel was derived, but this analysis did not yield any experimental methods for measuring relative stability. The three source modules were first tested individually and then in parallel as a 2.7 kW system. All tests proved to be satisfactory; the system was stable; efficiency and regulation were acceptable; and the system was fault tolerant. The design of a ballast-load converter, which was operated as a shunt regulator, was investigated. The proposed power circuit is suitable for use with BJTs because proportional base drive is easily implemented. A control circuit which minimizes switching frequency ripple and automatically bypasses a faulty shunt section was developed. A nonlinear state-space-averaged model of the shunt regulator was developed and shown to produce an accurate incremental (small-signal) dynamic model, even though the usual state-space-averaging assumptions were not met. The nonlinear model was also shown to be useful for large-signal dynamic simulation using PSpice

  12. The Chaotic-Based Control of Three-Port Isolated Bidirectional DC/DC Converters for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-port isolated (TPI bidirectional DC/DC converters have three energy ports and offer advantages of large voltage gain, galvanic isolation ability and high power density. For this reason this kind of converters are suitable to connect different energy sources and loads in electric and hybrid vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to propose chaotic modulation and the related control scheme for TPI bidirectional DC/DC converters, in such a way that the switching harmonic peaks can be suppressed in spectrum and the conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI is reduced. Two chaotic modulation strategies, namely the continuously chaotic modulation and the discretely chaotic modulation are presented. These two chaotic modulation strategies are applied for TPI bidirectional DC/DC converters with shifted-phase angle based control and phase-shifted PWM control. Both simulation and experiments are given to verify the validity of the proposed chaotic modulation-based control schemes.

  13. Biological fuel-cell converts sugar into electric power; Biologinen polttokenno muuttaa sokerin saehkoeksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, L.

    1994-12-31

    The Automation Technology Laboratory at the Helsinki University of Technology has developed a fuel-cell which produces electric power and water from glucose. The fuel-cell opens new possibilities for utilization of biologically disintegrable matter, e.g. different kinds of carbage, in power generation. The glucose is converted in the reactor by baking yeast into a metabolite, which is feeded into the fuel-cell of volume 55 ml. Graphite, wound into the nickel wire net, is used as anode in the system. Porous graphite is used as cathode. Anode and cathode are separated from each other by ion- exchange membrane, which is penetrable by hydrogen iones, but not by salt solution of the cathode half-cell. The metabolite is oxidized at the anode, donating electrons and hydrogen iones to the ande. The electrones flow through the circuit into the cathode there they react with hydrogen iones and oxygen feeded through the cathode to form water. The fuel-cell, based on direct oxygenation-reduction, has operated without any disturbances for 280 hours. The efficiency, calculated from the heating value of the glucose, is 44 %, which is better than that of the chemical fuel-cells. The disadvantage of the biological reactions is the low speed of them, so the current densities of the cell still remain into the class 2.0 W/m{sup 2}, which is about 1.0 % of that of the developed phosphoric acid fuel-cells

  14. Thermal Capacitive Electrochemical Cycle on Carbon-Based Supercapacitor for Converting Low-grade Heat to Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge to efficiently convert low-grade heat (<100°C to electricity. Currently available heat-to-current converters, such as thermoelectric generators, operating in a low-grade heat regime reach efficiencies no higher than a few percent (<3%. Herein, we illustrated a thermal capacitive electrochemical cycle (TCEC using electrochemical cell, where the connection to the hot or cold reservoirs alternates in a cyclic charging–heating–discharging–cooling mode to convert heat into electricity, which performs as an electrochemical heat engine. TCEC technology is a cost-effective method for exploiting the temperature-dependent electrostatic potential in an electric double layer (EDL at carbon electrode/electrolyte interfaces; it produces net electricity by altering the EDL thickness via heating and cooling. In this paper, TCEC on supercapacitor was confirmed on commercial supercapacitor, which showed a poor conversion efficiency. To improve the performance, we redesigned the cell by employing the pouch cell setup with activated carbon as electrode materials and homemade temperature controlling system, which boosted the efficiency from 0.5% of commercial supercapacitor to 3.05% when cycling between 10 and 65°C. A higher efficiency of 3.95% could be reached by using microwaved exfoliated graphene nanosheets (MEG and nitric acid-treated MEG, which could help in decreasing the energy loss caused by charge leakage.

  15. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Luis M.; Garcia, Pablo; Garcia, Carlos Andres; Jurado, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. → Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. → New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. → Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  16. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  17. Bidirectional DC-DC converter fed drive for electric vehicle system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    of converters can be connected in series or parallel with low switching frequency (Yu and Lai, 2008). ... reversed, the topology functions as a buck converter through the modulation of Q1 , with the .... The state space average model is shown in (9) and (10). │. ⌋. ⌉ .... terms of high energy density, compact size and reliability.

  18. Optimization of Combined Thermal and Electrical Behavior of Power Converters Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malyna, D.V.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Horck, van F.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    A practical example of power electronic converter synthesis is presented, where a multi-objective genetic algorithm, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used. The optimization algorithm takes an experimentally-derived thermal model for the converter into account. Experimental

  19. Practical implementation of the concept of converted electric vehicle with advanced traction and dynamic performance and environmental safety indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.; Grishchenko, A. G.; Golubchik, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is to describe the implementation of the technical solutions have been developed, with regard to structure, composition, and characteristics, for an experimental prototype of an electric vehicle which has been converted from a conventional vehicle. The methodology of the study results is based on the practical implementation of the developed concept of the conversion of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles. The main components of electric propulsion system of the experimental prototype of electric vehicle are developed and manufactured on the basis of computational researches, taking into account the criteria and principles of conversion within the framework of presented work. The article describes a schematic and a design of power conversion and commutation electrical equipment, traction battery, electromechanical transmission. These results can serve as guidance material in the design and implementation of electric propulsion system (EPS) components of electric vehicles, facilitate the development of optimal technical solutions in the development and manufacture of vehicles, including those aimed at autonomy of operation and the use of perspective driver assistance systems. As part of this work, was suggested a rational structure for an electric vehicle experimental prototype, including technical performance characteristics of the components of EPS.

  20. A novel design of DC-AC electrical machine rotary converter for hybrid solar and wind energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, K G; Ramli, A Q; Amirulddin, U A U

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes the design of a new bi-directional DC-AC rotary converter machine to convert a d.c. voltage to three-phase voltage and vice-versa using a two-stage energy conversion machine. The rotary converter consists of two main stages which are combined into single frame. These two stages are constructed from three main electromagnetic components. The first inner electromagnetic component represents the input stage that enables the DC power generated by solar energy from photo-voltaic cells to be transformed by the second and third components electro-magnetically to produce multi-phase voltages at the output stage. At the same time, extra kinetic energy from wind, which is sufficiently available, can be added to existing torque on the second electromagnetic component. Both of these input energies will add up to the final energy generated at the output terminals. Therefore, the machine will be able to convert solar and wind energies to the output terminals simultaneously. If the solar energy is low, the available wind energy will be able to provide energy to the output terminals and at the same time charges the batteries which are connected as backup system. At this moment, the machine behaves as wind turbine. The energy output from the machine benefits from two energy sources which are solar and wind. At night when the solar energy is not available and also the load is low, the wind energy is able to charge the batteries and at the same time provides output electrical power to the remaining the load. Therefore, the proposed system will have high usage of available renewable energy as compared to separated wind or solar systems. MATLAB codes are used to calculate the required dimensions, the magnetic and electrical circuits parameters to design of the new bi-directional rotary converter machine.

  1. Charging electric vehicles from solar energy : Power converter, charging algorithm and system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles are only sustainable if the electricity used to charge them comes from renewable sources and not from fossil fuel based power plants. The goal of this PhD thesis is to develop a highly efficient, V2G-enabled smart charging system for electric vehicles at

  2. Design of PI Controlled Non Isolated Bidirectional DC to DC Converter for Electric Vehicle Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, A.; Subramani, C.; Thamizh Thentral, T. M.; Krithika, V.; Usha, S.

    2018-04-01

    Non isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter (NIBDDC) is a good interface between DC source and inverter Fed induction motor drive. This paper deals with comparison between open loop and PI controlled Bidirectional DC to DC Converter Inverter System (BDDCIS). The modelling and control of BDDC is becomes an important issue. Open loop BDDCIS and closed loop PI controlled BDDCIS are designed, modelled and simulated using Matlab- simulink and their results are presented. The investigations indicate superior performance of PI controlled BDDCIS. The proposed BDDCIS has advantages like bidirectional power transfer ability, reduced hardware count and improved dynamic response.

  3. The electrical, thermal and spatial integration of a converter in a power electronic module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the design and implementation of a power electronic system (14/42V DC/DC converter) that is implemented in the automotive environment, specifically the engine compartment. The power electronic system must have a high power density while operating in a high temperature

  4. Design and modelling of high gain DC-DC converters for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, D.; Karthigeyan, V.; Subhanu, B.; Ashwin, M.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    Transportation (Diesel and petrol internal combustion engine vehicles) approximately contributes to 25.5% of total CO2 emission. Thus diesel and petrol engine vehicles are the most dominant contributors of CO2 emission which leads global warming which causes climate change. The problem of CO2 emission and global warming can be reduced by focusing on renewable energy vehicles. Out of the available renewable energy sources fuel cell is the only source which has reasonable efficiency and can be used in vehicles. But the main disadvantage of fuel cell is its slow response time. So energy storage systems like batteries and super capacitors are used in parallel with the fuel cell. Fuel cell is used during steady state vehicle operation while during transient conditions like starting, acceleration and braking batteries and super capacitors can supply or absorb energy. In this paper a unidirectional fuel cell DC-DC converter and bidirectional energy storage system DC-DC converter is proposed, which can interface dc sources at different voltage levels to the dc bus and also it can independently control the power flow from each energy source to the dc bus and vice versa. The proposed converters are designed and simulated using PSIM version 9.1.1 and gate pulse pattern, input and output voltage waveforms of the converters for steady state operation are studied.

  5. Harmonics in power systems of ships with electrical propulsion drives. Comparison between different converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-11-01

    In this report the effects of harmonics in marine power systems is discussed and a comparison is given between the most typical converter types, including pulse width modulated drives, load commutated inverters and cycloconverters. The effect of harmonic distortion on the power system equipment and loads is first briefly discussed. Special attention is given to the circumstances in the low voltage distribution system, where general load equipment is connected. In addition to the total harmonic distortion the effect of voltage deviation to the supply quality is also considered. The origin of harmonics in the load currents of the three converter types is then considered. The differences between the converters are outlined, and the most typical spectra are presented. The possible means for reducing the harmonic distortion are also studied. The solutions considered are the increasing of the short circuit level, the use of harmonic filters and the increasing of the pulse number. In the case of cycloconverters, the optimization of the phase shift between the parallel operating bridges is also presented. Finally the effects of different converter types on the voltage quality are compared using calculations made for a typical marine power system. (author)

  6. Converted vehicle for battery electric drive. Aspects on the design of the software-driven vehicle control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessler, Martin; Paul, Jens; Gauterin, Frank [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugsystemtechnik (FAST); Fritz, Alexander; Sander, Oliver; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus D. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technik der Informationsverarbeitung (ITIV)

    2012-11-01

    At the Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) a vehicle was converted for full battery electric drive within a cooperation of several faculties under the direction of the chair of vehicle technology. Within this paper the developed software to control the main functions of the vehicle will be presented and potentials to increase the energy efficiency will be discussed. The software based vehicle control unit is the central control unit to realize drivers command with respect to the system parameters, which are important for safety, dynamics, range and comfort of the vehicle. The structure of the software architecture, the interaction with the main electric vehicle specific control units and components and the main implemented functions will be described within this paper. The converted vehicle consists mainly of one electric motor with water cooled power electronics that drives the front axle, 21 battery modules controlled and managed by the battery management system, one on board charging device and an universal control unit. Not only strategies for power recovery while braking, but also strategies for driving and operation can help increase the energy efficiency. Select measures to recover and safe energy are also shown. (orig.)

  7. Bidirectional DC-DC converter fed drive for electric vehicle system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batteries are the primary energy-storage devices in ground vehicles. Now days battery fed electric drives are commonly being used for electric vehicles applications, due to various advantages, such as: nearly zero emission, guaranteed load leveling, good transient operation and energy recovery during braking operation.

  8. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multilevel converter of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) fed by a modular front-end circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Several operating modes can be achieved by changing the on-off states of the switches in the front-end circuit......, the battery can be charged by the external AC source or generator when the vehicle is in standstill condition. The SRM-based PHEV can operate at different speeds by coordinating power flow from the generator and battery. Simulation in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a three-phase 12/8 SRM confirm...

  9. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  10. Electrically tunable terahertz polarization converter based on overcoupled metal-isolator-metal metamaterials infiltrated with liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Borislav; Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Isić, Goran; Beccherelli, Romeo; Gajić, Radoš

    2017-03-01

    Large birefringence and its electrical modulation by means of Fréedericksz transition makes nematic liquid crystals (LCs) a promising platform for tunable terahertz (THz) devices. The thickness of standard LC cells is in the order of the wavelength, requiring high driving voltages and allowing only a very slow modulation at THz frequencies. Here, we first present the concept of overcoupled metal-isolator-metal (MIM) cavities that allow for achieving simultaneously both very high phase difference between orthogonal electric field components and large reflectance. We then apply this concept to LC-infiltrated MIM-based metamaterials aiming at the design of electrically tunable THz polarization converters. The optimal operation in the overcoupled regime is provided by properly selecting the thickness of the LC cell. Instead of the LC natural birefringence, the polarization-dependent functionality stems from the optical anisotropy of ultrathin and deeply subwavelength MIM structures. The dynamic electro-optic control of the LC refractive index enables the spectral shift of the resonant mode and, consequently, the tuning of the phase difference between the two orthogonal field components. This tunability is further enhanced by the large confinement of the resonant electromagnetic fields within the MIM cavity. We show that for an appropriately chosen linearly polarized incident field, the polarization state of the reflected field at the target operation frequency can be continuously swept between the north and south pole of the Poincaré sphere. Using a rigorous Q-tensor model to simulate the LC electro-optic switching, we demonstrate that the enhanced light-matter interaction in the MIM resonant cavity allows the polarization converter to operate at driving voltages below 10 Volt and with millisecond switching times.

  11. The calculation of energy storage flywheels of fiber composites with electric energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canders, W R

    1982-01-01

    The computation and the design of energy storage flywheels with electromechanical energy converters are considered in the present study. The most important stress parameters for flywheels of unidirectional laminate are determined, and criteria for the dimensioning of the flywheel are presented, taking into account centrifugal and compressive stresses. The required high speed of the flywheel is the dominating factor, which has to be considered also in the design of the driving engine for the storage device. The computation of the design characteristics of an outside-rotor motor with permanent-magnet excitation as an integral component of the storage device is discussed. The significance of the obtained results is illustrated with the aid of design examples and an application example in the area of vehicular technology.

  12. Converters and electric machines. Solid insulating materials. Electrical characteristics; Convertisseurs et machines electriques. Materiaux isolants solides. Caracteristiques electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, A. [Institut National Superieur de Chimie Industrielle, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this article is to allow a preselection of a solid insulating material using the most common electrical characteristics: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity, dielectric rigidity, superficial resistivity, transverse resistivity, resistance to high voltage creeping spark currents, index of creeping resistance. The characteristics of the main solid insulating materials are presented in tables for: thermoplastics, thermosetting materials, natural insulating materials, mineral insulating materials, rubber and synthetic elastomers, stratified insulating materials, thermoplastic films, composite synthetic papers. A comparison is made between the different materials using the three properties: tangent of the loss angle, relative permittivity and resistance to HV spark creeping currents. (J.S.)

  13. Heat-electricity convertion systems for a Brazilian space micro nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Marcelino, Natalia B.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: lamartine.guimaraes@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: jamil@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: jalnsgf@outlook.com, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com, E-mail: ecorborges@hotmail.com, E-mail: ivayolini@gmail.com, E-mail: guilherme_placco@ig.com.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barrios Junior, Ary Garcia, E-mail: arygarcia89@yahoo.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This contribution will discuss the evolution work in the development of thermal cycles to allow the development of heat-electricity conversion for the Brazilian space micro nuclear Reactor. Namely, innovative core and nuclear fuel elements, Brayton cycle, Stirling engine, heat pipes, passive multi-fluid turbine, among others. This work is basically to set up the experimental labs that will allow the specification and design of the space equipment. Also, some discussion of the cost so far, and possible other applications will be presented. (author)

  14. PID and predictive control of electrical drives and power converters using MATLAB/Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liuping; Yoo, Dae; Gan, Lu; Ng, Ki

    2015-01-01

    A timely introduction to current research on PID and predictive control by one of the leading authors on the subject PID and Predictive Control of Electric Drives and Power Supplies using MATLAB/Simulink examines the classical control system strategies, such as PID control, feed-forward control and cascade control, which are widely used in current practice.  The authors share their experiences in actual design and implementation of the control systems on laboratory test-beds, taking the reader from the fundamentals through to more sophisticated design and analysis.    The book contains secti

  15. Topology optimized design of a transverse electric higher order mode converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Louise Floor; Ding, Yunhong; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of methods to support the ever increasing demand for data transfer has continued for years; one such method suggested within the field of optical communication, is space division multiplexing (SDM) [1]. Simultaneously the field of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is being...... present the possibility of employing topology optimization (TO) to design a device that allows for reversible conversion between the transverse electric fundamental even (TE0) mode and the second higher order odd mode (TE2). Topology optimization is an iterative inverse design process, where repeated...

  16. Heat-electricity convertion systems for a Brazilian space micro nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Marcelino, Natalia B.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Barrios Junior, Ary Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution will discuss the evolution work in the development of thermal cycles to allow the development of heat-electricity conversion for the Brazilian space micro nuclear Reactor. Namely, innovative core and nuclear fuel elements, Brayton cycle, Stirling engine, heat pipes, passive multi-fluid turbine, among others. This work is basically to set up the experimental labs that will allow the specification and design of the space equipment. Also, some discussion of the cost so far, and possible other applications will be presented. (author)

  17. Battery charging characteristics in small scaled photovoltaic system using resonant DC-DC converter with electric isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, H.; Kimura, G.; Shioya, M.

    1990-01-01

    The solar energy has been drawing attention of the whole world as a clean and infinite energy, since the globe resource, the globe ecology and so on came into question. The wide applications of the solar energy are being expected in a range from electric power plants to household systems. But the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of the solar radiation, a temperature of the solar cells and so on, so the various useful forms of the solar energy are being proposed for a purpose of stable power supply. a system described in this paper is a small scaled photovoltaic system with storage batteries. This paper describes the theoretical analyses of the photovoltaic system using a resonant DC-DC converter in order to clarify a desirable circuit condition, besides the experimental results of the battery charging characteristics are presented

  18. Frequency Transient Suppression in Hybrid Electric Ship Power Systems: A Model Predictive Control Strategy for Converter Control with Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viknash Shagar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to understand how the common phenomenon of fluctuations in propulsion and service load demand contribute to frequency transients in hybrid electric ship power systems. These fluctuations arise mainly due to changes in sea conditions resulting in significant variations in the propulsion load demand of ships. This leads to poor power quality for the power system that can potentially cause hazardous conditions such as blackout on board the ship. Effects of these fluctuations are analysed using a hybrid electric ship power system model and a proposed Model Predictive Control (MPC strategy to prevent propagation of transients from the propellers into the shipboard power system. A battery energy storage system, which is directly connected to the DC-link of the frequency converter, is used as the smoothing element. Case studies that involve propulsion and service load changes have been carried out to investigate the efficacy of the proposed solution. Simulation results show that the proposed solution with energy storage and MPC is able to contain frequency transients in the shipboard power system within the permissible levels stipulated by the relevant power quality standards. These findings will help ship builders and operators to consider using battery energy storage systems controlled by advanced control techniques such as MPC to improve the power quality on board ships.

  19. Design and Control of a Multiple Input DC/DC Converter for Battery/Ultra-capacitor Based Electric Vehicle Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi-input con......Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi...

  20. Ray converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    In a radiographic system a converter is used for changing image forming intensity distribution in a bundle of penetrating rays into a flow of electrically charged particles by electrodes located in a gas space and partly latticed (grids) which lie at potentials stepped from cathode to anode. The invention is particularly characterized by the provision of at least two grids extending between and parallel to the cathode and the anode. The electrical field which lies between two electrodes lies at least between the grids located closest to the cathode being to the extent of between 1 and 10 percent, in the average preferably 3 percent below the electrical break down field in the gas in a homogeneous electrical field

  1. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery with carbon-silver electrodes for converting low-grade waste heat to electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    Thermally regenerative ammonia batteries (TRABs) have shown great promise as a method to convert low-grade waste heat into electrical power, with power densities an order of magnitude higher than other approaches. However, previous TRABs based on copper electrodes suffered from unbalanced anode dissolution and cathode deposition rates during discharging cycles, limiting practical applications. To produce a TRAB with stable and reversible electrode reactions over many cycles, inert carbon electrodes were used with silver salts. In continuous flow tests, power production was stable over 100 discharging cycles, demonstrating excellent reversibility. Power densities were 23 W m-2-electrode area in batch tests, which was 64% higher than that produced in parallel tests using copper electrodes, and 30 W m-2 (net energy density of 490 Wh m-3-anolyte) in continuous flow tests. While this battery requires the use a precious metal, an initial economic analysis of the system showed that the cost of the materials relative to energy production was 220 per MWh, which is competitive with energy production from other non-fossil fuel sources. A substantial reduction in costs could be obtained by developing less expensive anion exchange membranes.

  2. Development of a Novel Bidirectional DC/DC Converter Topology with High Voltage Conversion Ratio for Electric Vehicles and DC-Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to study a bidirectional direct current to direct current converter (BDC topology with a high voltage conversion ratio for electric vehicle (EV batteries connected to a dc-microgrid system. In this study, an unregulated level converter (ULC cascaded with a two-phase interleaved buck-boost charge-pump converter (IBCPC is introduced to achieve a high conversion ratio with a simpler control circuit. In discharge state, the topology acts as a two-stage voltage-doubler boost converter to achieve high step-up conversion ratio (48 V to 385 V. In charge state, the converter acts as two cascaded voltage-divider buck converters to achieve high voltage step-down conversion ratio (385 V to 48 V. The features, operation principles, steady-state analysis, simulation and experimental results are made to verify the performance of the studied novel BDC. Finally, a 500 W rating prototype system is constructed for verifying the validity of the operation principle. Experimental results show that highest efficiencies of 96% and 95% can be achieved, respectively, in charge and discharge states.

  3. Multi-functional Converter with Integrated Motor Control, Battery Charging and Active Module Balancing for Electric Vehicular Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    , weight and volume in comparison with other Li-Ion based chemistries. The control of the energy flow has been done through a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC), which has demonstrated advantages over 2 level converters in terms of efficiency, fault tolerant operation, flexible operation modes. It has been...

  4. Design of a High Voltage Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Driving Capacitive Incremental Actuators usable in Electric Vehicles (EVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    the converter for efficiently charging and discharging the capacitive actuator from 0 V to 2.5 kV and vice versa, respectively. The converter is used to drive a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) based capacitive incremental actuator, which has the potential to be used in automotive (e.g., EVs), space...

  5. Regenerative electronic load for electric power sources tests using capacitive idling converter; Carga eletronica regenerativa para testes de fontes de energia eletrica utilizando conversor com capacitor flutuante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendrusculo, Edson Adriano

    1996-07-01

    The conventional method for testing power supplies, batteries, uninterruptible power supply and other sources of electric power uses resistors as load. This results in wasted heat and increases the equipment production cost. This work presents a Regenerative electronic Load to substitute those resistors. The basic topology is a capacitive idling Cuk converter. This converter allows to control independently the input current and permits to provide a sinusoidal output current. An appropriate gate command allows to have some soft-commutation without the use of any auxiliary circuit. The same converter, with input and output changed, can operate as a Power Supply with Input Power Factor Correction. The characteristics of soft-commutation and high efficiency are maintained. A simple high-efficiency transformer allows output isolation. All theoretical results are experimentally verified. (author)

  6. Power Flow Control through a Multi-Level H-Bridge-based Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electrical Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Bifaretti, Steffano; Zanchetta, Pericle

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel power conversion system for Universal and Flexible Power Management (UNIFLEX-PM) in Future Electricity Network. The structure is based on three AC-DC converters each one connected to a different grid, (representing the main grid and/or various distributed generation...... systems) on the AC side, and linked together at DC side by suitable DC isolation modules. Each port of the UNIFLEX-PM system employs a conversion structure based on a three-phase 7-level AC-DC cascaded converter. Effective and accurate power flow control is demonstrated through simulation in Matlab...... and Simulink environment on a simplified model based on a two-port structure and using a Stationery Reference Frame based control solution. Control of different Power flow profiles has been successfully tested in numerous network conditions such as voltage unbalance, frequency excursions and harmonic...

  7. Frequency converters increase the energy efficiency of electric motors in refrigerators; Frequenzumrichter steigern die Energieeffizienz von Elektromotoren in Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Alexander [Ziehl-Abegg AG Produktmanagement System- und Regeltechnik, Kuenzelsau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Refrigerators have vast potential for energy conservation. Blowers mounted on condensers and recirculation coolers are commonly controlled via phase angle control. It is shown how modern frequency converters can improve the energy balance of existing systems. The advantages of a combination of frequency converter and sinus filter are explained by the example of the Fcontrol frequency converter, which has an integrated all-phase sinus filter. Retrofitting is easy, and the payback period will be short. An example is presented to show that more than 50 % of the energy cost can be saved this way. In addition to blower control, also the compressor motor can be controlled by frequency converters, with advantages for the whole refrigerating system. The paper shows how retrofitting of modern frequency converters will reduce the energy cost and operating cost of existing refrigeration systems. [German] Kaelteanlagen, insbesondere bestehende Kaelteanlagen, bieten grosses Potenzial Energie einzusparen. Ventilatoren, die auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern montiert sind, werden ueberwiegend mit Regelgeraeten betrieben, die die Drehzahl ueber die Spannung variieren (Phasenanschnittregelung). Es wird aufgezeigt, dass durch moderne Frequenzumrichter auf einfache Art und Weise bestehende Anlagen energetisch verbessert werden koennen. Am Beispiel des Frequenzumrichters Fcontrol, der einen allpolig wirksamen Sinusfilter integriert hat, werden die Vorteile durch die Kombination von Frequenzumrichter und Sinusfilter erklaert. Die nachtraegliche Installation in bestehende Anlagen ist einfach. Die Investition in eine solche Umruestung rechnet sich in der Regel sehr schnell. Beispielhaft wird gezeigt, dass beim Ersetzen der Phasenanschnittregelung gegen einen Frequenzumrichter mehr als 50 % der Energiekosten an den Ventilatoren eingespart werden koennen. Neben der energiesparenden Regelung der Ventilatoren auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern, kann auch der Verdichtermotor durch

  8. Hydrophobic polymer covered by a grating electrode for converting the mechanical energy of water droplets into electrical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, L. E.; Guo, X. D.

    2016-04-01

    Water contact electric harvesting has a great potential as a new energy technology for powering small-scale electronics, but a better understanding of the dynamics governing the conversion from mechanical to electrical energy on the polymer surfaces is needed. Important questions are how current correlates with droplet kinetic energy and what happens to the charge dynamics when a large number of droplets are incident on the polymer simultaneously. Here we address these questions by studying the current that is generated in an external electrical circuit when water droplets impinge on hydrophobic fluorinated ethylene propylene film containing a grating electrode on the back side. Droplets moving down an inclined polymer plane exhibit a characteristic periodic current time trace, and it is found that the peak current scales with sine of the inclination angle. For single droplets in free fall impinging onto the polymer, it is found that the initial peak current scales with the height of the free fall. The transition from individual droplets to a nearly continuous stream was investigated using the spectral density of the current signal. In both regimes, the high frequency content of the spectral density scales as f -2. For low frequencies, the low frequency content at low volume rates was noisy but nearly constant, whereas for high volume rates an increase with frequency is observed. It is demonstrated that the output signal from the system exposed to water droplets from a garden hose can be rectified and harvested by a 33 μF capacitor, where the stored energy increases at a rate of about 20 μJ in 100 s.

  9. Converting Chemical Energy to Electricity through a Three-Jaw Mini-Generator Driven by the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Wang, Lei; Ji, Fanqin; Shi, Feng

    2016-05-11

    Energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity is one of the most important research advancements to come from the horizontal locomotion of small objects. Until now, the Marangoni effect has been the only propulsion method to produce the horizontal locomotion to induce an electromotive force, which is limited to a short duration because of the specific property of surfactants. To solve this issue, in this article we utilized the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to provide the propulsion for a sustainable energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity. We fabricated a mini-generator consisting of three parts: a superhydrophobic rotator with three jaws, three motors to produce a jet of oxygen bubbles to propel the rotation of the rotator, and three magnets integrated into the upper surface of the rotator to produce the magnet flux. Once the mini-generator was placed on the solution surface, the motor catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This generated a large amount of oxygen bubbles that caused the generator and integrated magnets to rotate at the air/water interface. Thus, the magnets passed under the coil area and induced a change in the magnet flux, thus generating electromotive forces. We also investigated experimental factors, that is, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the turns of the solenoid coil, and found that the mini-generator gave the highest output in a hydrogen peroxide solution with a concentration of 10 wt % and under a coil with 9000 turns. Through combining the stable superhydrophobicity and catalyst, we realized electricity generation for a long duration, which could last for 26 000 s after adding H2O2 only once. We believe this work provides a simple process for the development of horizontal motion and provides a new path for energy reutilization.

  10. Advanced power converters for universal and flexible power management in future electricity network -  Report on Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, Pericle

    The present document summarizes the work that has been done in Work Package 5 (WP5) where the focus is on modelling and control of the Uniflex-PM system. The models used in the WP5 are described in detail. Since the grid synchronization and monitoring techniques play an important role...... in the control of the Uniflex-PM system, a special attention is paid to this topic. The events in the electrical networks are treated in detail in terms of definitions and classifications from standards, origins, and surveys in different countries. A summary of the grid synchronization and monitoring methods...... is also given with a special focus on Phase Locked Loop systems. The response of the single and three phase PLLs is analyzed under different grid events. Four control strategies are studied in the WP5, namely: synchronous reference frame control, predictive control stationary reference frame control...

  11. Conducted EMI Prediction and Mitigation Strategy Based on Transfer Function for a High-Low Voltage DC-DC Converter in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high dv/dt and di/dt outputs from power devices in a high-low voltage DC-DC converter on electric vehicles (EVs can always introduce the unwanted conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI emissions. A conducted EMI prediction and mitigation strategy that is based on transfer function for the high-low voltage DC-DC converter in EVs are proposed. A complete test for the DC-DC converter is conducted to obtain the conducted EMI from DC power cables in the frequency band of 150 kHz-108 MHz. The equivalent circuit with high-frequency parasitic parameters of the DC-DC converter is built`1 based on the measurement results to acquire the characteristics of the conducted EMI of the DC power cables. The common mode (CM and differential mode (DM propagation coupling paths are determined, and the corresponding transfer functions of the DM interference and CM interference are established. The simulation results of the conducted EMI can be obtained by software Matlab and Computer Simulation Technology (CST. By analyzing the transfer functions and the simulation results, the dominated interference is the CM interference, which is the main factor of the conducted EMI. A mitigation strategy for the design of the CM interference filter based on the dominated CM interference is proposed. Finally, the mitigation strategy of the conducted EMI is verified by performing the conducted voltage experiment. From the experiment results, the conducted voltage of the DC power cables is decreased, respectively, by 58 dBμV, 55 dBμV, 65 dBμV, 53 dBμV, and 54 dBμV at frequency 200 kHz, 400 kHz, 600 kHz, 1.4 MHz, and 50 MHz. The conduced voltage in the frequency band of 150 kHz–108 MHz can be mitigated by adding the CM interference filters, and the values are lower than the limit level-3 of CISPR25 standard (GB/T 18655-2010.

  12. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  13. Converter topologies and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Fernando; Qin, Hengsi; Chapman, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    An inverter includes a transformer that includes a first winding, a second winding, and a third winding, a DC-AC inverter electrically coupled to the first winding of the transformer, a cycloconverter electrically coupled to the second winding of the transformer, an active filter electrically coupled to the third winding of the transformer. The DC-AC inverter is adapted to convert the input DC waveform to an AC waveform delivered to the transformer at the first winding. The cycloconverter is adapted to convert an AC waveform received at the second winding of the transformer to the output AC waveform having a grid frequency of the AC grid. The active filter is adapted to sink and source power with one or more energy storage devices based on a mismatch in power between the DC source and the AC grid.

  14. Calculation of comparators of analog-to-digital converters with account of electric regime of transistor operation and ionizing radiation effect; Raschet komparatov analogo-tsifrovykh preobrazovatelej s uchetom ehlektricheskogo rezhima raboty tranzistorov i vozdejstviya ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragozin, A Yu

    1994-12-31

    Zero shift voltage in comparators of analog-to-digital converters under gamma irradiation with regard to electric mode effect on bipolar transistor degradation is calculated. It is shown that the input range of comparators such weak units are represented by comparators of bipolar and lower grades.

  15. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  16. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  17. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  18. Hydrogen converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, Angel V.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina developed a process of 99 Mo production from fission, based on irradiation of uranium aluminide targets with thermal neutrons in the RA-3 reactor of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. These targets are afterwards dissolved in an alkaline solution, with the consequent liberation of hydrogen as the main gaseous residue. This work deals with the use of a first model of metallic converter and a later prototype of glass converter at laboratory scale, adjusted to the requirements and conditions of the specific redox process. Oxidized copper wires were used, which were reduced to elementary copper at 400 C degrees and then regenerated by oxidation with hot air. Details of the bed structure and the operation conditions are also provided. The equipment required for the assembling in cells is minimal and, taking into account the operation final temperature and the purge with nitrogen, the procedure is totally safe. Finally, the results are extrapolated for the design of a converter to be used in a hot cell. (author)

  19. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable...... and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key...... features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding...

  20. Impedance source power electronic converters

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ellabban, Omar; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of pow...

  1. A stationary reference frame current control for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for universal and flexible power management in future electricity network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, Pericle

    2008-01-01

    converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper assesses a control method based on the stationary reference frame with Proportional-Resonant current controllers...

  2. Controller for a wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Bull, Diana L.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2015-09-22

    A wave energy converter (WEC) is described, the WEC including a power take off (PTO) that converts relative motion of bodies of the WEC into electrical energy. A controller controls operation of the PTO, causing the PTO to act as a motor to widen a wave frequency spectrum that is usable to generate electrical energy.

  3. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  4. Control strategy minimizing the converter-alternating current motor losses: application to electric traction; Strategies de commande minimisant les pertes d'un ensemble convertisseur - machine alternative: application a la traction electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiani, Ph.

    2001-02-01

    Improving the efficiency of the converter-alternating current motor system is a major task in electric traction. Global energy optimisation implies a specific approach at system scale. To reach this goal, we have chosen an algebraic method using sub-system models. To start with, a synchronous machine Park model is developed to take account magnetic saturation and iron losses. Then, an averaged model of the voltage inverter is used in order to obtain a simplified model of the losses to be implemented in our optimisation method. This is how the global model is built including losses in the synchronous machine along with the losses of the power converter. Experimental results are there to validate our approach. This study proposes a method based on algebraic formulation of the general laws to control torque. Algorithms take into account magnetic circuits saturation and power losses in both the machine and its converter. Here again, experimental results validate the algorithm on several test benches. Achieved efficiency improvement is important compared to existing usual control strategies. The proposed method can be generalised to other machine-converter systems. As a matter of fact we have extended our study to the induction machine. As a complement ti this study we have looked at the effects natural limitations of voltages and currents in the torque-speed plane. Therefore algebraic formulation of the torque-speed plane and optimisation strategies are proposed including those constraints. (author)

  5. Non-isolated DC-AC converter with high voltage gain for autonomous systems of electric power; Conversor CC-CA nao isolado com alto ganho de tensao para aplicacao em sistemas autonomos de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, George Cajazeiras [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Ceara (CEFET/CE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Torrico-Bascope, Rene P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET-PET), PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A non-isolated DC-AC converter with high voltage gain with two output sinusoidal voltage - 110 V and 220 V - and frequency 60 Hz for application in autonomous systems of electric power is proposed in this work. This topology consists of a boost converter with high voltage gain, based on three-state switching cell combined with a double half bridge inverter. This configuration type the size and the cost are reduced and the efficiency is gotten better, due to the reduced number of switches. The converters that compose this topology operate with high frequency, reducing the volume of the magnetic materials. can be mention as important characteristics: the voltage stress across the switches of the boost converter are low, due they be naturally clamped by one output filter capacitor, which allows the utilization of switches with lower conduction resistances, and the waveforms of the output voltage of the double half bridge inverter supplies for the load it is sinusoidal and it possesses low harmonic content. (author)

  6. Resonant power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to resonant energy conversion in power electronics. It is a practical, systematic guide to the analysis and design of various dc-dc resonant inverters, high-frequency rectifiers, and dc-dc resonant converters that are building blocks of many of today's high-frequency energy processors. Designed to function as both a superior senior-to-graduate level textbook for electrical engineering courses and a valuable professional reference for practicing engineers, it provides students and engineers with a solid grasp of existing high-frequency technology, while acquainting them wit

  7. Contribution to the conception, the modelling and the control of automotive power train and of electric converters; Contribution a la conception, la modelisation et la commande du groupe motopropulseur automobile et de convertisseurs d`energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidan, P.

    1998-12-14

    The overall work presented in this thesis globally deals with the conception, the modelling and the control of some applied systems. The first part is devoted to the automotive domain. It concerns the still actualized context of energy savings and reduction of atmospheric pollution, by the improvement of the engine/drive-train control and more particularly of the spark-ignition engine control. In this aim, a first investigation deals with the fuel/air ratio control during the transient phases and suggests the use of an intake manifold pressure control by means of an electric throttle actuator, in order to control the air filling. An original strategy of simultaneous control of fuel and air fillings is then proposed. Another improvement method by an electrical assistance of the engine using a self-controlled synchronous machine drive, is also developed. In the frame of idle-speed control, a prototype allows to show the contribution of this assistance in term of stability and consumption reduction. The second part of the report principally deals with the modelling and the control of electric converters. After a first section describing a methodology of a control-oriented modelling for some classes of static converters, an example of a design of the whole converter-controller is suggested. On the basis of a fourth order voltage switched-mode inverter which should operate as a function generator, the close interaction between filtering quality, structure design and control performances is analyzed and a solution is proposed. For every subject taken up, some prospective features are suggested as well. (author) 37 refs.

  8. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  9. Materials for thermionic energy converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, L.R.; Hermans, J.M.; Adriaansen, J.K.M.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Vincenzini, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and construction of a combustion heated Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC). Main components of this TEC are: 1. A ''Hot Shell'' protecting the TEC from the combustion environment 2. A ''Ceramic Seal'' electrically insulating the emitter from the collector 3. A

  10. Simulation of electricity supply of an Atlantic island by offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters associated with a medium scale local energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babarit, A.; Clement, A.H.; Duclos, G.; Ben Ahmed, H.; Debusschere, V.; Multon, B.; Robin, G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of sizing an electricity storage for a 5000 inhabitants island supplied by both marine renewables (offshore wind and waves) and the mainland grid is addressed by a case study based on a full year resource and consumption data. Generators, transmission lines and battery storage are accounted for through basic simplified models while the focus is put on electricity import/export budget. Self-sufficiency does not seem a reasonable goal to pursue, but partial autonomy provided by renewable sources and a medium size storage would probably be profitable to the island community. (author)

  11. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  12. Calculation of composite-fibre flywheels with electric power converters for energy storage purposes. Zur Berechnung von Schwungradenergiespeichern aus Faserverbundwerkstoff mit elektrischem Energiewandler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canders, W R

    1982-07-13

    The dissertation discusses the calculation and design of flywheel energy storage systems with electromechanical power converters and composite-fibre flywheels. For this purpose, the main load criteria for centrifugal and pressure loads on flywheel rings of unidirectional laminates are determined, and criteria are given for the dimensioning of flywheel rings. The fast rotational speed of the flywheel dominates the design of the driving motor. As an example, the calculation of a permanent-magnet-excited external rotor motor is described. Special consideration is given to the close correlation between stator current density and ampere bars per cm, and rotor strength. The findings are illustrated by design examples, by an example from the field of vehicle construction, and by experimental studies on composite-fibre flywheels and a driving motor with a high rotational speed.

  13. Power converters for ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Benfatto, I

    2006-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a thermonuclear fusion experiment designed to provide long deuterium– tritium burning plasma operation. After a short description of ITER objectives, the main design parameters and the construction schedule, the paper describes the electrical characteristics of the French 400 kV grid at Cadarache: the European site proposed for ITER. Moreover, the paper describes the main requirements and features of the power converters designed for the ITER coil and additional heating power supplies, characterized by a total installed power of about 1.8 GVA, modular design with basic units up to 90 MVA continuous duty, dc currents up to 68 kA, and voltages from 1 kV to 1 MV dc.

  14. Junction temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters and their application to condition monitoring and active thermal control of power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, L.

    2013-01-01

    implementation of active thermal control to reduce losses and increase lifetime can be performed given an accurate knowledge of temperature. Temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters (TSEP) are one way to carry out immediate temperature readings on fully packaged devices. However...... scale implementation of these methods are discussed. Their potential use in the aforementioned goals in condition monitoring and active thermal control is also described....

  15. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  16. Enhanced integrated converter. Combined cabled-connected and inductive charging of electric vehicles; Hoeher integrierter Stromrichter. Kombiniert kabelgebundenes und induktives Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Marco; Barth, Heike; Braun, Martin [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The main goal of the German energy concept is the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions in which regenerative energy and electromobility play a pioneering role. Large emission reductions can be made through the use of electric vehicles charged with renewable energy, where the battery acts as mobile storage unit. Current charging systems only allow for cable based charging. New developments now permit vehicle battery charging via contactless, inductive methods. Using the same power electronics and inductors, a new, higher integrated inverter is capable of both single and three phase charging as well as inductive charging. (orig.)

  17. Atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves the canine rapid atrial pacing-induced structural and electrical remodeling. Fan, ACE2 improves atrial substrate remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinqi; Zou, Lili; Cui, Kun; Woo, Kamsang; Du, Huaan; Chen, Shaojie; Ling, Zhiyu; Zhang, Quanjun; Zhang, Bo; Lan, Xianbin; Su, Li; Zrenner, Bernhard; Yin, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by homogeneous transmural atrial gene transfer can reverse atrial remodeling and its mechanisms in a canine atrial-pacing model. Twenty-eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated, AF-control, gene therapy with adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) and gene therapy with Ad-ACE2 (Ad-ACE2) (n = 7 per subgroup). AF was induced in all dogs except the Sham-operated group by rapid atrial pacing at 450 beats/min for 2 weeks. Ad-EGFP and Ad-ACE2 group then received epicardial gene painting. Three weeks after gene transfer, all animals except the Sham group underwent rapid atrial pacing for another 3 weeks and then invasive electrophysiological, histological and molecular studies. The Ad-ACE2 group showed an increased ACE2 and Angiotensin-(1-7) expression, and decreased Angiotensin II expression in comparison with Ad-EGFP and AF-control group. ACE2 overexpression attenuated rapid atrial pacing-induced increase in activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) levels, and decrease in MAPK phosphatase 1(MKP-1) level, resulting in attenuation of atrial fibrosis collagen protein markers and transforming growth factor-β1. Additionally, ACE2 overexpression also modulated the tachypacing-induced up-regulation of connexin 40, down-regulation of connexin 43 and Kv4.2, and significantly decreased the inducibility and duration of AF. ACE2 overexpression could shift the renin-angiotensin system balance towards the protective axis, attenuate cardiac fibrosis remodeling associated with up-regulation of MKP-1 and reduction of MAPKs activities, modulate tachypacing-induced ion channels and connexin remodeling, and subsequently reduce the inducibility and duration of AF.

  18. Power electronics converters and regulators

    CERN Document Server

    Dokić, Branko L

    2015-01-01

    This book is the result of the extensive experience the authors gained through their year-long occupation at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the University of Banja Luka. Starting at the fundamental basics of electrical engineering, the book guides the reader into this field and covers all the relevant types of converters and regulators. Understanding is enhanced by the given examples, exercises and solutions. Thus this book can be used as a textbook for students, for self-study or as a reference book for professionals.

  19. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  20. Power electronic converters and systems frontiers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M

    2016-01-01

    Power electronics is a branch of electrical engineering dealing with conversion and control of electric power using semiconductor power switches. This book provides an overview of modern power electronic converters and systems, and their applications.

  1. Technologies for converter topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu

    2017-02-28

    In some embodiments of the disclosed inverter topologies, an inverter may include a full bridge LLC resonant converter, a first boost converter, and a second boost converter. In such embodiments, the first and second boost converters operate in an interleaved manner. In other disclosed embodiments, the inverter may include a half-bridge inverter circuit, a resonant circuit, a capacitor divider circuit, and a transformer.

  2. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  3. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  4. Matrix converter applied to energy saving for street lighting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Conesa Roca, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a three-phase AC-AC converter, with independent phase control, based on matrix-converter structure. This converter is applied to electrical energy saving on the public lighting systems by means of regulation and control of the voltage applied to the lamps. The developed converter represents a technological improvement with respect to the traditional systems based on an autotransformer: it reduces system cost and volume, and increases lamps lifetime.

  5. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati, Federica Mara

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter (REWEC) is a device for converting sea wave energy to electrical energy. It belongs to the family of Oscillating Water Columns and is composed by an absorbing chamber connected to the open sea via a vertical duct. The paper gives a holistic view on the concept development of the device, starting from its implementation in the context of submerged breakwaters to the recently developed vertical breakwaters. [it

  6. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  7. Radiated EMI from power converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautovski-Toševa Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous increase of switching frequency together with the ongoing trend to higher complexity and functionality, power converters as a part of electronic systems have raised more and more electromagnetic energy pollution to the local system environment. In the same time, stringent demands are imposed on the designers of new circuits that electromagnetic interference (EMI has to be suppressed at its source before it is allowed to propagate into other circuits and systems. In this paper, the authors present a full-wave numerical method for calculation and simulation of electromagnetic field radiated by power converter circuitry. The main objective is to analyze the layout geometry in order to obtain competitive PCB layout that will enable suitably attenuated level of the radiated electric field to safe level. By this it would be possible to ensure reliable operation of the sensitive electronic components in the proximity.

  8. Converter topologies for common mode voltage reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Fernando

    2017-11-21

    An inverter includes a three-winding transformer, a DC-AC inverter electrically coupled to the first winding of the transformer, a cycloconverter electrically coupled to the second winding of the transformer, and an active filter electrically coupled to the third winding of the transformer. The DC-AC inverter is adapted to convert the input DC waveform to an AC waveform delivered to the transformer at the first winding. The cycloconverter is adapted to convert an AC waveform received at the second winding of the transformer to the output AC waveform having a grid frequency of the AC grid. The active filter is adapted to sink and source power with one or more energy storage devices based on a mismatch in power between the DC source and the AC grid. At least two of the DC-AC inverter, the cycloconverter, or the active filter are electrically coupled via a common reference electrical interconnect.

  9. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate

  10. Power converters definitions, classification and converter topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces power conversion principles and defines the terminology. The concepts of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the notions of commutation cell and soft commutation are introduced and discussed.

  11. SP-100 converter multicouple thermoelectric cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, R.A.; Terrill, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Company is under contract to DOE to design, fabricate, and test an SP-100 Ground Engineering System. This paper provides a description of the SP-100 space reactor power system configuration, and a more detailed description of the power conversion subsystem (PCSS) and the key building block of the power converter, the thermoelectric cell. The functions of the various elements of the PCSS and the cells are also presented. These cells convert the thermal energy from the reactor into electrical power at the desired voltage while being conductively coupled to the hot and cold side heat exchangers to maximize the power output and system specific power

  12. Molecules for Converting Sunlight into Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    main research interests are design ... colored materials in wide band gap semiconductors is a fast growing field of ... by a ruthe- nium dye was first published in 1985, which led to the develop- .... TiOz serves the same role as carbon dioxide in photosyn- thesis. .... ergy levels of the dyes by theoretical calculations using semi.

  13. Antenna Solar Energy to Electricity Converter (ASETEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    radiation damage • x-ray masks: all aspects • synchrotron lithography • high brightness compact sources • x-ray lithography system considerations...IB.\\VAlmaden Research Center Cochairs: Daryl Ann Doane, DAD Technologies, Inc.; Elsa Reichmanis, AT&T Bell Laboratories This conferenc’.’ is a...Philips Research- Laboratories/Signetics Corporation DiaSY Nyyssonen, CD Metrology, Inc. Victor Pol, - AT&T Bell Laboratories Elsa Reichmanis

  14. Molecules for Converting Sunlight into Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  15. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datas, A. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  16. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low...... head hydroturbines are converting the potential energy of the stored water into power. A key to success for the SSG will be the low cost of the structure and its robustness. The construction of the pilot plant is scheduled and this paper aims to describe the concept of the SSG wave energy converter...

  17. Optimal control of a wave energy converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, R.W.M.; Leth, J.; Andersen, P; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal control strategy for a wave energy converter (WEC) with constraints on the control torque is investigated. The goal is to optimize the total energy delivered to the electricity grid. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle, the solution is found to be singular-bang. Using higher order

  18. Automatic control in multidrive electrotechnical complexes with semiconductor converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, B. U.; Mardashov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency convertor and the automatic control system, which can be used in the multi-drive electromechanical system with a few induction motions, are considered. The paper presents the structure of existing modern multi-drive electric drives inverters, namely, electric drives with a total frequency converter and few electric motions, and an electric drive, in which the converter is used for power supply and control of the independent frequency. It was shown that such technical solutions of frequency converters possess a number of drawbacks. The drawbacks are given. It was shown that the control of technological processes using the electric drive of this structure may be provided under very limited conditions, as the energy efficiency and the level of electromagnetic compatibility of electric drives is low. The authors proposed using a multi-inverter structure with an active rectifier in multidrive electric drives with induction motors frequency converters. The application of such frequency converter may solve the problem of electromagnetic compatibility, namely, consumption of sinusoidal currents from the network and the maintenance of a sinusoidal voltage and energy compatibility, namely, consumption of practically active energy from the network. Also, the paper proposes the use of the automatic control system, which by means of a multi-inverter frequency converter provides separate control of drive machines and flexible regulation of technological processes. The authors present oscillograms, which confirm the described characteristics of the developed electrical drive. The possible subsequent ways to improve the multi-motor drives are also described.

  19. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  20. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  1. PV source based high voltage gain current fed converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumya; Poddar, Sahityika; Chimonyo, Kudzai B.; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This work involves designing and simulation of a PV source based high voltage gain, current fed converter. It deals with an isolated DC-DC converter which utilizes boost converter topology. The proposed converter is capable of high voltage gain and above all have very high efficiency levels as proved by the simulation results. The project intends to produce an output of 800 V dc from a 48 V dc input. The simulation results obtained from PSIM application interface were used to analyze the performance of the proposed converter. Transformer used in the circuit steps up the voltage as well as to provide electrical isolation between the low voltage and high voltage side. Since the converter involves high switching frequency of 100 kHz, ultrafast recovery diodes are employed in the circuitry. The major application of the project is for future modeling of solar powered electric hybrid cars.

  2. Modulation and control of matrix converter for aerospace application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobravi, Keyhan

    In the context of modern aircraft systems, a major challenge is power conversion to supply the aircraft's electrical instruments. These instruments are energized through a fixed-frequency internal power grid. In an aircraft, the available sources of energy are a set of variable-speed generators which provide variable-frequency ac voltages. Therefore, to energize the internal power grid of an aircraft, the variable-frequency ac voltages should be converted to a fixed-frequency ac voltage. As a result, an ac to ac power conversion is required within an aircraft's power system. This thesis develops a Matrix Converter to energize the aircraft's internal power grid. The Matrix Converter provides a direct ac to ac power conversion. A major challenge of designing Matrix Converters for aerospace applications is to minimize the volume and weight of the converter. These parameters are minimized by increasing the switching frequency of the converter. To design a Matrix Converter operating at a high switching frequency, this thesis (i) develops a scheme to integrate fast semiconductor switches within the current available Matrix Converter topologies, i.e., MOSFET-based Matrix Converter, and (ii) develops a new modulation strategy for the Matrix Converter. This Matrix Converter and the new modulation strategy enables the operation of the converter at a switching-frequency of 40kHz. To provide a reliable source of energy, this thesis also develops a new methodology for robust control of Matrix Converter. To verify the performance of the proposed MOSFET-based Matrix Converter, modulation strategy, and control design methodology, various simulation and experimental results are presented. The experimental results are obtained under operating condition present in an aircraft. The experimental results verify the proposed Matrix Converter provides a reliable power conversion in an aircraft under extreme operating conditions. The results prove the superiority of the proposed Matrix

  3. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  4. Engineering development testing of the GPHS-RTG converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockfield, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The GPHS-RTG will provide electrical power for the Galileo orbiter and for the two spacecraft of the International Solar Polar Mission. The GPHS-RTG consists of two primary assemblies: the General Purpose Heat Source, and the converter. This paper deals only with the converter, and highlights engineering tests that provide support for its design development

  5. The Application of PVDF in Converter Cooling Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Man; Lu, Zhimin

    2017-11-01

    The structure, mechanical property, thermodynamics property, electrical aspects, radiation property and chemical property were introduced, and PVDF could satisfy the requirement of converter cooling pipe. PVDF department and pipe of distribution pipeline of converter cooling system in Debao HVDC project are used to introduce the molding process of PVDF.

  6. Power factor correction (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    1Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, INDIA ... Hence, power factor correction (PFC) converters are used for achieving a unity ...... He is currently working as a Systems Engineer (Power IC) in AvantGarde ...

  7. PLL strategies of grid connected converters under distorted input voltages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Petr; Škramlík, Jiří; Valouch, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-12 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : voltage source converter * grid - connected applications * phase locked loop Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Adaptive electrothermal protection of power converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniuk G. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal management for power converters during normal operation and transient modes when electrical components are warmed up is an actual problem. This can be particularly important for converters with intermittent duty operation, e.g. power supplies for resistance welding. According to some research, nearly 60% of failures are temperature-induced, and for every 10°C temperature rise in operating environment the failure rate nearly doubles. In this paper, thermal motion of state equations eigenvalue is analysed. It is shown, that in semiconductor converters with an output smoothing filter it is appropriate to use thermal protection devices based on thermal normalisation of the converter filter and, while for cases when short circuits are possible it is appropriate to use a soft start system with thermal adaptation for soft start time factor. Based on these results, two systems of thermal protections operating for semiconductor power converters are introduced. Simulation of combined electromagnetic and thermal processes in buck converter operating with both thermal management systems in overlapping environments MATLAB/Simulink and PLECS showed the possibility to significantly reduce thermal shock on semiconductor components. Using the system of filter parameters normalisation decreases the temperature of the crystal from 210°C to 85°C, using the adaptive soft start system decreases the temperature from 180°C to 80°C. The simulation results are confirmed by tests on real devices.

  9. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  10. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  11. Quasi-Resonant Full-Wave Zero-Current Switching Buck Converter Design, Simulation and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Yanik, G.; Isen, E.

    2015-01-01

    —This paper presents a full wave quasi-resonant zerocurrent switching buck converter design, simulation and application. The converter control uses with zero-current switching (ZCS) technique to decrease the switching losses. Comparing to conventional buck converter, resonant buck converter includes a resonant tank equipped with resonant inductor and capacitor. The converter is analyzed in mathematical for each subintervals. Depending on the desired input and output electrical quantities, con...

  12. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  13. Converting the reset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann; D. Bloch

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe give a simple algorithm to incorporate the effects of resets in convertible bond prices, without having to add an extra factor to take into account the value of the reset. Furthermore we show that the effect of a notice period, and additional make-whole features, can be treated in a

  14. Definition of Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, F

    2015-01-01

    The paper is intended to introduce power conversion principles and to define common terms in the domain. The concept s of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the commutation cell and soft commuta tion are introduced and discussedd.

  15. Thermoelectrode for thermoelectric converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodiul, Pavel; Bondarciuc, Nicolae; Ghitu, Dumitru; Nikolaeva, Albina; Konopko, Leonid; Turcan, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the electronic engneering and can be used for manufacturing of thermoelectrodes for thermoelectric converters. The thermoelectrode is made of semiconductor anisotropic material in the form of thread in glass insulation. At the same timer, the thread is made of stannum-doped tellurium in the ratio of 0.1...3 at.%.

  16. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  17. In-pile experimental device for Sirene thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliaux, J.; Durand, J.; Lazare-Chopard, G.

    1969-01-01

    The irradiation device described here, was built for in pile life tests of 100 We SIRENE converters. The nuclear converter is located in a sealed vacuum chamber, which is plugged at the lower end of a coaxial tubing acting as electrical leads. The output power is available on a variable resistive load on the bank of the reactor pool. Thermal, electrical and neutronic parameters of the converter are recorded. Since 1967, two permanent devices allowed five experiments in the swimming pool TRITON (CEN-FAR) and the results, obtained till now, are presented. (authors) [fr

  18. An Innovative Reconfigurable Integrated Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rizzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The electricity market and environmental concerns, with wide utilization of renewable sources, have improved the diffusion of distributed generation units changing the operations of distribution grids from passive networks to microgrids. A microgrid includes a cluster of electrical loads, energy storage devices and microsources, which provide both power and heat to their local area. A microgrid has usually one connection point to the utility grid through power electronic converters placed at customers’ sites. This paper analyses a Reconfigurable Integrated Converter (RIC used for a domestic microgrid with inputs from the AC mains and photovoltaic arrays, and two DC outputs at different voltage levels. A RIC as a dual-boost DC-DC converter is proposed, modelled and analysed in the paper. The advantages of such a topology in comparison with traditional boost converters are outlined. Reported simulations results give evidence on the controllability of this converter and the capability of achieving the desired voltage outputs with reduced ripple.

  19. Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given

  20. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  1. Advanced converters and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Kessler, G.

    1984-01-01

    As Western Europe and most countries of the Asia-Pacific region (except Australia) have only small natural uranium resources, they must import nuclear fuel from the major uranium supplier countries. The introduction of advanced converter and breeder reactor technology allows a fuel utilization of a factor of 4 to 100 higher than with present low converters (LWRs) and will make uranium-importing countries less vulnerable to price jumps and supply stops in the uranium market. In addition, breeder-reactor technology will open up a potential that can cover world energy requirements for several thousand years. The enormous development costs of advanced converter and breeder technologies can probably be raised only by highly industrialized countries. Those highly industrialized countries that have little or no uranium resources (Western Europe, Japan) will probably be the first to introduce this advanced reactor technology on a commercial scale. A number of small countries and islands will need only small power reactors with inherent safety capabilities, especially in the beginning of their nuclear energy programs. For economic reasons, the fuel cycle services should come from large reprocessing centers of countries having sufficiently large nuclear power programs or from international fuel cycle centers. (author)

  2. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  3. Convertible bond valuation focusing on Chinese convertible bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the methods of valuation of convertible bonds in Chinese market. Different from common convertible bonds in European market, considering the complicate features of Chinese convertible bond, this paper represents specific pricing approaches for pricing convertible bonds with different provisions along with the increment of complexity of these provisions. More specifically, this paper represents the decomposing method and binomial tree method for pricing both of Non-...

  4. X-Y Converter Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A New breed of a buck boost converter, named as the XY converter family is proposed in this article. In the XY family, 16 topologies are presented which are highly suitable for renewable energy applications which require a high ratio of DC-DC converter; such as a photovoltaic multilevel inverter...... system, high voltage automotive applications and industrial drives. Compared to the traditional boost converter and existing recent converters, the proposed XY converter family has the ability to provide a higher output voltage by using less number of power devices and reactive components. Other distinct...... features of the XY converter family are i) Single control switch ii) Provide negative output voltage iii) Non-isolated topologies iv) High conversion ratio without making the use of high duty cycle and v) modular structure. XY family is compared with the recent high step-up converters and the detailed...

  5. Efficiency and reliability improvement in wind turbine converters by grid converter adaptive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Abrahamsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control method that reduces the losses in wind turbine converters adaptively controlling the grid converter. The dc-link voltage adapts its reference based on the system state and therefore reduces the stored energy, and is therefore kept at the minimum necessary for the grid...... and generator side. Operating in this way, the electrical and thermal stress factors are decreased on the power electronic devices, increasing their lifetime. The simulation results using this method show efficiency increase and devices temperature cycles slightly decreased. Experimental results on a wind...... turbine power stack shows efficiency increase in the high power region....

  6. Design of symmetrical high-frequency coaxial wound transformer for multiport converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrich, G.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A bi-directional multi-port converter can accommodate various energy storages and sources. Therefore, a multiport converter will be a good candidate for application as a future universal converter for (hybrid) electrical vehicles or local distribution systems. The main design challenge of the

  7. Singularities of projection of an active power in frequency converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є.К. Батуревич

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The level of security of static single-phase watt-hour meters of an electric energy concerning a possibility of unauthorized takeoff of an electric energy by electric methods is analyses. The shortages of an active power in a pulse frequency converter are marked which are used in such watt-hour meters. The solutions on their refinement are offered.

  8. MATHEMATIC SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 1. SWITCH ON LOCOMOTIVE’S POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; PARAMETERS ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mishchenko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the electric circuit of substitution and mathematical model of the system of alternating current «traction substation − traction mains − electric locomotive DS 3» at switching its power transformer on in the idle mode are presented. Numerical determinations of parameters of traction substation, rails, contact network and transformer are executed; in so doing a special attention is paid to the estimation of dispersion inductance for the primary winding of transformer.

  9. MATHEMATIC SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 1. SWITCH ON LOCOMOTIVE’S POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; PARAMETERS ESTIMATION

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Mishchenko; A. I. Kiiko

    2010-01-01

    In the article the electric circuit of substitution and mathematical model of the system of alternating current «traction substation − traction mains − electric locomotive DS 3» at switching its power transformer on in the idle mode are presented. Numerical determinations of parameters of traction substation, rails, contact network and transformer are executed; in so doing a special attention is paid to the estimation of dispersion inductance for the primary winding of transformer.

  10. Gas converter. Gaswandler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, A

    1984-09-27

    A gas converter is proposed for carbonisation gas containing hydrocarbons, consisting of a bricked shaft, which has a free combustion chamber and a solid bed of bulk grainy material with partly burnt hot carbonisation gases flowing through it as the lower boundary of this combustion chamber, in the upper part of which a hot reaction zone at about 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C is formed and which has a cracked gas extraction below the solid bed and an ash outlet. The solid bed is arranged at an angle to the vertical. The shaft has a solid material outlet for the bed material no longer capable of taking part in the reaction on the wall going obliquely downwards and a solid material inlet for new bulk bed material on the opposite wall going obliquely upwards.

  11. DEXTER: A one-dimensional code for calculating thermionic performance of long converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    A versatile code is described for computing the coupled thermionic electric-thermal performance of long thermionic converters in which the temperature and voltage variations cannot be neglected. The code is capable of accounting for a variety of external electrical connection schemes, coolant flow paths and converter failures by partial shorting. Example problem solutions are included along with a user's manual.

  12. Dexter - A one-dimensional code for calculating thermionic performance of long converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes a versatile code for computing the coupled thermionic electric-thermal performance of long thermionic converters in which the temperature and voltage variations cannot be neglected. The code is capable of accounting for a variety of external electrical connection schemes, coolant flow paths and converter failures by partial shorting. Example problem solutions are given.

  13. Integrated power electronic converters and digital control

    CERN Document Server

    Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T

  14. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Power converters for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1990-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the fifth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School, the subject on this occasion being power converters for particle accelerators. The course started with lectures on the classification and topologies of converters and on the guidelines for achieving high performance. It then went on to cover the more detailed aspects of feedback theory, simulation, measurements, components, remote control, fault diagnosis and equipment protection as well as systems and grid-related problems. The important topics of converter specification, procurement contract management and the likely future developments in semiconductor components were also covered. Although the course was principally directed towards DC and slow-pulsed supplies, lectures were added on fast converters and resonant excitation. Finally the programme was rounded off with three seminars on the related fields of Tokamak converters, battery energy storage for electric vehicles, and the control of shaft generators in ships. (orig.)

  15. Electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear heart pacer having a heat-to-electricity converter including a solid-state thermoelectric unit embedded in rubber which is compressed to impress hydrostatic precompression on the unit is described. The converter and the radioactive heat source are enclosed in a container which includes the electrical circuit components for producing and controlling the pulses; the converter and components being embedded in rubber. The portions of the rubber in the converter and in the container through which heat flows between the radioactive primary source and the hot junction and between the cold junction and the wall of the container are of thermally conducting silicone rubber. The 238 Pu primary radioactive source material is encapsuled in a refractory casing of WC-222 (T-222) which in turn is encapsuled in a corrosion-resistant casing of platinum rhodium, a diffusion barrier separating the WC-222 and the Pt--Rh casings. The Pt--Rh casing is in a closed basket of tantalum. The tantalum protects the Pt--Rh from reacting with other materials during cremation of the host, if any. The casings and basket suppress the transmission of hard x rays generated by the alpha particles from the 238 Pu. The outside casing of the pacer is typically of titanium but its surface is covered by an electrically insulating coating, typically epoxy resin, except over a relatively limited area for effective electrical grounding to the body of the host. It is contemplated that the pacer will be inserted in the host with the exposed titanium engaging a non-muscular region of the body

  16. Terahertz broadband polarization converter based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Zhao, Guozhong

    2018-01-01

    Based on the metamaterial composed of symmetrical split resonant ring, a broadband reflective terahertz polarization converter is proposed. The numerical simulation shows that it can rotate the polarization direction of linear polarized wave 90° in the range of 0.7-1.8THz and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90%. The reflection coefficient of the two electric field components in the diagonal direction is the same and the phase difference is 180° ,which leads to the cross-polarization rotation.In order to further study the physical mechanism of high polarization conversion, we analyze the surface current distribution of the resonant ring. The polarization converter has potential applications in terahertz wave plate and metamaterial antenna design.

  17. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  18. Polarization converted coupler for plasma current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Shimizu, S.; Goto, N.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose the polarization converted coupler which has narrow width shape and radiates electric field perpendicular to the main toroidal magnetic field. The advantages of the polarization converted coupler are as follows: (l) The rectangular waveguide as the transmission line has the high power capability. (2) The all metal design is not damaged by the fusion neutron. (3) The characteristic of this coupler is not changed widely, since the coupler has the matching section. For example, the VSWR of its input impedance is less than 2.0 for both water and air load. The authors present characteristics of the polarization converted coupler measured by the model experiments

  19. A DSP controlled one-to-three phase matrix converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovsky, J.; Dobrucly, B; Tabacek, R.; Havrila, R. [Department of Electric Traction and Energetics Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis computer simulation and experimental results of IM fed by a one-to-three phase matrix converter which offers a unique solution for single phase electric traction applications. The proposed drive in comparison with currently used conventional drives reduces the number of power switching elements of the converter, which increases drives dependability and brings lower investment in power electronics used in drive. Further advantage is that the converter is controlled with nearly unity power factor which cuts down the operational expenses and offers higher overall performance of the drive. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Step-Up DC-DC Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a step-up DC-DC power converter which comprises a primary side circuit and a secondary side circuit coupled through a galvanic isolation barrier. The primary side circuit comprises a positive and a negative input terminal for receipt of an input voltage and an input...... being charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The step-up DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short-circuit connection across the galvanic...

  1. Design and operation of a thermionic converter in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, M.H.; Begg, L.L.; Smith, J.N. Jr.; Geller, C.B.; Kallnowski, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    An electrically heated thermionic converter has been designed, built and successfully tested in air. Several unique features were incorporated in this converter: an integral cesium reservoir, innovative ceramic-to-metal seals, a heat rejection system coupling the collector to a low temperature heat sink and an innovative cylindrical heater filament. The converter was operated for extended periods of time with the emitter at about 1900 K. the collector at about 700 K, and a power density of over 2 w(e)/sq. cm. Input power transients were run between 50% and 100% thermal power, at up to 1% per second, without instabilities in performance

  2. Half bridge resonant converter for ignition of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena E, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this work the background, design, implementation and performance of a half bridge resonant converter (HBRC) used as an electronic ignition system for arc plasma torch generation is presented. The significance of the design lies in its simplicity, versatility and low cost. The system operates like a high voltage supply attached to electrodes before gaseous breakdown and like open circuit when electric arc is established. Resonant converter is implemented with a high voltage and high speed power driver intended for control the power MOSFET transistors connected in half bridge topology with L C load. The HBRC operates besides interference into domestic electric supply line (120 V, 60 Hz) as well electric measurement devices. Advantages and limitations of the converter are reviewed. Experimental impedance variation in the medium as a function of frequency operation and some experiences in striking arcs are also presented. (Author)

  3. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  4. Catalytic converters in the fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouki, J.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to selecting the appropriate means of heating and using dry fuel, the amount of harmful emissions contained by flue gases produced by fireplaces can be reduced by technical means. One such option is to use an oxidising catalytic converter. Tests at TTS Institute's Heating Studies Experimental Station have focused on two such converters (dense and coarse) mounted in light-weight iron heating stoves. The ability of the dense catalytic converter to oxidise carbon monoxide gases proved to be good. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the flue gases was reduced by as much as 90 %. Measurements conducted by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) showed that the conversion of other gases, e.g. of methane, was good. The exhaust resistance caused by the dense converter was so great as to necessitate the mounting of a fluegas evacuation fan in the chimney for the purpose of creating sufficient draught. When relying on natural draught, the dense converter requires a chimney of at least 7 metres and a by-pass connection while the fire is being lit. In addition, the converter will have to be constructed to be less dense and this will mean that it's capability to oxidise non-combusted gases will be reduced. The coarse converter did not impair the draught but it's oxidising property was insufficient. With the tests over, the converter was not observed to have become blocked up by impurities

  5. Multilevel push pull power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    A power converter for converting an input voltage (Vin) into an output voltage (Vout), comprising a first supply potential and a second supply potential established by the input voltage, and at least one primary winding having two terminals, a center tap arranged between the two terminals and con...

  6. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, R O

    1995-09-01

    Minor offshore gas and oil resources located 20-50 km from existing installations may often be commercially exploited only by use of complete sub sea solutions. This thesis deals with analyses of a sub sea adjustable speed electric motor which is fed by a frequency converter via a long cable (up to 50 km) between the converter and the motor. The author develops a general model for analysing such motor drive systems with the objective of verifying the feasibility of specific applications and of specifying the requirements on the system components. The simulation model is used to identify the critical frequency ranges in which the converter must not generate significant harmonics, to verify the start-up strategy chosen, and to verify the stability with potential disturbances applied to the system. Simulation models are developed for both transient and steady state analyses. They are accurate up to 5 kHz and can incorporate the frequency dependency of the motor and cable parameters. Ideal thyristors and diodes are used. The models are implemented in existing simulation tools. Most of the results relate to a base case with a 670 kW squirrel cage motor fed from a 30 km long cable, but cases with 3 MW rating or with 50 km cable have also been analyzed and found to be feasible. Each specific application must be separately studied. Results of simulation calculations are presented and conclusions given. 53 refs., 124 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Processing precious metals in a top-blown rotary converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whellock, John G.; Matousek, Jan W.

    1990-09-01

    Copper-nickel/platinum-palladium flotation concentrates produced by the Stillwater Mining Company were smelted and refined in an integrated pilot plant consisting of a submerged-arc electric furnace and top-blown rotary converter. The conversion of high-iron electric furnace mattes was achieved with apparent oxygen efficiencies in excess of 100 percent. Platinum and palladium recoveries averaged 99 percent, and copper and nickel recoveries were 94 percent.

  8. Radiation tolerant power converter controls

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B; King, Q; Uznanski, S

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's most powerful particle collider. The LHC has several thousand magnets, both warm and super-conducting, which are supplied with current by power converters. Each converter is controlled by a purpose-built electronic module called a Function Generator Controller (FGC). The FGC allows remote control of the power converter and forms the central part of a closed-loop control system where the power converter voltage is set, based on the converter output current and magnet-circuit characteristics. Some power converters and FGCs are located in areas which are exposed to beam-induced radiation. There are numerous radiation induced effects, some of which lead to a loss of control of the power converter, having a direct impact upon the accelerator's availability. Following the first long shut down (LS1), the LHC will be able to run with higher intensity beams and higher beam energy. This is expected to lead to signifi...

  9. Advanced DC/DC converters

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2003-01-01

    DC/DC conversion techniques have undergone rapid development in recent decades. With the pioneering work of these authors, DC/DC converters have now moved into their sixth generation. This book offers a concise, practical presentation of DC/DC converters, summarizing the spectrum of conversion tecnologies and presentingmany new ideas and more than 100 new topologies. Nowhere else in the literature are DC/DC converters so logically sorted and systematically introduced, and nowhere else can readers find detailed information on prototype topologies that represent a major contribution to modern power engineering. More than 320 figures, 60 tables, and 500 formulae facilitate understand and provide precise data.

  10. Design and testing of a combustion-heated nineteen-converter SAVTEC array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyren, T.; Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Korringa, M.; McVey, J.; Sahines, T.

    1984-01-01

    The SAVTEC (Self-Adjusting Versatile Thermionic Energy Converter) is a new design approach for achieving very close (<12μ) interelectrode spacing in a thermionic converter. Techniques were developed for fabricating an array of nineteen SAVTEC converters. The array was incorporated in an SiC protective ''hot shell'' which also served as a radiant heat source for the emitter of each converter. The completed assembly was tested with a specially constructed combustion heat source. Electric output was generated by sixteen of the nineteen converters, despite poor thermal contact in a cooling block, which resulted in high collector temperatures. Details of the array design and test results are described

  11. A fast radiation-to-coherent light converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Flatley, J.E.; Stewart, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a radiation-to-coherent light converter (RCLC) with a monolithically integrated semiconductor chip that consists of a chromium-doped GaAs photoconductor detector modulates the laser diode, which has been biased above the lasing threshold, thus converting a radiation pulse to an electric pulse and then to a light pulse. The laser pulse is then transmitted to a fast recorder through a high-bandwidth optical fiber. In the absence of a single-step x-ray pumped laser, our converter appears to be the first integrated device that can efficiently convert x-ray flux into coherent light. This device has been tested successfully with the 50-ps electron beams of a 17-MeV linear accelerator and with 50-ns x-ray pulses from a Z-pinch plasma source. 2 refs., 9 figs

  12. Self-oscillating loop based piezoelectric power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a piezoelectric power converter comprising an input driver electrically coupled directly to an input or primary electrode of the piezoelectric transformer without any intervening series or parallel inductor. A feedback loop is operatively coupled between an output......- oscillation loop within a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operation range of the piezoelectric transformer....

  13. Time-to-digital converters

    CERN Document Server

    Henzler, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of time-to-digital converters on analog and digital conversion principles. It includes a theoretical investigation into quantization, linearity, noise and variability, and it details a range of advanced TDC architectures.

  14. Transformerless dc-Isolated Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient voltage converter employs capacitive instead of transformer coupling to provide dc isolation. Offers buck/boost operation, minimal filtering, and low parts count, with possible application in photovoltaic power inverters, power supplies and battery charges. In photovoltaic inverter circuit with transformerless converter, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q5 form line-commutated inverter. Switching losses and stresses nil because switching performed when current is zero.

  15. Picosecond image-converter diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelev, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the improvements in picosecond image-converter diagnostics carried out since the previous Congress in 1972. The account is given under the following headings: picosecond image converter cameras for visible and x-ray radiation diagnostics; Nd:glass and ruby mode-locked laser measurements; x-ray plasma emission diagnostics; computer treatment of pictures produced by picosecond cameras. (U.K.)

  16. Bidirectional current-voltage converters based on magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y.; Or, S.W.; Chan, H.L.W.; Jiao, J.; Luo, H.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report a power supply-free, bidirectional electric current-voltage converter based on a coil-wound laminated composite of magnetostrictive alloy and piezoelectric crystal. An electric current applied to the coil induces a magnetic field, resulting in an electric voltage from the composite due to

  17. Two-inductor boost and buck converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. L.; Muldoon, W. J.

    The derivation, analysis and design of a coupled inductor boost converter is presented. Aspects of the qualitative ac behavior of coupled inductor converters are discussed. Considerations for the design of the magnetics for such converters are addressed.

  18. Energy savings assessment for digital-to-analog converter boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes. - Research highlights: → We examined energy efficiency policies on digital-to-analog converter boxes in US. → The government assistance program resulted in high participation. → 35 million coupons were redeemed for the purchases of energy efficient DTAs. → Between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the policies. → Savings are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  19. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  20. High-Performance Data Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    -resolution internal D/A converters are required. Unit-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are analyzed, and the concept of mismatch-shaping is generalized to include scaled-element D/A converters. Several types of scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are proposed. Simulations show that, when implemented...... in a standard CMOS technology, they can be designed to yield 100 dB performance at 10 times oversampling. The proposed scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are well suited for use as the feedback stage in oversampled delta-sigma quantizers. It is, however, not easy to make full use of their potential......-order difference of the output signal from the loop filter's first integrator stage. This technique avoids the need for accurate matching of analog and digital filters that characterizes the MASH topology, and it preserves the signal-band suppression of quantization errors. Simulations show that quantizers...

  1. A collimator-converter system for IEC propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu; Miley, George H.

    2002-01-01

    The collimator-converter system extracts fusion power from D- 3 He fueled IEC devices and provides electricity needed to operate ionic thrusters and other-power components. The whole system is linear and consists of a series of collimator units at the center, magnetic expander units at both sides of the fusion units, followed by direct energy converters at both ends. This system is enclosed in a vacuum chamber with a magnetic channel provided by magnetic solenoids out of respective chambers. The fusion unit consists of an IEC fusion core, a pair of coils anti-parallel to the solenoid coils, and a stabilization coil that stabilizes the position of coil pair coils. The IEC fusion core is installed at the center of the pair coils. After the magnetic expander, velocities of fusion particles from D- 3 He fueled IEC units are directed to the magnetic channel, which guides energetic fusion particles as well as leaking unburned fuel components to a high-efficiency traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC). Leaking unburned fuel components are separated with a magnetic separator at the entrance of a direct energy converter and pumped out for further refueling. A TWDEC is made of an array of metallic meshed grids, each of which is connected to every terminal with an external transmission circuit. The transmission line couples to the direct energy converter. Substations for electricity, a cryogenic plant, and various power control systems are outside of the vacuum chamber. The length of the cylindrical system is essentially determined by the proton energy of 14.8 MeV and the radius should be large so as to reduce power flow density. The present system provides 250 MW f fusion power and converting it to 150 MW c electricity. Its size is 150 m(length)x6.6 m(diameter) in size and 185 tons in weight

  2. Electromagnetic Energy Converters - Rotating Motors and Linear Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekergaard, Boel

    2011-07-01

    This licentiate thesis presents a study of the electromagnetic properties of linear synchronous permanent magnet generators, utilized in wave energy converters, and a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle. Both machine topologies are presented, designed with a numerical simulation tool, based on a model derived from Maxwell's equations. Full scale prototypes of both the machines are under construction. A continued study about the impact on the magnetic circuit caused by the longitudinal ends of a linear generator is performed. The results present significant core losses in the translator and an increased cogging force caused by the longitudinal ends. Further, a new electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena is presented. Experimental results indicate that a successful electric resonance between the generator and external circuit has been achieved. Finally, detailed analytical and numerical methods are utilized to investigate the losses in the two pole permanent magnet motor over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate that the efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system can be increased relative existing designs and argue for limiting of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased. The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the so called Lysekil Wave Power Project, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electrical vehicle with closely related ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System

  3. Modelling, Simulation and Construction of a DC/DC Boost Power Converter: A School Experimental System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Hernandez-Guzman, V. M.; Saldana-Gonzalez, G.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders…

  4. Modelling, simulation and construction of a dc/dc boost power converter: a school experimental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Ortigoza, R; Marciano-Melchor, M; Silva-Ortigoza, G; Hernández-Guzmán, V M; Saldaña-González, G; Marcelino-Aranda, M

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders the feasible introduction of this equipment in undergraduate laboratories. (paper)

  5. Power Control of Grid-Connected Converters Under Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valouch, Viktor; Bejvl, Martin; Šimek, Petr; Škramlík, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 7 (2015), s. 4241-4248 ISSN 0278-0046 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : converter * current control * current peaks Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 6.383, year: 2015

  6. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigan, Neil Richard; King, Robert Dean; Schwartz, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  7. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  8. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  9. Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper reactive control and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) are compared. The analysis is based on a WEC from Wave Star A/S designed as a point absorber. The model predictive controller uses wave models based on the dominating sea states combined with a model...... connecting undisturbed wave sequences to sequences of torque. Losses in the conversion from mechanical to electrical power are taken into account in two ways. Conventional reactive controllers are tuned for each sea state with the assumption that the converter has the same efficiency back and forth. MPC...

  10. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  11. INFLUENCE OF ARMATURE PARAMETERS OF A LINEAR PULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTER ON ITS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Bolyukh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The evaluation of the effect of armature parameters on the efficiency of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter, taking into account the power, speed, constructive and environmental parameters. Methodology. First, the height of the electrically conductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature of a linear pulse electromechanical converter is determined, at which the highest velocity develops. An integral efficiency index is introduced, which takes into account, in a relative way, the power, speed, energy, electrical and field characteristics of the converter. Variants of the efficiency evaluation strategy are used that take into account the priority of each indicator of a linear pulse electromechanical converter using the appropriate weighting factor in the integral efficiency index. Results. A mathematical model of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter is developed. It is established that as the height of the electroconductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature increases, the force pulse increases. The greatest speed develops with the use of a coil armature, and the smallest with an electroconductive armature. In the converter with coil and ferromagnetic armature, practically the same values of the electrodynamic and electromagnetic force pulse are realized, while in the converter the electrodynamic force is 1.52 times smaller in the converter by the electrically conductive armature. It is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is the most effective, even in spite of its constructive complexity, and the converter with a ferromagnetic armature is the least effective, although it is constructively the simplest. Originality. For the first time, using the integral efficiency index, which takes into account the power, speed, energy, electrical and field indices in a relative way, it is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is

  12. Entanglement in a parametric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu

    2008-07-28

    In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.

  13. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  14. AC-DC PFC Converter Using Combination of Flyback Converter and Full-bridge DC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Zaenal Efendi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a combination of power factor correction converter using Flyback converter and Full-bridge dc-dc converter in series connection. Flyback converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode so that it can serve as a power factor correction converter and meanwhile Full-bridge dc-dc converter is used for dc regulator. This converter system is designed to produce a 86 Volt of output voltage and 2 A of output current. Both simulation and experiment results show that the power factor of this converter achieves up to 0.99 and meets harmonic standard of IEC61000-3-2. Keywords: Flyback Converter, Full-bridge DC-DC Converter, Power Factor Correction.

  15. Current-to-frequency converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1981-07-15

    A current-to-frequency converter covering the range from 3 x 10/sup -10/ A up to 3 x 10/sup -5/ A of the input current is described. The circuit operates with nuclear detectors featuring a high internal resistance.

  16. Smart AD and DA Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van A.H.M.; Hegt, J.A.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Radulov, G.I.; Zanikopoulos, A.; Doris, K.; Quinn, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a concept is proposed to solve the problems related to the embedding of AD and DA converters in system-on-chips, FPGAs or other VLSI solutions. Problems like embedded testing, yield, reliability and reduced design space become crucial bottlenecks in the integration of high-performance

  17. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  18. Impedance interactions in bidirectional cascaded converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Loh, Poh Chiang; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    A cascaded converter is built by connecting one elementary converter to another. Output impedance of one converter will therefore interact with input impedance of the other converter. This interaction will change when power flow reverses. To compare this difference, an investigation is performed...

  19. Converter Monitoring Unit for Retrofit of Wind Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjorn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert; Frederiksen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    A Converter Monitoring Unit (CMU), which will enable condition monitoring of wind turbine converters is presented in this paper. Reducing the cost of corrective maintenance by means of condition monitoring is a way of lowering Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs for wind turbine systems....... The CMU must be able to detect a broad range of failure modes related to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules and associated gate drives. IGBT collector-emitter on-state voltage (vceon) and current (ic) is sampled in the CMU and used for detection of emerging failures. A new method...... for compensation of unwanted inductive voltage drop in the vceon measurement path is presented, enabling retrofitting of CMUs in existing wind turbines. Finally, experimental results obtained on a prototype CMU are presented. Experimentally the vceon dependency to IGBT junction temperature and deterioration...

  20. RESONANT STEP-DOWN DC-DC POWER CONVERTERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant step-down DC-DC power converter which comprises a primary side circuit and a secondary side circuit coupled through a galvanic isolation barrier. The primary side circuit comprises a positive and a negative input terminal for receipt of an input voltage...... charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier by a semiconductor switch arrangement in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The resonant step-down DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short......-circuit connection across the galvanic isolation barrier connecting, in a first case, the second negative electrode of the output capacitor to the positive input terminal of the primary side circuit or, in a second case, connecting the second positive electrode of the output capacitor to the negative input terminal...

  1. Decentralized Interleaving of Paralleled Dc-Dc Buck Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rodriguez, Miguel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinha, Mohit [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Poon, Jason [University of California at Berkeley

    2017-09-01

    We present a decentralized control strategy that yields switch interleaving among parallel connected dc-dc buck converters without communication. The proposed method is based on the digital implementation of the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator circuit as the controller. Each controller is fully decentralized, i.e., it only requires the locally measured output current to synthesize the pulse width modulation (PWM) carrier waveform. By virtue of the intrinsic electrical coupling between converters, the nonlinear oscillator-based controllers converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase-spacing across PWM carriers. To the knowledge of the authors, this work represents the first fully decentralized strategy for switch interleaving of paralleled dc-dc buck converters.

  2. Bidirectional dc-to-dc Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    Solid-state, series-resonant converter uses high-voltage thyristors. Converter used either to convert high-voltage, low-current dc power to lowvoltage, high current power or reverse. Taking advantage of newly-available high-voltage thyristors to provide better reliability and efficiency than traditional converters that use vacuum tubes as power switches. New converter essentially maintenance free and provides greatly increased mean time between failures. Attractive in industrial applications whether or not bidirectional capability is required.

  3. A TECHNIQUE OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF LINEAR IMPULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Bolyukh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a technique of experimental studies linear pulse electromechanical converters parameters, which are used as shock-power devices and electromechanical accelerators, and comparing the experimental results with the calculated indices obtained using the mathematical model. Methodology. Method of experimental investigations of linear electromechanical converter is that the electrical parameters are recorded simultaneously (inductor winding current and mechanical parameters characterizing the power and speed indicators of the joke with actuator. Power indicators are primarily important for shock-power devices, and high velocity - for electromechanical accelerators. Power indices were investigated using piezoelectric sensors, a system of strain sensors, pressure pulsation sensor and high-speed videorecording. Velocity indicators were investigated using a resistive movement sensor which allows to record character of the armature movement with actuating element in each moment. Results. The technique of experimental research, which is the simultaneous recording of electrical and mechanical power and velocity parameters of the linear electromechanical converter pulse, is developed. In the converter as a shock-power device power indicators are recorded using a piezoelectric transducer, strain sensors system, pressure pulsation sensor and high-speed video. The parameters of the inductor winding current pulse, the time lag of mechanical processes in relation to the time of occurrence of the inductor winding current, the average speed of the joke, the magnitude and momentum of electrodynamics forces acting on the plate strikes are experimentally determined. In the converter as an electromechanical accelerator velocity performance recorded using resistive displacement sensors. It is shown that electromechanical converter processes have complex spatial-temporal character. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated

  4. A Review of Galvanically Isolated Impedance-Source DC–DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chub, Andrii; Vinnikov, Dmitri; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Impedance-source converters, an emerging technology in electric energy conversion, overcome limitations of conventional solutions by the use of specific impedance-source networks. Focus of this paper is on the topologies of galvanically isolated impedance-source dc-dc converters. These converters...... isolated dc-dc converters according to the element that transfers energy from the input to the output: a transformer, a coupled inductor, or their combination. This classification reveals advantages and disadvantages, as well as a wide space for further research. This paper also outlines the most promising...

  5. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically...... coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output voltage of the power converter. Forward and reverse current conducting periods of the bi......, a reverse current is conducted through the bi-directional switching circuit from the DC or AC output voltage to the output electrode to discharge the DC or AC output voltage and return power to the primary section of the piezoelectric transformer....

  6. Vibration converter with magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladilin, A. V.; Pirogov, V. A.; Golyamina, I. P.; Kulaev, U. V.; Kurbatov, P. A.; Kurbatova, E. P.

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model, the results of computational and theoretical research, and the feasibility of creating a vibration converter with full magnetic levitation in the suspension of a high-temperature superconductor (HTSC). The axial and radial stability of the active part of the converter is provided by the interaction of the magnetic field of ring-shaped permanent magnets and a hollow cylinder made of the ceramic HTSC material. The force is created by a system of current-carrying coils whose magnetic field is polarized by permanent magnets and interacts with induced currents in the superconducting cylinder. The case of transition to the superconducting state of HTSC material in the field of the permanent magnets (FC mode) is considered. The data confirm the outlook for the proposed technical solutions.

  7. Status of advanced bremsstrahlung converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to review the somewhat ill-defined area of advanced converter research in a more or less chronological fashion. Section 2 reviews the early B/sub z/ work that was motivated by the CASINO project. More recent work makes liberal use of technology from ICF research using REBs is discussed in Sec. 3. Section 4 discusses possible directions for future research, some of which are being actively pursued at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and elsewhere

  8. High efficiency β radioisotope energy conversion using reciprocating electromechanical converters with integrated betavoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, Rajesh; Li, Hui; Lal, Amit

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate a 5.1% energy conversion efficiency Ni63 radioisotope power generator by integrating silicon betavoltaic converters with radioisotope actuated reciprocating piezoelectric unimorph cantilever converters. The electromechanical energy converter efficiently utilizes both the kinetic energy and the electrical charge of the 0.94μW β radiation from a 9mCi Ni63 thin film source to generate maximum (1) continuous betavoltaic electrical power output of 22nW and (2) pulsed piezoelectric electrical power output of 750μW at 0.07% duty cycle. The electromechanical converters can be potentially used to realize 100year lifetime power sources for powering periodic sampling remote wireless sensor microsystems.

  9. Computerized simulation of converter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalkanen, H; Suomi, M L; Wallgren, M [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    Converter process is essentially an oxidising refining process aiming in addition to (1) the primary refining action, decarburisation of high carbon iron melt, also to (2) maximal elimination of impurity elements, especially silicon, phosphorus and sulphur, (3) melting of substantial amounts of scrap using the extra heat released in oxidation reactions and (4) to exact final steel temperature control, optimal for further treatments. `Quantitative modelling of such a complex non-stationary chemical process as oxygen converting necessitates extensive formulation of chemical and thermal evolution of the process in connection with the technological properties of the reactor and the process control measures. A comprehensive converter simulation program like CONSIM-3. 1 and its preceding versions that is based on the theoretical and practical knowledge on the process can be used for (1) educating specialists and smelter personnel, (2) planning of the blowing programs, (3) developing and testing of process control systems and after some elaboration and restructuring (4) it can be integrated to static or dynamic process control systems. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  10. Computerized simulation of converter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalkanen, H.; Suomi, M.L.; Wallgren, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    Converter process is essentially an oxidising refining process aiming in addition to (1) the primary refining action, decarburisation of high carbon iron melt, also to (2) maximal elimination of impurity elements, especially silicon, phosphorus and sulphur, (3) melting of substantial amounts of scrap using the extra heat released in oxidation reactions and (4) to exact final steel temperature control, optimal for further treatments. `Quantitative modelling of such a complex non-stationary chemical process as oxygen converting necessitates extensive formulation of chemical and thermal evolution of the process in connection with the technological properties of the reactor and the process control measures. A comprehensive converter simulation program like CONSIM-3. 1 and its preceding versions that is based on the theoretical and practical knowledge on the process can be used for (1) educating specialists and smelter personnel, (2) planning of the blowing programs, (3) developing and testing of process control systems and after some elaboration and restructuring (4) it can be integrated to static or dynamic process control systems. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  11. Use of Electrically Heated Metal Catalytic Converter in Cold Starting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home ... To address the serious pollution problems posed by vehicles, growing number of countries worldwide? Catalytic ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v2i3.98758 · AJOL African ...

  12. Development of a Compact Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a matrix converter. Matrix converters belong to the category of direct frequency converters. A converter does not contain DC-link and the output voltage is provided by direct switching of voltage from the input phases. This is enabled by 9 bidirectional switches, which are provided by anti-serial connection of 18 IGBT transistors. The absence of a DC-link is great advantage of the matrix converter, but it also increases the requirements on the converter control. For this reason a new prototype of a matrix converter is being developed with sophisticated modern components (FPGA, Power PC equipped in the control part of the converter. The converter will be used for testing new control algorithms and commutation methods. 

  13. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  14. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  15. Mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for iodine laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Space-based laser power systems will require converters to change laser radiation into electricity. Vertical junction photovoltaic converters are promising devices for this use. A promising laser for the laser power station is the t-C4F9I laser which emits radiation at a wavelength of 1.315 microns. This paper describes the results of mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for use with this laser. The material for this photovoltaic converter is Ga(53)In(47)As which has a bandgap energy of 0.94 eV, slightly below the energy of the laser photons (0.943 eV). Results of a study optimizing the converter parameters are presented. Calculated efficiency for a 1000 vertical junction converter is 42.5 percent at a power density of 1 x 10 to the 3d power w/sq cm.

  16. A new converter for improving efficiency of multi-actuators fluid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yong; Shang, JianZhong; Yang, JunHong; Wang Zhuo [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2016-05-15

    This paper is concerned with the application of energy efficient fluid power in mobile robots system and proposes a new fluid power converter system which is analogous to a boost converter in power electronics. The fluid power converter system is based on the principle of pulse-width modulation. The fluid power converter has an effect akin to an electrical switched inductance transformer, wherein the output pressure or flow rate can be stepped up or down. Using an inductive reactance device (an inertia mass-block), the output flow and pressure can be varied to meet the load by a means that does not rely on dissipation of power (the resistance control). The simulation model based on the mathematics models of the components is built to analyse the performance of the fluid power converter. It is clearly shown that the fluid power converter has higher energy efficiency than conventional resistance control manners.

  17. A wideband fractal-inspired piezoelectric energy converter: design, simulation and experimental characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnetti, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop self-powered wireless sensor nodes, many energy harvesting devices that are able to convert available ambient energy into electrical energy have been proposed in the literature. A promising technique, in terms of simplicity and high conversion efficiency, is the harvesting of ambient kinetic energy through piezoelectric materials. The aim of this work is to design and investigate the modal response and power output of a fractal-inspired, multi-frequency, piezoelectric energy converter. The converter is a square, thin sheet structure, characterized by a fractal geometry obtained through a pattern of cuts in the plate. There are two steps involved. First, a computational analysis of the converter is performed. Second, a physical prototype of the converter is built and its eigenfrequencies and power generation under different resistive loads are experimentally examined in the range from 0 to 120 Hz. The converter exhibits three eigenfrequencies and a good power output, particularly at the first eigenfrequency. (paper)

  18. Simulation Results of Double Forward Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to find a better forward converter for DC to DC conversion.Simulation of double forward converter in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. Aforward converter with RCD snubber to synchronous rectifier and/or to current doubleris also discussed. The evolution of the forward converter is first reviewed in a tutorialfashion. Performance parameters are discussed including operating principle, voltageconversion ratio, efficiency, device stress, small-signal dynamics, noise and EMI. Itscircuit operation and its performance characteristics of the forward converter with RCDsnubber and double forward converter are described and the simulation results arepresented.

  19. L-L multilevel boost converter topology for renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Fedák, Viliam

    2017-01-01

    ; such as a photovoltaic (PV) system with a Multilevel Inverter (MLI), electrical drives, automotive, hybrid electric cars etc. The proposed topology is derived by attaching the Cockcroft Walton (CW) multiplier to an upper L-converter of the LL topology of XY family. The mode of operation of L-LMBC with mathematical...

  20. A Multifunctional Isolated and Non-Isolated Dual Mode Converter for Renewable Energy Conversion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multifunctional isolated and non-isolated dual-mode low-power converter was designed for renewable energy conversion applications such as photovoltaic power generation to achieve different operating modes under bi-directional electrical conversion. The proposed topology consists of a bidirectional non-isolated DC/DC circuit and an isolated converter with a high-frequency transformer, which merge the advantages of both the conventional isolated converter and non-isolated converter with the combination of the two converter technologies. Compared with traditional converters, the multifunctional converter can not only realize conventional bi-directional functions, but can also be applied for many different operation modes and meet the high output/input ratio demands with the two converter circuits operating together. A novel control algorithm was proposed to achieve the various functions of the proposed converter. An experimental platform based on the proposed circuit was established. Both the simulation and experimental results indicated that the proposed converter could provide isolated and non-isolated modes in different applications, which could meet different practical engineering requirements.

  1. Simulation of wind power with front-end converter into interconnected grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad W. Mohod

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the growing electricity supply industry and open access market for electricity worldwide, renewable sources are getting added into the grid system. This affects the grid power quality. To assess the impact on grid due to wind energy integration, the knowledge of electrical characteristic of wind turbine and associated control equipments are required. The paper presents a simulation set-up for wind turbine in MATLAB / SIMULINK, with front end converter and interconnected system. The presented control scheme provides the wind power flow to the grid through a converter. The injected power in the system at the point of common coupling is ensured within the power quality norms.

  2. An overview on emerging bioelectrochemical systems (BESs): Technology for sustainable electricity, waste remediation, resource recovery, chemical production and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, S.; Sharma, M.; Mohanakrishna, Gunda; Benneton, Xochitl Dominguez; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Pant, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are unique systems capable of converting chemical energy into electrical energy (and vice-versa) while employing microbes as catalysts. Such organic wastes including low-strength wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass were converted into electricity with microbial

  3. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  4. OAM mode converter in twisted fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....

  5. A new concept of thermionic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, G.

    1978-10-01

    The parameters of a new type of thermionic converter which has a number of concentric electrodes, is computed. The obtained theoretical efficiency of this new type of converter is nearly the efficiency of the ideal thermionic converter. The obtained results are explained by the reduction of the radiation loss from the emitter due to the electrode configuration. Efficiencies as high as 20% are expected from this type of converter now in construction. (author)

  6. Investigation of steel to dielectric transition using microminiature eddy-current converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to develop a microminiature converter for electrical steel investigation. The research topic is considered relevant due to the need for evaluation and forecasting of safe operating life of electric steel products. The authors determined the capability to study steel characteristics at different depths based on variations of eddy-current converter amplitude at the steel-dielectric boundary. A microminiature transformer-type converter was designed, which enables to perform local investigations of ferromagnetic materials using eddy-current method based on local studies of the steel electrical conductivity. Having the designed converter as a basis, a hardware-software complex was built to perform experimental studies of steel at the interface boundary. A system was developed for automated converter relocation above the studied object at a specified velocity. Test results are reported for a specimen with continuous and discrete measurements taken at different frequencies. Response dependence of eddy-current converter was found to demonstrate non-linear behavior at steel to dielectric transition. The effect of gap between the eddy-current converter and the test object is investigated.

  7. Spectrometric analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormandzhiev, S.I.; Jordanov, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    Converter of digit-by-digit counterbalancing with slipping dial with number of channels equal to total number of states of the main digital-to-analog converter of digit-by-digit counterbalancing systems is presented. Algorithm for selection of digital-to-analog converters, which must be used by means of computer is suggested

  8. A novel series-resonant converter topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilgenkamp, N.V.; Haan, de S.W.H.; Huisman, H.

    1987-01-01

    A converter topology based on the principles of seriesresonant (SR) power conversion is described in which the input and output of this converter have one terminal in common, and the transformer is omitted. Both the underlying theory and associated waveforms are presented. The converter is suitable

  9. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  10. A Markovian Approach Applied to Reliability Modeling of Bidirectional DC-DC Converters Used in PHEVs and Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalilzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stochastic approach is proposed for reliability assessment of bidirectional DC-DC converters, including the fault-tolerant ones. This type of converters can be used in a smart DC grid, feeding DC loads such as home appliances and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. The reliability of bidirectional DC-DC converters is of such an importance, due to the key role of the expected increasingly utilization of DC grids in modern Smart Grid. Markov processes are suggested for reliability modeling and consequently calculating the expected effective lifetime of bidirectional converters. A three-leg bidirectional interleaved converter using data of Toyota Prius 2012 hybrid electric vehicle is used as a case study. Besides, the influence of environment and ambient temperature on converter lifetime is studied. The impact of modeling the reliability of the converter and adding reliability constraints on the technical design procedure of the converter is also investigated. In order to investigate the effect of leg increase on the lifetime of the converter, single leg to five-leg interleave DC-DC converters are studied considering economical aspect and the results are extrapolated for six and seven-leg converters. The proposed method could be generalized so that the number of legs and input and output capacitors could be an arbitrary number.

  11. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution dc test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station freedom dc Electric Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switch-mode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and test results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  12. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The empirical results show that the model fits well the market prices of convertible bonds in China’s market and the LSRQM method is effective.

  13. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  14. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  15. Design and operating experience of an ac-dc power converter for a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Nielsen, R.G.; Sueker, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The design philosophy and the operating behavior of a 5.5 kA, +-2.5 kV converter, being the electrical interface between a high voltage transmission system and a 30 MJ superconducting coil, are documented in this paper. Converter short circuit tests, load tests under various control conditions, dc breaker tests for magnet current interruption, and converter failure modes are described

  16. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... on management, 32-115 kg ant brood (mainly new queens) was harvested per ha per year without detrimental effect on colony survival and worker ant densities. This suggest that ant biocontrol and ant harvest can be sustainable integrated in plantations and double benefits derived. As ant production is fuelled...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  17. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  18. Overview of the requirements and implementations of bidirectional isolated AC-DC converters for automotive battery charging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Everts, J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is divided into three main parts. In the first part, i.e. Section II, a general outline of the system level aspects regarding battery chargers (power converters) for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is given. Thereby, the different charging modes of the converters, the corresponding power

  19. LPV model for PV cell and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for V-I characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Reviewed

  20. LPV model for PV cells and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for VI characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Rev...

  1. Fundamentals of Grid Connected Photo-Voltaic Power Electronic Converter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Evju, Svein Erik

    2007-01-01

    In this master thesis the basic theory of grid connected photo-voltaic systems is explained, giving an introduction to the different aspects of system design. Starting with a look at the standards concerning grid connection of distributed resources, and working its way through how the photo-voltaic cells work, to how photo-voltaic modules with electrical converters can be arranged. Some different converter topologies suitable for use with photo-voltaics are found, and based on these topologie...

  2. Design of a DC-AC Link Converter for 500W Residential Wind Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Muhida; Ahmad Firdaus A. Zaidi; Afzeri Tamsir; Rudi Irawan

    2012-01-01

     As one of alternative sources of renewable energy, wind energy has an excellence prospect in Indonesia, particularly in coastal and hilly areas which have potential wind to generate electricity for residential uses. There is urgent need to locally develop low cost inverter of wind generator system for residential use. Recent developments in power electronic converters and embedded computing allow improvement of power electronic converter devices that enable integration of microcontrollers in...

  3. Solar fed DC-DC single ended primary inductance converter for low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendranath, K. V.; Viswanath, Y.; Babu, K. Suresh; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents 34 to 36 volts. SEPIC converter for solar fed applications. Now days, there has been tremendous increase in the usage of solar energy and this solar energy is most valuable energy source available all around the world. The solar energy system require a Dc-Dc converter in order to modulate and govern the changing output of the panel. In this paper, a system comprising of Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter [SEPIC] integrated with solar panel is proposed. This paper proposes SEPIC power converter design that will secure high performance and cost efficiency while powering up a LAMP load. This power converter designed with low output ripple voltage, higher efficiency and less electrical pressure on the power switching elements. The simulation and prototype hardware results are presented in this paper.

  4. Review of the Initial Phases of the LHC Power Converter Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Nisbet, D

    2008-01-01

    The LHC requires more than 1700 power converter systems that supply between 60A and 13kA of precisely regulated current to the superconducting magnets. For the first time at CERN these converters have been installed underground in close proximity to many other accelerator systems. In addition to the power converters themselves, many utilities such as air and water cooling, electrical power, communication networks and magnet safety systems needed to be installed and commissioned as a single system. Due to the complexity of installing and commissioning such a large infrastructure, with inevitable interaction between the different systems, a three phase test strategy was developed. The first phase comprised the manufacture, integration and reception tests of all converter sub-systems necessary for powering. The second phase covered the commissioning of all the power converters installed in their final environment with the utilities. The third phase will add the superconducting magnets and will not be covered by ...

  5. Electron curing for high speed paper, film and foil converting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Tripp, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The status of self-shielded, compact electron processors for flexible web converting applications is reviewed. The uses of these units for a variety of laminating applications are described, with emphasis on the application techniques appropriate for low weight, (1 to 2 gm/m 2 ) 100% convertible adhesives. Performance data for electron cured adhesives with polyester/polyethylene systems is presented and compared with conventional urethane systems. The unique surface features of electron cured gravure coatings applied and cured at high speed are discussed, with reference to both paper and film substrates. An important advantage of electron curing of buried adhesive layers is the process quality control permitted by this 'all-electric' system. The performance characteristics of curing atmosphere control (inerting) for coatings are reviewed. Industrial experience with these processors has shown that effective inerting of coated flexible webs at speeds to 250 m/minute is both practical and economical. (author)

  6. Operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Marquis, Laurent; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    costs including costs due to lost electricity production are minimized. The risk-based approach is compared with an approach where only boats are used and another approach where the target is to minimize the downtime of the device. This article presents a dynamic approach for total operation......Inspection and maintenance costs are a significant contributor to the cost of energy for wave energy converters. There are different operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters. Maintenance can be performed after failure (corrective) or before a breakdown (preventive) occurs....... Furthermore, a helicopter and boats can be used to transport equipment and personnel to the device, or the whole device can be towed to a harbour for operation and maintenance actions. This article describes, among others, a risk-based inspection and maintenance planning approach where the overall repair...

  7. 3D printable conducting hydrogels containing chemically converted graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyar, Sepidar; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Chung, Johnson; Officer, David L; Wallace, Gordon G

    2017-02-02

    The development of conducting 3D structured biocompatible scaffolds for the growth of electroresponsive cells is critical in the field of tissue engineering. This work reports the synthesis and 3D processing of UV-crosslinkable conducting cytocompatible hydrogels that are prepared from methacrylated chitosan (ChiMA) containing graphenic nanosheets. The addition of chemically converted graphene resulted in mechanical and electrical properties of the composite that were significantly better than ChiMA itself, as well as improved adhesion, proliferation and spreading of L929 fibroblasts cells. The chemically converted graphene/ChiMA hydrogels were amenable to 3D printing and this was used to produce multilayer scaffolds with enhanced mechanical properties through UV-crosslinking.

  8. Capacitor performance limitations in high power converter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Holbøll, Joachim; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2013-01-01

    High voltage low inductance capacitors are used in converters as HVDC-links, snubber circuits and sub model (MMC) capacitances. They facilitate the possibility of large peak currents under high frequent or transient voltage applications. On the other hand, using capacitors with larger equivalent...... series inductances include the risk of transient overvoltages, with a negative effect on life time and reliability of the capacitors. These allowable limits of such current and voltage peaks are decided by the ability of the converter components, including the capacitors, to withstand them over...... the expected life time. In this paper results are described from investigations on the electrical environment of these capacitors, including all the conditions they would be exposed to, thereby trying to find the tradeoffs needed to find a suitable capacitor. Different types of capacitors with the same voltage...

  9. THE MATHEMATIC STIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC-TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 3. SWITCHING ON MAIN POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; THE ANALYSIS OF VOLTS AND CURRENTS IN THE POWER SUPPLY INPUT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mischenko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of analysis of the electric equivalent AC circuit «traction substation − device of transversal compensation − electric-traction network − electric locomotive DS 3» and the influence on a power transformer in the idle mode, depending on the feeder voltage and the distance of an electric locomotive from a traction substation. The numeral calculations are performed and the voltage and current values in the electric power supply system are analyzed.

  10. THE MATHEMATIC STIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC-TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 3. SWITCHING ON MAIN POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; THE ANALYSIS OF VOLTS AND CURRENTS IN THE POWER SUPPLY INPUT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Mischenko

    2011-01-01

    The article is a continuation of analysis of the electric equivalent AC circuit «traction substation − device of transversal compensation − electric-traction network − electric locomotive DS 3» and the influence on a power transformer in the idle mode, depending on the feeder voltage and the distance of an electric locomotive from a traction substation. The numeral calculations are performed and the voltage and current values in the electric power supply system are analyzed.

  11. Heat operated cryogenic electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Wang, T.C.; Saffren, M.M.; Elleman, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical generator useful for providing electrical power in deep space, is disclosed. The subject electrical generator utilizes the unusual hydrodynamic property exhibited by liquid helium as it is converted to and from a superfluid state to cause opposite directions of rotary motion for a rotor cell thereof. The physical motion of said rotor cell is employed to move a magnetic field provided by a charged superconductive coil mounted on the exterior of said cell. An electrical conductor is placed in surrounding proximity to said cell to interact with the moving magnetic field provided by the superconductive coil and thereby generate electrical energy. A heat control arrangement is provided for the purpose of causing the liquid helium to be partially converted to and from a superfluid state by being cooled and heated, respectively. (U.S.)

  12. Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Point absorber wave energy converter is presented. • Piston pump module captures and converts wave energy. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Fuzzy controller adjusts the displacement of hydraulic motor. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. - Abstract: In this paper, a point absorber wave energy converter combined with offshore wind turbine is proposed. In the system, the wave energy is captured and converted into hydraulic energy by a piston pump module, which is combined with a wind turbine floating platform, and then the hydraulic energy is converted into electricity energy by a variable displacement hydraulic motor and induction generator. In order to smooth and stabilize the captured wave energy, a hydraulic accumulator is applied to store and release the excess energy. In order to meet the demand power a fuzzy controller is designed to adjust the displacement of hydraulic motor and controlled the output power. Simulation under irregular wave condition has been carried out to verify the validity of the mathematical model and the effectiveness of the controller strategy. The results show that the wave energy converter system could deliver the required electricity power precisely as the motor output torque is controlled. The accumulator could damp out all the fluctuations in output power, so the wave energy would become a dispatchable power source.

  13. Modeling and sizing the coil in boost converters dedicated to photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Lotfi; Fares, Mohammed Amine; Zaraket, Jean; Bachir, Ghalem; Aillerie, Michel

    2018-05-01

    The coil is a very important element in a wide range of power electrical systems as such as those used in converter or inverter dedicated to extract and to adapt the value and the shape of the intensity and the voltage delivered by renewable energy sources. Thus, knowing its behavior in converters is paramount to obtain a maximum conversion efficiency and reliability. In this context, this paper presents a global study of a DC/DC boost converter dedicated to photovoltaic sources based on the modeling of the behavior of the coil or the inductance as a function of the switching frequency.

  14. A Bond Graph Approach for the Modeling and Simulation of a Buck Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rached Zrafi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of bond graph buck converter systems. The bond graph formalism, which represents a heterogeneous formalism for physical modeling, is used to design a sub-model of a power MOSFET and PiN diode switchers. These bond graph models are based on the device’s electrical elements. The application of these models to a bond graph buck converter permit us to obtain an invariant causal structure when the switch devices change state. This paper shows the usefulness of the bond graph device’s modeling to simulate an implicit bond graph buck converter.

  15. Design of power converter in DFIG wind turbine with enhanced system-level reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Zhang, Guanguan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of wind power, reliable and cost-effective wind energy production are of more and more importance. As one of the promising configurations, the doubly-fed induction generator based partial-scale wind power converter is still dominating in the existing wind farms...... margin. It can be seen that the B1 lifetime of the grid-side converter and the rotor-side converter deviates a lot by considering the electrical stresses, while they become more balanced by using an optimized reliable design. The system-level lifetime significantly increases with an appropriate design...

  16. Novel LY Converter Topologies for High Gain Transfer Ratio - A New Breed of XY Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, M.S.; Padmanaban, S.; Kulkarni, R.

    2016-01-01

    gain and minimum internal resistance; such as a photovoltaic MLI system, high voltage applications and electrical drives. The conspicuous features of proposed LY converter topologies are i) Single power control switch ii) Single Input source iii) Inverting output voltage iv) Transformer-less converter...... topologies v) High inverting voltage gain with moderate duty ratio vi) Less number of power devices and components. The proposed topologies have minimum internal resistance and its effect on voltage gain of LY converter is also discussed in detail. The simulation results are presented and the result...

  17. Investigation and improvement of high step- up converters for pv module applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed moradmand jazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available sun is of the clean and cheapest sources of energy. Charging slight energy to electricity is carried out by PV modules. Since most electric consumers need Ac input voltage, the PV modules output voltage should be changed into Ac form. But, the voltage level of PV modules is much lower than the voltage needed in input stage of inverters. Because of large voltage level. Difference it is not possible to use the basic boost and buck-boost converters. The basic boost and buck-boost converters definitely can not be used in this applications, for, they will face extreme drop in efficiency in duty cycles closer to unity. In this paper The proposed converter is presented in order to decrease the voltage stress of coupled inductors based high step-up converters. The voltage stress in the proposed converter is lower than the high step-up boost converter with coupled inductors in identical condition. Also, soft switching condition for switches and diodes is realized by active clamp circuit, and with this technique and proper selection of duty cycle, large gain and high efficiency could be achieved ultimately. . In this paper theoretical analysis is used for analyzing the performance of the proposed converters, and in order to verify the theoretical analysis, simulated results from pspice software is provides.

  18. Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, G.; Weisman, D.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Kribus, A.

    2015-01-01

    In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3 μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5 μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163

  19. Circular waveguide mode converters at 140 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trulsen, J.; Woskoboinikow, P.; Temkin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unified derivation of the coupled mode equations for circular waveguide is presented. Also, approximate design criteria for TE/sub 0n/ to TE/sub 0n'/ axisymmetric, TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle, and TE 01 to TM 11 bend converters are reviewed. Numerically solving the coupled mode equations, an optimized set of mode converters has been designed for conversion of a 2 millimeter wave TE 03 mode into TE 11 . This set consists of axisymmetric TE 03 to TE 02 and TE 02 to TE 01 converters followed by a wriggle TE 01 to TE 11 converter. This mode converter set was fabricated and tested using a 3 kW, 137 GHz gyrotron. A TE 11 mode purity of better than 97% was achieved. The TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle converter was experimentally optimized for a measured conversion efficiency of better than 99% not including ohmic losses

  20. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  1. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  2. Advanced Receiver/Converter Experiments for Laser Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; ONeill, Mark; Fork, Richard

    2004-01-01

    For several years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, UAH and ENTECH have been working on various aspects of space solar power systems. The current activity was just begun in January 2004 to further develop this new photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter technology. During the next few months, an improved prototype will be designed, fabricated, and thoroughly tested under laser illumination. The final paper will describe the new concept, present its advantages over other laser receiver/converter approaches (including planar photovoltaic arrays), and provide the latest experiment results on prototype hardware (including the effects of laser irradiance level and cell temperature). With NASA's new human exploration plans to first return to the Moon, and then to proceed to Mars, the new photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter technology could prove to be extremely useful in providing power to the landing sites and other phases of the missions. For example, to explore the scientifically interesting and likely resource-rich poles of the Moon (which may contain water) or the poles of Mars (which definitely contain water and carbon dioxide), laser power beaming could represent the simplest means of providing power to these regions, which receive little or no sunlight, making solar arrays useless there. In summary, the authors propose a paper on definition and experimental results of a novel photovoltaic concentrator approach for collecting and converting laser radiation to electrical power. The new advanced photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter offers higher performance, lighter weight, and lower cost than competing concepts, and early experimental results are confirming the expected excellent Performance levels. After the small prototypes are successfully demonstrated, a larger array with even better performance is planned for the next phase experiments and demonstrations. Thereafter, a near-term flight experiment of the new technology

  3. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  4. Modern power converter drives. Drive systems, power electronics, machines, mechatronics and motion control. 5. rev. and enl. ed.; Moderne Stromrichterantriebe. Antriebssystem, Leistungselektronik, Maschinen, Mechatronik und Motion Control, Arbeitsweise drehzahlveraenderbarer Antriebe mit Stromrichtern und Antriebsvernetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosch, P.F.

    2008-07-01

    This book informs students and practicians on variable-speed drives. Constructional engineers, technicians and others are given a practical tool for their daily work. - Fundamentals of motive power engineering - power converter components - electric machines - power converter drives with commutator motors - power converter drives with induction machines - integrated drive systems - motion control and mechatronics - selection and dimensioning of variable-speed drives converter measuring engineering - electromagnetic compatibility, with examples - measurements on power converter drives with variable speed adjustment - electromagnetic compatibility. (orig./GL)

  5. Semi-automatic logarithmic converter of logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dman, Z.A.; Bondar's, V.V.

    1974-01-01

    Semi-automatic logarithmic converter of logging charts. An original semi-automatic converter was developed for use in converting BK resistance logging charts and the time interval, ΔT, of acoustic logs from a linear to a logarithmic scale with a specific ratio for subsequent combining of them with neutron-gamma logging charts in operative interpretation of logging materials by a normalization method. The converter can be used to increase productivity by giving curves different from those obtained in manual, pointwise processing. The equipment operates reliably and is simple in use. (author)

  6. Multilevel converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Several promising multi-level converter configurations for 10 MW Wind Turbines both with direct drive and one-stage gear box drive using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) are proposed, designed and compared. Reliability is a crucial indicator for large scale wind power converters...... that the three-level and five-level H-bridge converter topologies both have potential to achieve improved thermal performances compared to the three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped converter topology in the wind power application....

  7. Commutation Processes in Multiresonant ZVS Bridge Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Luft

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the multiresonant ZVS DC/DC bridge converter is presented. The control system of the converter is basedon the method of frequency control at the constant time of transistor turn-off with a phase shift. The operation of the circuit is givenand the operating range of the converter is defined where ZVS switching operation is assured. Control characteristics are given andthe converter’s efficiency is defined. The circuit’s operation is analysed on the basis of results of the converter simulation tests using Simplorer programme.

  8. Ocean Wave Energy: Underwater Substation System for Wave Energy Converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with a system for operation of directly driven offshore wave energy converters. The work that has been carried out includes laboratory testing of a permanent magnet linear generator, wave energy converter mechanical design and offshore testing, and finally design, implementation, and offshore testing of an underwater collector substation. Long-term testing of a single point absorber, which was installed in March 2006, has been performed in real ocean waves in linear and in non-linear damping mode. The two different damping modes were realized by, first, a resistive load, and second, a rectifier with voltage smoothing capacitors and a resistive load in the DC-link. The loads are placed on land about 2 km east of the Lysekil wave energy research site, where the offshore experiments have been conducted. In the spring of 2009, another two wave energy converter prototypes were installed. Records of array operation were taken with two and three devices in the array. With two units, non-linear damping was used, and with three units, linear damping was employed. The point absorbers in the array are connected to the underwater substation, which is based on a 3 m3 pressure vessel standing on the seabed. In the substation, rectification of the frequency and amplitude modulated voltages from the linear generators is made. The DC voltage is smoothened by capacitors and inverted to 50 Hz electrical frequency, transformed and finally transmitted to the on-shore measuring station. Results show that the absorption is heavily dependent on the damping. It has also been shown that by increasing the damping, the standard deviation of electrical power can be reduced. The standard deviation of electrical power is reduced by array operation compared to single unit operation. Ongoing and future work include the construction and installation of a second underwater substation, which will connect the first substation and seven new WECs

  9. Hexuple-Inverter Configuration for Multilevel Nine-Phase Symmetrical Open-Winding Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Maroti, Pandav Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Hexuple-inverter configuration for multilevel nine-phase symmetrical open-winding ac converter is articulated in this work. Power modular unit consists of six classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSI). Each VSI includes one bi-directional device (MOSFET/IGBT) per each phase and link...... software’s (Matlab/PLECS). Results always showed good conformity with the developed theoretical background under working conditions. The proposed converter found suit for (low-voltage/high current) electric vehicles, ac tractions and ‘More-Electric Aircraft’ applications....

  10. An isolated bridgeless AC-DC PFC converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin-woo; Do, Hyun-Lark

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposed an isolated bridgeless AC-DC power factor correction (PFC) converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier. The proposed converter is based on isolated conventional single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) PFC converter. The conduction loss of rectification is reduced than a conventional one because the proposed converter is designed to eliminate a full-bridge rectifier at an input stage. Moreover, for zero-current switching (ZCS) operation and low voltage stresses of output diodes, the secondary of the proposed converter is designed as voltage doubler with a LC resonant tank. Additionally, an input-output electrical isolation is provided for safety standard. In conclusion, high power factor is achieved and efficiency is improved. The operational principles, steady-state analysis and design equations of the proposed converter are described in detail. Experimental results from a 60 W prototype at a constant switching frequency 100 kHz are presented to verify the performance of the proposed converter.

  11. Back-to-back converter control of grid-connected wind turbine to mitigate voltage drop caused by faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassanzadeh, Fattah; Sangrody, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Power electronic converters enable wind turbines, operating at variable speed, to generate electricity more efficiently. Among variable speed operating turbine generators, permanent magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG) has got more attentions due to low cost and maintenance requirements...... side converter is designed to improve voltage drop caused by the fault in the grid while maximum available active power of wind turbine system is injected to the grid and the DC link voltage in the converter is regulated. The methodology of the converter control is elaborated in details and its...

  12. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  13. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage...

  14. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Luminescent converter of neodymium laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Golab, S.

    1992-01-01

    The new luminescent converter of neodymium laser radiation has been worked out. Activated inorganic compounds of ytterbium and erbium ions has been used as luminescent agent. The multi-component inorganic glass containing tellurium oxide as well as boron, sodium, magnesium and zinc oxides has been applied as a converter matrix

  16. Time-Interleaved Analog to Digital Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the research carried out by our PhD student Simon Louwsma at the University of Twente, The Netherlands in the field of high-speed Analogto- Digital (AD) converters. AD converters are crucial circuits for modern systems where information is stored or processed in digital form. Due

  17. Switched-mode converters (one quadrant)

    CERN Document Server

    Barrade, P

    2006-01-01

    Switched-mode converters are DC/DC converters that supply DC loads with a regulated output voltage, and protection against overcurrents and short circuits. These converters are generally fed from an AC network via a transformer and a conventional diode rectifier. Switched-mode converters (one quadrant) are non-reversible converters that allow the feeding of a DC load with unipolar voltage and current. The switched-mode converters presented in this contribution are classified into two families. The first is dedicated to the basic topologies of DC/DC converters, generally used for low- to mid-power applications. As such structures enable only hard commutation processes, the main drawback of such topologies is high commutation losses. A typical multichannel evolution is presented that allows an interesting decrease in these losses. Deduced from this direct DC/DC converter, an evolution is also presented that allows the integration of a transformer into the buck and the buck–boost structure. This enables an int...

  18. Full range ZVS DC-DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Rinki; Badapanda, M.K.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    A 500 V, 24 Amp DC-DC converter with digital signal processor (DSP) based control and protection has been designed, fabricated and tested. Its power circuit consists of IGBT based single phase inverter bridge, ferrite transformer and diode rectifier. All IGBTs in the inverter bridge are operated in zero voltage switching (ZVS) mode to minimize switching losses thereby increasing the efficiency of the converter significantly. The efficiency of this converter is measured to be greater than 97% at full load. In a conventional full bridge inverter, typically ZVS is achieved under full load condition while at light load ZVS is lost. An auxiliary LC circuit has been intentionally incorporated in this converter to achieve ZVS even at light loaded conditions. Detailed simulation of the converter circuit is carried out and crucial waveforms have been presented in this paper. Microchip make dsPIC30F2020 DSP is employed to provide phase shifted PWMs to IGBTs in the inverter bridge. All the crucial parameters are also monitored by this DSP and in case of any unfavorable conditions, the converter is tripped off. Suitable experiments were carried out in this DC-DC converter under different loaded conditions and a close match between the simulated and experimental results were obtained. Such DC-DC converters can be connected in series or parallel for the development of solid state modular power supplies for various applications. (author)

  19. Passive Resonant Bidirectional Converter with Galvanic Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblad, Nathan S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A passive resonant bidirectional converter system that transports energy across a galvanic barrier includes a converter using at least first and second converter sections, each section including a pair of transfer terminals, a center tapped winding; a chopper circuit interconnected between the center tapped winding and one of the transfer terminals; an inductance feed winding interconnected between the other of the transfer terminals and the center tap and a resonant tank circuit including at least the inductance of the center tap winding and the parasitic capacitance of the chopper circuit for operating the converter section at resonance; the center tapped windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a first common winding core and the inductance feed windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a second common winding core for automatically synchronizing the resonant oscillation of the first and second converter sections and transferring energy between the converter sections until the voltage across the pairs of transfer terminals achieves the turns ratio of the center tapped windings.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fu-rong; Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and simulation of matrix converter. Two models of matrix converter are presented: one is based on indirect space vector modulation and the other is based on power balance equation. The basis of these two models is• given and the process on modeling is introduced...

  1. A novel power converter for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvarajan, S.; Yu, Dachuan; Xu, Shanguang

    A simple and economical power conditioner to convert the power available from solar panels into 60 Hz ac voltage is described. The raw dc voltage from the solar panels is converted to a regulated dc voltage using a boost converter and a large capacitor and the dc output is then converted to 60 Hz ac using a bridge inverter. The ratio between the load current and the short-circuit current of a PV panel at maximum power point is nearly constant for different insolation (light) levels and this property is utilized in designing a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The controller includes a novel arrangement for sensing the short-circuit current without disturbing the operation of the PV panel and implementing MPPT. The switching losses in the inverter are reduced by using snubbers. The results obtained on an experimental converter are presented.

  2. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage......DC-DC converters with voltage boost capability are widely used in a large number of power conversion applications, from fraction-of-volt to tens of thousands of volts at power levels from milliwatts to megawatts. The literature has reported on various voltage-boosting techniques, in which......-boosting techniques and associated converters are discussed in detail. Finally, broad applications of dc-dc converters are presented and summarized with comparative study of different voltage-boosting techniques....

  3. Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss Stirling experience in Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. This paper provides an update of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space

  4. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  5. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  6. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    A recent addition to the anthropogenic sources of underwater noise is offshore wave energy converters. Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter located at Hastholm, Denmark (57°7.73´N, 8°37.23´E). The Wavestar is a full-scale test and demonstration converter...... in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...... significant noise above ambient could be detected above the 250 Hz band. The absolute increase in noise above ambient was very small. L50 third-octave levels in the four bands with the converter running were thus only 1-2 dB above ambient L50 levels. The noise recorded 25 m from the wave energy converter...

  7. Salvaging of nuclear waste by nuclear-optical converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A. V.; Shirokov, R. V.

    2007-06-01

    In modern conditions of power consumption growing in Russia, apparently, it is difficult to find alternative to further development of nuclear power engineering. The negative party of nuclear power engineering is the spent fuel of nuclear reactors (radioactive waste). The gaseous and fluid radioactive waste furbished of highly active impurity, dumps in atmosphere or pools. The highly active fluid radioactive waste stores by the way of saline concentrates in special tanks in surface layers of ground, above the level of groundwaters. A firm radioactive waste bury in pods from a stainless steel in underground workings, salt deposits, at the bottom of oceans. However this problem can be esteemed in a positive direction, as irradiation is a hard radiation, which one can be used as a power source in nuclear - optical converters with further conversion of optical radiation into the electric power with the help of photoelectric converters. Thus waste at all do not demand special processing and exposure in temporary storehouses. And the electricity can be worked out in a constant mode within many years practically without gang of a stimulus source, if a level of a residual radioactivity and the half-lives of component are high enough.

  8. Development trends of combined inductance-capacitance electromechanical energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayan Hamlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern state of completely new direction of electromechanical science such as combined inductive-capacitive electromechanics is considered. The wide spectra of its possible practical applications and prospects for further development are analyzed. A new approach for mathematical description of transients in dualcon jugate dynamic systems is proposed. On the basis of the algorithm differential equations for inductive-capacitive compatible electromechanical energy converters are derived. The generalized Lagrangian theory of combined inductively-capacitive electric machines was developed as a union of generalized Lagrangian models of inductive and capacitive electro-mechanical energy converters developed on the basis of the basic principles of binary-conjugate electrophysics. The author gives equations of electrodynamics and electromechanics of combined inductive-capacitive electric machines in case there are active electrotechnical materials of dual purpose (ferroelectromagnets in the structure of their excitation system. At the same time, the necessary Lagrangian for combined inductive-capacitive forces was built using new technologies of interaction between inductive and capacitive subsystems. The joint solution of these equations completely determines the dynamic behavior and energy characteristics of the generalized model of combined machines of any design and in any modes of interaction of their functional elements

  9. Preliminary studies on the closed cycle magneto aerodynamic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1964-01-01

    Besides the open cycle MHD converters which convert the thermal energy contained in combustion gases, a closed cycle converter which can work with any high temperature heat source and specially with nuclear sources is being very carefully studied. Before proceeding to a practical study of the power station as a whole the performances of the converter itself must be fully investigated. These performances are largely a function of the conductivity of the gas, but this conductivity must not be repaid by a temperature technically unacceptable for the heat exchanger. In the conversion fluid an ionizable seeding vapour such as caesium or potassium is mixed with a carrier gas, helium or argon. Purely thermal ionization is only efficient above 2 500 deg. K, whereas the electric field obtained by Induction in the converter can, under given conditions, increase the electron temperature and produce an ionization rate well above the equilibrium value. This allows the gas to be ionized at moderate temperature. Studies are under way in order to clarify the conditions required to produce extra-thermal ionization in seeded rare gases. Measurements have been performed with a 3-phase 500 kVA plasmatron with potassium-seeded argon. The outgoing gas is fed into a channel where the tensor components of conductivity are measured in the presence of a magnetic field. The values found under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions confirm the simple theory. This is not the case when the electrons are heated. Measurements of the same kind have been made by another method in caesium-seeded helium contained in an isothermal vessel at 1 900 deg. K. There also the equilibrium values are in good agreement, but non-equilibrium ionization seems to be lower than expected. The effect of electron heating inside the converter in the case of argon-. potassium mixture has been considered in a theoretical study. It is shown that the electrode set must be carefully subdivided along the channel, and that

  10. Preliminary design of the ITER AC/DC converters supplied by the Korean Domestic Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, J.S.; Choi, J.; Suh, J.H.; Liu, H.; Hwang, K.; Chung, I.; Lee, S.; Kang, J.; Park, H.; Jung, W.; Jo, S.; Gweon, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W.; Kim, J.B.; Han, S.H.; Hong, G.D.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, B.W.; Yeo, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly are devised to assure a strong and reliable ITER converter. ► Converters are designed to be installable in a compact space with three times higher power density than normal industrial installations. ► Heating of the building structure due to high magnetic field by converters are identified and certain solutions are addressed in the building design. ► A cooperative fast control scheme is adopted to compensate fast reactive power change of up to the level of 900 Mvar. -- Abstract: The preliminary design for ITER AC/DC converters under the responsibility of the Korean Domestic Agency is performed on the basis of the engineering experience of previous R and D for a full-scale 6-pulse CS (Central Solenoid) converter unit. This paper describes key features of the preliminary design for the respective sub-systems; integrated self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly for strong and reliable converters, optimised impedance of the converter transformer to limit short circuit current, coaxial-type AC bus bars to shield high magnetic field around wall penetrations, compact components to fit into given building space. The insulation and the minimisation of electrical loops of concrete rebar below the converter installations are essential to prevent floor heating. Required output voltage or current of converters is provided by a conventional controller. A master controller is designed to collect predicted reactive powers from each converter and deliver processed data to the reactive power compensation (RPC) system to improve the regulation speed of the RPC controller with fast feed-forward compensation under fast reactive power transients

  11. Preliminary design of the ITER AC/DC converters supplied by the Korean Domestic Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.S., E-mail: jsoh@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J.; Suh, J.H. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, H.; Hwang, K.; Chung, I.; Lee, S.; Kang, J.; Park, H.; Jung, W.; Jo, S.; Gweon, H.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W. [Dawonsys Corp., Siheung 429-450 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.B.; Han, S.H.; Hong, G.D.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, B.W.; Yeo, C.H. [Hyosung Corp., 450, Gongdeok-Dong, Seoul 121-720 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly are devised to assure a strong and reliable ITER converter. ► Converters are designed to be installable in a compact space with three times higher power density than normal industrial installations. ► Heating of the building structure due to high magnetic field by converters are identified and certain solutions are addressed in the building design. ► A cooperative fast control scheme is adopted to compensate fast reactive power change of up to the level of 900 Mvar. -- Abstract: The preliminary design for ITER AC/DC converters under the responsibility of the Korean Domestic Agency is performed on the basis of the engineering experience of previous R and D for a full-scale 6-pulse CS (Central Solenoid) converter unit. This paper describes key features of the preliminary design for the respective sub-systems; integrated self-supporting aluminium structure and symmetrical thyristor assembly for strong and reliable converters, optimised impedance of the converter transformer to limit short circuit current, coaxial-type AC bus bars to shield high magnetic field around wall penetrations, compact components to fit into given building space. The insulation and the minimisation of electrical loops of concrete rebar below the converter installations are essential to prevent floor heating. Required output voltage or current of converters is provided by a conventional controller. A master controller is designed to collect predicted reactive powers from each converter and deliver processed data to the reactive power compensation (RPC) system to improve the regulation speed of the RPC controller with fast feed-forward compensation under fast reactive power transients.

  12. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings collate lectures given at the twenty-eighth specialized course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Hotel du Parc, Baden, Switzerland from 7 - 14 May 2014, in collaboration with the Paul Scherrer Institute. Following introductory lectures on accelerators and the requirements on power converters, the course covered components and topologies of the different types of power converters needed for particle accelerators. Issues of design, control and exploitation in a sometimes-hostile environment were addressed. Site visits to ABB and PSI provided an insight into state-of-the-art power converter production and operation, while topical seminars completed the programme.

  13. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  14. Field Data Logger Prototype for Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Ghimire, Pramod; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2014-01-01

    and subsequent analysis of the data. This paper presents the development of a low cost prototype field data logger prototype using Raspberry PI and industrial sensors. The functionalities of the data logger prototype are described. An online rainflow count algorithm has been implemented as well.......Mission profile data is very important for the cost effective and reliable design of power converters. The converter design can be improved on the basis of actual field data. Actual mission profile data can be collected for the power converters using field data loggers over a long period of time...

  15. Synchronous Control of Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bose, Bimal K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is applied for control of modular multilevel converters consisting from three standard triphase inverter modules along with an 0.33 p.u. output transformer. The proposed method provides synchronisation of the voltage waveforms...... for each module and the composed voltage at the output of the converter. Multilevel output voltage of the converter has quarter-wave symmetry during the whole range including the zone of overmodulation. Both continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronous PWM, based on vector approach...

  16. Application of a synchronous generator with a boost converter in wind turbines: an experimental overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    An electrical structure of a variable-speed wind turbine based on an externally excited synchronous generator; a passive diode rectifier; and a boost converter is discussed in this study. The clear advantage of such a system is its lower-semi-conductor devices count. A brief theoretical explanation...... of such a system is included. A boost converter normally utilies an inductor (energy storage) to boost the voltage level from its input to a higher output value. This study analyses the possibility of using the generator inductance as a boost inductor. It is discussed and verified in the study that for the given...... switching frequency of the boost converter (fs=1= kHz), the generator sub-transient inductance (not the synchronous inductance) appears as an equivalent inductance seen by the boost converter. The parasitic capacitors present in the generator terminals are often neglected from design issues. It is presented...

  17. Investigations of DC power supplies with optoelectronic transducers and RF energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, B.; Gozdur, R.; Bernacki, L.; Lakomski, M.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Distribution Cabinets (FDC) monitoring systems are increasingly popular. However it is difficult to realize such system in passive FDC, due to lack of source of power supply. In this paper investigation of four different DC power supplies with optoelectronic transducers is described. Two converters: photovoltaic power converter and PIN photodiode can convert the light transmitted through the optical fiber to electric energy. Solar cell and antenna RF-PCB are also tested. Results presented in this paper clearly demonstrate that it is possible to build monitoring system in passive FDC. During the tests maximum obtained output power was 11 mW. However all converters provided enough power to excite 32-bit microcontroller with ARM-cores and digital thermometer.

  18. Modeling, Analysis and Control of Different DC-DC Converter Topologies for Photo Voltaic Emulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tauquir Iqbal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling, analysis and control of different DC-DC converter topologies to emulate the photovoltaic (PV system. A PV emulator is basically a DC-DC converter having same electrical characteristics that of solar PV panel.  The emulator helps to achieve real characteristics of PV system in a better way in an environment where using actual PV systems can produce inconsistent results due to variation in weather conditions. The paper describes different types of DC-DC converters like buck, Resonant and Quasi Resonant Converter. The complete system is modelled in MATLAB® Simulink SimPowerSystem software package. The Simulation results obtained from the MATLAB® Simulink SimPowerSystem software package for different topologies under steady and dynamic conditions are analyzed and presented. An evaluation table is also presented at the end of the paper, presenting the effectiveness of each topology.

  19. Two Level Versus Matrix Converters Performance in Wind Energy Conversion Systems Employing DFIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gongati Pandu Ranga; Kumar, M. Vijaya

    2017-10-01

    Wind power capacity has received enormous growth during past decades. With substantial development of wind power, it is expected to provide a fifth of world's electricity by the end of 2030. In wind energy conversion system, the power electronic converters play an important role. This paper presents the two level and matrix converters performance in wind energy conversion system employing Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The DFIG is a wound rotor induction generator. Because of the advantages of the DFIG over other generators it is being used for most of the wind applications. This paper also discusses control of converters using the space vector pulse width modulation technique. The MATLAB/SIMULINK ® software is used to study the performance of the converters.

  20. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  1. Power Control at Grid Connected Converters and Analytical Solution of Steady States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valouch, Viktor; Škramlík, Jiří; Muller, Z.; Švec, J.; Tlustý, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, September (2015), s. 1-12 ISSN 1024-123X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : power control * converter * grid Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.644, year: 2015 http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/601916.pdf

  2. High Voltage Gain Dual Active Bridge Converter with an Extended Operation Range for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tomas Manez, Kevin; Yudi, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Developing bidirectional dc-dc converters has become a critical research topic and gains more and more attention in recent years due to the extensive applications of smart grids with energy storages, hybrid and electrical vehicles and dc microgrids. In this paper, a Partial Parallel Dual Active...

  3. Reliability study of high gain DC-DC converters based on RRPP I-IIA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J DIVYA NAVAMANI

    2018-05-10

    May 10, 2018 ... Energy Storage Modules (ESM), Propulsion Motor Mod- ules (PMM) and ... All Electric Ship (AES) is the best way to power all the loads in the ship ... also used to derive quadratic step down DC-DC converters. [6]. The attractive ...... Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies,. TamilNadu ...

  4. A Three-Phase Boost DC-AC Converter | Odeh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sliding mode controllers are designed to perform a robust control for the three boost dc-dc converters. Computer simulations and spectral analysis demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed three-phase inverter. The inverter is intended to be used in three-phase electric drives and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) ...

  5. Control and modulation for loss minimization for dc/dc converters in wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincan, Catalin Gabriel; Kjær, Philip Carne

    2016-01-01

    For a DC wind turbine, a single phase series-resonant converter for unidirectional power is studied. This paper aims to identify and compare impact on electrical losses and component ratings from the choice of three candidate control strategies. The evaluation is purely based on circuit simulatio...

  6. Topology-optimized mode converter in a silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Louise Floor; Ding, Yunhong; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    A 1.4 μm × 3.4 μm fundamental to first order mode converter for the transverse electric polarization was designed using topology optimization. Insertion loss <2 dB (100 nm bandwidth) and extinction ratio >9.5 dB....

  7. Series Resonant Power Converter for Contactless Energy Transfer with Improved Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtchev, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    The development of more efficient power converters is the most important and challenging task for Power Electronics specialists. In the same time, many currently existing or yet to appear future applications require full mechanical independence between the transmitter and receiver of the electrical

  8. Dual-band and high-efficiency polarization converter based on metasurfaces at microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajun; Xia, Song; Shi, Hongyu; Zhang, Anxue; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-06-01

    We present a dual-band and high-efficiency polarization converter in microwave regime. The proposed converter can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized wave for two distinct bands: Ku (11.5-20.0 GHz) and Ka (28.8-34.0 GHz). It can also convert the linearly polarized wave to a circularly polarized wave at four other frequencies. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulation results for both frequency bands. The polarization conversion ratio is above 0.94 for the Ku-band and 0.90 for the Ka-band. Furthermore, the converter can achieve dual-band and high-efficiency polarization conversion over angles of incidence up to 45°. The converter is also polarization-selective in that only the x- and y-polarized waves can be converted. The physical mechanism of the dual-band polarization conversion effect is interpreted via decomposed electric field components that couple with different plasmon resonance modes of the structure.

  9. HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Puschmann; Axel Kiffe; Thomas Schulte

    2012-01-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is today a standard method for testing electronic equipment in the automotive industry. Since electric drives and power electronic devices are more and more important in automotive applications, these kinds of systems have to be integrated into the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Power converters and electric drives are used in many different applications in vehicles today (hybrid electric or electric powertrain, electric steering systems, DC-DC converters, et...

  10. A three-port direct current converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    circuit comprises a connection between the at least one input direct current source and the at least one storage battery, the primary side circuit configured for operating as a buck converter; a second magnetic component serially coupled to the first single magnetic component, wherein the first and second...... magnetic components are configured to perform a voltage step-up, wherein the secondary side circuit comprises a connection between the at least one storage battery and at least one load, the secondary side configured for operating as a tapped boost converter; wherein the three-port direct current converter......The three-port direct current converter comprising: at least one input direct current source; at least one storage battery; a primary side circuit; a secondary side circuit; a first single magnetic component shared by the primary side circuit and the secondary side circuit, wherein the primary side...

  11. State estimation for wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelli, Giorgio; Coe, Ryan Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    This report gives a brief discussion and examples on the topic of state estimation for wave energy converters (WECs). These methods are intended for use to enable real-time closed loop control of WECs.

  12. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  13. Test and Analysis of Metallurgical Converter Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen top-blow converter is the main equipment in steel making, and its work reliability decides the security and economy of steel production. Therefore, how to design and test analysis of convertor has been an important subject of industry research. Geometric modelling and structure analysis of converter tilting device by using Pro/E program .The design Principle, basic design structure were analyzed in detail. The computer simulation software of metallurgical converter equipment and how to use it were introduced .It developed by VC++ software. The position of barycentre and moment curve in No.3 and No.4 are calculated. The converter acceleration down dip can be resolved by comparing the moment curve and center curve.

  14. Reliability of power electronic converter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Henry Shu-hung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) at different levels of complexity.

  15. AC – AC Converters for UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusalin Lucian R. Păun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a new control technique forsingle – phase AC – AC converters used for a on-line UPSwith a good dynamic response, a reduced-partscomponents, a good output characteristic, a good powerfactorcorrection(PFC. This converter no needs anisolation transformer. A power factor correction rectifierand an inverter with the proposed control scheme has beendesigned and simulated using Caspoc2007, validating theconcept.

  16. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  17. The rotating converter GKN II starts operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jergas, E.

    1989-01-01

    At the beginning of 1989 the energy supply and consumption of the 110-kV-railway mains has changed considerably with starting the rotating converter of the German Federal Railways (DB) in the joint nuclear power station Neckar GmbH (GKN) block II. A description is given of the planned utilization of the rotating converters at baseload operation and possibilities for optimal energy use are shown. (orig.) [de

  18. Fast simulation techniques for switching converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger J.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for simulating a switching converter are examined. The state equations for the equivalent circuits, which represent the switching converter, are presented and explained. The uses of the Newton-Raphson iteration, low ripple approximation, half-cycle symmetry, and discrete time equations to compute the interval durations are described. An example is presented in which these methods are illustrated by applying them to a parallel-loaded resonant inverter with three equivalent circuits for its continuous mode of operation.

  19. Resonance gamma-transducer with thin converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzababaev, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A resonance detector with stainless steel foil (∼3000 A) is more efficient than conventional detectors as regards the recording Rayleigh scattering of Moessbauer effect. If the scatterer contains resonance nuclei (iron), the detector simultaneously records in the same spectrum both Zeeman lines and the line resulted to Rayleigh quanta scattering on electrons. Zeeman lines are formed due to photoabsorption in the converter. The central line is associated with resonance absorption in the converter

  20. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; De Luca, Sergio; Todd, Billy

    2013-01-01

    exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum...

  1. LHC Power Converters: A Precision Game

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The LHC test-bed, String 2, is close to commissioning and one important element to get a first chance to prove what it can do is the power converter system. In String 2 there are 16 converters, in the full LHC there will be almost 1800. This article takes a look at what is so special about the power converters for the LHC. The 13 000 Amps power converters with the watercooled cables going to the String 2 feedboxes. The LHC's superconducting magnets will be the pinnacle of high technology. But to work, they'll need the help of high-precision power converters to supply them with extremely stable DC current. Perfection will be the name of the game, with an accuracy of just 1-2 parts per million (ppm) required. LEP, for the sake of comparison, could live with 10-20 ppm. The LHC's power converters will be very different from those of LEP or the SPS since the new accelerator's magnets are mostly superconducting. That means that they require much higher currents at a lower voltage since superconductors have no re...

  2. A High-Frequency Isolation (HFI Charging DC Port Combining a Front-End Three-Level Converter with a Back-End LLC Resonant Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Cai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-frequency isolation (HFI charging DC port can serve as the interface between unipolar/bipolar DC buses and electric vehicles (EVs through the two-power-stage system structure that combines the front-end three-level converter with the back-end logical link control (LLC resonant converter. The DC output voltage can be maintained within the desired voltage range by the front-end converter. The electrical isolation can be realized by the back-end LLC converter, which has the bus converter function. According to the three-level topology, the low-voltage rating power devices can be adapted for half-voltage stress of the total DC grid, and the PWM phase-shift control can double the equivalent switching frequency to greatly reduce the filter volume. LLC resonant converters have advance characteristics of inverter-side zero-voltage-switching (ZVS and rectifier-side zero-current switching (ZCS. In particular, it can achieve better performance under quasi-resonant frequency mode. Additionally, the magnetizing current can be modified following different DC output voltages, which have the self-adaptation ZVS condition for decreasing the circulating current. Here, the principles of the proposed topology are analyzed in detail, and the design conditions of the three-level output filter and high-frequency isolation transformer are explored. Finally, a 20 kW prototype with the 760 V input and 200–500 V output are designed and tested. The experimental results are demonstrated to verify the validity and performance of this charging DC port system structure.

  3. Embedded system based on PWM control of hydrogen generator with SEPIC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Cheikh; Setiawan, Eko; Habibi, Muhammad Afnan; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to design and to produce a micro electrical plant system based on fuel cell for teaching material-embedded systems in technical vocational training center. Based on this, the student can experience generating hydrogen by fuel cells, controlling the rate of hydrogen generation by the duty ration of single-ended primary-inductor converter(SEPIC), drawing the curve rate of hydrogen to duty ratio, generating electrical power by using hydrogen, and calculating the fuel cell efficiency when it is used as electrical energy generator. This project is of great importance insofar as students will need to acquire several skills to be able to realize it such as continuous DC DC conversion and the scientific concept behind the converter, the regulation of systems with integral proportional controllers, the installation of photovoltaic cells, the use of high-tech sensors, microcontroller programming, object-oriented programming, mastery of the fuel cell syste

  4. Energy-efficient three-phase bidirectional converter for grid-connected storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Linares-Mena, Ana-Rosa; Velázquez, Jesús Fernández; Borge-Diez, David

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Storage control system developed based on AC DC three phase bidirectional converter. • Bidirectional AC DC converter for storage integration into distribution grids. • Efficiencies over 98% for values over 30% of the bidirectional converter rated power. • Sensitivity analysis of the parameters set by the transmission system operator. • Low-cost option for control and integration of new grid-connected storage systems. - Abstract: Grid connected energy storage systems are expected to play an essential role in the development of Smart Grids, providing, among other benefits, ancillary services to power grids. It is therefore crucial to design and develop control and conversion systems that represent the key instrument where intelligence for decision-making is applied, in order to validate and ensure its optimal operation as part and parcel of the electrical system. The present research describes the design and development of a battery energy storage system based on an AC-DC three-phase bidirectional converter capable of operating either in charge mode to store electrical energy, or in discharge mode to supply load demands. The design is modelled with MATLAB® Simulink® environment in order to evaluate the performance during load variations. Moreover, the assessment is complemented by a global sensitivity analysis for variations in the operating parameters set by the transmission system operator. The effectiveness of the simulation is confirmed by implementing the system and carrying out grid connection tests, obtaining efficiencies over 98% for values over the 30% of the bidirectional converter rated power.

  5. Convertible shielding to ceramic breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Togami, Ikuhide; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1995-05-01

    Four concepts have been studied for the ITER convertible blanket: 1)Layered concept 2)BIT(Breeder-Inside-Tube)concept 3)BOT(Breeder-Out of-Tube)concept 4)BOT/mixed concept. All concepts use ceramic breeder and beryllium neutron multiplier, both in the shape of small spherical pebbles, 316SS structure, and H 2 O coolant (inlet/outlet temperatures : 100/150degC, pressure : 2 MPa). During the BPP, only beryllium pebbles (the primary pebble in case of BOT/mixed concept) are filled in the blanket for shielding purpose. Then, before the EPP operation, breeder pebbles will be additionally inserted into the blanket. Among possible conversion methods, wet method by liquid flow seems expecting for high and homogeneous pebble packing. Preliminary 1-D neutronics calculation shows that the BOT/mixed concept has the highest breeding and shielding performance. However, final selection should be done by R and D's and more detail investigation on blanket characteristics and fabricability. Required R and D's are also listed. With these efforts, the convertible blanket can be developed. However, the following should be noted. Though many of above R and D's are also necessary even for non-convertible blanket, R and D's on convertibility will be one of the most difficult parts and need significant efforts. Besides the installation of convertible blanket with required structures and lines for conversion will make the ITER basic machine more complicated. (author)

  6. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-01-01

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal

  7. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  8. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Converters for Battery Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasir Ayob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two wave energy concepts for small-scale electricity generation. In the presented case, these concepts are installed on the buoy of a heaving, point-absorbing wave energy converter (WEC for large scale electricity production. In the studied WEC, developed by Uppsala University, small-scale electricity generation in the buoy is needed to power a tidal compensating system designed to increase the performance of the WEC in areas with high tides. The two considered and modeled concepts are an oscillating water column (OWC and a heaving point absorber. The results indicate that the OWC is too small for the task and does not produce enough energy. On the other hand, the results show that a hybrid system composed of a small heaving point absorber combined with a solar energy system would be able to provide a requested minimum power of around 37.7 W on average year around. The WEC and solar panel complement each other, as the WEC produces enough energy by itself during wintertime (but not in the summer, while the solar panel produces enough energy in the summer (but not in the winter.

  9. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied.

  10. Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.

  11. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  12. SIG Galileo final converter technical summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderman, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The report is primarily concerned with the work performed for DOE on converter development and fabrication for the NASA Galileo Jupiter mission as a DOE prime contractor with interface primarily with Teledyne Energy Systems. The activities reported on were directed toward design, analysis and testing of modules and converters SN-1 thru SN-7 and attendant Quality Control and Reliability effort. Although assembly and testing of SN-1 was not accomplished due to the stop work order, the design was virtually completed and a significant amount of subcontracting and manufacturing of both module and converter components was underway. These subcontracting and manufacturing activities were selectively closed down depending upon degree of completion and material or hardware potential usage in the Technology Program

  13. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...... for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power...... electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC...

  14. Data Converter for Multistandard Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yurttas, Aziz; Bruun, Erik; Jensen, Rasmus Glarborg

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an analog to digital converter (ADC) for mobile communication systems using a direct down conversion architecture. The ADC can be programmed to meet the requirements of different communication standards, including GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) and WCDMA (Wideband...... Code Division Multiple Access). The ADC is realized with a pipeline ADC architecture for WCDMA and a Sigma-Delta architecture for GSM. In order to have an optimized area and power consumption, the basic building blocks (opamps) of the converters are shared between the two converter architectures....... The entire ADC consumes about 5.5 mW and occupies an active area of about 0.36 mm(2). A test circuit has been developed and fabricated and measurements show that both the required programmability and the required performance can be obtained using the proposed configurations....

  15. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  16. Measurements of neutron spectrum from uranium converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Sotic, O.; Marinkovic, S.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure for determination of energetic distribution of neutrons by the multisphere technique is given. The theoretical basis and features of the method are explained. The spectral distribution of neutrons emerging from the neutron converter constructed at the bare reactor assembly RB, has been determined applying the existing computer programme and literature data for the energetic dependence functions of spheres of various diameters. The obtained spectral distribution has a specific maximum in the domain of fast neutrons, justifying thus the reacton for the construction of the converter. The neutron spectrum data obtained and given in this report are very important for the use of the converter in neutron dosimetry and radiation protection, as well as in the radiobiology, shielding, reactor physics etc. (author)

  17. Lithium converter of reactor neutrinos in antineutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashuk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The questions of developing lithium converter of the reactor neutrons in antineutrino operating at dynamic regime in the scheme with the cycle circulation of the high-purified lithium (by 7 Li isotope) through the converter are considered. The scheme allows to localize the 8 Li β-decay (T 1/2 =0.84 s) in the reservoir near the detector and so to design the hard-spectrum lithium ν-tilde e -source (E max ≅13 MeV) at the distance from the active zone being the soft-spectrum ν-tilde e -source. The expressions for the lithium ν-tilde e flux from the converter, reservoir and conveyance channel are obtained. 9 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Metamaterial polarization converter analysis: limits of performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitry L.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    and a single layer with a ground plane can have 100 % polarization conversion efficiency. We tested our conclusions numerically reaching the designated limits of efficiency using a simple metamaterial design. Our general analysis provides useful guidelines for the metamaterial polarization converter design......In this paper, we analyze the theoretical limits of a metamaterial-based converter with orthogonal linear eigenpolarizations that allow linear-to-elliptical polarization transformation with any desired ellipticity and ellipse orientation. We employ the transmission line approach providing a needed...... level of the design generalization. Our analysis reveals that the maximal conversion efficiency for transmission through a single metamaterial layer is 50 %, while the realistic reflection configuration can give the conversion efficiency up to 90 %. We show that a double layer transmission converter...

  19. Self-oscillating resonant power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to resonant power converters and inverters comprising a self-oscillating feedback loop coupled from a switch output to a control input of a switching network comprising one or more semiconductor switches. The self-oscillating feedback loop sets a switching frequency...... of the power converter and comprises a first intrinsic switch capacitance coupled between a switch output and a control input of the switching network and a first inductor. The first inductor is coupled in-between a first bias voltage source and the control input of the switching network and has...... a substantially fixed inductance. The first bias voltage source is configured to generate an adjustable bias voltage applied to the first inductor. The output voltage of the power converter is controlled in a flexible and rapid manner by controlling the adjustable bias voltage....

  20. Power converter for raindrop energy harvesting application: Half-wave rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrin, Izhab Muhammad; Dahari, Zuraini

    2017-10-01

    Harvesting raindrop energy by capturing vibration from impact of raindrop have been explored extensively. Basically, raindrop energy is generated by converting the kinetic energy of raindrop into electrical energy by using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric. In this paper, a power converter using half-wave rectifier for raindrop harvesting energy application is designed and proposed to convert damping alternating current (AC) generated by PVDF into direct current (DC). This research presents parameter analysis of raindrop simulation used in the experiment and resistive load effect on half-wave rectifier converter. The experiment is conducted by using artificial raindrop from the height of 1.3 m to simulate the effect of different resistive load on the output of half-wave rectifier converter. The results of the 0.68 MΩ resistive load showed the best performance of the half-wave rectifier converter used in raindrop harvesting energy system, which generated 3.18 Vaverage. The peak instantaneous output generated from this experiment is 15.36 µW.

  1. Modelling and simulation of current fed dc to dc converter for PHEV applications using renewable source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milind Metha, Manish; Tutki, Sanjay; Rajan, Aju; Elangovan, D.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    With the current rate of depletion of the fossil fuel the need to switch on to the renewable energy sources is the need of the hour. Thus the need for new and efficient converters arises so as to replace the existing less efficient diesel and petroleum IC engines with renewable energy sources. The PHEVs, which have been launched in the market, and Upcoming PHEVs have converters around 380V to 400V generated with a power range between 2KW to 2.8KW. The fundamental target of this paper is to plan a productive converter keeping in mind cost and size restriction. In this paper, a two-stage dc-dc converter is proposed. The proposed converter is utilized to venture up a voltage from 24V (photovoltaic source) to a yield voltage of 400V to take care of a power demand of 2.4kW for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application considering the real time scenario of PHEV. This paper talks about in detail why the current fed converter is utilized alongside a voltage doubler thus minimizing the transformer turns thereby reducing the overall size of the final product. Simulation results along with calculation for the duty cycle of the firing sequence for different value of transformer turns are presented for a prototype unit.

  2. A New Sliding Mode Controller for DC/DC Converters in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DC/DC converters are widely used in many industrial and electrical systems. As DC/DC converters are nonlinear and time-variant systems, the application of linear control techniques for the control of these converters is not suitable. In this paper, a new sliding mode controller is proposed as the indirect control method and compared to a simple direct control method in order to control a buck converter in photovoltaic applications. The solar arrays are dependent power sources with nonlinear voltage-current characteristics under different environmental conditions (insolation and temperature. From this point of view, the DC/DC converter is particularly suitable for the application of the sliding mode control in photovoltaic application, because of its controllable states. Simulations are performed in Matlab/Simulink software. The simulation results are presented for a step change in reference voltage and input voltage as well as step load variations. The simulations results of proposed method are compared with the conventional PID controller. The results show the good performance of the proposed sliding mode controller. The proposed method can be used for the other DC/DC converter.

  3. Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model.

  4. Direct switching control of DC-DC power electronic converters using hybrid system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Lin, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wang, C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology

    2010-07-01

    A direct switching control (DSC) scheme for power electronics converters was described. The system was designed for use in both traditional and renewable energy applications as well as in electric drive vehicles. The proposed control scheme was based on a detailed hybrid system converter model that used model predictive control (MPC), piecewise affine (PWA) approximations and constrained optimal control methods. A DC-DC converter was modelled as a hybrid machine. Switching among different modes of the DC-DC converter were modelled as discrete events controlled by the hybrid controller. The modelling scheme was applied to a Buck converter. The DSC was used to control the switch of the power converter based on a hybrid machine model. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to regulate output voltage and inductor currents. The method also provides fast transient responses and effectively regulates both currents and voltage. The controller can be used to provide immediate responses to dynamic disturbances and output voltage fluctuations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  5. A Novel Application of Zero-Current-Switching Quasiresonant Buck Converter for Battery Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Kuang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop a novel application of a resonant switch converter for battery chargers. A zero-current-switching (ZCS converter with a quasiresonant converter (QRC was used as the main structure. The proposed ZCS dc–dc battery charger has a straightforward structure, low cost, easy control, and high efficiency. The operating principles and design procedure of the proposed charger are thoroughly analyzed. The optimal values of the resonant components are computed by applying the characteristic curve and electric functions derived from the circuit configuration. Experiments were conducted using lead-acid batteries. The optimal parameters of the resonance components were determined using the load characteristic curve diagrams. These values enable the battery charger to turn on and off at zero current, resulting in a reduction of switching losses. The results of the experiments show that when compared with the traditional pulse-width-modulation (PWM converter for a battery charger, the buck converter with a zero- current-switching quasiresonant converter can lower the temperature of the activepower switch.

  6. Broadband reflective multi-polarization converter based on single-layer double-L-shaped metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chenyang; Yang, Yang; He, Xiaoxiang; Zheng, Jingming; Zhou, Chun

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a broadband reflective multi-polarization converter based on single-layer double-L-shaped metasurface is proposed. The proposed metasurface can effectively convert linear-polarized (TE/TM) incident wave into the reflected wave with three different polarizations within the frequency bands of 5.5-22.75 GHz. Based on the electric and magnetic resonant features of the double-L-shaped structure, the proposed metasurface can convert linearly polarized waves into cross-polarized waves at three resonant frequency bands. Furthermore, the incident linearly polarized waves can be effectively converted into left/right handed circular-polarized (LHCP and RHCP) waves at other four non-resonance frequency bands. Thus, the proposed metasurface can be regarded as a seven-band multi-polarization converter. The prototype of the proposed polarization converter is analyzed and measured. Both simulated and measured results show the 3-dB axis ratio bandwidth of circular polarization bands and the high polarization conversion efficiency of cross-polarization bands when the incident wave changes from 0° to 30° at both TE and TM modes.

  7. Chemical reactor for converting a first material into a second material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2012-10-16

    A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.

  8. Model based feasibility study on bidirectional check valves in wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    Discrete fluid power force systems have been proposed as the primary stage for Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) when converting ocean waves into electricity, this to improve the overall efficiency of wave energy devices. This paper presents a model based feasibility study of using bidirectional check....../Off and bidirectional check valves. Based on the analysis it is found that the energy production may be slightly improved by using bidirectional check valves as compared to on/off valves, due to a decrease in switching losses. Furthermore a reduction in high flow peaks are realised. The downside being increased...

  9. High-voltage boost quasi-Z-source isolated DC/DC converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    converter uses less switches, a smaller common duty cycle and less turns for the transformer when compared with existing topologies. Its size and weight are therefore smaller, whereas its efficiency is higher. It is therefore well-suited for applications, where a wide range of voltage gain is required like...... renewable energy systems, DC power supplies found in telecom, aerospace and electric vehicles. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed converter, a 400 V, 500 W prototype has been implemented in the laboratory. Efficiency of the prototype measured is found to vary from 89.0 to 97.4% when its input...

  10. Model based design of efficient power take-off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Take-Off (PTO) is the core of a Wave Energy Converter (WECs), being the technology converting wave induced oscillations from mechanical energy to electricity. The induced oscillations are characterized by being slow with varying frequency and amplitude. Resultantly, fluid power is often...... an essential part of the PTO, being the only technology having the required force densities. The focus of this paper is to show the achievable efficiency of a PTO system based on a conventional hydro-static transmission topology. The design is performed using a model based approach. Generic component models...

  11. Pelamis wave energy converter. Verification of full-scale control using a 7th scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is a new concept for converting wave energy for several applications including generation of electric power. The machine is flexibly moored and swings to meet the water waves head-on. The system is semi-submerged and consists of cylindrical sections linked by hinges. The mechanical operation is described in outline. A one-seventh scale model was built and tested and the outcome was sufficiently successful to warrant the building of a full-scale prototype. In addition, a one-twentieth scale model was built and has contributed much to the research programme. The work is supported financially by the DTI.

  12. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching...... numerical simulation software's (Matlab/PLECS) developments. Further, the results confirm the good agreement to the developed theoretical background. Proposed converter suits the need of low-voltage/high-current applications such as ac tractions and `More-Electric Aircraft' propulsion systems....

  13. Analysis and control of a hybrid vehicle powered by free-piston energy converter

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Jörgen

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of hybrid powertrains has made it possible to utilise unconventional engines as primary power units in vehicles. The free-piston energy converter (FPEC) is such an engine. It is a combination of a free-piston combustion engine and a linear electrical machine. The main features of this configuration are high efficiency and a rapid transient response. In this thesis the free-piston energy converter as part of a hybrid powertrain is studied. One issue of the FPEC is the generati...

  14. Application of Electric Double Layer Capacitor for Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 弘一; 岸, 純男; 仲森, 昌也; 荒賀, 浩一

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for efficient work of electrical energy, using DC-DC converter as insulate between battery and Electrical Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC). In case of constant-current charge to the EDLC, the efficiency of the electric power is higher, compared to the constant-voltage charge.

  15. Successfully converting mine maps to CAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, M.D. (Image Conversion Services, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Procedures followed by computer service bureaus to convert paper drawing to digital files that can be used by CAD systems are described. The conversion involves laser scanning of original drawings to produce an 'inactive image' (a form suitable for many drawings that do not need to be changed). Using optical character recognition software the image is then vectorized or converted from raster format to geometric elements usable in a CAD system. The vectorized image can then be cleaned up corrected and changed at the CAD workstation. 4 figs.

  16. IGBT Based DC/DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akherraz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an in-depth analytical and experimental investigation of an indirect DC-DC converter. The DC-AC conversion is a full bridge based on IGBT power modules, and the AC-DC conversion is done via a high  frequency AC link and a first diode bridge. The AC link, which consists of snubbing capacitors and a variable air-gap transformer, is analytically designed to fulfill Zero Voltage commutation requirement. The proposed converter is simulated using PSPICE and a prototype is designed built and tested in the laboratory. PSPICE simulation and experimental results are presented and compared.

  17. SlaVaComp Fonts Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Skilevic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fonts converter that was developed as a part of the Freiburg project on historical corpus linguistics. The tool named SlaVaComp-Konvertierer converts Church Slavonic texts digitized with non-Unicode fonts into the Unicode format without any loss of information contained in the original file and without damage to the original formatting. It is suitable for the conversion of all idiosyncratic fonts—not only Church Slavonic—and therefore can be used not only in Palaeoslavistic, but also in all historical and philological studies.

  18. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers...

  19. Converting ODM Metadata to FHIR Questionnaire Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doods, Justin; Neuhaus, Philipp; Dugas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Interoperability between systems and data sharing between domains is becoming more and more important. The portal medical-data-models.org offers more than 5.300 UMLS annotated forms in CDISC ODM format in order to support interoperability, but several additional export formats are available. CDISC's ODM and HL7's framework FHIR Questionnaire resource were analyzed, a mapping between elements created and a converter implemented. The developed converter was integrated into the portal with FHIR Questionnaire XML or JSON download options. New FHIR applications can now use this large library of forms.

  20. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  1. A linear temperature-to-frequency converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif

    1965-01-01

    , and that the maximum value of the temperature-frequency coefficient beta in this point is-1/3 alpha, where a is the temperature coefficient of the thermistor at the corresponding temperature. Curves showing the range in which the converter is expected to be linear to within plusmn0.1 degC are given. A laboratory......-built converter having beta = 1.0% degC-1 at 25degC is found to be linear to within plusmn0. 1 degC from 10 to 40degC....

  2. Hydroelectromechanical modelling of a piezoelectric wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the hydroelectromechanical-coupled dynamics of a piezoelectric wave energy converter. The converter is made of a flexible bimorph plate, clamped at its ends and forced to motion by incident ocean surface waves. The piezoceramic layers are connected in series and transform the elastic motion of the plate into useful electricity by means of the piezoelectric effect. By using a distributed-parameter analytical approach, we couple the linear piezoelectric constitutive equations for the plate with the potential-flow equations for the surface water waves. The resulting system of governing partial differential equations yields a new hydroelectromechanical dispersion relation, whose complex roots are determined with a numerical approach. The effect of the piezoelectric coupling in the hydroelastic domain generates a system of short- and long-crested weakly damped progressive waves travelling along the plate. We show that the short-crested flexural wave component gives a dominant contribution to the generated power. We determine the hydroelectromechanical resonant periods of the device, at which the power output is significant.

  3. The SSG Wave Energy Converter: Performance, Status and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Buccino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator (SSG is a Wave Energy Converter based on the wave overtopping principle; it employs several reservoirs placed on top of each other, in which the energy of incoming waves is stored as potential energy. Then, the captured water runs through turbines for electricity production. The system works under a wide spectrum of different wave conditions, giving a high overall efficiency. It can be suitable for shoreline and breakwater applications and presents particular advantages, such as sharing structure costs, availability of grid connection and recirculation of water inside the harbor, as the outlet of the turbines is on the rear part of the system. Recently, plans for the SSG pilot installations are in progress at the Svaaheia site (Norway, the port of Hanstholm (Denmark and the port of Garibaldi (Oregon, USA. In the last-mentioned two projects, the Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator technology is integrated into the outer harbor breakwater and jetty reconstruction projects. In the last years extensive studies have been performed on the hydraulic and the structural response of this converter, with the aim of optimizing the design process. The investigations have been conducted by physical model tests and numerical simulations and many results have been published on both conference proceedings and journals. The main scope of this paper is reviewing the most significant findings, to provide the reader with an organic overview on the present status of knowledge.

  4. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    . For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  5. Fractional-order control and simulation of wind energy systems with PMSG/full-power converter topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicio, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new integrated model for the simulation of wind energy systems. The proposed model is more realistic and accurate, considering a variable-speed wind turbine, two-mass rotor, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), different power converter topologies, and filters. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with PMSG/full-power converter topology, based on fractional-order controllers. Comprehensive simulation studies are carried out with matrix and multilevel power converter topologies, in order to adequately assert the system performance in what regards the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn.

  6. Fractional-order control and simulation of wind energy systems with PMSG/full-power converter topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melicio, R.; Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a new integrated model for the simulation of wind energy systems. The proposed model is more realistic and accurate, considering a variable-speed wind turbine, two-mass rotor, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), different power converter topologies, and filters. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with PMSG/full-power converter topology, based on fractional-order controllers. Comprehensive simulation studies are carried out with matrix and multilevel power converter topologies, in order to adequately assert the system performance in what regards the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  7. Half bridge resonant converter for ignition of thermal plasmas; Convertidor resonante de medio puente para la ignicion de plasmas termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena E, L

    1998-12-31

    In this work the background, design, implementation and performance of a half bridge resonant converter (HBRC) used as an electronic ignition system for arc plasma torch generation is presented. The significance of the design lies in its simplicity, versatility and low cost. The system operates like a high voltage supply attached to electrodes before gaseous breakdown and like open circuit when electric arc is established. Resonant converter is implemented with a high voltage and high speed power driver intended for control the power MOSFET transistors connected in half bridge topology with L C load. The HBRC operates besides interference into domestic electric supply line (120 V, 60 Hz) as well electric measurement devices. Advantages and limitations of the converter are reviewed. Experimental impedance variation in the medium as a function of frequency operation and some experiences in striking arcs are also presented. (Author).

  8. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  9. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  10. Direct AC–AC grid interface converter for ocean wave energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel power grid interface converter for ocean wave energy system. • Unlike conventional approach, generator output is directly converted into fixed frequency AC for synchronous connection. • High conversion efficient and power quality could be achieved. - Abstract: Ocean wave energy is very promising. However, existing systems are using rectifying circuits to convert variable voltage and variable frequency output of electric generator into DC voltage and then use grid-tied inverter to connect to the power grid. Such arrangement will not only reduce the overall efficient but also increase the cost of the system. A direct AC–AC converter is a desirable solution. In this paper, a six-switch AC–AC converter has been proposed as a single phase grid-connected interface. New switching scheme has been derived for the converter such that the virtual input AC–DC conversion and the output DC–AC conversion can be decoupled. State-space averaging model and pulse width modulation scheme have been derived for the converter. As the input and the output operations can be decoupled, two independent controllers have been designed to handle the input AC–DC regulation and the output DC–AC regulation. The proposed scheme demands for two separate duty ratios and novel switching scheme has been derived to realize the combined duty ratios in one switching cycle. Power regulation, harmonics elimination and power factor correction control algorithms have also been derived for the converter when it is connected to the supply grid. Experimental results of a small scale model are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed switching and control schemes

  11. Electricity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Soung

    2006-12-01

    The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.

  12. Online Scheduling in Distributed Message Converter Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risse, Thomas; Wombacher, Andreas; Surridge, Mike; Taylor, Steve; Aberer, Karl

    The optimal distribution of jobs among hosts in distributed environments is an important factor to achieve high performance. The optimal strategy depends on the application. In this paper we present a new online scheduling strategy for distributed EDI converter system. The strategy is based on the

  13. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  14. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H.Y.; Perez-Tello, M.; Riihilahti, K.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  15. Convertible security design and contract innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, C.M.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies convertible security design for a sample of 814 issuers over the years 2000 through 2007. Using a nested logit model, we examine how firms choose fixed income claims and the method of payment. We find that fixed income claims are chosen to reduce corporate income taxes, minimize

  16. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism: An Observational Study among Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects in Malaysia. ... Methods: The pharmacological effect of ACE inhibition on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were observed among a total of 62 subjects for ...

  17. Development of the Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    The development of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD) is presented. The WD is based on the overtopping principle. Initially a description of the WD is given. Then the development over time in terms of the various research and development projects working with the concept is described. Thi...

  18. Lathe converted for grinding aspheric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmer, J. W.; Levinsohn, M.; Mc Craw, D.; Pessagno, E. H.; Taub, F. J.

    1964-01-01

    A standard overarm tracing lathe converted by the addition of an independently driven diamond grinding wheel is used for grinding aspheric surfaces. The motion of the wheel is controlled by the lathe air tracer following the template which produces the desired aspheric profile.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H Y; Perez-Tello, M; Riihilahti, K M [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  20. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  1. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  2. National Ignition Facility frequency converter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, C.E.; Auerbach, J.M.; Adams, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary error budget for the third harmonic converter for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser driver has been developed using a root-sum-square-accumulation of error sources. Such a budget sets an upper bound on the allowable magnitude of the various effects that reduce conversion efficiency. Development efforts on crystal mounting technology and crystal quality studies are discussed

  3. Oxygen activity measurements in simulated converter matte

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshilombo, KG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available to the composition of the gas atmosphere over the melt. The measured oxygen activity was generally close to that predicted by FactSage calculations. This indicates that such oxygen activity measurements could be useful to monitor iron removal during converting...

  4. Generalized modular multilevel converter and modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    converters regulating a power grid. The generalized topology derived and notated as GMMC can then be altered to create various types of MMC, including the traditional topology that is presently well-known. This effort has not been previously discussed, and may smoothen the understanding of MMC operation...

  5. Converting skeletal structures to quad dominant meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Welnicka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    We propose the Skeleton to Quad-dominant polygonal Mesh algorithm (SQM), which converts skeletal structures to meshes composed entirely of polar and annular regions. Both types of regions have a regular structure where all faces are quads except for a single ring of triangles at the center of each...

  6. Synthetic Applications of Nitrile-Converting Enzymes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Ludmila; Mylerová, Veronika

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2003), s. 1279-1295 ISSN 1385-2728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : nitrile * converting * enzymes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2003

  7. Convertible bonds and bank risk-taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.; Perotti, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study how contingent capital that converts in equity ahead of default affects bankrisk-shifting. Going concern conversion restores equity value in highly levered states,thus reducing heightened risk incentives. In contrast, conversion at default for traditionalbail-inable debt has no effect on

  8. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  9. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  10. The rise and demise of the convertible arbitrage strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes convertible arbitrage, one of the most successful hedge fund strategies. The aim of the strategy is to exploit underpricing of convertible bonds by taking a long position in a convertible and a short position in the underlying asset. The authors find that convertible bonds are

  11. A Fast Time-to-Pulse Height Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelund, O

    1962-12-15

    A fast time-to-pulse height converter representing a development of Green and Bell's gated beam converter is described. The converter is compatible with 2 input pulses in the stop channel and exhibits excellent linearity and time resolution properties. High stability and large output pulses are obtained by using a large time constant in the converting network.

  12. Do Convertible Bond Issuers Cater to Investor Demand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Duca, Eric; Dutordoir, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of fluctuations in investor demand for convertible securities on convertible bond issue volumes, pricing, and design. We find evidence of a positive impact of investor demand proxies on convertible bond issue volumes. We also document significantly lower convertible bond

  13. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...

  14. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor of the s......The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor...... of the second resonant DC-DC power converter are configured for magnetically coupling the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters to each other to forcing substantially 180 degrees phase shift, or forcing substantially 0 degree phase shift, between corresponding resonant voltage waveforms of the first...

  15. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  16. Riel Converter Station, Winnipeg: Site selection and environmental assessment status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    As part of its expansion plans, Manitoba Hydro is planning to construct a converter station east of Winnipeg to receive power from a 850-km dc transmission line which will be constructed to bring power from a new generating station in the north of the province. Work performed to date on site selection and preliminary environmental assessment of the converter station is reviewed. The role of the converter station is described and the potential impacts are summarized in such areas as employment opportunities, pollution and noise during construction, electric and magnetic field effects, and land use impacts. Site selection criteria are outlined and potential sites are identified and evaluated. The Deacon site has been chosen as the preferred site since it has a number of inherent advantages including existing ownership by Manitoba Hydro, proximity to existing transmission rights-of-way, and low visual and land-use impact. 12 figs

  17. High Voltage Gain Dual Active Bridge Converter with an Extended Operation Range for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tomas Manez, Kevin; Yudi, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Bridge (P2DAB) converter, i.e. low-voltage (LV) side parallel and high-voltage (HV) side series, is proposed to achieve high voltage gain and low current stress over switching devices and transformer windings. Given the unmodified P2DAB power stage, by regulating the phase-shift angle between......Developing bidirectional dc-dc converters has become a critical research topic and gains more and more attention in recent years due to the extensive applications of smart grids with energy storages, hybrid and electrical vehicles and dc microgrids. In this paper, a Partial Parallel Dual Active...... the paralleled active bridges, the power equations and voltage gain are then modified, and therefore the operation range can be extended effectively. The operating principles of the proposed converter and its power characteristics under various operation modes are studied, and the design constraints...

  18. Systematic design approach of fuzzy PID stabilizer for DC-DC converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesmi, K.; Essounbouli, N.; Hamzaoui, A.

    2008-01-01

    DC-DC converters process electrical energy by switching between a fixed number of configurations. The objective of controlling these systems is to provide better performances, ensure closed loop stability and guarantee a simple predictable behaviour. Based on a converter averaged model, we propose, in this paper, a systematic design approach of a fuzzy PID. The choice of controller parameters stands on the whole system stability requirements. Extension of the obtained asymptotic stability to structural stability is presented to show that the developed controller ensures also a simple and predictable behaviour of the converter. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of the proposed fuzzy PID design approach through simulations in voltage mode as well as in current mode control

  19. Systematic design approach of fuzzy PID stabilizer for DC-DC converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesmi, K.; Essounbouli, N.; Hamzaoui, A. [CReSTIC, IUT de Troyes 09, rue de Quebec BP. 396, 10026 Troyes (France)

    2008-10-15

    DC-DC converters process electrical energy by switching between a fixed number of configurations. The objective of controlling these systems is to provide better performances, ensure closed loop stability and guarantee a simple predictable behaviour. Based on a converter averaged model, we propose, in this paper, a systematic design approach of a fuzzy PID. The choice of controller parameters stands on the whole system stability requirements. Extension of the obtained asymptotic stability to structural stability is presented to show that the developed controller ensures also a simple and predictable behaviour of the converter. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of the proposed fuzzy PID design approach through simulations in voltage mode as well as in current mode control. (author)

  20. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Hybrid Electric Cars Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery is engaged and also powers vehicle accessories. DC/DC converter: This device converts higher -voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions. Electric traction motor: Using power from

  2. Dividend-Protected Convertible Bonds and the Disappearance

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce D. Grundy; Patrick Verwijmeren

    2012-01-01

    Firms have not historically called their convertible bonds as soon as they could force conversion. Various explanations for the delay rely on the size of the dividends that bondholders forgo so long as they do not convert. We investigate an important change in convertible security design, namely that more than 95 percent of recent convertible bond issues are dividend-protected. Dividend protection means that the conversion value of the shares into which a bond is convertible is unaffected by ...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    wind, respectively. PV panels convert sunlight directly to electricity using semiconductors. The , small-scale renewables, like solar panels on a rooftop, can both provide clean energy for vehicles and

  4. Isolated/Non-Isolated Quad-Inverter Configuration for Multilevel Symmetrical/Asymmetrical Dual Six-Phase Star-Winding Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Hontz, Michael R.; Khanna, Raghav

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the developments of a novel isolated/non-isolated quad inverter configuration for multilevel dual six-phase (twelve-phase) star-winding converter. The modular circuit consists of four standard voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI is incorporated with one bi-directional ...... systems, electrical vehicles, AC tractions, and `More-Electric Aircraft' propulsion systems....... converter is numerically modeled using Matlab/PLECS simulation software and the predicted behavior of the system is analyzed and presented. Good agreement is obtained between these results and the theoretical analysis. Suitable applications for the converter include (low-voltage/high-current) medium power...

  5. MATHEMATIC SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A. C – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC – TRACTION – NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 2. SWITCH ON THE MAIN LOCOMOTIVE’S POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PAY” MODE; DEFINITION AND ANALYSIS CURRENT SURGE OF MAGNETIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mischenko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of analysis of mathematical models for AC systems, in which the elements of electric-traction network and switch-on of power transformer in an idling mode are gradually connected. The numerical calculations and analysis of current of transformer magnetization are executed.

  6. Imbalance between pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Bos, Albert P.; Bem, Reinout A.; Dierdorp, Barbara S.; Dekker, Tamara; van Goor, Harry; Kamilic, Jelena; van der Loos, Chris M.; van den Berg, Elske; Bruijn, Martijn; van Woensel, Job B.; Lutter, René

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme and its effector peptide angiotensin II have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was identified as the counter-regulatory enzyme of angiotensin-converting enzyme that converts angiotensin

  7. Imbalance between pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Bos, Albert; Bem, Reinout A.; Dierdorp, Barbara S.; Dekker, Tamara; van Goor, Harry; Kamilic, Jelena; van der Loos, Chris M.; van den Berg, Elske; Bruijn, Martijn; van Woensel, Job B.; Lutter, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Angiotensin-converting enzyme and its effector peptide angiotensin II have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was identified as the counter-regulatory enzyme of angiotensin-converting enzyme that converts

  8. Design of a DC-AC Link Converter for 500W Residential Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  As one of alternative sources of renewable energy, wind energy has an excellence prospect in Indonesia, particularly in coastal and hilly areas which have potential wind to generate electricity for residential uses. There is urgent need to locally develop low cost inverter of wind generator system for residential use. Recent developments in power electronic converters and embedded computing allow improvement of power electronic converter devices that enable integration of microcontrollers in its design. In this project, an inverter circuit with suitable control scheme design was developed. The circuit was to be used with a selected topology of Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS to convert electricity generated by a 500W direct-drive permanent magnet type wind generator which is typical for residential use. From single phase AC output of the generator, a rectifier circuit is designed to convert AC to DC voltage. Then a DC-DC boost converter is used to step up the voltage to a nominal DC voltage suitable for domestic use. The proposed inverter then will convert the DC voltage to sinusoidal AC. The duty cycle of sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulated (SPWM signal controlling switches in the inverter was generated by a microcontroller. The lab-scale experimental rig involves simulation of wind generator by running a geared DC motor coupled with 500W wind generator where the prototype circuit was connected at the generator output. The experimental circuit produced single phase 240V sinusoidal AC voltage with frequency of 50Hz. Measured total harmonics distortion (THD of the voltage across load was 4.0% which is within the limit of 5% as recommended by IEEE Standard 519-1992.

  9. Screen-printed electrode for alkali-metal thermoelectric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Shibata, K.; Tsuchida, K.; Kato, A. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-06-01

    An alkali-metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) is a device for the direct conversion of thermal to electric energy. An AMTEC contains sodium as working fluid and is divided into a high-temperature region (900-1300 K) and a low-temperature region (400-800 K) by [beta]''-alumina solid electrolyte. A high-performance electrode for an AMTEC must have good electrical conductivity, make a strong physical bond with low contact resistance to [beta]''-alumina, be highly permeable to sodium vapour, resist corrosion by sodium and have a low rate of evaporation at the operating temperature of the AMTEC. We have previously investigated the interaction of nitrides and carbides of some transition-metals (groups IV, V and VI) with [beta],[beta]''-alumina or liquid sodium (about 700degC) with the objective of finding a better electrode material for an AMTEC. The results showed that TiN, TiC, NbN and NbC were good candidates for AMTEC electrodes. We also showed that porous TiN film with low resistance can be prepared by the screen-printing method. In the present work the porous NbN film was prepared by the screen-printing method and the performance as the electrode of an AMTEC was examined. For comparison, the performance of TiN and Mo electrodes prepared by the screen-printing method was also examined. (author).

  10. How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skumiel, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

  11. Dual Converter Fed Open-End Transformer Topology with Parallel Converters and Integrated Magnetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    that flows between the parallel interleaved VSCs. An integrated inductor is proposed which suppresses the circulating current in both the converter groups. In addition, the functionality of the line filter inductor is also integrated. Flux in various parts of the integrated inductor is analyzed and a design......A converter system for high power applications, connected to a medium-voltage network using a stepup transformer, is presented in this paper. The converterside winding of the transformer is configured as an openend and both the ends of the windings are fed from two different converter groups. Each...... procedure is also described. The volume and the losses of the proposed solution are compared with that of the state-of-art solution. The control of the proposed converter system is also discussed. The analysis has been verified by the simulation and experimental results....

  12. Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian

    . The approaches for improving their performance, in terms of the voltage stress, efficiency, power density, cost, loss distribution, and temperature, will be studied. The structure of the thesis is as follows, Chapter 1 presents the introduction and motivation of the whole project as well as the background...... becomes a emerging challenge. Accordingly, installation of sustainable power generators like wind turbines and solar panels has experienced a large increase during the last decades. Meanwhile, power electronics converters, as interfaces in electrical system, are delivering approximately 80 % electricity...... back-to-back, and meanwhile improve the harmonics, control flexibility, and thermal distribution between the switches. Afterwards, active power decoupling methods for single-phase inverters or rectifiers that are similar to the single-phase ac-dc-ac converter, are studied in Chapter 4...

  13. Structural Reliability Methods for Wind Power Converter System Component Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Wind power converter systems are essential subsystems in both off-shore and on-shore wind turbines. It is the main interface between generator and grid connection. This system is affected by numerous stresses where the main contributors might be defined as vibration and temperature loadings....... The temperature variations induce time-varying stresses and thereby fatigue loads. A probabilistic model is used to model fatigue failure for an electrical component in the power converter system. This model is based on a linear damage accumulation and physics of failure approaches, where a failure criterion...... is defined by the threshold model. The attention is focused on crack propagation in solder joints of electrical components due to the temperature loadings. Structural Reliability approaches are used to incorporate model, physical and statistical uncertainties. Reliability estimation by means of structural...

  14. Faults and Diagnosis Systems in Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Choi, Uimin

    2014-01-01

    A power converter is needed in almost all kinds of renewable energy systems and drive systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and for interfacing with the load, which can be grid-connected or working in standalone mode. Further, it drives the motors efficiently. Increasing...... efforts have been put into making these systems better in terms of reliability in order to achieve high power source availability, reduce the cost of energy and also increase the reliability of overall systems. Among the components used in power converters, a power device and a capacitor fault occurs most...... frequently. Therefore, it is important to monitor the power device and capacitor fault to increase the reliability of power electronics. In this chapter, the diagnosis methods for power device fault will be discussed by dividing into open- and short-circuit faults. Then, the condition monitoring methods...

  15. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  16. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  17. MAGIC: Model and Graphic Information Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    MAGIC is a software tool capable of converting highly detailed 3D models from an open, standard format, VRML 2.0/97, into the proprietary DTS file format used by the Torque Game Engine from GarageGames. MAGIC is used to convert 3D simulations from authoritative sources into the data needed to run the simulations in NASA's Distributed Observer Network. The Distributed Observer Network (DON) is a simulation presentation tool built by NASA to facilitate the simulation sharing requirements of the Data Presentation and Visualization effort within the Constellation Program. DON is built on top of the Torque Game Engine (TGE) and has chosen TGE's Dynamix Three Space (DTS) file format to represent 3D objects within simulations.

  18. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  19. MOCCASIN: converting MATLAB ODE models to SBML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Harold F; Hucka, Michael; Keating, Sarah M; Nudelman, German; Iber, Dagmar; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2016-06-15

    MATLAB is popular in biological research for creating and simulating models that use ordinary differential equations (ODEs). However, sharing or using these models outside of MATLAB is often problematic. A community standard such as Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) can serve as a neutral exchange format, but translating models from MATLAB to SBML can be challenging-especially for legacy models not written with translation in mind. We developed MOCCASIN (Model ODE Converter for Creating Automated SBML INteroperability) to help. MOCCASIN can convert ODE-based MATLAB models of biochemical reaction networks into the SBML format. MOCCASIN is available under the terms of the LGPL 2.1 license (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-2.1.html). Source code, binaries and test cases can be freely obtained from https://github.com/sbmlteam/moccasin : mhucka@caltech.edu More information is available at https://github.com/sbmlteam/moccasin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Boost Converter with Active Snubber Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIMMELSTOSS, F. A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new concept for reducing the losses in a boost converter is described. With the help of an auxiliary switch and a resonant circuit, zero-voltage switching at turn-off and zero-current switching during turn-on are achieved. The modes of the circuit are shown in detail. The energy recovery of the turn-off is analyzed and the recovered energy is calculated; an optimized switching concept therefore is described. The influence of the parasitic capacity of the switch is discussed. Dimensioning hints for the converter and the design of the recuperation circuit are given. A bread-boarded design shows the functional efficiency of the concept.

  1. A high efficiency photovoltaic module integrated converter with the asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeje; Kim, Jongrak; Shin, Dongsul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Hosung; Lee, Kyungjun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Jonghyun; Yoo, Dongwook [New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    A module integrated converter (MIC) for a photovoltaic (PV) cell is important part of power conditioning system (PCS). It performs maximum power point tracking of a PV cell to generate the power as much as possible from solar energy. There are several methods for connection between the PV modules and the MICs. In order to avoid partial shading effects, converter-per-module approach was proposed. The MIC that performs maximum power point tracking (MPPT), if it is low efficiency, is no use. The MIC whose output is connected to the output of PV module was proposed for high efficiency. However, there are some problems. In this study, an asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter is proposed instead of the original flyback converter with same method to solve the problems. The proposed MIC was built to verify the performance. The new topology using soft switching technique showed good performance for the efficiency. At the higher power, the efficiency of the proposed converter is higher than existing converter. (author)

  2. Method for Converter Synchronization with RF Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua P. Bruckmeyer; Ivica Kostanic

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an injection method for synchronizing analog to digital converters (ADC). This approach can eliminate the need for precision routed discrete synchronization signals of current technologies, such as JESD204. By eliminating the setup and hold time requirements at the conversion (or near conversion) clock rate, higher sample rate systems can be synchronized. Measured data from an existing multiple ADC conversion system was used to evaluate the method. Coherent beams were simu...

  3. Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М.Galynovskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.

  4. Characteristics of image converters and image intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.; Shamanov, A.A.; Rozenberg, A.M.; Fajnberg, V.S.; Kavtorova, V.P.; Salyuk, L.V.; Yakovleva, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of image converters and image intensifiers, which determine the range of the X-radiation dose rates used and the image quality, are considered. The equations for calculating the requirements to be imposed on the separate intensifier elements from known parameters of other elements with an allowance for the nonlinearity of the television system and the role of fluctuation in the space distribution of X-radiation quanta are given

  5. Seven channel gated charge to time converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R J; Waddoup, W D [Durham Univ. (UK)

    1977-11-01

    By using a hybrid integrated circuit seven independent gated charge to time converters have been constructed in a single width NIM module. Gate widths from < approximately 10 ns to approximately 300 ns are possible with a resolution of 0.25 pC, linearity is better than +-1 pC over 2.5 decades of input signal height. Together with a multichannel scaling system described in the following paper one has a very powerful multichannel gated ADC system.

  6. Modeling the bremsstrahlung emission from converters

    CERN Document Server

    Mirea, M; Clapier, F; Hassaïne, M; Ibrahim, F; Müller, A C; Pauwels, N; Proust, J; Verney, D; Antoni, R; Bourgeois, L; Kandri-Rody, S

    2001-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung angular and energy theoretical distributions delivered from W and UCx thick converters are reported. This study is focussed on initial kinetic energies of the electron beam included in the range 30-60 MeV, suitable for the production of large radiative yields able to induce the $^{238}$U fission. These results offer the possibility to evaluate the required shielding for a neutron rich nuclei source.

  7. Combined analog-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.V.; Rzhendinskaya, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) designed for operating in spectrometers with time-dependent filters is described. The ADC operation is based on combining the parallel reading and sequential counting methods. At maximum conversion time of 12 μs, timing series frequency of 25 MHz and foUr reference levels the differential nonlinearity withoUt statistical smoothing (maximum relative channel width deviation from average value) is not more than 4%

  8. Continuous process for converting hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-05-01

    A continuous process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbons, liquid, semi-liquid, and solid, of all origins and kinds, into incondensable gases, without carbon deposits, characterized by the fact that an intimate mixture of the material and superheated steam before cracking is passed through a contact mass. The contact mass consists of all metals, metal alloys, and mineral salts which, at the reaction temperature, are fused and do not react with the water vapor or gaseous products.

  9. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  10. H- ion production from different converter materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-10-01

    For heating plasmas and for current drive in some fusion reactors, high energy neutral beams may be required. The high neutralization efficiency of H - or D - ions makes them favorable to form neutral atoms with energies in excess of 160 keV. It has been shown that a steady-state H - ion beam with current greater than 1 A can be generated by a surface conversion type source with Mo being used as the converter material. In order to achieve the proper cesium coverage and thereby increasing the H - ion yield, the application of porous cesium-dispensing converters is being investigated. It is also possible to optimize the H - production by choosing the proper converter material. In this paper, we compare the negative ion yield generated by different materials (such as Mo, Ti, V, Nb, Pt, Pd, Rh, Cu, Ta, Al, Au, LaB 6 and stainless-steel) in the pure hydrogen and cesium-hydrogen modes of operation

  11. Current measurement in high-performance frequency converters; Strommessung in Hochleistungsumrichtern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marien, Jan; Hetzler, Ullrich [Isabellenhuette Heusler GmbH und Co. KG, Dillenburg (Germany); Hornung, Hans-Georg; Zwinger, Stefan [Sensor-Technik Wiedemann GmbH, Kaufbeuren (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The load cycles (raising, lowering, accelerating, braking) of cranes, lift trucks and other off-road vehicles are ideally suited for the efficient deployment of hybrid or full electrical drive technology. Current measurement is a key technology for advancing electrification. Sensor Technik Wiedemann places by her frequency converters on a shunt-based current measurement module from Isabellenhuette Heusler which permits highly accurate measurements. (orig.)

  12. Measurement on Five-Phase IM Fed from Ten-Pulse Frequency Converter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chomát, Miroslav; Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2012), s. 66-71 ISSN 1805-3386. [ISEM 2011. Prague, 07.09.2011-09.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : five-phase induction machine * ten-pulse converter * symmetrical components Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. PSPICE simulation of bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Fan Yajun

    2010-01-01

    The operating principle of the bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line type is given. The output bipolar pulses are simulated by using PSPICE program on condition of different electric length and different impedance of the short-circuited coaxial transmission line. The bipolar pulses are generated by using unipolar pulse with pulse width of 2 ns in experiment, the experimental result fit well with the simulation result. (authors)

  14. Progress Towards the Development of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter for Aneutronic Fusion Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; Chap, A.; Wolinsky, J.; Scott, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and theory/simulation effort has been carried out to investigate the physics of the Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC), a scheme that has been proposed in the past for the direct conversion into electricity of the kinetic energy of an ion beam generated from fusion reactions. This effort has been focused in particular on the TWDEC process in the high density beam regime, thus accounting for the ion beam expansion due to its space charge.

  15. Study on a Novel High-Efficiency Bridgeless PFC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Taiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement a high-efficiency bridgeless power factor correction converter, a new topology and operation principles of continuous conduction mode (CCM and DC steady-state character of the converter are analyzed, which show that the converter not only has bipolar-gain characteristic but also has the same characteristic as the traditional Boost converter, while the voltage transfer ratio is not related with the resonant branch parameters and switching frequency. Based on the above topology, a novel bridgeless Bipolar-Gain Pseudo-Boost PFC converter is proposed. With this converter, the diode rectifier bridge of traditional AC-DC converter is eliminated, and zero-current switching of fast recovery diode is achieved. Thus, the efficiency is improved. Next, we also propose the one-cycle control policy of this converter. Finally, experiments are provided to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed converter.

  16. Designing of new structure PID controller of boost converter for solar photovoltaic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabrina, Hanifati Nur; Setiawan, Eko Adhi; Sabirin, Chip Rinaldi

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of renewable energy as the source on distributed generation system is increasing. It aims to reduce reliance and power losses from utility grid and improve power stability in near loads. One example of renewable energy technology that have been highly proven on the market is solar photovoltaic (PV). This technology converts photon from sunlight into electricity. However, the fluctuation of solar radiation that often occurs become the main problem for this system. Due to this condition, the power conversion is needed to convert the change frequently in photovoltaic panel into a stable voltage to the system. Developing control of boost converter has important role to keep ability of system stabilization. A conventional PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control is mostly used to achieve this goal. In this research, a design of new structure PID controller of boost converter is offered to better optimize system stability comparing to the conventional PID. Parameters obtained from this PID structure have been successfully yield a stable boost converter output at 200 V with 10% overshoot, 1.5 seconds of settling time, and 1.5% of steady-state error.

  17. Comparison of Interleaved Boost Converter Configurations for Solar Photovoltaic System Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramaprabha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (SPV panels that convert light energy into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect have nonlinear internal resistance. Hence, with the variation in the intensity of light falling on the panel, the internal resistance varies. For effective utilization of the SPV panel, it is necessary to extract the maximum power from it. For maximum power extraction from SPV panels, DC-DC converter interface is used. The problem in using high frequency converter interface is the resultant high frequency ripple interaction with the SPV system. In this work, an interleaved boost converter (IBC is considered to reduce the ripple. Our finding is that IBC fed by a SPV panel reduces this ripple to a greater extent. IBC also has a faster transient response as compared to conventional boost converters with reduced ripple contents. The main aim of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the performance of IBC with inductors that are coupled in different ways. The results of the simulation were extrapolated with the help of MATLAB software and verified through experimentation.

  18. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Łukasz Rosłaniec; Rafał Bielas; Magdalena Błędzińska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper...

  19. Method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain to a hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    2001-12-25

    A method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain including a manual transmission to a hybrid powertrain system with an automated powertrain transmission. The first step in the method of attaching a gear train housing to a housing of said manual transmission, said gear train housing receiving as end of drive shaft of said transmission and rotatably supporting a gear train assembly. Secondly, mounting an electric motor/generator to said gear train housing and attaching a motor/generator drive shaft of said electric motor/generator to said gear train assembly. Lastly, connecting an electro-mechanical clutch actuator to a friction clutch mechanism of said manual transmission.

  20. NaK-nitrogen liquid metal MHD converter tests at 30 kw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerini, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of electrical power generation with an ambient temperature liquid-metal MHD separator cycle is demonstrated by tests in which a NaK-nitrogen LM-MHD converter was operated at nozzle inlet pressures ranging from 100 to 165 N/sq cm, NaK flow rates from 46 to 72 kg/sec, and nitrogen flow rates from 2.4 to 3.8 kg/sec. The generator was operated as an eight-phase linear induction generator, with two of the eight phases providing magnetic field compensation to minimized electrical end losses at the generator channel inlet and exit.

  1. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  2. Electricity: an indigenous transport fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, D J

    1978-12-25

    Potential reserves of hydro and geothermal power are adequate to power all road-transport vehicles should these be converted to electric drives in the future. Conversion of petrol vehicles to electric drives results in a significant increase in energy-utilization efficiency coupled with a decrease in costs, both to the country in overseas funds and to the driver in operating costs. As yet, however, New Zealand has no plan to use these resources in a transport role and is supporting no feasibility research.

  3. Relay protection features of frequency-adjustable electric drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprienko, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The features of relay protection of high-voltage electric motors in composition of the frequency-adjustable electric drive are considered in the article. The influence of frequency converters on the stability of the operation of various types of relay protection used on electric motors is noted. Variants of circuits for connecting relay protection devices are suggested. The need to develop special relay protection devices for a frequency-adjustable electric drive is substantiated.

  4. Design and Modeling of an Integrated Micro-Transformer in a Flyback Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Derkaoui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and modeling of a square micro-transformer for its integration in a flyback converter. From the specifications of the switching power supply, we determined the geometric parameters of this micro-transformer. The π-electrical model of this micro-transformer highlights all parasitic effects generated by stacking of different material layers and permits to calculate the technological parameters by using the S-parameters. A good dimensioning of the geometrical parameters reduces efficiently the energy losses in the micro-transformer and permits to reach the desirable value of the converter output voltage. We have also simulated the electromagnetic effects with the help of the software FEMLAB3.1 in two cases. The first case, without ferromagnetic core, the second case with ferromagnetic core, in order to choose the micro-transformer that has better electromagnetic compatibility with the vicinity components. To validate dimensioning of the geometrical and technological parameters, we have simulated with the help of the software PSIM6.0, the equivalent electrical circuit of the converter containing the electrical circuit of the dimensioned planar micro-transformer.

  5. Multi-Objective Optimization Control for the Aerospace Dual-Active Bridge Power Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of More Electrical Aircraft (MEA, the electrification of secondary power systems in aircraft is becoming more and more common. As the key power conversion device, the dual active bridge (DAB converter is the power interface for the energy storage system with the high voltage direct current (HVDC bus in aircraft electrical power systems. In this paper, a DAB DC-DC converter is designed to meet aviation requirements. The extended dual phase shifted control strategy is adopted, and a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to optimize its operating performance. Considering the three indicators of inductance current root mean square root (RMS value, negative reverse power and direct current (DC bias component of the current for the high frequency transformer as the optimization objectives, the DAB converter’s optimization model is derived to achieve soft switching as the main constraint condition. Optimized methods of controlling quantity for the DAB based on the evolution and genetic algorithm is used to solve the model, and a number of optimal control parameters are obtained under different load conditions. The results of digital, hard-in-loop simulation and hardware prototype experiments show that the three performance indexes are all suppressed greatly, and the optimization method proposed in this paper is reasonable. The work of this paper provides a theoretical basis and researching method for the multi-objective optimization of the power converter in the aircraft electrical power system.

  6. Fault isolation in parallel coupled wind turbine converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Thøgersen, Paul Bach; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Parallel converters in wind turbine give a number advantages, such as fault tolerance due to the redundant converters. However, it might be difficult to isolate gain faults in one of the converters if only a combined power measurement is available. In this paper a scheme using orthogonal power...... references to the converters is proposed. Simulations on a wind turbine with 5 parallel converters show a clear potential of this scheme for isolation of this gain fault to the correct converter in which the fault occurs....

  7. Novel screening techniques for wind turbine power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn; Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Christensen, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    Power converters represent one of the highest failure rates in the wind turbine. Therefore converter manufacturers perform burn-in tests to prevent shipping of faulty converters. Recent developments in junction temperature estimation, based on accurate online IGBT collector-emitter voltage...... measurements, allow for thermal stress estimation of the IGBT modules. This is utilized to detect infant mortalities in power converters, by comparing thermal responses of IGBTs for faulty and non-faulty converters. The method proves to be a time and cost efficient candidate to replace burn-in tests of power...... converters for wind turbines applications....

  8. Impedance coordinative control for cascaded converter in bidirectional application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Loh, Poh Chiang; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    A two-stage cascaded converter is formed by connecting two sub-converters in series. Output impedance of one sub-converter will therefore interact with input impedance of the other sub-converter. Such interaction may affect the system dynamics and stability, especially when one sub......-converter is constant-power-controlled, and hence has different impedance characteristics when its power reverses. To lessen such constant-power effects, a control scheme that can coordinate impedance behaviors of the two sub-converters is proposed. The idea is to reshape the lowfrequency negative impedance...

  9. Amplitude-to-frequency converter of radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenkov, V.P.; Korobkov, I.N.

    1988-01-01

    An amplitude-to-frequency converter designed for signal processing of radioisotope relay devices is descibed. The basic elements of the converter are a scaling amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, a code-to-frequency converter, a null-organ, a delay unit and a clock-pulse generator. The designed amplitude-to-frequency converter takes into account a prior information about the signal shape of the energy spectrum. The converter processes input pulses of 0.10 V amplitude and duration more than 2μs. The energy channel number is 64

  10. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor of the second resonant DC-DC power converter are configured for magnetically coupling the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters to each other to forcing substantially 180 degrees phase shift, or fo...

  11. One-Quadrant Switched-Mode Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Petrocelli, R.

    2015-06-15

    This article presents the main topics related to one-quadrant power convert- ers. The basic topologies are analysed and a simple methodology to obtain the steady-state output–input voltage ratio is set out. A short discussion of dif- ferent methods to control one-quadrant power converters is presented. Some of the reported derived topologies of one-quadrant power converters are also considered. Some topics related to one-quadrant power converters such as syn- chronous rectification, hard and soft commutation, and interleaved converters are discussed. Finally, a brief introduction to resonant converters is given.

  12. New type of magnetohydrodynamic converters: induction devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.-P.; Viton, Maurice.

    1977-01-01

    A new induction MHD accelerator, disc shaped, with controlled ionization, is presented. Associated with a light and powerful electric generator it could become a MHD aerodyne. Solutions for confining the plasma to the wall are indicated [fr

  13. Flash Converted Graphene Supercapacitors for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage devices allow us to charge portable electronics and use them when a wired energy source, such as a power outlet, is not available. One type of energy storage device is a supercapacitor. Supercapacitors store electrical energy through electric double layers and are based on positive and negative ions interacting with the surface of an active material. The active material is very important in determining the supercapacitor's ability to store charge, the time it takes to store cha...

  14. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...

  15. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  16. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, D. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  17. Maximum generation power evaluation of variable frequency offshore wind farms when connected to a single power converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Barcelona (Spain); Junyent-Ferre, Adria; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The paper deals with the evaluation of power generated by variable and constant frequency offshore wind farms connected to a single large power converter. A methodology to analyze different wind speed scenarios and system electrical frequencies is presented and applied to a case study, where it is shown that the variable frequency wind farm concept (VF) with a single power converter obtains 92% of the total available power, obtained with individual power converters in each wind turbine (PC). The PC scheme needs multiple power converters implying drawbacks in terms of cost, maintenance and reliability. The VF scheme is also compared to a constant frequency scheme CF, and it is shown that a significant power increase of more than 20% can be obtained with VF. The case study considers a wind farm composed of four wind turbines based on synchronous generators. (author)

  18. Wave-to-wire Modelling of Wave Energy Converters : Critical Assessment, Developments and Applicability for Economical Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco

    The idea to use the motion of a wavy sea surface to produce electricity was investigate in the seventies, in a time when the earliest wave energy converters were conceived and developed. But nowadays still none of the patented devices reached a commercial stage. Wave energy is a large, mostly unt...

  19. Windowed SHE-PWM of Interleaved Four-Quadrant Converters for Resonance Suppression in Traction Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Kejian; Konstantinou, Georgios; Mingli, Wu

    2017-01-01

    AC electric locomotives that use a number of interleaved four-quadrant converters generate high-frequency switching harmonics which may stimulate certain resonances in traction power supply systems (TPSSs). A windowed selective harmonic elimination pulse-width modulation (SHE-PWM) method...

  20. New 2LC-Y DC-DC converter topologies for high-voltage/low-current renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Maroti, Pandav Kiran

    2017-01-01

    (2LC-LVD, 2LC-2LVD, 2LC-2LCVD and 2LC-2LCmVD) converters are presented in this treatise which offer an effective solution for renewable applications requiring a very high voltage conversion ratio such as a Photovoltaic Multilevel Inverter (PV-MLI) system, hybrid electrical drives and automotive...

  1. High performance control strategy for single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped traction four-quadrant converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejian, Song; Konstantinou, Georgios; Jing, Li

    2017-01-01

    Operational data from Chinese railways indicate a number of challenges for traction four-quadrant converter (4QC) control including low-order voltage and current harmonics and reference tracking. A control strategy for a single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped 4QC employed in the electric...

  2. A New Method for Start-up of Isolated Boost Converters Using Magnetic- and Winding-Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Ouyang, Ziwei; Sen, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    . The traditional added flyback winding coupled to the boost inductor is thus eliminated from the circuit, bringing substantial cost savings, increased efficiency and simplified design. Each subinterval of the converter operation is described through electrical and magnetic circuit diagrams, and the concept...

  3. High power density dc/dc converter: Selection of converter topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    1990-01-01

    The work involved in the identification and selection of a suitable converter topology is described. Three new dc/dc converter topologies are proposed: Phase-Shifted Single Active Bridge DC/DC Converter; Single Phase Dual Active Bridges DC/DC Converter; and Three Phase Dual Active Bridges DC/DC Converter (Topology C). The salient features of these topologies are: (1) All are minimal in structure, i.e., each consists of an input and output bridge, input and output filter and a transformer, all components essential for a high power dc/dc conversion process; (2) All devices of both the bridges can operate under near zero-voltage conditions, making possible a reduction of device switching losses and hence, an increase in switching frequency; (3) All circuits operate at a constant frequency, thus simplifying the task of the magnetic and filter elements; (4) Since, the leakage inductance of the transformer is used as the main current transfer element, problems associated with the diode reverse recovery are eliminated. Also, this mode of operation allows easy paralleling of multiple modules for extending the power capacity of the system; (5) All circuits are least sensitive to parasitic impedances, infact the parasitics are efficently utilized; and (6) The soft switching transitions, result in low electromagnetic interference. A detailed analysis of each topology was carried out. Based on the analysis, the various device and component ratings for each topology operating at an optimum point, and under the given specifications, are tabulated and discussed.

  4. High Current, Low Voltage Power Converter [20kA, 6V] LHC Converter Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, H E; Dupaquier, A; Fernqvist, G

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting LHC accelerator requires high currents (~12.5kA) and relatively low voltages (~10 V) for its magnets. The need to install the power converters underground is the driving force for reduced volume and high efficiency. Moreover, the LHC machine will require a very high level of performance from the power converters, particularly in terms of DC stability, dynamic response and also in matters of EMC. To meet these requirements soft-switching techniques will be used. This paper describes the development of a [20kA,6V] power converter intended as a stable high-current source for D CCT calibration and an evaluation prototype for the future LHC converters. The converter is made with a modular concept with five current sources [4kA,6V] in parallel. The 4kA sources are built as plu g-in modules: a diode rectifier on the AC mains with a damped L-C passive filter, a Zero Voltage Switching inverter working at 20 kHz and an output stage (high frequency transformers, Schottky rectifi ers and output filter...

  5. A THREE-PHASE BOOST DC-AC CONVERTER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dc-ac converter (inverter) based on the dc-dc boost converters. ... Sliding mode controllers are designed to perform a robust control for the ... Computer simulations and spectral analysis demon- ... the conventional three-phase buck inverter,.

  6. 76 FR 55111 - United States v. General Electric Co., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... automation controls. Converteam manufactures and assembles medium-voltage large electric motors in facilities... conversion engineering company focusing on motors, generators, drives, converters and automation controls... Electric Machinery Business used in the design, development, production, marketing, servicing, distribution...

  7. Converting serial networks to Ethernet communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2008-07-01

    Many oil and gas producers and pipeline companies find themselves in an awkward position. They have invested millions of dollars in legacy serial communications systems and in most cases, millions more in older SCADA remote terminal units and electronic flow meters. There is a desire throughout most of the industry to convert these systems to Ethernet. This presentation will explore how Ethernet protocol offers advantages over the older serial communications in terms of peer to peer communication, faster polling cycles, and the ability to poll multiple devices at the same time. (author)

  8. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. This implicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes...

  9. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Nava, Vincenzo; Topper, Mathew B. R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation......, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA), a genetic algorithm (GA) and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO) algorithm...

  10. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  11. Aquabuoy Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The work reported here is part of the contract agreement between the Finavera Renewables Ocean Energy Ltd. and the Department of Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory to instrument a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY (AB) wave energy converter and to analyse...... its performances in real sea testing in Nissum Bredning, Denmark. This report is part of Fineveras contribution to ForskEl project no 6435 “AquaBuOY skala 1:10 forsøg I Nissum Bredning”....

  12. Power converters for medium voltage networks

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a number of topics, mainly in connection with advances in semiconductor devices and magnetic materials and developments in medium and large-scale renewable power plant technologies, grid integration techniques and new converter topologies, including advanced digital control systems for medium-voltage networks. The book's individual chapters provide an extensive compilation of fundamental theories and in-depth information on current research and development trends, while also exploring new approaches to overcoming some critical limitations of conventional grid integration te

  13. Design, modeling and testing of data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kiaei, Sayfe; Xu, Fang

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the a scientific discussion of the state-of-the-art techniques and designs for modeling, testing and for the performance analysis of data converters. The focus is put on sustainable data conversion. Sustainability has become a public issue that industries and users can not ignore. Devising environmentally friendly solutions for data conversion designing, modeling and testing is nowadays a requirement that researchers and practitioners must consider in their activities. This book presents the outcome of the IWADC workshop 2011, held in Orvieto, Italy.

  14. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC......Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  15. Analysis of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, B R

    2002-09-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels are influenced by genetic polymorphism. Interpretation of serum levels with the appropriate genotypic reference range improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the assay for sarcoidosis. SACE assays are performed by a large number of routine clinical laboratories. However, there is no external quality assessment (EQA) for SACE other than an informal regional scheme. This showed analytical performance of SACE assays to be poor, with a diversity of reference ranges, leading to widely disparate clinical classification of EQA samples. Genetic polymorphism combined with poor analytical performance suggest that perhaps SACE assays should revert to being the province of specialized laboratories.

  16. Generalized model of a bidirectional DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinov, Nikolay; Arnaudov, Dimitar; Penev, Dimitar

    2017-12-01

    The following paperwork presents models of bidirectional converters. A classic bidirectional converter and a new bidirectional circuit based on a ZCS resonant converter are investigated and compared. The developed models of these converters allow comparison between their characteristics showing their advantages and disadvantages. The models allow precise models of energy storage elements to be implemented as well, which is useful for examination of energy storage systems.

  17. Three-phase Resonant DC-link Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to develop a three-phase resonant converter suitable for standard speed drives. The motivation for working with resonant converters is found in the problem of the standard converter type used today. In standard converter type Pulse Width Modulated-Voltage Source Inverter, PWM-VSI, the switches are subject to high current and voltage stress during switching, which causes losses. The fast switching of modern switches reduces switching losses. Unfortunately this pro...

  18. Design of a 200kW electric powertrain for a high performance electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Martinez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of designing the electric powertrain of a high performance electric vehicle capable of running a quarter mile in 10 seconds, firstly it is necessary to calculate the required energy, torque, and power in order to size and select the suitable storage components and electric motors. Secondly, an assessment of the powertrain arrangement is needed to choose the best internal configuration of the vehicle and guarantee the highest efficiency possible. Finally, a design of the power conversion stages, specifically the DC-DC converter that interfaces the storage unit with the electric motors, is required as well. This paper shows the energy calculation procedure based on a longitudinal dynamic model of the vehicle and the selection method of the storage components and motors needed for this application, as well as the design of two 100kW interleaved boost converters with coupled inductors. In addition, a novel operation of the interleaved boost converter is proposed in order to increase the efficiency of the converter. As a result, the designed converter achieved a power density of 24,2kW/kg with an efficiency of 98 %, which was validated by experimental tests of a low power prototype.

  19. Unregulated Series Resonant Converter for Interlinking DC Nanogrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Manez, Kevin; Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2017-01-01

    bidirectional converter to interlink a 400V DC bus with a 48V DC bus ispresented. The proposed converter is based on a LLC resonant converter operating as a DC transformer at a fixed frequency and duty cycle without any complex control strategy. A clearand simplified design procedure for high efficiency...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable

    Science.gov (United States)

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