WorldWideScience

Sample records for conversion

  1. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  2. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  3. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  4. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  5. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  6. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  7. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  8. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  9. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  10. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  11. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  12. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  13. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  14. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  15. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  16. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  18. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  19. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  20. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  1. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  2. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  4. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  5. Mining Conversational Social Video

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, Joan-Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of social media in our daily life, the intense user participation, and the explo- sion of multimedia content have generated an extraordinary interest from computer and social scientists to investigate the traces left by users to understand human behavior online. From this perspective, YouTube can be seen as the largest collection of audiovisual human behavioral data, among which conversational video blogs (vlogs) are one of the basic formats. Conversational vlogs have evolved fro...

  6. Persuasion detection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, we present a system for annotating persuasion in conversation based on a social-psychological model. We augmented the social model developed by James Cialdini with some of our own categories for annotators to label. The conversations consisted of 37 hostage negotiation transcripts from private and public sources, with all personal information removed from the private source transcripts. We evaluated the level of agre...

  7. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  8. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  9. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  10. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  11. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  12. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  13. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  14. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  15. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  16. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  17. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  18. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  20. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  1. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  2. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  3. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  4. Conversation and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Veermans, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Gordon Pask’s conversation theory was created in the 1970s. The theory encompasses a high-level framework for studying interactions between actors in artificial situations where people co-operate, have conflicts, follow rules, negotiate outcomes, invent new rules together, etc. Sadly, the theory is

  5. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  6. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  8. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  9. Conversion tables. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    Tables are presented for the conversion of standard (5568 year half-life) C-14 dates to calendar years. The major part of the data converts C-14 dates to tree-ring years: additional data are given, based on the Egyptian historical curve. (U.K.)

  10. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  11. Our Digital Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  12. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  13. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  14. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  15. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  16. Nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Chapovsky, Pavel L.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical model of the nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde (H2CO) has been developed. The conversion is governed by the intramolecular spin-rotation mixing of molecular ortho and para states. The rate of conversion has been found equal 1.4*10^{-4}~1/s*Torr. Temperature dependence of the spin conversion has been predicted to be weak in the wide temperature range T=200-900 K.

  17. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  18. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  19. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  20. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  1. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  2. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  3. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  4. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  5. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  6. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  7. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  8. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference. Conversation with Meir Sternberg. Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  9. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  10. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  11. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  12. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  13. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  14. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  15. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  16. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  17. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  18. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  19. Career conversations in vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittendorff, K.M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and

  20. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  1. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  2. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  3. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  4. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  6. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion. (2) Pay. Upon conversion to the Senior Executive Service, an employee's SES rate will be... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion...

  7. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  8. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  9. Conversion electrons in the SDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklund, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize a preliminary analysis of the rates for conversion electrons in the SDC detector, relative to other interesting sources of prompt electrons. We have used Papageno V3.30, and other available NLO calculations to estimate inclusive rates in the central region (η less than 2.0), and we have cross checked these using CDF data at 1.8 TeV. We have considered three sources of ''isolated'' electrons, namely inclusive W/Z production; top quark (Mt=140); and QCD prompt photon production, followed by conversion in 10% XO. This value approximates the inner silicon detector at SDC. Additional conversions will occur in the outer tracking chamber, but the trigger and track reconstruction efficiency will be lower. We have also considered ''nonisolated'' leptons coming from inclusive bottom production, photon conversions resulting from π 0 ,η production in jets, and high pt hadrons faking electrons

  10. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  11. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  12. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  13. Hydrogen photoproduction by photoelectrochemical conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The water-splitting reaction by photoelectrochemical processes has gained much more attention than any of many reactions proposed for solar generation of energy-rich molecules (fuels). The conversion efficiency of the photosystem is the key factor. The higher the efficiency, the more economically feasible will be the conversion scheme. The conversion efficiency is a function of the semiconductor properties, light intensity, spectral quality, properties of the electrolyte, counterelectrode, cell configuration, etc. The semiconductor parameters include band gap, absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The area and material used for a counterelectrode are important when considering polarization losses in a two-electrode system. Besides, the stability problem is also a very important one to meet the requirement for practical applications. This paper reviews some important issues on photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting. It includes energy conversion efficiency, market assessment and cost goal, state of the technology, and future directions for research

  14. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  15. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  16. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  17. Computer code conversion using HISTORIAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kumakura, Toshimasa.

    1990-09-01

    When a computer program written for a computer A is converted for a computer B, in general, the A version source program is rewritten for B version. However, in this way of program conversion, the following inconvenient problems arise. 1) The original statements to be rewritten for B version are lost. 2) If the original statements of the A version rewritten for B version would remain as comment lines, the B version source program becomes quite large. 3) When update directives of the program are mailed from the organization which developed the program or when some modifications are needed for the program, it is difficult to point out the part to be updated or modified in the B version source program. To solve these problems, the conversion method using the general-purpose software management aid system, HISTORIAN, has been introduced. This conversion method makes a large computer code a easy-to-use program for use to update, modify or improve after the conversion. This report describes the planning and procedures of the conversion method and the MELPROG-PWR/MOD1 code conversion from the CRAY version to the JAERI FACOM version as an example. This report would provide useful information for those who develop or introduce large programs. (author)

  18. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  19. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  20. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  1. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  2. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  3. [Conversation analysis for improving nursing communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2007-08-01

    Nursing communication has become more important than ever before because quality of nursing services largely depends on the quality of communication in a very competitive health care environment. This article was to introduce ways to improve nursing communication using conversation analysis. This was a review study on conversation analysis, critically examining previous studies in nursing communication and interpersonal relationships. This study provided theoretical backgrounds and basic assumptions of conversation analysis which was influenced by ethnomethodology, phenomenology, and sociolinguistic. In addition, the characteristics and analysis methods of conversation analysis were illustrated in detail. Lastly, how conversation analysis could help improve communication was shown, by examining researches using conversation analysis not only for ordinary conversations but also for extraordinary or difficult conversations such as conversations between patients with dementia and their professional nurses. Conversation analysis can help in improving nursing communication by providing various structures and patterns as well as prototypes of conversation, and by suggesting specific problems and problem-solving strategies in communication.

  4. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  5. Environmental effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmeyer, K.H.; Fortak, H.; Knoepp, H.; Lindackers, K.H.; Schafhausen, F.; Schoedel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of energy conversion systems by the ''Council of Environmental Experts'' in order to correct the erroneous assumption that small energy conversion systems will also be small-scale and negligible emitters of pollutants. The additional pollution caused by Neurath power plant is considered to be low, at least in its immediate vicinity, owing to the implementation of the most recent technical developments. The environmental effects of energy conversion processes are discussed, including the waste heat problem and processes for water-cooling of power plants. General aspects of a new concept of energy taxation are discussed which is to reduce energy consumption. The problem of radioactive waste is discussed from spent fuel storage and reprocessing to the decommissioning of older power plants. The author points out that also new fossil-fuel technologies will pollute the environment. (orig.) [de

  6. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  7. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  8. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  9. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  10. A perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W. B.

    1963-10-15

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  11. A perspective on direct conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1963-10-01

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  12. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  13. Evolution of energy conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osnaghi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution and the future development of energy conversion plants and puts into evidence the great importance of the scientific and technological improvement in machines design, in order to optimize the use of energy resources and to improve ambient compatibility [it

  14. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  15. Restarts in Conversation and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Raymond F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes restarts, a common feature of conversation, in literary discourse. The term "restart" refers to the repetition of a word or words within an utterance by the same speaker. Restarts in literary discourse are of two types: (1) those produced by the characters in their "real" narrative world and (2) those produced by the narrators themselves.…

  16. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    TMMOELECTRIC 6 CONVERSION SYSTEMS. compiled by Edda 7p.. Aug.1960. (Spec. Bibl. 430) Barber. 48p., Mar. 1962. (Lit. Search 392) (Contract NAS 7-100) Covers...2865 BaranskiiP.I ............... 2905, 2945 Brogan, T.R. .............. 3322 Barber, Edda ................. . 2866 Brooklyn Polytechnic

  17. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  18. Conversations to Transform Geometry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles; Parrott, Amy; Belnap, Jason Knight

    2016-01-01

    Classroom culture is negotiated and established through both conversations and practices. Traditionally, teachers and researchers have focused primarily on the individual and social construction of mathematical content--that is, students' conceptual understanding and procedural skills--through mathematical actions and practices. This article…

  19. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  20. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    -based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...

  1. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  2. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  3. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  4. The national conversion pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Puy, M.; Francis, G.; Konczal, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy is now faced with the prospect of terminating traditional defense production missions at several Department of Energy sites. Because of this, there is a critical need to develop a DOE process to convert former defense production facilities to private use so that underutilized workers and facilities may be used to minimize the impact on the United States economy. The purpose of the National Conversation Pilot Project (NCPP) at Rocky Flats near Denver, Colorado is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of economic conversion of DOE facilities, in a manner consistent with ongoing site waste management and cleanup activities, and non-prejudicial to future land use planning decisions. The NCPP is divided into three stages: The first stage, now under way, is one of detailed planning for cleanup and building maintenance activities. The second stage involves building cleanup necessary to support the proposed industrial activities, maintenance of equipment and building infrastructure necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment, declassification work, and some small scale research and development activities. Stage III would involve DOE metals recycling. Specific approval from the DOE is required prior to each project stage. To ensure stakeholder involvement, a steering committee will advise the DOE on the desirability to proceed with the project from stage to stage. A key question in the conversion process is whether a competitive economic and regulatory environment can be created on a DOE facility, allowing an onsite conversion business to effectively compete with offsite businesses. If successful, the Rocky Flats project could become the model for economic conversion at other DOE facilities

  5. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  6. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S; Honry, M P; Christopher, R W

    1985-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study the digestibility of the hemicellulose fractions of an aquatic biomass, a land-based biomass and a biomass-waste blend under various fermentation conditions. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher than those of cellulose and protein under the mesophilic condition. Hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion. In contrast, cellulose conversion was about the same under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic fermentation of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the pressure of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose required the least investment of enzymes and energy. 4 references.

  7. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  8. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  9. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  10. FRM-II conversion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, A.; Pistner, C.; Liebert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities for a conversion of the currently constructed research reactor FRM-II has been extensively discussed at various RERTR meetings over the past years. In order to support the ongoing decision-making process in Germany, we prepared computer simulations providing extra information on the scientific usability of the converted reactor based on designs proposed by ANL and TUM. The most important results of these calculations are presented and discussed. Special attention is thereby given to the specific German context. (author)

  11. Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING A-ning; LI Fan; CUI Jing

    2015-01-01

    Conversation Analysis shows the evidence of the social nature of people’s action including talk-in-interaction from a micro-level perspective. The method for basing its analysis on the authentic data rather than the retrospective interviews for gain⁃ing the participants’perception makes it unique in discovering the emic perspective of the social interaction. CA, often called as a“micro”methodology, provides theoretical insights and useful analytical tool for exploring the interaction in classrooms.

  12. A Conversation with Adam Heller

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, A; Cairns, EJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr....

  13. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process

  14. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCOFIELD C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4= were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and faujasite.

  15. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    OpenAIRE

    SCOFIELD, C.F.; BENAZZI, E.; CAUFFRIEZ, H.; MARCILLY, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4=) were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and fa...

  16. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  18. Experimental techniques of conversion coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses briefly the history of conversion electron spectra measurements, and the interpretation of the collected data. Then provides a comprehensive review of techniques presently available to measure the conversion coefficients. (Auth.)

  19. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  20. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  1. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  2. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  3. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion...

  4. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  5. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Antonino; Fogliani, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  6. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761...

  7. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  8. Conversion of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu. S.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of the former defense enterprises of STS (Semipalatinsk Test Sate) started under very difficult conditions, when not only research and production activity, but all social life of Kurchatov city were conversed which was caused by a fast curtailment and restationing of Russian military units from the test site. A real risk of a complete destruction of the whole research and production structure of the city existed. From this point of view, the decision of the Republic of Kazakhstan Government to create the National Nuclear Center on the base of the test site research enterprises was actual and timely. During 1993, three research institutes of NNC RK - Institute of Atomic Energy, Institute of Geophysics Research and Institute of Radiation Safety and Environment were established. This decision, under conditions of the Ussr disintegration and liquidation of the test site military divisions, allowed to preserve the qualified personnel, to provide and follow-up the operation of nuclear dangerous facilities, to develop and start the realization of the full scale conversion program.At present time, directions and structure of basic research work in NNC RK are as follows: - liquidation of nuclear explosions consequences; - liquidation of technological infrastructure used for preparation and conduction of nuclear weapon testing; - creation of technology, equipment and places for acceptance and storage of radioactive wastes; - working out of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan; - study of reactor core melt behavior under severe accidents in NPP; - development of methods and means of nuclear testing detection, continuous monitoring of nuclear explosions; - experimental work on a study of structure materials behavior of ITER thermonuclear reactor; - creation of industries requiring a lage implementation of science

  9. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  10. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  11. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  12. Responsive turns in Indonesian informal conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. van Naerssen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People have all sorts of expectations about how interlocutors will and should behave linguistically when engaged in a conversation. These conversational norms are usually implicit and are sometimes difficult to master in a language that is new to you. This paper presents a model of different types of responses in informal conversation, illustrated with Indonesian examples. It builds upon the conversation analytic notion of preference; distinguishing preferred – or constructive – responses and dispreferred – or competitive – responses. The model is meant as a tool to cross-linguistically compare response behaviour to gain insight in language specific expectations about interaction in informal conversation.

  13. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  14. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  16. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  17. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  18. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  19. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  20. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  1. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  2. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  3. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  5. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  6. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  7. Supported Conversation for hospital staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Hysse B; Løvholt, Annelise P.; Mathiesen, Lone Lundbak

    in communication and interaction, Supported Conversation for Adults with Aphasia (SCA) was adapted and implemented in a large neurological department at Rigshospitalet-Glostrup in Copenhagen. Method 152 staff members representing different health professionals were assigned to one of eleven courses during a six...... month period. Each course had 10-12 participants and lasted 6 hours, including instruction in the SCA principles, video analysis, interdisciplinary group work, and practice sessions with PWAs. Self-assessed learning outcomes were evaluated with a brief questionnaire filled out by staff members...... in communication, also showed significant improvements across all staff groups. After the course, more time to spend with patients was perceived as the most important factor to further increase communication success with PWA. Conclusion The results show that interdisciplinary SCA-courses successfully increase...

  8. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  9. Tacit to explicit knowledge conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairó Battistutti, Osvaldo; Bork, Dominik

    2017-11-01

    The ability to create, use and transfer knowledge may allow the creation or improvement of new products or services. But knowledge is often tacit: It lives in the minds of individuals, and therefore, it is difficult to transfer it to another person by means of the written word or verbal expression. This paper addresses this important problem by introducing a methodology, consisting of a four-step process that facilitates tacit to explicit knowledge conversion. The methodology utilizes conceptual modeling, thus enabling understanding and reasoning through visual knowledge representation. This implies the possibility of understanding concepts and ideas, visualized through conceptual models, without using linguistic or algebraic means. The proposed methodology is conducted in a metamodel-based tool environment whose aim is efficient application and ease of use.

  10. Conversion of Ulba Metallurgy Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoprienko, O.

    1996-01-01

    General Information 'Ulba Metallurgical plant' Joint Stock Company successfully operates for more than 46 years. The plant was established by MINSREDMASH, USSR and at the present moment has finished complexes for production of nuclear fuel for atomic power stations, tantalum and superconducting materials production, beryllium, hydrofluoric acid manufacture and engineering production. Problem Essence In spite of the monopoly possession of tantalum manufacture, beryllium and uranium fuel, superconducting materials in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, company has serious financial problems due to the critical situation in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, production ties collapse and fast market demand decrease for the Ulba Metallurgical Plant Joint Stock Company products. The alternative decision is to create substitute productions, conversion integrating and introducing new products to the world market

  11. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  12. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. Case presentation We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian female...

  13. U.S. Domestic Reactor Conversion Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolstenhulme, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Conversion Projects Include: the revision of the facilities safety basis documents and supporting analysis, the fabrication of new LEU fuel, the change-out of the reactor core, and the removal of the used HEU fuel (by INL University Fuels Program or DOE-NE). The major entities involved are: the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the University reactor department, the fuel and hardware fabricators, the Spent fuel receipt facilities, the Spent fuel shipping services, and the U.S. Department of Energy and their subcontractors. Three major Reactor Conversion Program milestones have been accomplished since 2006: the conversion of the TRIGA reactor at Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center, the conversion of the University of Florida Training Reactor, and the conversion of the Purdue University Reactor. Four Reactor Conversion Program milestones yet to be accomplished in 2008 and 2009: the Washington State University Nuclear Radiation Center reactor, the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor, the University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor, and the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility. NNSA is committed to doing things cheaper, better, smarter, safer through a 'Lessons Learned' process. The conversion team assessed each major activity grouping: Project Initiation, Conversion Proposal Development, Fuel Fabrication and Hardware, Core Conversion, and Spent Nuclear Fuel Removal. Issues were identified and recommendations were given

  14. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  15. Conversational Agents in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Alice; Ellis, Richard; Bull, Susan

    This paper discusses the use of natural language or 'conversational' agents in e-learning environments. We describe and contrast the various applications of conversational agent technology represented in the e-learning literature, including tutors, learning companions, language practice and systems to encourage reflection. We offer two more detailed examples of conversational agents, one which provides learning support, and the other support for self-assessment. Issues and challenges for developers of conversational agent systems for e-learning are identified and discussed.

  16. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  17. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  18. NASA thermionic-conversion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's program for applied research and technology (ART) in thermionic energy conversion (TEC) has made worthwhile contributions in a relatively short time: Many of these accomplishments are incremental, yet important. And their integration has yielded gains in performance as well as in the knowledge necessary to point productive directions for future work. Both promise and problems derive from the degrees of freedom allowed by the current programmatic emphasis on out-of-core thermionics. Materials and designs previously prohibited by in-core nucleonics and geometries now offer new potentialities. But as a result a major TEC-ART responsibility is the efficient reduction of the glitter of diverse possibilities to the hard glint of reality. As always high-temperature material effects are crucial to the level and duration of TEC performance: New electrodes must increase and maintain power output regardless of emitter-vapor deposition on collectors. They must also serve compatibly with hot-shell alloys. And while space TEC must face high-temperature vaporization problems externally as well as internally, terrestrial TEC must tolerate hot corrosive atmospheres outside and near-vacuum inside. Furthermore, some modes for decreasing interelectrode losses appear to require rather demanding converter geometries to produce practical power densities. In these areas and others significant progress is being made in the NASA TEC-ART Program

  19. Phase conversion for fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, T.; Castle, W.; Sampat, N.; Skupsky, S.; Smith, D.; Swales, S.

    1988-01-01

    An essential requirement for direct drive laser fusion is the uniform irradiation of spherical targets that are located in the quasi-far field of a laser system. A major impediment to irradiation uniformity with high-power solid-state laser systems is the presence of a hot-spot structure at the target plane. The hot-spot intensity nonuniformities are caused by spatial variations in the near-field phase front of each laser beam. Although for many tabletop applications diffraction-limited laser performance can be obtained through static phase correction, adaptive optics, or phase conjugation, such approaches are either excessively expensive, difficult to implement, or not yet available for large-aperture, high-peak-power laser beams. An alternative to phase correcting a wavefront involves modifying the laser beam's coherence properties thereby changing its focusing characteristics. The method of induced spatial incoherence (ISI) involves a reduction in both spatial and temporal coherence. Other methods are based on modifications of only the spatial coherence of a laser beam. A phase conversion technology which incorporates a distribution of near-field phases to either perform static phase correction or induce spatial incoherence offers a route toward increasingly higher levels of irradiation uniformity

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  1. Tropospheric effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric concentrations of a number of trace gases are increasing due to man's activities. For some trace gases, their atmospheric life cycles are not fully understood and it is difficult to be certain about the role of man's activities. Emissions from the energy industries and energy conversion processes represent an important subset of source terms in these life cycles, along with agriculture, deforestation, cement manufacture, biomass burning, process industries and natural biospheric processes. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) allow the tropospheric effects of a range of climate forcing trace gases to be assessed on a comparable basis. If a short term view of the commitment to global warming is adopted then the contribution from other trace gases may approach and exceed that of carbon dioxide, itself. Over longer time horizons, the long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide shows through as a major influence and the contributions from the other trace gases appear to be much smaller, representing an additional 13-18% contribution on top of that from CO 2 itself

  2. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  3. Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G; Niblett, C; Walker, L

    1983-03-01

    Ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) is a novel 'alternative' energy technology that has created much interest in a number of countries; namely, the USA, Japan, France, Sweden, Holland, India and most recently, the UK. In particular, the first three of these have had programmes to develop the required technology. However, most interest has been centred in the USA, where the current hiatus in Federal funding provides a timely opportunity to assess progress. This paper offers a survey of the prevailing position there; outlining the outstanding technical and associated problems, and likely future developments. Non-USA programmes are only mentioned to contrast them with the American position. At present, it does not appear that OTEC plants will be commercially viable on a widespread basis even in the tropics. This is particularly true of the larger plants (400 MWe, MWe = megawatts of electrical energy, the final output of a power station) towards which the American programme is ultimately geared. There does seem to be a strong possibility that small OTEC plants, around 40 MWe or less, can be commercial in certain circumstances. This would be possible when one or, preferably, more of the following conditions are met: (i) where a land-based rather than 'at sea' plant is possible, (ii) where alternative energy supplies are at a premium, i.e. islands or regions without indigenous energy supplies, and (iii) where conditions are such that an OTEC plant could operate in conjunction with either or both an aquaculture or desalination plant.

  4. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  5. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  6. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  7. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  8. Discourse analysis: Conversational analysis of the internal conversation in Oracle Corporation Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Marwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the internal conversation which takes place in Oracle CorporationMalaysia. Through the study, it will be shown how conversational analysis is used toanalyze the transcription of a telephone conversation between Oracle staffs. The analysisof the transcriptions will apply a few basic concepts of conversational analysis; turntakingorganization, and the adjacency pair. The objective of the study is to find out howthe internal conversations takes place by focusing on the conversation itself, that is, theconversational structures spontaneously produced by people during talk ranging fromturn-taking strategies, how topics are introduced, conversation closings and so on. Bylooking in detail at such talk, we can gain a detailed understanding of how the staffs seethemselves in relation to the company that influence their daily lives.Keywords: conversational analysis, turn-taking, adjacency pairs

  9. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  10. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  11. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  12. Critical Exchange: Religion and Schooling in Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex and messy contexts of schooling, conversations between religion and schooling can be "admitted" as examples of the sort of situated conversation that goes beyond the "false necessity" of universal state-controlled school-based education. There are distinct claims to be made about religion and schooling in…

  13. Jensen's operator inequality and its converses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Pecaric, Josip; Peric, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities......We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities...

  14. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  15. Conversion Disorder in Stroke: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yeh Chou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is caused by previous severe stress, emotional conflict, or an associated psychiatric disorder, and usually presents with one or more neurologic symptoms. Clinically, it is challenging to diagnose diseases such as transient ischemia attack, stroke, brain tumor, spinal cord injury, and neuropathy. In this case report, we present a male stroke patient who had a typical conversion disorder.

  16. Hypnotic susceptibility in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Sandijck, P.

    2002-01-01

    Conversion disorder has been associated with hypnotic susceptibility for over a century and is currently still believed to be a form of autohypnosis. There is, however. little empirical evidence for the relation between hypnotic susceptibility and conversion symptoms. The authors compared 50

  17. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  18. Exergy conversion in the Japanese society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Japanese society are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy are described in some detail

  19. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  20. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study

  1. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  2. Enhancing Classroom Conversation for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, William

    2013-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher, offers strategies intended to assist and encourage ELL students to participate in academic conversations. They include insisting that children take part in conversations despite their apprehension and teaching them the language they need to communicate their ideas. One strategy is Think, Pair, Share--a simple…

  3. Large-video-display-format conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de G.

    2000-01-01

    High-quality video-format converters apply motion estimation and motion compensation to prevent jitter resulting from picture-rate conversion, and aliasing due to de-interlacing, in sequences with motion. Although initially considered as too expensive, high-quality conversion is now economically

  4. Teaching communication aid use in everyday conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses...

  5. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  6. The organization of digital conversation on MSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarxerxes Tiago Tácito Modesto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet has caused a revolution with regard to new forms of interaction between people, offering experiences of real-time communication in so-called virtual environments. Given this scenario, new textual genres emerge, making room for innumerous possibilities of analysis under various approaches. In this paper, we aim at analyzing digital conversations, trying to verify, at first, the extent to which they approach or move away from face-to-face conversations. We also seek to identify, describe and analyze some interactional strategies inherent in this new genre. We base our analyzes on Conversation Analysis theory and Interactional Sociolinguistics to define conversational strategies of the “spoken written text” on the Internet. The corpus used in this work consists of digital conversations coming from the MSN instant messaging software from Microsoft Corporation, chosen because of its wide use among people who use the internet for communication.

  7. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic...... interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...

  8. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  9. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  10. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  11. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  12. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  13. Ownership conversions and nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effects of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system data from 1993 to 2004, and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) facility reports from 1998 to 2004. Regression specification incorporating facility fixed effects, with terms to identify trends in the pre- and postconversion periods. The annual rate of nursing home conversions almost tripled between 1994 and 2004. Our regression results indicate converting facilities are generally different throughout the pre/postconversion years, suggesting little causal effect of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Before and after conversion, nursing homes converting from nonprofit to for-profit status generally exhibit deterioration in their performance, while nursing homes converting from for-profit to nonprofit status generally exhibit improvement. Policy makers have expressed concern regarding the implications of ownership conversions for nursing home performance. Our results imply that regulators and policy makers should not only monitor the outcomes of nursing home conversions, but also the targets of these conversions.

  14. Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2008-02-01

    Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.

  15. Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1980-05-01

    Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)

  16. Entropy fluxes, endoreversibility, and solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Landsberg, P. T.; Baruch, P.; Parrott, J. E.

    1993-09-01

    A formalism illustrating the conversion of radiation energy into work can be obtained in terms of energy and entropy fluxes. Whereas the Landsberg equality was derived for photothermal conversion with zero bandgap, a generalized inequality for photothermal/photovoltaic conversion with a single, but arbitrary, bandgap was deduced. This result was derived for a direct energy and entropy balance. The formalism of endoreversible dynamics was adopted in order to show the correlation with the latter approach. It was a surprising fact that the generalized Landsberg inequality was derived by optimizing some quantity W(sup *), which obtains it maximum value under short-circuit condition.

  17. Conversion electron spectroscopy in transfermium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Conversion electron spectroscopy is an essential tool for the spectroscopy of heavy deformed nuclei. The conversion electron spectrometer SACRED has been used in conjunction with the gas-filled recoil separator RITU to study conversion electron cascades in 254 No. The spectra reveal the ground state rotational bands down to low spin. A detailed analysis of the background seen for 254 No shows that approximately 40% of the decay path goes via excited high K bands which may be built on an isomer. (orig.)

  18. The conversion factor of α radiation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weida; Zhou Zhixin; Xia Junding

    1997-01-01

    It is important in fine-grain TL dating that the full α dose must be converted into the equivalent β dose. Although the conversion coefficient K for internal radiation efficiency can not be measured directly for each sample, it is possible to measure the external radiation efficiency K 3.7 . For this purpose a special study for the conversion factor of K to K 3.7 has been made using ultrathin TLD. The results show that the conversion factor of the TLD for archaeological samples is 0.847, which is in agreement with the calculated value 0.85

  19. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  20. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  1. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  2. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  3. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  4. Compact Energy Conversion Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes such as structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  5. Compact energy conversion module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Conversion systems must meet the same emissions standards that gasoline or diesel products do. Refer to EPA's manufacturer that holds the relevant emissions-related certifications and tampering exemptions. New and

  7. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  8. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between conversion disorder and childhood traumatization has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relation and investigated whether hypnotic susceptibility

  9. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,

  10. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  11. NASA-OAST photovoltaic energy conversion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.

  12. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps...... in the value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  13. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  14. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.

  15. 49 CFR 1018.7 - Conversion claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Conversion claims. These procedures are directed primarily to the recovery of money on behalf of the Government. The Board may demand: (a) The return of specific property; or (b) Either the return of property or the payment of its value. ...

  16. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  17. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction

  18. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor

  19. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of ... There is a recognized need for intermediary institutions, such as media, ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  20. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  1. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  2. Conversion Rate Optimization through Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Miikkulainen, Risto; Iscoe, Neil; Shagrin, Aaron; Cordell, Ron; Nazari, Sam; Schoolland, Cory; Brundage, Myles; Epstein, Jonathan; Dean, Randy; Lamba, Gurmeet

    2017-01-01

    Conversion optimization means designing a web interface so that as many users as possible take a desired action on it, such as register or purchase. Such design is usually done by hand, testing one change at a time through A/B testing, or a limited number of combinations through multivariate testing, making it possible to evaluate only a small fraction of designs in a vast design space. This paper describes Sentient Ascend, an automatic conversion optimization system that uses evolutionary op...

  3. μ- conversion via doubly charged Higgs scalar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picciotto, C.E.; Zahir, M.S.

    1982-10-01

    A new mechanism is used to calculate μ - → e + conversion in nuclei, based on the existence of a doubly charged Higgs scalar. The scalar is part of a triplet which generates the spontaneous breakdown of B-L symmetry in an extension of the standard model, as proposed by Gelmini and Roncadelli. We find a limit for conversion rates which is comparable to those of earlier calculations

  4. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  5. A simple theory of linear mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Woods, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the basic theory of linear mode conversion involving the construction of differential equations for the mode amplitudes based on the properties of the dispersion relation in the neighbourhood of the mode conversion point. As an example the transmission coefficient for tunneling from the upper hybrid resonance through the evanescent region to the adjacent cut-off is treated. 7 refs, 3 figs

  6. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

  7. A Converse of Fermat's Little Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    As the name of the paper implies, a converse of Fermat's Little Theorem (FLT) is stated and proved. FLT states the following: if p is any prime, and x any integer, then x[superscript p] [equivalent to] x (mod p). There is already a well-known converse of FLT, known as Lehmer's Theorem, which is as follows: if x is an integer coprime with m, such…

  8. Development of high conversion boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Mochida, Takaaki; Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    It is expected that the period of LWRs being the main source of electric power supply becomes long, therefore, the development of next generation LWRs placing emphasis on the effective utilization of uranium resources and the improvement of economical efficiency is necessary. In this paper, as the next generation BWRs subsequent to ABWRs, the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs is reported, in which emphasis is placed on the saving of natural uranium resources by raising the rate of conversion to plutonium. This core is that of realizing the high rate of conversion by utilizing the void in the core, which is the feature of BWRs, and the case of making the change of the core structure relatively small by using cross type control rods and the case of changing the core structure for further heightening the rate of conversion and making control rods into cluster type are described. In order to meet the demand like this, Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in the development of the concept of the core of next generation LWRs. In the high conversion type BWRs, there is not large change in the reactor system and turbine system from the current BWRs. The features and the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs are described. (Kako, I.)

  9. Conversational AI: The Science Behind the Alexa Prize

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Ashwin; Prasad, Rohit; Khatri, Chandra; Venkatesh, Anu; Gabriel, Raefer; Liu, Qing; Nunn, Jeff; Hedayatnia, Behnam; Cheng, Ming; Nagar, Ashish; King, Eric; Bland, Kate; Wartick, Amanda; Pan, Yi; Song, Han

    2018-01-01

    Conversational agents are exploding in popularity. However, much work remains in the area of social conversation as well as free-form conversation over a broad range of domains and topics. To advance the state of the art in conversational AI, Amazon launched the Alexa Prize, a 2.5-million-dollar university competition where sixteen selected university teams were challenged to build conversational agents, known as socialbots, to converse coherently and engagingly with humans on popular topics ...

  10. Sexy gene conversions: locating gene conversions on the X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mark J; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-08-01

    Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short- and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here, we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) for evidence of gene conversion. We identified seven gene families (WD repeat protein family, Ferritin Heavy Chain family, RAS-related Protein RAB-40 family, Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase family, Transcription Elongation Factor A family, LDOC1-related family, Zinc Finger Protein ZIC, and GLI family) that show evidence of gene conversion. Through phylogenetic analyses and synteny evidence, we show that gene conversion has played an important role in the evolution of these gene families and that gene conversion has occurred independently in both primates and rodents. Comparing the results with those of two gene conversion prediction programs (GENECONV and Partimatrix), we found that both GENECONV and Partimatrix have very high false negative rates (i.e. failed to predict gene conversions), which leads to many undetected gene conversions. The combination of phylogenetic analyses with physical synteny evidence exhibits high resolution in the detection of gene conversions.

  11. Teaching Spanish Pragmatics Through Colloquial Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albelda Marco, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the advantages of teaching and learning a foreign language with and through spoken discursive corpora, and especially colloquial and conversational ones. The benefits of developing oral competence and communicative skills in language learners using colloquial conversations will be exposed and discussed. In this paper, we characterise the colloquial conversation and the features that define this register and discursive genre. Being the most natural and original way to communicate among human beings, the colloquial conversation is the most common means to communicate, and therefore, this genre should have a greater presence in foreign-language classrooms. Secondly, we expound on the advantages of teaching using colloquial conversations corpora, particularly resulting from its contextualisation (the linguistic input is learnt in its real and authentic context and from its oral and conversational features (prosodic elements and interactional mechanisms. Thirdly, the paper provides a list of corpora of colloquial conversations that are available in Spanish, focusing on Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus (peninsular Spanish oral corpus, Briz et al., 2002; Cabedo & Pons online, www.valesco.es. Finally, a set of pragmatic applications of corpora in foreign-language classroom is offered, in particular using the Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus: functions of discourse markers and interjections (whose meanings change depending on the context, strategies of turn-takings, ways of introducing new topic in the dialogues, mechanisms of keeping or “stealing” the turn, devices to introduce direct speech, attitudes expressed by the falling and rising intonations, hedges and intensifiers, and so on. In general, this paper pretends to offer ideas, resources and materials to make the students more competent in communication using authentic discursive oral corpora.

  12. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  13. TFTR power conversion and plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.

    1985-01-01

    Major components of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) power conversion system include 39 thyristor rectifier power supplies, 12 energy storage capacitor banks, and 6 ohmic heating interrupters. These components are connected in various series/parallel configurations to provide controlled pulses of current to the Toroidal Field (TF), Ohmic Heating (OH), Equilibrium (vertical) Field (EF), and Horizontal Field (HF) magnet coil systems. Real-time control of the power conversion system is accomplished by a centralized dedicated computer; local control is minimal. Power supply firing angles, capacitor bank charge and discharge commands, interrupter commands, etc., are all determined and issued by the central computer. Plasma Position and Current Control (PPCC) reference signals to power conversion (OH, EF, HF) are determined by separate analog electronics but invoked through the power conversion computer. Real-time fault sensing of plasma parameters, gas injection, neutral beams, etc., are monitored by a separate Discharge Fault System (DFS) but routed through the power conversion computer for pre-programmed shutdown response

  14. Kinetics of Scheelite Conversion in Sulfuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Leiting; Li, Xiaobin; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Complete conversion of scheelite in H2SO4 solution plays a key role in exploration of cleaner technology for producing ammonium paratungstate. In this work, the factors influencing scheelite conversion were investigated experimentally to model its kinetics. The results indicated that the conversion rate increases with increasing temperature and reducing particle size, but is almost independent of stirring speed. Moreover, although the conversion rate increases with increasing initial H2SO4 concentration (≤ 1.25 mol/L), it decreases rapidly at 1.5 mol/L H2SO4 after 10 min due to formation of a H2WO4 layer. The experimental data agree quite well with the shrinking core model under chemical reaction control in ≤ 1.25 mol/L H2SO4 solution, and the kinetic equation was established as: 1- ( 1- α )^{ 1 / 3} = 2 2 2 5 4 6. 6\\cdot C_{{{H}_{ 2} {SO}_{ 4} }}^{ 1. 2 2 6} \\cdot r_{ 0}^{ - 1} \\cdot e^{{ - 3 9 2 6 0/RT}} \\cdot t (t, min). This work could contribute to better understanding of scheelite conversion in H2SO4 solution and development of a new route for ammonium paratungstate production.

  15. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  16. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  17. Study on carbon dioxide conversion by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Geun Il; Cho, Il Hoon; Choi, Sang Do; Hong, Kwang Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the synergistic effects on the CO 2 conversion by the application of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray. Gamma-ray irradiation was performed to examine the effects of semiconductor application on CO 2 conversion in water and the formation of organic material from carbonate solution. From experimental results it is clear that the supplication of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray increases the efficiency for CO 2 conversion to organic matter. Based on the obtained experimental results it is obvious that the synergistic effects of semiconductor materials in the gamma-ray field leads to increase of the CO 2 conversion yield to organic matter up to 50 percent compared to the gamma-ray irradiation. The way of achieving higher activity is due to the catalytic action of semiconductor by gamma-ray irradiation. Zr-doped TiO 2 catalyst prepared by sol-gel method exhibits the higher efficiency for CO 2 conversion in aqueous solution and carbonate containing solution. This effect of Zr-doping can be explained by the formation of additional defects in surface of TiO 2 film. (author)

  18. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  20. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  1. Conversation after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Motivations for Applying Conversation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Scott; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well documented pragmatic deficits that can arise subsequent to Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHBD), few researchers have directly studied everyday conversations involving people with RHBD. In recent years, researchers have begun applying Conversation Analysis (CA) to the everyday talk of people with aphasia. This research programme…

  2. evaluation of commercial FCC catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion. I. Physicochemical characterization and n-hexane conversion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brait, A.; Brait, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of six steam-stabilized, commercial FCC catalysts were compared in respect of their catalytic activity for n-hexane conversion. The conversion of n-hexane over these catalysts could be fully explained by three reaction pathways: protolytic cracking, protolytic

  3. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  4. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed...... into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium is strictly...... regulated due to its toxic nature and suspected carcinogenicity. So, it is highly imperative to develop other alternatives for chrome conversion coatings. Treatment of aluminium with natural water at elevated temperatures results in the formation of different forms of aluminium oxide (γ-AlO(OH) , Al(OH)3...

  5. Postoperative conversion disorder in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Amy; Spielman, Fred

    2010-11-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV), conversion disorder is classified as a somatoform illness and defined as an alteration or loss of physical function because of the expression of an underlying psychological ailment. This condition, previously known as hysteria, hysterical neurosis, or conversion hysteria occurs rarely, with an incidence of 11-300 cases per 100,000 people (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Presentation after an anesthetic is exceptional. After thorough review of the literature, fewer than 20 cases have been documented, with only two instances in patients younger than 18 years of age after general anesthesia; both were mild in nature. We present a severe case of postoperative conversion disorder that developed upon emergence from anesthesia in a previously healthy 16-year-old girl following direct laryngoscopy with vocal fold injection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Political Conversation in Everyday Communicative Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at forms of interaction and communicative exchanges in discussion groups composed of beneficiaries of a Brazilian income transfer program (Bolsa-Família Program and at how these forms contribute to the deliberative process. Discussion groups are used as a method for showing how everyday conversation and political discussion are interrelated. Our interest is not to analyze this program, but rather represents an attempt to capture and research moments in which group participants establish their own position relative to one another. At such moments, conversations on everyday subjects and personal dramas shift towards attitudes that include taking the risk of expressing dissonant opinions, explaining background assumptions, and producing counter-narratives. Eight discussion groups were established in two Brazilian cities in the Southeastern region: four in Belo Horizonte (MG and four in Campinas (SP. Keywords: everyday conversation; political discussion; deliberative process; discussion groups; poor women.

  7. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  8. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  9. Power production with direct energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, C. [Morrow Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Beller, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brown, L. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States); Parish, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  10. Power production with direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S.; Morrow, C.; Anghaie, S.; Beller, D.; Brown, L.; Parish, T.

    2001-01-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  11. Conversation practices and network structure in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Magnani, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The public by default nature of Twitter messages, together with the adoption of the #hashtag convention led, in few years, to the creation of a digital space able to host worldwide conversation on almost every kind of topic. From major TV shows to Natural disasters there is no contemporary event...... that does not have its own #hashtag to gather together the ongoing Twitter conversation. These topical discussions take place outside of the Twitter network made of followers and friends. Nevertheless this topical network is where many of the most studied phenomena take place. Therefore Twitter based...... communication exists on two almost autonomous levels: the Twitter network made of followers and friends that shows a certain level of stability and the topical network, characterized by a high level of contingency, that appears and disappears following the rhythm of a worldwide conversation. Despite the fact...

  12. Superhydrophobic nanofluidic channels for enhanced electrokinetic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio; Al Hossain, Aktaruzzaman; Rahmani, Amir; Black, Charles; Doerk, Gregory; Colosqui, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present current efforts in the development of novel slit nanofluidic channels with superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces designed to enhance hydrodynamic conductivity and improve selective transport and electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencies (mechanical-electrical energy conversion). The nanochannels are fabricated on silicon wafers using UV lithography, and their internal surface is patterned with conical nanostructures (feature size and spacing 30 nm) defined by block copolymer self-assembly and plasma etching. These nanostructures are rendered superhydrophobic by passivation with a hydrophobic silane monolayer. We experimentally characterize hydrodynamic conductivity, effective zeta potentials, and eletrokinetic flows for the patterned nanochannels, comparing against control channels with bare surfaces. Experimental observations are rationalized using both continuum-based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific and technical knowledge produced by this work is particularly relevant for sustainable energy conversion and storage, separation processes and water treatment using nanoporous materials. The ONR Contract # N000141613178 and NSF-CBET award# 1605809.

  13. Impact of defense conversion and US response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanarelli, N.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion from military to civilian products due to defense conversion after the end of the Cold War takes a long as 20 years. In USA there are over 50 government programs funded to assist in defence conversion. This paper concentrates on the three major programs that will have the greatest impact on the economy, in the framework of the issues and needs of American industry. Federal government and US industry are making a considerable effort to transform how to do business today. One of the most important emerging themes in the federal program is international competitiveness. Large federal expenditures are made to support research and development that will increase productivity, thereby helping industry in global economic competition. This, in turn will play a key role in absorbing a large quantity od resources affected by the end of the Cold War

  14. Conversational routines in English convention and creativity

    CERN Document Server

    Aijmer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising how much of everyday conversation consists of repetitive expressions such as 'thank you', 'sorry', would you mind?' and their many variants. However commonplace they may be, they do have important functions in communication.This thorough study draws upon original data from the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English to provide a discoursal and pragmatic account of the more common expressions found in conversational routines, such as apologising, thanking, requesting and offering.The routines studied in this book range from conventionalized or idiomatized phrases t

  15. Methods for Mining and Summarizing Text Conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Carenini, Giuseppe; Murray, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the Internet Revolution, human conversational data -- in written forms -- are accumulating at a phenomenal rate. At the same time, improvements in speech technology enable many spoken conversations to be transcribed. Individuals and organizations engage in email exchanges, face-to-face meetings, blogging, texting and other social media activities. The advances in natural language processing provide ample opportunities for these "informal documents" to be analyzed and mined, thus creating numerous new and valuable applications. This book presents a set of computational methods

  16. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  17. Conversion rate optimization in Finnish online businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ratia, Miramaria; Ruoho, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is an unfamiliar term to many online business owners even though it has become almost as important as search engine optimization is in e-commerce today. It is a method that is used to turn passive visitors into active users in order to improve a website’s performance. The main objective of this thesis was to find out what kinds of conversion rate optimization methods do Finnish small and medium-sized online businesses use. The thesis also studies what ar...

  18. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  19. Rectenna session: Micro aspects. [energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two micro aspects of the rectenna design are addressed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these micro aspects involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  20. A System for Electromagnetic Field Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...

  1. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor); Stone, William C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An optical energy transfer and conversion system comprising a fiber spooler and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the spooler with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy. The fiber spooler may reside on the remote mobility platform which may be a vehicle, or apparatus that is either self-propelled or is carried by a secondary mobility platform either on land, under the sea, in the air or in space.

  2. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  3. Tritiated hydrogen conversion on heated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, G.; Mihaila, V.; Purghel, L.; Rebigan, F.

    1995-01-01

    This work reports investigations on tritiated hydrogen conversion to tritiated water on heated metallic surfaces. The HT conversion process has been revealed for copper, aluminium and stainless steel W4541 surfaces in the temperature range 150 to 300 o C, in case of the static regime and in the range 250 to 400 o C for the dynamic case. The most significant catalytic activity was shown by the copper sample. Studies on this subject are used as input information for different nuclear accident scenarios implying tritium leakage

  4. MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS FOR THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R. C.; Skeen, C. H.

    1963-03-15

    The fundamentals of the thermionic energy conversion and its potential applications are reviewed. Materials problems associated with thermionic emitters are considered in relation to the following: work function; emissivity; vaporization; thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties; chemical stability; permeation; and stability under nuclear radiation. Cesium purity and materials suitable for collectors, electrical leads, support structures, insulators, and seals are also discussed. Experimental work on problems involved is reviewed. It is concluded that significant developments have occurred recently in all areas of thermionic energy conversion. (40 references) (A.G.W.)

  5. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  6. Conversion problems at the enterprises of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurodze, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the republic Georgia and other countries of former Soviet Union, various scientific research and experimental construction work for the production of special military techniques was conducted for Military Institutions. Much of the conversion work has been done and the brightest example was performed by Georgian aviation industry. Intensive research was conducted on improving the quality of the existing power systems as well as on search for new power sources and means of power savings. A number of significant projects were developed, the implementation of which will considerably improve the crisis situation in the sphere of power supply. A number of laboratories and research centres have submitted proposals for conversion programs

  7. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  8. The Finmeccania experience in military conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaghi, A.; Corsi, C.

    1994-01-01

    Experience of the Italian aerospace, defense, energy, transportation and automation group Finmeccanica in military conversion is presented. The defence activities represent about 30% of the total turnover. The group involves 100 laboratories, 7000 fully dedicated employees and several centers of excellence. Since defense market is declining, production volumes are smaller, there is a decline in research and development public expenditures and there are less programs. The industry's challenge is how to survive since conversion in principle is not viable and diversification does not defend the high technology content. Some examples are described which show the possibility of convergence from military to commercial requirements

  9. High conversion HTRs and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, H.; Hansen, U.; Larsen, H.; Price, M.S.T.

    1975-01-01

    This report discusses the principles of the core design and the fuel cycle layout for High Conversion HTRs (HCHTRs). Though most of the principles apply equally to HTRs of the pebble-bed and the prismatic fuel element design types, the paper concentrates on the latter. Design and fuel cycle strategies for the full utilisation of the high conversion potential are compared with others that aim at easier reprocessing and the 'environmental' fuel cycle. The paper concludes by discussing operating and fuel cycle characteristics and economics of HCHTRs, and how the latter impinge on the allowable price for uranium ore and the available uranium resources. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Application of Facility Management in Brownfield Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernerová Eva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers two issues, namely the issue of brownfields and their conversion and the issue of Facility Management, which offers the possibility of applying its principles and tools for extending the benefit of the construction works as a tool for active access to care for the property. This paper aims to link these two topics and to identify the possibility of applying Facility Management in the conversation process of revitalization of brownfields so that subsequent commissioning eliminates the risk of future costly operation and relapse of the revitalized building into the category of brownfields.

  11. 24 CFR 972.109 - Conversion of developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... writing whether it has approved the conversion plan. Units that are vacant or vacated on or after the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of developments. 972.109... DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing...

  12. Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, M H; Milstein, J P

    1989-01-01

    We assessed the effects of video modeling on acquisition and generalization of conversational skills among autistic children. Three autistic boys observed videotaped conversations consisting of two people discussing specific toys. When criterion for learning was met, generalization of conversational skills was assessed with untrained topics of conversation; new stimuli (toys); unfamiliar persons, siblings, and autistic peers; and other settings. The results indicated that the children learned through video modeling, generalized their conversational skills, and maintained conversational speech over a 15-month period. Video modeling shows much promise as a rapid and effective procedure for teaching complex verbal skills such as conversational speech. PMID:2793634

  13. In-beam conversion electron spectroscopy using the SACRED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.; Cann, K.J.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Jones, G.D.; Julin, R.; Schulze, B.; Smith, J.F.; Wilson, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conversion electron studies of medium-heavy to heavy nuclear mass systems are important where the internal conversion process begins to dominate over gamma-ray emission. The use of a segmented detector array sensitive to conversion electrons has been used to study multiple conversion electron cascades from nuclear transitions. The application of the silicon array for conversion electron detection (SACRED) for in-beam measurements has successfully been implemented. (orig.). With 2 figs

  14. Unconventional fluoride conversion coating preparation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábiková, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Tkacz, J.; Doležal, P.; Wasserbauer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2017), s. 613-619 ISSN 0003-5599 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fluoride conversion coating * magnesium * corrosion Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2016 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/ACMM-02-2017-1757

  15. Perspectives for the uranium conversion market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honaiser, Eduardo H.R.; Melo, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Uranium conversion is the last step to be technologically dominated by Brazil in the nuclear fuel cycle. Hence, it has a strategic importance for the Brazilian nuclear project, which is confirmed by the recent investment of the Science and Technology Department on the Brazilian Navy conversion plant project. This paper is an attempt to justify the necessity of the conversion and the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle projects, as well as identify future steps for the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project. The paper objective is achieved performing a qualitative supply-demand balance for the past and the future and analysing the market structure, using the Porter five forces used on industry analysis. Both surveys have shown a promising future for the nuclear fuel industry, including the conversion due to the expected demand increase and reduction of inventories. Furthermore current suppliers have several mechanisms that work as a barrier to new entrants. Under this context, the a fully integrated Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project is necessary, given the prosperous economical future of the sector and the possible future shortage of nuclear fuel products. Reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication capabilities are important future steps for the program, given that there is a trend of increase of their use. (author)

  16. Perspectives for the uranium conversion market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaiser, Eduardo H.R.; Melo, Bruno [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: 213@ctemsp.mar.mil.br

    2007-07-01

    Uranium conversion is the last step to be technologically dominated by Brazil in the nuclear fuel cycle. Hence, it has a strategic importance for the Brazilian nuclear project, which is confirmed by the recent investment of the Science and Technology Department on the Brazilian Navy conversion plant project. This paper is an attempt to justify the necessity of the conversion and the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle projects, as well as identify future steps for the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project. The paper objective is achieved performing a qualitative supply-demand balance for the past and the future and analysing the market structure, using the Porter five forces used on industry analysis. Both surveys have shown a promising future for the nuclear fuel industry, including the conversion due to the expected demand increase and reduction of inventories. Furthermore current suppliers have several mechanisms that work as a barrier to new entrants. Under this context, the a fully integrated Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project is necessary, given the prosperous economical future of the sector and the possible future shortage of nuclear fuel products. Reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication capabilities are important future steps for the program, given that there is a trend of increase of their use. (author)

  17. Opening the Door to Coaching Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheliotes, Linda Gross; Reilly, Marceta Fleming

    2012-01-01

    A leader doesn't have to solve every problem personally to be effective. In fact, helping others learn to resolve issues and implement their own solutions is the key to sustainable leadership and an empowered staff. This companion and follow-up book to "Coaching Conversations" brings the coaching style of leadership to life with stories from the…

  18. Real Communication through Interview and Conversation Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Therese M.; Birckbichler, Diane W.

    1975-01-01

    A method for use in foreign language teaching which involves the use of conversation cards and interview cards is described. The method is intended to improve the ability of the student to communicate in the language and allow for greater individualization of instruction. (RM)

  19. OSIRIS: an example of gradual conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Beylot, J.; Joly, C.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of the OSIRIS core from 'Caramel' to silicide forms part of the move towards standardising a well-known fuel, developed in the context of the RERTR programme, and used by the majority of reactors. This standardisation makes it possible to anticipate reduced manufacturing and reprocessing costs in the long term. (author)

  20. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by

  1. Special involuntary conversion situations involving timberland

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegal

    2001-01-01

    If standing timber is destroyed or stolen, or if forest land is condemned for public use, the owner may be entitled to take a deduction on his or her income tax return. These types of losses are called involuntary conversions. In previous National Woodlands articles I've discussed in detail casualty losses, which represent the major type of timber involuntary...

  2. Occlusion classifiers for picture rate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.L.L.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion detection is an essential ingredient in high quality picture rate up-conversion and view interpolation applications. Many integrated approaches to occlusion detection and classification have been proposed, particularly in the stereo literature. However, due to their high complexity and

  3. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  4. Student Emotions in Conversation-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Blair A.; Zapata-Rivera, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Students can experience a variety of emotions while completing assessments. Some emotions can get in the way of students performing their best (e.g., anxiety, frustration), whereas other emotions can facilitate student performance (e.g., engagement). Many new, non-traditional assessments, such as automated conversation-based assessments (CBA), are…

  5. Principles of energy conversion, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, A.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Energy classification, sources, utilization, economics and terminology; Principal fuels for energy conversion; Production of thermal energy; Fossil-fuel systems (such as steam generators, etc.); Nuclear reactor design and operation; The environmental impact of power plant operation; Production of mechanical energy; Production of electrical energy; and Energy storage

  6. Neuroimaging in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medically unexplained symptoms are not uncommon in the clinical setting. Conversion disorder is a psychological disorder in which there is no neurological explanation for patients’ physical symptoms. These physical symptoms can be both positive or negative, e.g. tremor or paresis. This

  7. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  8. CALVIN'S SUDDEN CONVERSION (SUBITA CONVERSIO) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    his conversion, it could be fruitful to consider it from both historical and theological perspectives. ... logical positions of the interpreters. For example, a ..... God, but as the true method of worshipping was altogether unknown to me, I stumbled at ...

  9. A Conversation about Professionalism and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Patricia A.; Crowson, Robert L.; Goldring, Ellen B.; Mawhinney, Hanne B.; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Driscoll, Mary Erina

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interactive electronic conversation among a group of scholars. Participants examined the nature of relationships between professionals and school communities and debated the degree to which conflict was either inevitable or useful in sustaining this connection. They tried to imagine the organizational structures and policies needed to…

  10. Conversion growth of Protestant churches in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M

    2008-01-01

    This study set out to answer the question what factors are conducive for church growth through conversion in Protestant Thai churches. After 180 years of unhindered Protestant missionary activity only 0.3% of ethnic Thai, about 185,000 people, have become Protestants. Though small, ethnic Thai

  11. Internal conversion mediated by specific nuclear motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Liv Bærenholdt; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2014-01-01

    the excitation energies, and the excitation in all cases is by a 200 nm photon, the S1 density-of-states in the Franck-Condon region will be high for the more N-alkylated amine. This, according to standard models, should lead to faster internal conversion. The experimental results are in contrast to this...

  12. Frontiers of Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Inorganics features a Forum for novel materials and approaches for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Diminishing non-renewable fossil fuels and the resulting unattainability of environment have made us search new sustainable energy resources and develop technology for efficient utilization of such resources. Green energy sources, such as solar, hydroelectric, thermal and wind energy are partially replacing fossil fuels as means to generate power. Inorganic (solid state materials are key in the development of advanced devices for the efficient storage and conversion of energy. The grand challenge facing the inorganic chemist is to discover, design rationally and utilize advanced technological materials made from earth-abound elements for these energy storage and conversion processes. Recent spectacular progress in inorganic materials synthesis, characterization, and computational screening has greatly advanced this field, which drove us to edit this issue to provide a window to view the development of this field for the community. This special issue comprises research articles, which highlights some of the most recent advances in new materials for energy storage and conversion. [...

  13. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    conversion program. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...

  14. Market for natural uranium conversion. Commercial aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durret, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    The main activity of COMURHEX is the conversion into uranium hexafluoride of uranium concentrates from mines and owned by electricity producers. Capacities of the 5 uranium converters in the Western World are compared. About 50% of COMUREX turnover is exported. Evolution of the market and of stockpile are reviewed [fr

  15. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  16. Short Communication: Retrospective Conversion of Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Jos Library, Nigeria had envisioned the computerisation of its functions and services since the 1980s, but it was not until 1992 that it had its first set of microcomputers. The retrospective conversion (RECON) of the library's collection is currently in progress, and the Integrated Technical Services (ITS) for

  17. Crossing the Aisle: Conversations about Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article presents edited transcripts of separate Skype conversations with Richard Ungerer, AMS executive director, in his office at AMS headquarters in New York and Andre Roberfroid, president of AMI, at his home in Vetraz-Monthoux, France. It also presents a discussion of the ways the two organizations can join forces to strengthen the…

  18. Prosopagnosia as a Type of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodagh Power

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. Case. A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual’s emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. Conclusions. We propose that our patient’s adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that “primed” him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

  19. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  20. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  1. Status of RA3 conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studies carried out at CNEA in Argentina for the conversion of the RA3 3.5 MW reactor to LEU fuel dealt with neutronic, thermal hydraulic, safety analysis, as well as fuel manufacture. Some of the results for the neutronic studies are reported

  2. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-08-03

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian females who presented with classical symptoms of hypothyroidism and the investigations showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone with positive thyroid antibodies. Diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism was made and thyroxine replacement therapy was initiated. Patients became asymptomatic with normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone level. After few years they developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. Over replacement of thyroxine was considered and the dose of thyroxine was decreased, but they remain symptomatic. After gradual decrease in the dose of thyroxine it was stopped finally. Even after few months of stopping thyroxine, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism did not improve and the biochemical and imaging modalities confirmed that the patients have developed hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid treatment was then started and the patients became symptom free. High index of suspicion should be there for possible conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism if a patient with primary hypothyroidism develops persistent symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Otherwise it can be missed easily considering it as an over replacement with thyroid hormone.

  3. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  4. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Machin, Lizet; Perez Bermudez, Raul; Quintana Perez, Candido Enrique; Ocanna Guevara, Victor Samuel; Duffus Scott, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  5. Urban energy conversion and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The extent to which the building up and energy conversion affect the quality and energy economy of living space is shown by the example of Munich. The comparison of the energy economy of various ecological systems give qualified information for assessing the thermal loading in densely inhabited areas and show the basic differences between built-up and country areas. (DG) [de

  6. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  7. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the

  8. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Operant procedures applied to a conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P.F.M.; Heijden, H.P. van der; Hoogduin, K.A.L.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Conversion symptoms, as identified by the existing classification systems, do not form a single unitary class. It is therefore difficult to find an adequate treatment that closely connects to the basic characteristics of the disease. Instead, we designed a treatment method that closely relates to

  10. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period beginning... appeals judge to the lowest rate of basic pay provided by § 534.603(a) of this subpart that equals or...

  11. Absorption and emission from mode conversion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of mode conversion theory on emission have led to some surprising results. The classical expressions were originally derived from models which did not include mode conversion or its attendant reflection. When mode conversion was included, the first surprise was that the transmission coefficient is totally independent of absorption and due exclusively to tunneling. The other surprise is that the observed emission arises from two distinct sources, one direct, and one from an indirect Bernstein wave source which is partially converted in the cyclotron layer to outgoing electromagnetic waves, with the net result that mode conversion cancels out for the electron case. The only corrections to electron cyclotron emission are then due to reflection effects, and these have been shown to be small for laboratory plasmas, leading to the validation of the classical formula, but via an entirely new paradigm in its interpretation. This paper includes a summary of the absorption process for electron cyclotron harmonics, and reviews the emission physics, including both potential error estimates and a discussion of the spatial emission source distribution

  12. The (μ-, e+) conversion with Majoron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, M.S.; Picciotto, C.E.

    1982-07-01

    We study the process of μ - → e + in nuclei with the emission of a Majoron with B-L symmetry spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation value of a Higgs triplet. We find that this mechanism may contribute to the μ - → e + conversion rate at the same level as predicted by earlier models

  13. Prosopagnosia as a Type of Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Clodagh; Hannigan, Oisin; Coen, Robert; Bruce, Irene; Gibb, Matthew; McCarthy, Marie; Robinson, David; Lawlor, Brian A

    2018-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual's emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. We propose that our patient's adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that "primed" him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

  14. Case Study: Camptocormia, a Rare Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, Velayudhan; Thomas, Biju; Sreekumar, Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Camptocormia is a condition characterized by severe frontal flexion of the spinal cord and knees, with passive drooping of both arms. It occurs as a form of conversion disorder. Some cases are associated with behavioral problems. A case of camptocormia of 2-year duration in a south Indian adolescent girl with oppositional defiant disorder and…

  15. Emotional Stimuli and Motor Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…

  16. Topical papers on uranium conversion and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium conversion and enrichment are discussed in 5 papers by representatives of the USA, Great Britain and Switzerland. The state of the art is reviewed, and future prospects are given. Supply assurance is directly related to the necessary production capacities and the supply agreements

  17. Problematic topic transitions in dysarthric conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of topic transition problems associated with acquired progressive dysarthric speech in the everyday conversation of people with motor neurone disease. Using conversation analytic methods, a video collection of five naturally occurring problematic topic transitions was identified, transcribed and analysed. These were extracted from a main collection of over 200 other-initiated repair sequences and a sub-set of 15 problematic topic transition sequences. The sequences were analysed with reference to how the participants both identified and resolved the problems. Analysis revealed that topic transition by people with dysarthria can prove problematic. Conversation partners may find transitions problematic not only because of speech intelligibility but also because of a sequential disjuncture between the dysarthric speech turn and whatever topic has come prior. In addition the treatment of problematic topic transition as a complaint reveals the potential vulnerability of people with dysarthria to judgements of competence. These findings have implications for how dysarthria is conceptualized and how specific actions in conversation, such as topic transition, might be suitable targets for clinical intervention.

  18. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  19. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  20. Alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulpek, Demet; Kelemence Kaplan, Figen; Kesebir, Sermin; Bora, Ozlem

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, it has been observed that alexithymia is not specified for the psychosomatic disorders. It is known that alexithymia is observed frequently in various psychiatric disorders especially in the somatoform disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate alexithymia in the patients with the conversion disorder. The study was performed in the Psychiatry Outpatients Clinics of the Izmir Atatürk Training and Research Hospital and Erenköy Psychiatry Education and Research Hospital. A total of 93 cases-47 outpatients who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria and 46 age, gender and educational level matched healthy controls-were included in the study. All the cases were assessed by a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were evaluated with a questionnaire (which included demographics and clinical data), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. When the two groups were compared, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale scores (except "externally oriented thinking" subscale) and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale score of the conversion disorder group were statistically significantly higher than the control group. The number of the alexithymic cases of the patient group was significantly higher than the control group's. The level of alexithymia in conversion disorder patients, without any other psychiatric disorder, is higher than that of the healthy controls. During the evaluation of the psychological state of patients with conversion disorder, it could be useful to keep in mind the probability of them having alexithymia to determine the type of suitable therapy.

  1. Four questions and a conversation: Can theory enrich conversation partner training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pound, Carole; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Simmons-Mackie, NIna

    Background and aimsConversation partner training (CPT) is an umbrella term for different approaches to intervention aiming to facilitate and improve communication between people with aphasia (PWA) and their conversation partners (CP). Some approaches are grounded in a bottom-up approach...... and interactions. Philosophically informed by existential-phenomenological perspectives, the humanisation framework encourages reflection on what practices can make people feel more (or less) human. Reviewing experiences of conversation against the eight suggested dimensions of what it means to be human may offer...

  2. Statistical thermodynamics foundation for photovoltaic and photothermal conversion. II. Application to photovoltaic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel; Landsberg, Peter T.

    1995-08-01

    The general theory developed in part I was applied to build up two models of photovoltaic conversion. To this end two different systems were analyzed. The first system consists of the whole absorber (converter), for which the balance equations for energy and entropy are written and then used to derive an upper bound for solar energy conversion. The second system covers a part of the absorber (converter), namely the valence and conduction electronic bands. The balance of energy is used in this case to derive, under additional assumptions, another upper limit for the conversion efficiency. This second system deals with the real location where the power is generated. Both models take into consideration the radiation polarization and reflection, and the effects of concentration. The second model yields a more accurate upper bound for the conversion efficiency. A generalized solar cell equation is derived. It is proved that other previous theories are particular cases of the present more general formalism.

  3. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational valence about alcohol and subsequent persuasion outcomes. The study produced three main findings. First, an increase in the emotion fear induced a negative conversational valence about alcohol. Second, fear was most strongly induced by a disgusting message, whereas a humorous appeal induced the least fear. Third, a negative conversational valence elicited healthier binge drinking attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behaviors. Thus, health campaign planners and health researchers should pay special attention to the emotional characteristics of health messages and should focus on inducing a healthy conversational valence.

  4. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, John R.; Kinsmen, Douglas; Regan, Thomas M.; Bobek, Leo M.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  5. Conversing as Metaphor of Human Thinking: Is Mind like a Conversation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsana, Christine; Trognon, Alain

    2018-06-01

    How can researchers shape their ideas so that they understand the mind better? This theoretical paper discusses the merits of the conversation metaphor as a means of analyzing the human mind. We will develop arguments concerning conversation as i) a situated and distributed activity, ii) a "product" in perpetual construction, and iii) the amount of credence and belief we afford it. Finally, we will advocate for metaphorical tools that promote a more dynamic conceptualization of human thinking.

  6. Antecedents of hospital ownership conversions, mergers, and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Ostermann, Jan; Conover, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the determinants of conversions in hospital ownership from 1986 through 1996. To place such changes in context, we also analyze causes of hospital mergers and closures, which are often alternatives to hospital ownership conversion. A consistent result from our analysis is that an important antecedent of ownership conversions is a low profit margin. Conversions from private nonprofit or government ownership to for-profit status are preceded by chronically low margins and high debt-to-asset ratios. By contrast, conversions from for-profit ownership occur quickly following declines in margins. Many mergers seem motivated by a desire to increase market power--a consideration not evident for conversions.

  7. Mold heating and cooling microprocessor conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D. P.

    1995-07-01

    Conversion of the microprocessors and software for the Mold Heating and Cooling (MHAC) pump package control systems was initiated to allow required system enhancements and provide data communications capabilities with the Plastics Information and Control System (PICS). The existing microprocessor-based control systems for the pump packages use an Intel 8088-based microprocessor board with a maximum of 64 Kbytes of program memory. The requirements for the system conversion were developed, and hardware has been selected to allow maximum reuse of existing hardware and software while providing the required additional capabilities and capacity. The new hardware will incorporate an Intel 80286-based microprocessor board with an 80287 math coprocessor, the system includes additional memory, I/O, and RS232 communication ports.

  8. The management and conversion of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob

    methods. A key challenge in device fabrication is the development of a suitable electrolyte system, and two electrolyte systems are compared in fully printable and laminated devices on flexible substrates. Devices of various sizes are presented and the transmission contrast, when switched between...... the fully bleached and fully colored state, are found to be 43 % at Absmax with a response time of less than 10 seconds. To show possible applications, an electrochromic display powered by a printed organic photovoltaic device are demonstrated, that can switch between the two redox states during solar......; carbon dioxide reduction and water splitting. Practical solutions are presented, and the use of flexible substrates as carrier foils is explored. A key challenge in these conversion systems is the necessary precautions that must be taken when evaluating conversion and this is most convincingly done...

  9. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  10. Biological conversion of coal gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    Biological conversion of low-Btu coal synthesis gas to higher Btu methane was demonstrated using both pure co-cultures and/or adapted-mixed anaerobic bacteria. Peptostreptococcus productus metabolized coal gas to mainly acetate and CO/sub 2/. The co-cultures containing methanogens converted these products to methane. In mixed culture studies, CH/sub 4/ and small amounts of acetate were produced. Reactor studies using stirred-tank and immobilized cell reactors exhibited excellent potential to convert CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ to methane at higher gas flow rates. Gas retention times ranging from 0.7 to 2 hours and high agitation were required for 90 percent CO conversion in these systems. This paper also illustrates the potential of biological methanation and demonstrates the need for good mass transfer in converting gas phase substrates. 21 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljić, Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.

  12. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  13. Nonlinear frequency conversion in fiber lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian

    The concept of nonlinear frequency conversion entails generating light at new frequencies other than those of the source light. The emission wavelength of typical fiber laser systems, relying on rare-earth dopants, are constrained within specific bands of the infrared region. By exploiting...... nonlinear processes, light from these specific wavelength bands can be used to generate light at new frequencies otherwise not obtainable by rare-earth elements. This thesis describes work covering Raman fiber lasers (RFLs) and amplifiers for nonlinear frequency down-conversion, and also the method...... of fiberoptic Cherenkov radiation (FCR) using ultrafast pulses as a means for generating tunable visible (VIS) light at higher frequencies. Two different polarization maintaining (PM) RFL cavities are studied with an emphasis on stability and spectral broadening. The cavities are formed by inscription of fiber...

  14. Military conversion: A view from Brussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macioti, M.

    1994-01-01

    Cuts in defence spending and a process of economic adjustment have been in progress since the ending og the cold war and beginning of new relations between East and West. Conversion defined as process by which skills, research, technology and equipment on the defence area are shifted into alternative economic applications, is not an easy process to implement. Dual-use approaches-technologies, processes and products with both military and commercial applications can be developed in several areas of industry. Research can cover fields common to both areas. Examples range from composite materials to sensors, information sciences, modeling and simulation, robotics and artificial intelligence, telemedicine, fibre optics and photonics, laser systems, to acoustics and mathematics. Success of conversion policy is highly dependent on the general economic context and a sound legislative framework

  15. Embodied Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provoost, Simon; Lau, Ho Ming; Ruwaard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors....... OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research. METHODS: Given the large variety of applied methodologies, types...... applications in the treatment of mood, anxiety, psychotic, autism spectrum, and substance use disorders were conducted in databases in the fields of psychology and computer science, as well as in interdisciplinary databases. Studies were included if they conveyed primary research findings on an ECA application...

  16. Energy conversion using hydrogen PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Patularu, L.; Culcer, M.; Lazar, R.; Mirica, D.; Varlam, M.; Carcadea, E.; Stefanescu, I.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (naphthalene, natural gas, methanol, coal, biomass), solar cells power, etc. It can be burned or chemically reacted having a high yield of energy conversion and is a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system consisting in a catalytic methane reforming plant for hydrogen production and three synthesis gas purification units in order to get pure hydrogen with a CO level lower than 10 ppm that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stock. (authors)

  17. EPR's energy conversion system. Alstom's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.

    2009-01-01

    ARABELLE steam turbines have been developed by Alstom to be used as the energy conversion system of light water reactors with high output power like the N4 PWR and the EPR. ARABELLE turbines cumulate 200.000 hours of service with a reliability ratio of 99.97 per cent. This series of slides presents the main features of the turbine including: the use of the simple flux, the very large shape of low pressure blades, the technology of welded rotors. The other main equipment like the alternator, the condenser, the moisture separator-reheaters, the circulating pumps that Alstom integrates in the energy conversion system have benefited with technological improvements that are also presented. (A.C.)

  18. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  19. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  20. Energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W

    2010-05-28

    Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil-fuel dependence has severe consequences, including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil-fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis: light harvesting, charge separation, and catalysis. These processes are compared in natural and in artificial systems. Such a comparison can assist in understanding the general principles of photosynthesis and in developing working devices, including photoelectrochemical cells, for solar energy conversion. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.

  2. Effects of participating in public conversation groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Adolfo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the effects of the participation of health, education and religious professionals in public conversation groups with LGBT people. Participants were interviewed some weeks after the groups for feedback. Professionals declared that this dialogic method (known as Public Conversations Project allowed a qualification of their practices, awareness about the challenges of talking about gender and sexual diversity at their professional’s contexts, and a broader contact with narratives of violence and discrimination against LGBT people. The structure of dialogue allowed participants to talk and listen in a less evaluative context. Differences in the effects produced by each group are discussed in relation to the differences in the group composition and to the specificities of the health, educational and religious contexts.

  3. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  4. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  5. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-25

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]) contain detailed description of the model input parameters. This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs and conversion factors for the TSPA. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

  6. Conversion Rate Optimization : Visual Neuro Programming Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhnaya, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the world wide web has already spread in every business. Consequently, it has become crucial to develop strong online presence and offer qualified user experience for website visitors. Website optimization undeniably has proved its importance in the recent decade. This research was conducted in order to study the practical application and structure of the stages of the CRO (Conversion Rate Optimization) framework that focuses on the most representative website metric – c...

  7. The weak conversion rate in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    The weak conversion rate of strange to down quarks, s + u ↔ u + d, is calculated analytically for degenerate u, d and s quark matter to leading orders in temperature and deviations from chemical equilibrium. The rate is applied to burning of neutron matter into quark matter, to evaporation from quark nuggets in the early universe, for estimating the lifetime of strangelets, and to pulsar glitches

  8. Electrochemistry of Nanocomposite Materials for Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Boni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the most relevant technological issue that the world experiences today, and the development of efficient technologies able to store and convert energy in different forms is urgently needed. The storage of electrical energy is of major importance and electrochemical processes are particularly suited for the demanding task of an efficient inter-conversion. A potential strategy is to store electricity into the chemical bonds of electrogenerated fuels, like hydrogen and/or energy-den...

  9. Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. The process utilizes a thermal plasma heat source to dissociation products react to form a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen. The use of a supersonic expansion of the hot gas is investigated as a method of rapidly cooling (quenching) the product stream to prevent further reaction or thermal decomposition of the acetylene which can lower the overall efficiency of the process.

  10. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  11. Throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, M.H.

    1996-10-01

    An engineering assessment is presented for factors that could significantly limit the throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit. The assessment focuses mainly on volumetric throughput capacity (and related mass rate and feed density), and energy input. Important conclusions that were reached during this assessment are that the throughput is limited by feed densification capability and that the design energy input rating appears to be adequate

  12. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Green, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the potential profitability of a selected group of possible natural gas conversion processes from the perspective of a manufacturing entity that has access to substantial low cost natural gas reserves, capital to invest, and no allegiance to any particular product. The analysis uses the revenues and costs of conventional methanol technology as a framework to evaluate the economics of the alternative technologies. Capital requirements and the potential to enhance cash margins are the primary focus of the analysis. The basis of the analysis is a world-scale conventional methanol plant that converts 3.2 Mm 3 per day (120 MMSCFD) of natural gas into 3510 metric tonnes (3869 shorts tons) per day of methanol. Capital and operating costs are for an arbitrary remote location where natural gas is available at 0.47 US dollars per GJ (0.50 US dollars per MMBtu). Other costs include ocean freight to deliver the product to market at a US Gulf Coast location. Payout time, which is the ratio of the total capital investment to cash margin (revenue less total operating expenses), is the economic indicator for the analysis. Under these conditions, the payout time for the methanol plant is seven years. The payout time for the alternative natural gas conversion technologies is generally much higher, which indicates that they currently are not candidates for commercialization without consideration of special incentives. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the effects of process yields on the economics of two potential technologies, oxidative coupling to ethylene and direct conversion to methanol. This analysis suggests areas for research focus that might improve the profitability of natural gas conversion. 29 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Environmental monitoring handbook for coal conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; DeCicco, S.G. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    The primary objectives of the Department of Energy's (DOE) coal conversion program are to demonstrate the environmental acceptability, technical feasibility, and economic viability of various technologies for gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels from coal. The Environmental Monitoring Handbook for Coal Conversion Facilities will help accomplish the objective of environmental acceptability by guiding the planning and execution of socioeconomic and environmental monitoring programs for demonstration facilities. These programs will provide information adequate to (1) predict, insofar as is possible, the potential impacts of construction and operation of a coal conversion plant, (2) verify the occurrence of these or any other impacts during construction and operation, (3) determine the adequacy of mitigating measures to protect the environment, (4) develop effluent source terms for process discharges, and (5) determine the effectiveness of pollution control equipment. Although useful in a variety of areas, the handbook is intended primarily for contractors who, as industrial partners with DOE, are building coal conversion plants. For the contractor it is a practical guide on (1) the methodology for developing site- and process-specific environmental monitoring programs, (2) state-of-the-art sampling and analytical techniques, and (3) impact analyses.To correspond to the phases of project activity, the subject matter is divided into four stages of monitoring: (1) a reconnaissance or synoptic survey, (2) preconstruction or baseline, (3) construction, and (4) operation, including process monitoring (prepared by Radian Corp., McLean, Va.). For each stage of monitoring, guidelines are given on socioeconomics, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, air quality and meteorology, surface and groundwater quality, geohydrology and soil survey, and surface water hydrology.

  15. Storytelling as a trigger for sharing conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Louise Parfitt

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether traditional oral storytelling can be used to provide insights into the way in which young people of 12-14 years identify and understand the language of emotion and behaviour. Following the preliminary analysis, I propose that storytelling may trigger sharing conversations. My research attempts to extend the social and historical perspectives of Jack Zipes, on fairy tales, into a sociological analysis of young people’s lives today. I seek to investigate the extent...

  16. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  17. The Energy Conversation: The First 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    emerging clear and present reality] 7“Facing the Hard Truths about Energy” National Petroleum Council, 2007. www.npchardtruthsreport.org 8 Verrastro and...commuting five days/week, dispersing eight tons of pollutants into the environment and using 233 hours for travel to and from work w Telecommuting three... The Energy Conversation the first 3 years Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of

  18. PriBots: Conversational Privacy with Chatbots

    OpenAIRE

    Harkous, Hamza; Fawaz, Kassem; Shin, Kang G.; Aberer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms for delivering notice and enabling choice have so far failed to protect users’ privacy. Users are continuously frustrated by complex privacy policies, unreachable privacy settings, and a multitude of emerging standards. The miniaturization trend of smart devices and the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs) will exacerbate this problem further. In this paper, we propose Conversational Privacy Bots (PriBots) as a new way of delivering notice and choice through a two...

  19. Measurement of conversion coefficients in 208Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, F.

    1976-06-01

    A electron spectrometer composed by a Li drifted Si detector and a uniform magnetic field was constructed. The magnetic field is used to focus the electrons on the detector and to filter the other radiations. After the construction the instrument was calibrated in absolute eficience and was used together with a Ge(Li) spectrometer also calibrated, in the measurement of internal conversion coeficients of the 433 and 453 keV transitions in 208 Tl [pt

  20. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor solar cells only effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap (Eg) as a result of the mismatch between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral absorption properties...

  1. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.

  2. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  3. [Conversion Disorder in Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Paula Andrea; Vásquez, Rafael; Cote, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Conversion disorder is diagnosed late, by exclusion and with a high risk of complications. There is a wide experience in adults that is not extrapolated to paediatric patients. According to the literature, the prognosis is better in children, but this changes when other variables such are included, such as comorbidities, late diagnosis and a very convincing social image of the neurological disease. To review the medical literature on the clinical features, diagnosis, comorbidities and treatment of this disorder. A literature research was performed on Medline and Pubmed, the terms used were "conversion disorder", pseudoseizures, treatment, clinic, children ("conversion disorder" OR hysteria OR hysterical) (child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR paediatric). The most relevant material found is included in this review. Conversion disorder is often an imprecise diagnosis in high complexity paediatric services. No consensus was found in the literature search on how to treat patients after the initial diagnosis. The evidence that it becomes chronic is not strong enough, just as the evidence is not convincing enough to argue that comorbidity factors are those maintained over time. Clearly, there is no medical experience of the natural history of this disorder in children and adolescents. It is only known is that it is a complex condition, on which there is experience only in the diagnosis and treatment of the acute state, but not so in the long-term care. It is proposed that each patient is studied in detail in order to define the psychiatric diagnosis and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Low severity conversion of activated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  5. Nuclear fuel conversion and fabrication chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Norman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following irradiation and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, two operations are performed to prepare the fuel for subsequent reuse as fuel: fuel conversion, and fuel fabrication. These operations complete the classical nuclear fuel cycle. Fuel conversion involves generating a solid form suitable for fabrication into nuclear fuel. For plutonium based fuels, either a pure PuO 2 material or a mixed PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel material is generated. Several methods are available for preparation of the pure PuO 2 including: oxalate or peroxide precipitation; or direct denitration. Once the pure PuO 2 is formed, it is fabricated into fuel by mechanically blending it with ceramic grade UO 2 . The UO 2 can be prepared by several methods which include direct denitration. ADU precipitation, AUC precipitation, and peroxide precipitation. Alternatively, UO 2 -PuO 2 can be generated directly using coprecipitation, direct co-denitration, or gel sphere processes. In coprecipitation, uranium and plutonium are either precipitated as ammonium diuranate and plutonium hydroxide or as a mixture of ammonium uranyl-plutonyl carbonate, filtered and dried. In direct thermal denitration, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrates are heated causing concentration and, subsequently, direct denitration. In gel sphere conversion, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrate containing additives are formed into spherical droplets, gelled, washed and dried. Refabrication of these UO 3 -PuO 2 starting materials is accomplished by calcination-reduction to UO 2 -PuO 2 followed by pellet fabrication. (orig.)

  6. Proposal concerning the absorbed dose conversion factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiragai, A [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1978-03-01

    New definitions of the absorbed dose conversion factors Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are proposed. The absorbed dose in water is given by the product of absorbed dose conversion factor, exposure calibration factor, ionisation chamber reading, cap displacement correction factor and perturbation correction factor. At exposure calibration the material of the build-up cap must be the same as that of the chamber wall. An ionisation chamber of which the wall material is water-equivalent or air-equivalent may be used. In the latter case the wall must be thin. For these two cases absorbed dose conversion factors are introduced and it is recommended that either of the two sets should be adopted. Furthermore, if the chamber wall is neither water- nor air-equivalent, the factor by which these currently defined values should be multiplied is also given: again the wall must be thin. The ICRU definitions of Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are inconsistent, as recently pointed out, while the definitions presented here are consistent.

  7. Plasma Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Detering, Brent Alan; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a re-examination of a known process for the direct plasma thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. Conversion efficiencies (% methane converted) approached 100% and acetylene yields in the 90-95% range with 2-4% solid carbon production were demonstrated. Specificity for acetylene was higher than in prior work. Improvements in conversion efficiency, yield, and specificity were due primarily to improved injector design and reactant mixing, and minimization of temperature gradients and cold boundary layers. At the 60-kilowatt scale cooling by wall heat transfer appears to be sufficient to quench the product stream and prevent further reaction of acetylene resulting in the formation of heavier hydrocarbon products or solid carbon. Significantly increasing the quenching rate by aerodynamic expansion of the products through a converging-diverging nozzle led to a reduction in the yield of ethylene but had little effect on the yield of other hydrocarbon products. While greater product selectivity for acetylene has been demonstrated, the specific energy consumption per unit mass of acetylene produced was not improved upon. A kinetic model that includes the reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of acetylene and heavier hydrocarbons, through benzene, is described

  8. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE–TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z–axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres. - Highlights: • We propose to study mode conversion TE–TM, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF). • We simulated the influence of gyrotropy. • We simulated the wavelength. • We calculated Faraday rotation. • We calculated modal birefringence.

  9. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  11. External dose conversion factor from canal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, Pradeep; Chitra, S.; Mhatre, Arti S.; Singh, Kapil Deo

    2016-01-01

    External dose needs to be estimated for the radioactivity discharged into the canal, as it constitutes one of the pathways of exposure to the public. Two activities are considered here: i) a walk along the bank of the canal ii) and the walk on the bridge. A concentration of 1 Bq/l is assumed here for the gross beta activity for the estimation of the dose conversion factor. A canal of width 14.39 m and the depth of 2.5 m is considered for this study. Length of the canal is taken to be infinite. Canal side wall is assumed to be the 25 cm thick concrete. Two points are selected, one on the bank, and the second on a bridge 1 m above the top surface of canal water. Dose Conversion factors for the person moving on the Bridge (at one meter above the water surface) and standing on bank of canal is estimated by using the QAD CG code for 137 Cs. Dose conversion factors for the location mentioned above are found to be 1.11E-10 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) and 1.55 E-11 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) for bridge and bank of canal respectively. (author)

  12. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-01

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores treated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcome the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better thermal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor

  13. Particle Discrimination Experiment for Direct Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Kiriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeno, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct energy conversion system designed for D- 3 He fusion reactor based on a field reversed configuration employs a venetian-blind type converter for thermal ions to produce DC power and a traveling wave type converter for fusion protons to produce RF power. It is therefore necessary to separate, discriminate, and guide the particle species. For this purpose, a cusp magnetic field is proposed, in which the electrons are deflected and guided along the field line to the line cusp, while the ions pass through the point cusp. A small-scale experimental device was used to study the basic characteristics of discrimination of electrons and ions in the cusp magnetic field. Ions separated from electrons are guided to an ion collector, which is operated as a one-stage direct energy converter. The conversion efficiency was measured for cases with different values of mean and spread of ion energy. These experiments successfully demonstrate direct energy conversion from plasma beams using particle discrimination by a cusp magnetic field

  14. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  15. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed

  16. La conversion de Paul, regards croisés Paul’s conversion. Cross perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Cuvillier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Au plan historique, les traditions relatives à la conversion de Paul, chutant de son cheval sur le chemin de Damas, confrontent l’exégète à trois problèmes importants : y avait-il un cheval, cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas et était-ce bien une conversion ? Entendues avec l’humour et la distance critique nécessaires, ces trois questions constituent les trois chapitres de cet article. Le premier « Y avait-il un cheval ? » s’intéresse à l’histoire de la réception de l’épisode de la conversion de Paul, en particulier dans la peinture et la littérature. Le second « Cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas ? » est consacrée au récit que l’auteur du livre des Actes propose de la conversion de Paul, récit qui constitue, bien souvent, la porte d’entrée exclusive pour aborder le thème. Le troisième « Etait-ce bien une conversion ? » analyse les témoignages de l’apôtre lui-même à travers deux passages clés de ses épîtres authentiques.Historically speaking, the traditions concerning the conversion of Paul, falling from his horse on the road to Damascus, confront the exegete with three important problems : was there a horse, did it happen on the road to Damacus and was it really a conversion ? These three questions, considered with humor and critical distance, constitute the three sections of this article. The first part « Was there a horse ? » considers the history of the reception of the episode of the conversion of Paul, particularly in art and literature. The second one « Did it happen on the road to Damascus ? » is devoted to the story of the conversion of Paul proposed by the author of the book of Acts, which is very often the exclusive entrance to the discussion of this theme. The third section « Was it really a conversion ? » analyzes the account given by the apostle himself in two key passages of his authentic epistles.

  17. Experiments on quantum frequency conversion of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramelow, S.

    2011-01-01

    Coherently converting photons between different states offers intriguing new possibilities and applications in quantum optical experiments. In this thesis three experiments on this theme are presented. The first experiment demonstrates the quantum frequency conversion of polarization entangled photons. Coherent frequency conversion of single photons offers an elegant solution for the often difficult trade-off of choosing the optimal photon wavelength, e.g. regarding optimal transmission and storage of photons in quantum memory based quantum networks. In our experiments, we verify the successful entanglement conversion by violating a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality and fully characterised our close to unity fidelity entanglement transfer using quantum state- and process tomography. Our implementation is robust and flexible, making it a practical building block for future quantum technologies.The second part of the thesis introduces a deterministic scheme for photonic quantum information processing. While single photons offer many advantages for quantum information technologies, key unresolved challenges are scalable on-demand single photon sources; deterministic two-photon interactions; and near 100%-efficient detection. All these can be solved with a single versatile process - a novel four-wave mixing process that we introduce here as a special case of the more general scheme of coherent photon conversion (CPC). It can provide valuable photonic quantum processing tools, from scalably creating single- and multi-photon states to implementing deterministic entangling gates and high-efficiency detection. Notably, this would enable scalable photonic quantum computing. Using photonic crystal fibres, we experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear process suited for coherent photon conversion. We observe correlated photon-pair production at the predicted wavelengths and experimentally characterise the enhancement of the interaction strength by varying the pump

  18. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

  19. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  20. Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)

  1. Characterizing Pedophile Conversations on the Internet using Online Grooming

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Aditi; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; Sureka, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-crime targeting children such as online pedophile activity are a major and a growing concern to society. A deep understanding of predatory chat conversations on the Internet has implications in designing effective solutions to automatically identify malicious conversations from regular conversations. We believe that a deeper understanding of the pedophile conversation can result in more sophisticated and robust surveillance systems than majority of the current systems relying only on sh...

  2. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  3. Improved picture rate conversion using classification based LMS-filters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Heinrich, A.; Cordes, C.N.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent explosion of multimedia formats and the need to convert between them, more attention is drawn to picture rate conversion. Moreover, growing demands on video motion portrayal without judder or blur requires improved format conversion. The simplest conversion repeats the latest

  4. Conversion of U3O8 to UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodu, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Three main processes for the production of UF 6 from the uranium ores (yellow cake) is described. The economic aspects of the conversion - capital cost, operating costs and conversion market and the future of conversion - capacity and prices - are discussed. (HPH) [de

  5. The Use of Conversational Laughter by an Individual with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent Thomas; Muller, Nicole; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    While laughter has been shown to play a significant role in any social interaction; its conversational usage by a person with dementia has rarely been investigated. This paper will investigate the functional aspects of laughter during conversation in an individual with dementia. Conversation analysis is used in order to investigate laughter as a…

  6. Two Impossibility Results on the Converse Consistency Principle in Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsub Chun

    1999-01-01

    We present two impossibility results on the converse consistency principle in the context of bargaining. First, we show that there is no solution satis-fying Pareto optimality, contraction independence, and converse consistency. Next, we show that there is no solution satisfying Pareto optimality, strong individual rationality, individual monotonicity, and converse consistency.

  7. Teaching Children with Autism to Respond to Conversation Partners' Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lindsay C.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Successful conversation requires that the speaker's behavior is sensitive to nonvocal listener responses. We observed children with autism spectrum disorder during conversation probes in which a listener periodically displayed nonvocal cues that she was uninterested in the conversation. We used behavioral skills training to teach conversation…

  8. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  9. HEU to LEU fuel conversion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.U.

    1994-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a ruling, effective March 27, 1986, that all U.S. non-power reactors convert from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. A Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program was conducted by the Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory to coordinate the development of the high density LEU fuel and assist in the development of Safety Analysis Reports for the smaller non-power reactors. Several meetings were held at Argonne in 1987 with the non-power reactor community to discuss the conversion and to set up a conversion schedule for university reactors. EG&G at Idaho was assigned the coordination of the fuel element redesigns. The fuel elements were manufactured by the Babcock & Wilcox Company in Lynchburg, Virginia. The University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the DOE Idaho Operations Office in 1988 to perform safety analysis studies for the LEU conversion for its 2 MW UVAR and 100 Watt CAVALIER reactors. The University subsequently decided to shut down the CAVALIER reactor. A preliminary SAR on the UVAR, along with Technical Specification changes, was submitted to the NRC in November, 1990. An updated SAR was approved by the NRC in January, 1991. In September, 1992, representatives from the fuel manufacturer (B&W) and the fuel designer (EG&G, Idaho) came to the UVAR facility to observe trial fittings of new 22 plate LEU mock fuel elements. B&W fabricated two non-fuel bearing elements, a regular 22 plate element and a control rod element. The elements were checked against the drawings and test fitted in the UVAR grid plate. The dimensions were acceptable and the elements fit in the grid plate with no problems. The staff made several suggestions for minor construction changes to the end pieces on the elements, which were incorporated into the final design of the actual fuel elements. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. [Screening and optimization of cholesterol conversion strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan; Xiong, Bingjian; Pang, Cuiping; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2014-10-04

    Bacterial strain SE-1 capable of transforming cholesterol was isolated from soil and characterized. The transformation products were identified. Fermentation conditions were optimized for conversion. Cholesterol was used as sole carbon source to isolate strain SE-1. Morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain SE-1 were studied. 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fermentation supernatants were extracted with chloroform, the transformation products were analyzed by silica gel thin layer chromatography and Sephadex LH20. Their structures were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Fermentation medium including carbon and nitrogen, methods of adding substrates and fermentation conditions for Strain SE-1 were optimized. Strain SE-1 was a Gram-negative bacterium, exhibiting the highest homologs to Burkholderia cepacia based on the physiological analysis. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of SE-1 strain and comparison with related Burkholderia show that SE-1 strain was very close to B. cepacia (Genbank No. U96927). The similarity was 99%. The result of silica gel thin layer chromatography shows that strain SE-1 transformed cholesterol to two products, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and the minor product was 7-oxocholesterol. The optimum culture conditions were: molasses 5%, (NH4 )2SO4 0.3%, 4% of inoculation, pH 7.5 and 36 degrees C. Under the optimum culture condition, the conversion rate reached 34.4% when concentration of cholesterol-Tween 80 was 1 g/L. Cholesterol 7beta-hydroxylation conversion rate under optimal conditions was improved by 20.8%. Strain SE-1 isolated from soil is capable of converting cholesterol at lab-scale.

  11. HEU to LEU fuel conversion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.U.

    1994-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a ruling, effective March 27, 1986, that all U.S. non-power reactors convert from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. A Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program was conducted by the Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory to coordinate the development of the high density LEU fuel and assist in the development of Safety Analysis Reports for the smaller non-power reactors. Several meetings were held at Argonne in 1987 with the non-power reactor community to discuss the conversion and to set up a conversion schedule for university reactors. EG ampersand G at Idaho was assigned the coordination of the fuel element redesigns. The fuel elements were manufactured by the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company in Lynchburg, Virginia. The University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the DOE Idaho Operations Office in 1988 to perform safety analysis studies for the LEU conversion for its 2 MW UVAR and 100 Watt CAVALIER reactors. The University subsequently decided to shut down the CAVALIER reactor. A preliminary SAR on the UVAR, along with Technical Specification changes, was submitted to the NRC in November, 1990. An updated SAR was approved by the NRC in January, 1991. In September, 1992, representatives from the fuel manufacturer (B ampersand W) and the fuel designer (EG ampersand G, Idaho) came to the UVAR facility to observe trial fittings of new 22 plate LEU mock fuel elements. B ampersand W fabricated two non-fuel bearing elements, a regular 22 plate element and a control rod element. The elements were checked against the drawings and test fitted in the UVAR grid plate. The dimensions were acceptable and the elements fit in the grid plate with no problems. The staff made several suggestions for minor construction changes to the end pieces on the elements, which were incorporated into the final design of the actual fuel elements. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology

  12. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present a discussion of challenges, progresses, and opportunities in thermoelectric energy conversion technology. We will start with an introduction to thermoelectric technology, followed by discussing advances in thermoelectric materials, devices, and systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion exploits the Seebeck effect to convert thermal energy into electricity, or the Peltier effect for heat pumping applications. Thermoelectric devices are scalable, capable of generating power from nano Watts to mega Watts. One key issue is to improve materials thermoelectric figure- of-merit that is linearly proportional to the Seebeck coefficient, the square of the electrical conductivity, and inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Improving the figure-of-merit requires good understanding of electron and phonon transport as their properties are often contradictory in trends. Over the past decade, excellent progresses have been made in the understanding of electron and phonon transport in thermoelectric materials, and in improving existing and identify new materials, especially by exploring nanoscale size effects. Taking materials to real world applications, however, faces more challenges in terms of materials stability, device fabrication, thermal management and system design. Progresses and lessons learnt from our effort in fabricating thermoelectric devices will be discussed. We have demonstrated device thermal-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency ∼10% and solar-thermoelectric generator efficiency at 4.6% without optical concentration of sunlight (Figure 1) and ∼8-9% efficiency with optical concentration. Great opportunities exist in advancing materials as well as in using existing materials for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy utilization, as well as mobile applications. (paper)

  13. Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A

    2011-10-12

    Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting

  14. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  15. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B C; Hauserman, W B [Energy and Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  17. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwmeester, Henny J.M. [Laboratory for Inorganic Materials Science, Department of Science and Technology and MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2003-07-30

    Dense ceramic membranes made from mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting perovskite-related oxides allow separation of oxygen from an air supply at elevated temperatures (>700C). By combining air separation and catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas into a ceramic membrane reactor, this technology is expected to significantly reduce the capital costs of conversion of natural gas to liquid added-value products. The present survey is mainly concerned with the material properties that govern the performance of the mixed-conducting membranes in real operating conditions and highlights significant developments in the field.

  18. Implementation of the Electron conversion Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Torres, D.; Noriega Scull, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the present work has been exposed the principles of the Conversion Moessbauer Electron Spectroscopy and its possibilities of application. Is also described the operation of the parallel plate avalanche detector made at the CEADEN starting from modifications done to the Gancedo's model and is exposed examples of the use of this detector in the characterization of corroded surfaces, with chemical cleaning and in samples of welded joints. The experiences obtained of this work were extended to the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico where a similar detector, made in our center, was installed there

  19. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  20. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakopoulos, P.J.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-05-01

    The mechanisms of conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water (HTO) have been examined for several tritium gaseous mixtures. The physical and chemical processes involved in the self-radiolysis of such mixtures have been analyzed and the kinetics involved in the formation of HTO has been presented. It has been determined that the formation of the H and/or OH free radicals, as intermediate species, are of significance in the formation of HTO. Therefore, the problem of reducing the rate of formation of tritiated water in a mixture of gaseous tritium with atmospheric components is one of finding an effective scavenger for the H and/or OH free radicals

  1. Conversation practices and network structure in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Magnani, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    that this double nature of Twitter is widely recognized among scholars there is still little literature facing the relationships between these two networks. This paper presents the results of an empirical research aimed at discovering how the Twitter network is affected by what happens on the topical network. Does...... the participation in the same hashtag based conversation change the follower list of the participants? Is it possible to point out specific social behaviors that would produce a major gain of followers? Our conclusions are based on real data concerning the popular TV show Xfactor, that largely used Twitter...

  2. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle

  3. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  4. The Quality of Conversations in Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

    2010-01-01

    about new product and service ideas. Conflict belonged to the 'old days' when participatory design played a part in the struggle between workers and management. Based on the theory of complex responsive processes of relating, we suggest a new way of understanding innovation as the emergence of new......) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and the barriers that prevent them. By analysing improvised scenes and the way the audience reacts, we characterize the quality of conversations that seems to allow new meaning to emerge and thus stimulates innovation. We suggest that we need to develop new...

  5. Conversations on the plurality of worlds

    CERN Document Server

    de Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier

    1990-01-01

    Surveying the night sky, a charming philosopher and his hostess, the Marquise, are considering thep ossibility of travelers from the moon. ""What if they were skillful enough to navigate on the outer surface of our air, and from there, through their curiosity to see us, they angled for us like fish? Would that please you?"" asks the philosopher. ""Why not?"" the Marquise replies. ""As for me, I'd put myself into their nets of my own volition just to have the pleasure of seeing those who caught me.""In this imaginary conversation of three hundred years ago, readers can share the exc

  6. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  7. Analog to digital conversion for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, P.V.R. de.

    1982-04-01

    A study of the analog to digital conversion techniques for nuclear spectrometry is presented and the main design philosophies of nuclear ADC's are compared. Among them, the most suitable for the current Brazilian conditions, concerning the specifications and components avaiability is the one that employs a statistical correction of successive approximation converters. This technique is described in full detail. A prototype has been developed an tested for the practical demonstration of the theoretical conclusions. These tests was carried on nuclear spectrometry data aquisition system whose implementation is also described. (Author) [pt

  8. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  9. Organometallics and related molecules for energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a critical perspective of the applications of organometallic compounds (including those with metal or metalloid elements) and other related metal complexes as versatile functional materials in the transformation of light into electricity (solar energy conversion) and electricity into light (light generation in light emitting diode), in the reduction of carbon dioxide to useful chemicals, as well as in the safe and efficient production and utilization of hydrogen, which serves as an energy storage medium (i.e. energy carrier). This book focuses on recent research developmen

  10. Conversational Styles and Misunderstanding in Cross-Sex Conversations in He’s Just Not That into You Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Nyoman Aryani

    2017-01-01

    Conversation is a social interaction among societies. In this case, gender differences in daily communication lead to men’s and women’s different point of views in performing styles of the conversations. Misunderstanding is likely to occur in crosssex conversations when the idea or thought are understood differently by men and women. This study was intended to analyze the use of conversational styles by men and women and also investigate the misunderstanding phenomena that happened in cross-s...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Especially designed or prepared systems for plutonium metal production. This process usually... or UF6, conversion of UF4 to UF6, conversion of UF6 to UF4, conversion of UF4 to uranium metal, and... several segments of the chemical process industry, including furnaces, rotary kilns, fluidized bed...

  12. National Conversion Pilot Project Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, G.G.; Simmons, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy facilities are in the process of downsizing. Most plans for downsizing focus on the decontamination and decommissioning of excess production facilities. A different approach for downsizing is taken at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), which has four production buildings. These buildings were used for the production of weapons components from uranium and beryllium and contain unique and valuable equipment, such as rolling mills, furnaces, and high-capacity presses, which could be utilized for stage-III metal recycling. The mission of this National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) open-quotes is to explore and demonstrate, at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the feasibility of economic conversion at Department of Energy facilities.close quotes The NCPP has been divided into three stages: 1. Stage I-planning and feasibility determination 2. Stage II-facility cleanup for reuse and operational assessment 3. Stage III-metals recycling. The NCPP has recently been approved to begin stage II. The objective of the NCPP stage II is to prepare the four NCPP buildings for stage III, to remove unwanted equipment, and to decontaminate buildings and essential equipment to levels consistent with those that commercial industrial operations must meet pursuant to applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and state workplace regulations

  13. Neurophysiology of conversion disorders: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short historical perspective on the neurophysiological approach to hysteria and conversion disorders. The body of this paper will be constituted of three main parts. In the first part, we will present the significant progress due to some pioneers of neurology/psychiatry during the XIXth century. As we shall see, this period was particularly rich in personalities whose work gradually laid the foundations to a true medical approach to hysteria. In the first half of the XXth century, different factors have led to a long eclipse of the neurological approach to hysteria. In the second part, we will show how, by the 1960's-1970's, the conceptual and methodological advances in neurophysiology, as well as the turning point of cognitive sciences (and cognitive psychology in particular) allowed a gradual reinstatement of hysteria within the fields of neurology and clinical neurophysiology. Finally, and this is the third part of this paper, we will show how over the past three decades, an entirely new neurophysiological approach to hysteria and conversion disorders has emerged. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Bayer, E.

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm 3 to 0.52 g.cm 3 . Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g -1 ), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g -1 ). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V micro ) was between 0.33cm 3 .g -1 - 0.40cm 3 .g -1 , while the mesopore volume(V meso ) was between 0.05 cm 3 .g -1 - 0.07 cm 3 .g -1 . The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m 2 .g -1 . All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  15. Multifunctional Energy Storage and Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Huang, Yang; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional energy storage and conversion devices that incorporate novel features and functions in intelligent and interactive modes, represent a radical advance in consumer products, such as wearable electronics, healthcare devices, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, smart household, and space satellites, etc. Here, smart energy devices are defined to be energy devices that are responsive to changes in configurational integrity, voltage, mechanical deformation, light, and temperature, called self-healability, electrochromism, shape memory, photodetection, and thermal responsivity. Advisable materials, device designs, and performances are crucial for the development of energy electronics endowed with these smart functions. Integrating these smart functions in energy storage and conversion devices gives rise to great challenges from the viewpoint of both understanding the fundamental mechanisms and practical implementation. Current state-of-art examples of these smart multifunctional energy devices, pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performances, are highlighted. In addition, current challenges and potential solutions from materials synthesis to device performances are discussed. Finally, some important directions in this fast developing field are considered to further expand their application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  17. Advanced high conversion PWR: preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfier, H.; Bellanger, V.; Bergeron, A.; Dolci, F.; Gastaldi, B.; Koberl, O.; Mignot, G.; Thevenot, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, physical aspects of a HCPWR (High Conversion Light Water Reactor), which is an innovative PWR fuelled with mixed oxide and having a higher conversion ratio due to a lower moderation ratio. Moderation ratios lower than unity are considered which has led to low moderation PWR fuel assembly designs. The objectives of this parametric study are to define a feasibility area with regard to the following neutronic aspects: moderation ratio, Pu loading, reactor spectrum, irradiation time, and neutronic coefficients. Important thermohydraulic parameters are the pressure drop, the critical heat flux, the maximum temperature in the fuel rod and the pumping power. The thermohydraulic analysis shows that a range of moderation ratios from 0.8 to 1.2 is technically possible. A compromise between improved fuel utilization and research and development effort has been found for the moderation ration of about 1. The parametric study shows that there are 2 ranges of interest for the moderation ratio: -) moderation ratio between 0.8 and 1.2 with reduced fissile heights (> 3 m), hexagonal arrangement fuel assembly and square arrangement fuel assembly are possible; and -) moderation between 0.6 and 0.7 with a modification of the reactor operating conditions (reduction of the primary flow and of the thermal power), the fuel rods could be arranged inside a hexagonal fuel rod assembly. (A.C.)

  18. Remembering a criminal conversation: beyond eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Laura; Alonso-Quecuty, María L

    2006-01-01

    Unlike the important body of work on eyewitness memory, little research has been done on the accuracy and completeness of "earwitness" memory for conversations. The present research examined the effects of mode of presentation (audiovisual/ auditory-only) on witnesses' free recall for utterances in a criminal conversation at different retention intervals (immediate/delayed) within a single experiment. Different forms of correct recall (verbatim/gist) of the verbal information as well as different types of errors (distortions/fabrications) were also examined. It was predicted that participants in the audiovisual modality would provide more correct information, and fewer errors than participants in the auditory-only modality. Participants' recall was predicted to be impaired over time, dropping to a greater extent after a delay in the auditory-only modality. Results confirmed these hypotheses. Interpretations of the overall findings are offered within the context of dual-coding theory, and within the theoretical frameworks of source monitoring and fuzzy-trace theory.

  19. High conversion heavy water moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoshio; Wakabayashi, Toshio.

    1989-01-01

    In the present invention, fuel rods using uranium-plutonium oxide mixture fuels are arranged in a square lattice at the same pitch as that in light water cooled reactor and heavy water moderators are used. Accordingly, the volume ratio (Vm/Vf) between the moderator and the fuel can be, for example, of about 2. When heavy water is used for the moderator (coolant), since the moderating effect of heavy water is lower than that of light water, a high conversion ratio of not less than 0.8 can be obtained even if the fuel rod arrangement is equal to that of PWR (Vm/Vf about 2). Accordingly, it is possible to avoid problems caused by dense arrangement of fuel rods as in high conversion rate light water cooled reactors. That is, there are no more troubles in view of thermal hydrodynamic characteristics, re-flooding upon loss of coolant accident, etc., as well as the fuel production cost is not increased. (K.M.)

  20. Conversion of DAP models to SPEEDUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aull, J.E.

    1993-08-01

    Several processes at the Savannah River Site are modeled using Bechtel's Dynamic Analysis Program (DAP) which uses a sequential modular modeling architecture. The feasibility of conversion of DAP models to SPEEDUP was examined because of the benefits associated with this de facto industry standard. The equation-based approach used in SPEEDUP gives accuracy, stability, and ease of maintenance. The DAP licenses on our site are for single-user PS/2 machines whereas the SPEEDUP product is licensed on a VAX minicomputer which provides faster execution and ease of integration with existing visualization tools. In this paper the basic unit operations of a DAP model that simulates a ventilation system are described. The basic operations were modeled with both DAP and SPEEDUP, and the two models yield results that are in close agreement. Since the basic unit operations of the DAP model have been successfully duplicated using SPEEDUP, it is feasible to proceed with model conversion. DAP subroutines and functions that involve only algebraic manipulation may be inserted directly into the SPEEDUP model or their underlying equations may be extracted and written as SPEEDUP model equations. A problem modeled in SPEEDUP running on a VAX 8810 runs approximately fifteen times faster in elapsed time than the same problem modeled with DAP on a 33 MHz Intel 80486 processor

  1. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  2. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  3. Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1989-08-01

    The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. US energy conversion and use characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-02-01

    The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

  5. Active carbons from low temperature conversion chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebowale, K O [Department of Chemistry, University of lbadan, lbadan (Nigeria); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Bayer, E [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Forschungstelle Nukleinsaeure- und Peptidchemie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Hulls obtained from the fruits of five tropical biomass have been subjected to low temperature conversion process and their chars activated by partial physical gasification to produce active carbons. The biomass are T. catappa, B. nitida, L leucophylla, D. regia and O. martiana. The bulk densities of the samples ranged from 0.32 g.cm{sup 3} to 0.52 g.cm{sup 3}. Out of the samples T. catappa recorded the highest cellulose content (41.9 g.100g{sup -1}), while O. martiana contained the highest lignin content (40.7 g.100g{sup -1}). The ash of the samples were low (0.5 - 4.4%). The percentage of char obtained after conversion were high (33.7% - 38.6%). Active carbons obtained from T. catappa, D. regia and O. martiana, recorded high methylene blue numbers and iodine values. They also displayed good micro- and mesostructural characteristics. Micropore volume (V{sub micro}) was between 0.33cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.40cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}, while the mesopore volume(V{sub meso}) was between 0.05 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} - 0.07 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1}. The BET specific surface exceeds 1000 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. All these values compared favourably with high grade commercial active carbons. (author)

  6. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klose Holger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354 isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications.

  7. Electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Kutz, Robert

    2017-11-14

    An electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion includes combining a Catalytically Active Element and a Helper Polymer in the presence of carbon dioxide, allowing a reaction to proceed to produce a reaction product, and applying electrical energy to said reaction to achieve electrochemical conversion of said carbon dioxide reactant to said reaction product. The Catalytically Active Element can be a metal in the form of supported or unsupported particles or flakes with an average size between 0.6 nm and 100 nm. The reaction products comprise at least one of CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and CF.sub.3COOH.

  8. Conversion disorders: psychiatric and psychotherapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottencin, O

    2014-10-01

    Hysteria is still stigmatized and frequently associated with lying or malingering. However, conversion disorder is not malingering, nor factitious disorder. The first step for the clinician faced with suspected conversion disorder is to make a positive diagnosis, which is in fact an integral part of treatment. In the emergency situation, it is important to look for an underlying somatic disorder. Although no specific treatment exists, there is a consensus in favor of a positive role of psychotherapy. First of all, the main problem is to explain to patients that their physical complaint has a psychological cause. In order to deliver the diagnosis in the most appropriate and useful manner, physicians have to first convince themselves before trying to convince patients. Combined consultation (medicine and psychiatry) is a useful tool to help patients. With or without combined consultation, this approach requires patience and open-mindedness to motivate patients to recognize the value of psychotherapy. Coordination between specialists and general practitioners is an important part of this treatment, which frequently requires long-term intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversation principles and second language utterances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaburise, Phyllis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversation principles, such as those of Grice (1957, 1968, 1975, Austin (1962, Searle (1962, 1969 are formulated to enable interlocutors to interact meaningfully, in a linguistic project. Non-observance and flouting of these principles occur regularly in the verbal behaviours of users of a language, indeed, sophisticated users of a language, sometimes deliberately go against these norms, as stylistic devices in their output. When such non-conformities occur, hearers and readers resort to implicatures, maxims, inferences and their general world knowledge to interpret an utterance. Although the decision to observe some, and not all of the principles during a linguistic encounter, may seem to be taken casually, it is the contention of this paper that such decisions are made deliberately, particularly, by users of a second language. This paper attempts to identify the selection processes involved in the creation of some utterances produced by Ghanaian and Tshivenda second language users of English, using Grice’s verbal interaction maxims. The discussion will focus on the tension between semantic and pragmatic meaning, the factors involved in the creation of linguistic meaning and the role that interaction requirements such as Grice’s conversational maxims and the concept of a New Englishes approach to language play in the creation of some second language utterances.

  10. An atypical presentation of visual conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutch, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    Nonorganic vision loss accounts for up to 5% of patients and presents in two forms, malingering and visual conversion disorder (VCD). It is described a case of VCD in a new mother struggling both with her husband being deployed overseas and the recent death of her father. In addition, she had been evaluated for a concussion secondary to a motor vehicle accident three months prior. An inexpensive series of clinical tests were performed to rule out organic disease and obtained equivocal results. Some tests revealed intact vision in the affected eye while others supported a neurological cause for the vision loss. However, the patient quickly recovered normal visual acuity when encouraged to discuss situations that have been causing emotional stress. This almost immediate recovery of vision confirmed the diagnosis of VCD. This report should make primary eye care professionals more aware of visual conversion disorder and its clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  12. Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Garwin; Wright, David J.; Snir, Nimrod; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Increasing hip fracture incidence in the United States is leading to higher occurrences of conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) for failed surgical treatment of the hip. In spite of studies showing higher complication rates in conversion THA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services currently bundles conversion and primary THA under the same diagnosis-related group. We examined the cost of treatment of conversion THA compared with primary THA. Our hypothesis is that conversion THA will have higher cost and resource use than primary THA. Methods Fifty-one consecutive conversion THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27132) and 105 matched primary THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27130) were included in this study. The natural log-transformed costs for conversion and primary THA were compared using regression analysis. Age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist, Charlson comorbidity score, and smoker status were controlled in the analysis. Conversion THA subgroups formed based on etiology were compared using analysis of variance analysis. Results Conversion and primary THAs were determined to be significantly different (P conversion THA has significantly greater cost and resource use than primary THA. In order to prevent disincentives for treating these complex surgical patients, reclassification of conversion THA is needed, as they do not fit together with primary THA. PMID:26387923

  13. Low Power High Dynamic Range A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Rombach, Pirmin

    in the conversion channel in order to avoid distortion for large input signals. In combination with a low resolution A/D converter (ADC) and a digital gain block, the adaptive A/D conversion channel achieves an extended dynamic range beyond that of the ADC. This in turn reduces the current consumption......This work concerns the analysis of an adaptive analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion channel for use with a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) microphone for audio applications. The adaptive A/D conversion channel uses an automatic gain control (AGC) for adjusting the analog preamplifier gain...... of the conversion channel in comparison to a static A/D conversion channel; this at the cost of a reduced peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The adaptive A/D conversion channel compensates for the change in analog gain by a digital gain, thus achieving a constant channel gain in the full dynamic range. However...

  14. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyekli, Utkan; Calıyurt, Okan; Tiyekli, Nimet Dilek

    2013-06-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine levels and conversion disorder both commonly known as stress regulated. Baseline proinflammatory cytokine levels-[Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6)]-were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 35 conversion disorder patients and 30 healthy controls. Possible changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated again, after their acute phase in conversion disorder patients. Statistically significant decreased serum TNF-α levels were obtained in acute phase of conversion disorder. Those levels increased after acute conversion phase. There were no statistically significant difference observed between groups in serum IL-1β and (IL-6) levels. Stress associated with conversion disorder may suppress immune function in acute conversion phase and may have diagnostic and therapeutic value.

  15. Increasing conversion efficiency of two-step photon up-conversion solar cell with a voltage booster hetero-interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Shigeo; Kusaki, Kazuki; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi

    2018-01-17

    Development of high-efficiency solar cells is one of the attractive challenges in renewable energy technologies. Photon up-conversion can reduce the transmission loss and is one of the promising concepts which improve conversion efficiency. Here we present an analysis of the conversion efficiency, which can be increased by up-conversion in a single-junction solar cell with a hetero-interface that boosts the output voltage. We confirm that an increase in the quasi-Fermi gap and substantial photocurrent generation result in a high conversion efficiency.

  16. Educational design as conversation : A conversation analytical perspective on teacher dialogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruiningen, Jacqueline F.

    The aim of this methodological paper is to expound on and demonstrate the value of conversation-analytical research in the area of (informal) teacher learning. The author discusses some methodological issues in current research on interaction in teacher learning and holds a plea for

  17. SPOKEN-LANGUAGE FEATURES IN CASUAL CONVERSATION A Case of EFL Learners‘ Casual Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Novi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoken text differs from written one in its features of context dependency, turn-taking organization, and dynamic structure. EFL learners; however, sometime find it difficult to produce typical characteristics of spoken language, particularly in casual talk. When they are asked to conduct a conversation, some of them tend to be script-based which is considered unnatural. Using the theory of Thornburry (2005, this paper aims to analyze characteristics of spoken language in casual conversation which cover spontaneity, interactivity, interpersonality, and coherence. This study used discourse analysis to reveal four features in turns and moves of three casual conversations. The findings indicate that not all sub-features used in the conversation. In this case, the spontaneity features were used 132 times; the interactivity features were used 1081 times; the interpersonality features were used 257 times; while the coherence features (negotiation features were used 526 times. Besides, the results also present that some participants seem to dominantly produce some sub-features naturally and vice versa. Therefore, this finding is expected to be beneficial to provide a model of how spoken interaction should be carried out. More importantly, it could raise English teachers or lecturers‘ awareness in teaching features of spoken language, so that, the students could develop their communicative competence as the native speakers of English do.

  18. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; van den Putte, B.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational

  19. Conversation therapy for aphasia: a qualitative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Savage, Meghan C; Worrall, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A diverse literature addresses elements of conversation therapy in aphasia including intervention rooted in conversation analysis, partner training, group therapy and behavioural intervention. Currently there is no resource for clinicians or researchers that defines and organizes this information into a coherent synopsis describing various conversation therapy practices. To organize information from varied sources into a descriptive overview of conversation therapy for aphasia. Academic search engines were employed to identify research articles published between 1950 and September 2013 reporting on conversation therapy for aphasia. Thirty articles met criteria for review and were identified as primary sources for the qualitative review. Using qualitative methodology, relevant data were extracted from articles and categories were identified to create a descriptive taxonomy of conversation therapy for aphasia. Conversation interventions were divided into descriptive categories including: treatment participants (person with aphasia, partner, dyad), primary guiding orientation (conversation analysis, social model, behavioural, relationship centred), service delivery (individual, group), focus of intervention (generic/individualized; problem/solution oriented; compensatory), training methods (explicit/implicit; external/embedded), activities or tasks, and outcomes measured. Finally, articles were categorized by research design. There was marked variation in conversation therapy approaches and outcome measures reported and a notable gap in information about one-on-one conversation therapy for individuals with aphasia. This review provides a description of various conversation therapy approaches and identified gaps in the existing literature. Valid measures of natural conversation, research on one-on-one conversation approaches for individuals with aphasia, and a systematic body of evidence consisting of high quality research are needed. © 2014 Royal College of Speech

  20. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  1. Surface effects on converse piezoelectricity of crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molayem, Mohammad; Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2017-09-20

    The contribution of surface units to bulk properties are often neglected in theoretical and computational studies of crystalline systems. We demonstrate that this assumption has to be made with caution in the case of (electric field) polarization. As a generalization of an earlier work on quasi-one-dimensional systems [Springborg, et al., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2010, 82, 165442], it is shown that the polarization for 2D and 3D systems contains a surface contribution that can, in principle, take any value (within physical limits) and has consequences for converse piezoelectric responses. Subsequently, we determine the surface effects quantitatively for a group of ferroelectric perovskite structures. Our results indicate that such contributions can be substantial.

  2. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  3. The Zimmer nuclear to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, R.H.; Pfund, E.M.; Buchmueller, D.P.; Fletcher, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the control, protection and monitoring systems employed on the world's first nuclear-to-coal power plant conversion, the philosophies utilized to guide the engineering of these systems and the implementation of those philosophies. Extensive use is made of programmable electronic systems to provide a state-of-the-art plant which does not compromise the proven operating interfaces and philosophies associated with AEP's six operating 1300 MW units. The technologies employed include two distributed digital control systems, a fiber optic-based network of programmable logic controllers, a distributed microprocessor-based annunciator and sequence of events system, and a plant operations computer which accesses each of the preceding systems

  4. Energy Conversion at Micro and Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammaitoni, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Energy management is considered a task of strategic importance in contemporary society. It is a common fact that the most successful economies of the planet are the economies that can transform and use large quantities of energy. In this talk we will discuss the role of energy with specific attention to the processes that happens at micro and nanoscale. The description of energy conversion processes at these scales requires approaches that go way beyond the standard equilibrium termodynamics of macroscopic systems. In this talk we will address from a fundamental point of view the physics of the dissipation of energy and will focus our attention to the energy transformation processes that take place in the modern micro and nano information and communication devices

  5. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2012-04-01

    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  6. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  7. Experiments on topographies lacking tidal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Leo; Paci, Alexandre; Yuan, Bing

    2015-11-01

    In a stratified sea, internal tides are supposedly generated when the tide passes over irregular topography. It has been shown that for any given frequency in the internal wave band there are an infinite number of exceptions to this rule of thumb. This ``stealth-like'' property of the topography is due to a subtle annihilation of the internal waves generated during the surface tide's passage over the irregular bottom. We here demonstrate this in a lab-experiment. However, for any such topography, subsequently changing the surface tide's frequency does lead to tidal conversion. The upshot of this is that a tidal wave passing over an irregular bottom is for a substantial part trapped to this irregularity, and only partly converted into freely propagating internal tides. Financially supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme HYDRALAB IV.

  8. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  9. CFD Studies on Biomass Thermochemical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical conversion of biomass offers an efficient and economically process to provide gaseous, liquid and solid fuels and prepare chemicals derived from biomass. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD modeling applications on biomass thermochemical processes help to optimize the design and operation of thermochemical reactors. Recent progression in numerical techniques and computing efficacy has advanced CFD as a widely used approach to provide efficient design solutions in industry. This paper introduces the fundamentals involved in developing a CFD solution. Mathematical equations governing the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions in thermochemical systems are described and sub-models for individual processes are presented. It provides a review of various applications of CFD in the biomass thermochemical process field.

  10. Parametric Conversion Using Custom MOS Varactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniewski Krzysztof (Kris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of customized MOS varactors in amplification, mixing, and frequency control of future millimeter wave CMOS RFICs is outlined. First, the parametric conversion concept is revisited and discussed in terms of modern RF communications systems. Second, the modeling, design, and optimization of MOS varactors are reconsidered in the context of their central role in parametric circuits. Third, a balanced varactor structure is proposed for robust oscillator frequency control in the presence of large extrinsic noise expected in tightly integrated wireless communicators. Main points include the proposal of a subharmonic pumping scheme based on the MOS varactor, a nonequilibrium elastance-voltage model, optimal varactor layout suggestions, custom m-CMOS varactor design and measurement, device-level balanced varactor simulations, and parametric circuit evaluation based on measured device characteristics.

  11. Localized Oscillatory Energy Conversion in Magnetopause Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R. E.; Cassak, P. A.; Webster, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Rager, A. C.; Hwang, K.-J.; Phan, T. D.; Genestreti, K. J.; Allen, R. C.; Chen, L.-J.; Wang, S.; Gershman, D.; Le Contel, O.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wilder, F. D.; Graham, D. B.; Hesse, M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Price, L. M.; Shay, M. A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Pollock, C. J.; Denton, R. E.; Newman, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    Data from the NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale mission are used to investigate asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the dayside boundary between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. High-resolution measurements of plasmas and fields are used to identify highly localized ( 15 electron Debye lengths) standing wave structures with large electric field amplitudes (up to 100 mV/m). These wave structures are associated with spatially oscillatory energy conversion, which appears as alternatingly positive and negative values of J · E. For small guide magnetic fields the wave structures occur in the electron stagnation region at the magnetosphere edge of the electron diffusion region. For larger guide fields the structures also occur near the reconnection X-line. This difference is explained in terms of channels for the out-of-plane current (agyrotropic electrons at the stagnation point and guide field-aligned electrons at the X-line).

  12. Conversion of light into macroscopic helical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Aßhoff, Sarah J.; Matt, Benjamin; Kudernac, Tibor; Cornelissen, Jeroen J. L. M.; Fletcher, Stephen P.; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    A key goal of nanotechnology is the development of artificial machines capable of converting molecular movement into macroscopic work. Although conversion of light into shape changes has been reported and compared to artificial muscles, real applications require work against an external load. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and operation of spring-like materials capable of converting light energy into mechanical work at the macroscopic scale. These versatile materials consist of molecular switches embedded in liquid-crystalline polymer springs. In these springs, molecular movement is converted and amplified into controlled and reversible twisting motions. The springs display complex motion, which includes winding, unwinding and helix inversion, as dictated by their initial shape. Importantly, they can produce work by moving a macroscopic object and mimicking mechanical movements, such as those used by plant tendrils to help the plant access sunlight. These functional materials have potential applications in micromechanical systems, soft robotics and artificial muscles.

  13. Nova frequency conversion and focusing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.; Seppala, L.G.; Williams, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    New developments in crystal array technology provided significant improvements in the mechanical design and optical performance of the Nova 2 omega/3 omega array hardware. The final Nova array configuration was tested on the Novette laser and on the first arm of Nova. Ten Nova 2 omega/3 omega crystal arrays were assembled and tested for crystal alignment and wave front distortion before installation on the Nova target chamber. Ten Nova focus lens positioners were assembled and tested last year. The positioning accuracy and repeatability of each assembly were evaluated before installation on the target chamber. A cylindrical focusing system was also developed for installation in the Nova lens positioner assembly. Finally, 10 completed frequency conversion and focusing systems were activated

  14. CO2 utilization: Developments in conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Alper

    2017-03-01

    The potential utilization of CO2, captured at power plants, should also been taken into consideration for sustainability. This CO2 source, which is potentially a raw material for the chemical industry, will be available at sufficient quality and at gigantic quantity upon realization of on-going tangible capture projects. Products resulting from carboxylation reactions are obvious conversions. In addition, provided that enough supply of energy from non-fossil resources, such as solar [1], is ensured, CO2 reduction reactions can produce several valuable commodity chemicals including multi-carbon compounds, such as ethylene and acrylic acid, in addition to C1 chemicals and polymers. Presently, there are only few developing technologies which can find industrial applications. Therefore, there is a need for concerted research in order to assess the viability of these promising exploratory technologies rationally.

  15. Status of LEU conversion program at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the salient features of the NRU Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), the progress of our LEU fuel development and testing program is described. The results (to date) of full-size prototype fuel-rod irradiations are reviewed, and the status of the new fuel-fabrication facility on the site is updated. Although development work is proceeding on U 3 Si 2 dispersions, all indications so far are that CRNL's U 3 Si fuel is fully acceptable for reactor operation. Fuel rods from the new fabrication shop will be installed in NRU in 1990, and the complete core conversion of NRU to LEU driver fuel is expected by 1991. (orig.)

  16. Toroidal mode-conversion in the ICRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaun, A.; Hellsten, T.; Chiu, S.C.

    1997-08-01

    Mode-conversion is studied in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) taking into account the toroidal geometry relevant for tokamaks. The global wavefields obtained using the gyrokinetic toroidal PENN code illustrate how the fast wave propagates to the neighborhood of the ion-ion hybrid resonance, where it is converted to a slow wave which deposits the wave energy through resonant interactions with the particles. The power deposition profiles obtained are dramatically different from the toroidal resonance absorption, showing that Budden's model is not a good approximation in the torus. Radially and poloidally localized wavefield structures characteristic of slow wave eigenmodes are predicted and could in experiments be driven to large amplitudes so as to interact efficiently with fast particles. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 48 refs

  17. Nanoscale Materials and Architectures for Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, Eric A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Sunkara, Mahendra K. [University of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2011-05-25

    The Kentucky EPSCoR Program supported an inter-university, multidisciplinary energy-related research cluster studying nanomaterials for converting solar radiation and residual thermal energy to electrical energy and hydrogen. It created a collaborative center of excellence based on research expertise in nanomaterials, architectures, and their synthesis. The project strengthened and improved the collaboration between the University of Louisville, the University of Kentucky, and NREL. The cluster hired a new faculty member for ultra-fast transient spectroscopy, and enabled the mentoring of one research scientist, two postdoctoral scholars and ten graduate students. Work was accomplished with three focused cluster projects: organic and photoelectrochemical solar cells, solar fuels, and thermionic energy conversion.

  18. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  19. Hmong Sexual Diversity: Beginning the Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pheng Pha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a participatory workshop we facilitated on the diversity of Hmong sexualities and sexual norms – including our preparation leading up to the workshop and a summary of what we learned – at the 2015 Hmong National Development conference, which marked the 40th year that Hmong have been in the U.S. We also describe our positionalities and stakes in the matter as they helped to frame discussion. Topics discussed during the workshop included the “repressive” construction of “Hmong culture,” gender inequalities, desirability, sexual mores, LGBTQ identities and homoeroticism, virginity, sex acts and pornography. Participants engaged in lively conversation about issues of marriage, reproduction, hookups, sexual play, age and generation, sex education, and exclusion versus tolerance, amply underscoring the multiplicity of viewpoints that are represented among Hmong Americans. Finally, we raise the need for more community dialogues and more in-depth academic inquiry into Hmong sexualities.

  20. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R; Joannopoulos, John D; Celanovic, Ivan; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system. (paper)

  1. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  2. Development of uranium milling and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shingo; Hirono, Shuichiro.

    1983-11-01

    The development and improvement of uranium milling and refining producing uranium tetrafluoride from ores by the wet process, without producing yellowcake as an intermediate product, have been carried out for over ten years with a small pilot plant (50 t-ore/day). In the past several years, a process for converting uranium tetrafluoride into hexafluoride has been developed successfully. To develop the process further, the construction of an integrated milling and conversion pilot plant (200 t-U/year) started in 1979 and was completed in 1981. This new plant has two systems of solvent extraction using tri-noctylamine: one of the systems treats the pregnant solution (uranyl sulphate) by heap-leaching followed by ion exchange, and the other treats the uranyl sulphate solution by dissolving imported yellowcake. The uranium loading solvents from the two systems are stripped with hydrochloric acid solution to obtain the concentrated uranium solution containing 100 g-U/1. Uranyl sulphate solution from the stripping circuit is reduced to a uranous sulphate solution by the electrolytic method. In a reduction cell, uranyl sulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid are used respectively as catholyte and anolyte, and a cation exchange membrane is used to prevent re-oxidation of the uranous sulphate. In the following hydrofluorination step, uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 .1-1.2H 2 O (particle size: 50-100μ), is produced continuously as the precipitate in an improved reaction vessel, and this makes it possible to simplify the procedures of liquid-solid separation, drying and granulation. The uranium tetrafluoride is dehydrated by heating to 350 0 C in an inert gas flow. The complete conversion from UF 4 into UF 6 is achieved by a fluidized-bed reactor and a high value of utilization efficiency of fluorine, over 99.9 percent, is attained at about 400 0 C. (author)

  3. Graphene for thermoelectronic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Dilip K.; Olukunle, Olawole C.

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is a high temperature material which can stand temperature as high as 4600 K in vacuum. Even though its work function is high (4.6 eV) the thermionic emission current density at such temperature is very high. Graphene is a wonderful material whose work function can be engineered as desired. Kwon et al41 reported a chemical approach to reduce work function of graphene using K2CO3, Li2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3. The work functions are reported to be 3.7 eV, 3.8 eV, 3.5 eV and 3.4 eV. Even though they did not report the high temperature tolerance of such alkali metal carbonate doped graphene, their works open a great promise for use of pure graphene and doped graphene as emitter (cathode) and collector (anode) in a solar thermionic energy converter. This paper discusses the dynamics of solar energy conversion to electrical energy using thermionic energy converter with graphene as emitter and collector. We have considered parabolic mirror concentrator to focus solar energy onto the emitter to achieve temperature around 4300 K. Our theoretical calculations and the modelling show that efficiency as high as 55% can easily be achieved if space-charge problem can be reduced and the collector can be cooled to certain proper temperature. We have discussed methods of controlling the associated space-charge problems. Richardson-Dushman equation modified by the authors have been used in this modelling. Such solar energy conversion would reduce the dependence on silicon solar panel and has great potential for future applications.

  4. Observing conversational laughter in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Peter S; Simpson, Michaela; Gola, Kelly; Shdo, Suzanne M; Spinelli, Edoardo G; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Rankin, Katherine; Levenson, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    We performed an observational study of laughter during seminaturalistic conversations between patients with dementia and familial caregivers. Patients were diagnosed with (1) behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), (2) right temporal variant frontotemporal dementia (rtFTD), (3) semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), (4) non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) or (5) early onset Alzheimer's disease (eoAD). We hypothesised that those with bvFTD would laugh less in response to their own speech than other dementia groups or controls, while those with rtFTD would laugh less regardless of who was speaking. Patients with bvFTD (n=39), svPPA (n=19), rtFTD (n=14), nfvPPA (n=16), eoAD (n=17) and healthy controls (n=156) were recorded (video and audio) while discussing a problem in their relationship with a healthy control companion. Using the audio track only, laughs were identified by trained coders and then further classed by an automated algorithm as occurring during or shortly after the participant's own vocalisation ('self' context) or during or shortly after the partner's vocalisation ('partner' context). Individuals with bvFTD, eoAD or rtFTD laughed less across both contexts of self and partner than the other groups. Those with bvFTD laughed less relative to their own speech comparedwith healthy controls. Those with nfvPPA laughed more in the partner context compared with healthy controls. Laughter in response to one's own vocalisations or those of a conversational partner may be a clinically useful measure in dementia diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Conversion Disorder Comorbidity and Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Fatma; Gökalp, Peykan G; Erdiman, Sezgin; Oflaz, Serap; Karşidağ, Çağatay

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the presence of comorbidity, and the link with childhood traumatic experiences in patients with conversion disorder (CD) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. A total of 60 literate, female patients between 18 and 65 years of age who were referred to the general psychiatry outpatient clinic and who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were included in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Dissociative Events Scale (DES) were used to assess the cases. The mean age of the participants was 36.27±11.18 years. 72% of the patients were married and 63% were primary school graduates. The most common symptoms were asthenia (100%), aphasia (96.7%), and crying-convulsions (93%). The most common co-morbidities were depression (50%) and dissociative disorders (48.3%). Among the patients, 53.3% reported a history of exposure to physical violence and 25% reported a history of sexual assault in childhood. Assessment of the Childhood Traumatic Questionnaire revealed a significant positive relation between emotional, physical, and sexual abuse scores and DES score. CD has not yet been fully analyzed in detail in health institutions; co-existence of another mental disorder and the presence of traumatic experiences in the past further complicate the issue. Consideration of these factors during treatment will have a positive impact on the course and prognosis of the disorder.

  6. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.

    2011-06-03

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO₂, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C₁₂{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO₂, allene, C₂–C₆ olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water

  7. Matched conversion sales in the nuclear fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations leading up to the Suspension Agreement with Russia focused solely on uranium and SWU, leaving conversion in its traditional role as the overlooked constituent of the fuel cycle. In fact, the initial agreement did not even distinguish U 3 O 8 from UF 6 ; it effectively ignored the conversion component contained in UF 6 and the possibility of matched conversion sales. After some criticism from ConverDyn and others, The US Department of Commerce issued a clarification, confirming that all three major components of the fuel cycle can be sold under matched sales agreements. However, matched conversion sales remain somewhat of an enigma as few have been done and the logistics are poorly understood. Nonetheless, in a conversion market where supply and demand are closely balanced, secondary supplies, including those from matched sales, will likely play an important role in the evolution of conversion prices

  8. Mathematical Simulation of High-Conversion Binary Copolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangWei; QinJiguang

    2005-01-01

    A new model for mathematical simulation of high-conversion binary copolymerization was established by combination of the concept of the three stage polymerization model (TSPM) proposed by Qin et al. for bulk free radical homopolymerization with the North equation to describe high-conversion copolymerization reaction exhibiting a strong gel effect, and the mathematical expressions of this new model were derived. Like TSPM, the new model also assmnes that the whole course of binary copolymerization can be divided into three different stages: low conversion, gel effect and glass effect stages. In addition, the reaction rate constants and the initiator efficiency at each copolymerization stage do not vary with conversion. Based on the expressions derived, a plot method for determining the overall rate constants and critical conversions was proposed. The literature data on conversion history for styrene (St)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)-MMA copolymerizations were treated to examine the model, which shows that the model is satisfactory.

  9. Radial Basis Function Networks for Conversion of Sound Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Drioli

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In many advanced signal processing tasks, such as pitch shifting, voice conversion or sound synthesis, accurate spectral processing is required. Here, the use of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN is proposed for the modeling of the spectral changes (or conversions related to the control of important sound parameters, such as pitch or intensity. The identification of such conversion functions is based on a procedure which learns the shape of the conversion from few couples of target spectra from a data set. The generalization properties of RBFNs provides for interpolation with respect to the pitch range. In the construction of the training set, mel-cepstral encoding of the spectrum is used to catch the perceptually most relevant spectral changes. Moreover, a singular value decomposition (SVD approach is used to reduce the dimension of conversion functions. The RBFN conversion functions introduced are characterized by a perceptually-based fast training procedure, desirable interpolation properties and computational efficiency.

  10. Childhood Trauma and Alexithymia in Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Anum; Yousaf, Aasma

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between childhood trauma (physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) and alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder, and to identify it as a predictor of alexithymia in conversion disorder. An analytical study. Multiple public sector hospitals in Lahore, from September 2012 to July 2013. Eighty women with conversion disorder were recruited on the basis of DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria checklist to screen conversion disorder. Childhood abuse interview to measure childhood trauma and Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, DSM-IV TR Dianostic Criteria Checklist, and Childhood Abuse Interview to assess alexithymia were used, respectively. The mean age of the sample was 18 ±2.2 years. Thirty-six cases had a history of childhood trauma, physical abuse was the most reported trauma (f = 19, 23.8%) in their childhood. Patients with conversion disorder has a significant association with alexithymia (p conversion disorder. Strategies should be devised to reduce this disorder among women in Pakistani society.

  11. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  12. Conversational Effects of Gender and Children's Moral Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Björnberg, Marina

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aimed partly to examine the effects of gender on conversation dynamics, partly to investigate whether interaction between participants with contrasting opinions promotes cognitive development on a moral task. Another objective was to explore whether particular conversational features of interaction would have any impact upon a pair’s joint response or on each child’s moral development. The conversations were coded with regard to simultaneous speech acts, psychosocial behaviour and...

  13. Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.; Johnson, B.C.; Hildum, J.S.; G. J. Linford is now with Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching, Federal Republic of Germany)

    1982-01-01

    Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments to 2ω (532 nm), 3ω (355 nm), and 4ω (266 nm) on the Argus laser at the Livermore National Laboratory are described. Harmonically converted energies of up to 346 J have been generated at external conversion efficiencies of 83%. A discussion of the harmonic conversion experiments and a brief summary of enhanced 2ω and 3ω inertial confinement fusion target performances are provided

  14. Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.J.; Johnson, B.C.; Hildum, J.S.; Martin, W.E.; Snyder, K.; Boyd, R.D.; Smith, W.L.; Vercimak, C.L.; Eimerle, D.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-10-15

    Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments to 2..omega.. (532 nm), 3..omega.. (355 nm), and 4..omega.. (266 nm) on the Argus laser at the Livermore National Laboratory are described. Harmonically converted energies of up to 346 J have been generated at external conversion efficiencies of 83%. A discussion of the harmonic conversion experiments and a brief summary of enhanced 2..omega.. and 3..omega.. inertial confinement fusion target performances are provided.

  15. Parametric down conversion of X-rays, recent experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, B; Novikov, D V; Materlik, G; Mills, D M

    2001-01-01

    Parametric down conversion of X-ray photons in diamond crystals was detected in six experiments, all using the phase matching scheme first employed in the X-ray regime by Eisenberger and McCall (Eisenberger and McCall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26 (1971) 684). The conversion events were detected by a combination of time correlation spectroscopy and energy discrimination. The time correlation spectra gave a direct comparison of the conversion rate over the accidental coincidence rate.

  16. Computational modeling of turn-taking dynamics in spoken conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shammur Absar

    2017-01-01

    The study of human interaction dynamics has been at the center for multiple research disciplines in- cluding computer and social sciences, conversational analysis and psychology, for over decades. Recent interest has been shown with the aim of designing computational models to improve human-machine interaction system as well as support humans in their decision-making process. Turn-taking is one of the key aspects of conversational dynamics in dyadic conversations and is an integral part of hu...

  17. MIL-HDBK-338: Environmental Conversion Table Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Frank; Novack, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In reliability analysis, especially for launch vehicles, limited data is frequently a problem. Component data from other environments must be used. MIL-HBK-338 has a matrix showing the conversation between environments. Due to round off the conversions are not commutative, converting from A to B will not equal converting from B to A. Agenda: Introduction to environment conversions; Original table; Original table with edits; How big is the problem?; First attempt at correction; Proposed solution.

  18. Conversion of far ultraviolet to visible radiation: absolute measurements of the conversion efficiency of tetraphenyl butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Robert E.; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.

    Far ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation of noble gases is used in dark matter and neutrino research and in neutron detection. Upon collisional excitation, noble gas atoms recombine into excimer molecules that decay by FUV emission. Direct detection of FUV is difficult. Another approach is to convert it to visible light using a wavelength-shifting medium. One such medium, tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) can be vapor-deposited on substrates. Thus the quality of thin TPB films can be tightly controlled. We have measured the absolute efficiency of FUV-to-visible conversion by 1 μm-thick TPB films vs. FUV wavelengths between 130 and 300 nm, with 1 nm resolution. The energy efficiency of FUV to visible conversion varies between 1% and 5%. We make comparisons with other recent results. Work performed at the NIST SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility,.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF AEOLIAN ENERGY CONVERSION OPTIMISATION DE LA CONVERSION DE L’ENERGIE EOLIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Soufi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy increases, because people are increasingly concerned with environmental issues. Among renewable, wind power is now widely used. Their study showed that a value of wind speed, there is a maximum mechanical power supplied by the turbine. So, power is supplied are particularly changes with maximum speed.However, the objective of this paper is to present an algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy based on a criterion optimization that must maintain specific speed of the turbine at optimum speed which corresponds to the maximum power provided by the steady wind turbine. To this end, the object is to preserve the position of any static operating point on the characteristic of optimal.To validate the model and algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy, a series of numerical simulations carried out using the software MatLab Simulink will be presented is discussed.

  20. Content and context in conversations : the role of social and situational signals in conversation structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bonin, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The increasing growth of multimodal material creates, nowadays, a renewed interest in innovative approaches to information extraction from meetings and multiparty conversations; those approaches make use of various multimodal sources such as video, audio and resulting transcripts from which information can be derived to produce a richer semantic analysis of the social interaction. Social interactions are co-constructed by a combination of contextual and linguistic aspects. However, while the ...