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Sample records for conversion treatments applied

  1. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  2. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  3. Operant procedures applied to a conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P.F.M.; Heijden, H.P. van der; Hoogduin, K.A.L.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Conversion symptoms, as identified by the existing classification systems, do not form a single unitary class. It is therefore difficult to find an adequate treatment that closely connects to the basic characteristics of the disease. Instead, we designed a treatment method that closely relates to

  4. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  5. Selecting and applying cesium-137 conversion models to estimate soil erosion rates in cultivated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lobb, David A; Tiessen, Kevin H D; McConkey, Brian G

    2010-01-01

    The fallout radionuclide cesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been successfully used in soil erosion studies worldwide. However, discrepancies often exist between the erosion rates estimated using various conversion models. As a result, there is often confusion in the use of the various models and in the interpretation of the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the structural and parametrical uncertainties associated with four conversion models typically used in cultivated agricultural landscapes. For the structural uncertainties, the Soil Constituent Redistribution by Erosion Model (SCREM) was developed and used to simulate the redistribution of fallout (137)Cs due to tillage and water erosion along a simple two-dimensional (horizontal and vertical) transect. The SCREM-predicted (137)Cs inventories were then imported into the conversion models to estimate the erosion rates. The structural uncertainties of the conversion models were assessed based on the comparisons between the conversion-model-estimated erosion rates and the erosion rates determined or used in the SCREM. For the parametrical uncertainties, test runs were conducted by varying the values of the parameters used in the model, and the parametrical uncertainties were assessed based on the responsive changes of the estimated erosion rates. Our results suggest that: (i) the performance/accuracy of the conversion models was largely dependent on the relative contributions of water vs. tillage erosion; and (ii) the estimated erosion rates were highly sensitive to the input values of the reference (137)Cs level, particle size correction factors and tillage depth. Guidelines were proposed to aid researchers in selecting and applying the conversion models under various situations common to agricultural landscapes.

  6. Winery Wastewater Treatment Applying Aerated Submerged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pellizzaro Bento

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The winery wastewater usually shows conditions of low pH, high organic loads and concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus that are inappropriate for biologic treatment. The purpose of this research was to apply the technology of aerated submerged biofilter (ASB for the winery effluent treatment during the harvest (ASB 1 and non harvest (ASB 2 at lab scale. Therefore, two up flow biofilter built on glass (5 liters volume were installed. The nutrient balance of the winery wastewater was adjusted and the correction of the pH was done by oyster shell used as filter material. The efficiency removal (COD for the harvest reactor was 90% while for the non harvest was 82%. The oyster shells contributed to an increase on average of 180 mg/L of alkalinity to the BAS 1 and 318 mg/L for the BAS 2. As regards the metals, the average values in the treated effluent to meet iron and zinc is permitted by the environmental standards of Santa Catarina. Under the experimental conditions applied in this research, this kind of reactor has presented potential for the treatment of winery wastewater. However, operational improvements would be required in the reactors to adequate them to the specific management into the wineries.

  7. An Integrated System for the Treatment of Coal Conversion Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Y. Wang; Keeran R. Srinivasan

    1999-02-25

    Treatment of mixed waste from coal conversion wastewaters involves the degradation of toxic organics and the removal of heavy metals. An integrated and cost-effective treatment scheme that can implement such a process is considered essential to promote continued development and growth of coal conversion processes without any deleterious effects on our ecosystem. We have recently developed a pH-dependent, reversible heavy metal adsorption/desorption process which promises to be a cost-effective alternative to the treatment and disposal options currently in place for these inorganic contaminants. Our work shows that: (1) Polydisperse, industrial-grade surfactants can be used in the development of novel, surfactant-coated smectitic clays containing up to 50% by weight of adsorbed surfactant, (2) Reversible adsorption and resorption of cationic (CU(II) and Cd(II)) and anionic (Cr(VI)) heavy metals from their respective aqueous solutions onto these surfactant-modified smectites can be effected using pH of the medium as a switch, and (3) These surfactant-modified smectites can be repeatedly used (up to 5 times) with only a minimal loss in their adsorption potency and with very little leaching of the adsorbed surfactants.

  8. Remembrance of conversations past: oral advance statements about medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polls show increasing public interest in advance statements or directives about medical treatment ("living wills") but that few people, apart from Jehovah's Witnesses, carry such documents. Patients' firm, witnessed oral decisions are often sufficient to aid clinical decision making but should still be recorded in medical notes. Without documentation, dilemmas arise when others claim to know patients' views on the basis of past unrecorded conversations and demand withdrawal of treatment when patients are not terminally ill and cannot speak for themselves. Legal and ethical considerations oblige doctors to act in the best interests of an incapacitated patient; these considerations are now formally defined in draft legislation as including consideration of the patient's past wishes. The practicalities of ascertaining the strength and validity of such wishes from conversations reported second hand are complex. The paucity of legal and ethical guidance on reported oral advance statements makes debate imperative and renders the alternative of having designated surrogate decision makers increasingly attractive. Images p1664-a PMID:7795460

  9. Ceramic Conversion Treatment of Titanium Aluminide for Improved Tribological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingXIA; ChenxiLI; HanshanDONG; TomBELL

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-based titanium aluminides have great potential in the automotive industries (e.g. valves in a car engine), but tribological property could be one of the crucial factors in determining the life and performance of a titanium aluminide part. A surface modification technique, namely ceramic conversion (CC) treatment has been developed to improve the tribological properties of a γ-based titanium aluminide (Ti-48A1-2Nb-2Cr-B), and the surface properties were fully characterised. The results indicate that ceramic conversion treatment can produce an oxide layer consisting of a top TiO2 surface followed by a mixture of TiO2 and Al2O3. Such hardened layer has significantly improved the load-bearing capacity and wear resistance of the intermetallics, as evidenced by an increase of scuffing load up to 4 times and a wear rate reduction of two orders of magnitude. The coefficient of friction has also been reduced from 0.5-0.7 for the untreated to an average of 0.22 for the CC-treated alloy under dry sliding contact conditions.

  10. Ceramic Conversion Treatment of Titanium Aluminide for Improved Tribological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing XIA; Chenxi LI; Hanshan DONG; Tom BELL

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-based titanium aluminides have great potential in the automotive industries (e.g. valves in a car engine),but tribological property could be one of the crucial factors in determining the life and performance of a titanium aluminide part. A surface modification technique, namely ceramic conversion (CC) treatment has been developed to improve the tribological properties of a γ-based titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr-B), and the surface properties were fully characterised. The results indicate that ceramic conversion treatment can produce an oxide layer consisting of a top TiO2 surface followed by a mixture of TiO2 and Al2O3. Such hardened layer has significantly improved the load-bearing capacity and wear resistance of the intermetallics, as evidenced by an increase of scuffing load up to 4 times and a wear rate reduction of two orders of magnitude. The coefficient of friction has also been reduced from 0.5-0.7 for the untreated to an average of 0.22 for the CC-treated alloy under dry sliding contact conditions.

  11. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  12. Nanotechnology applied to treatment of mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Roselena S; Baldo, Guilherme; Teixeira, Helder F

    2016-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are genetic disorders caused by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans due to deficiencies in the lysosomal enzymes responsible for their catabolism. Current treatments are not fully effective and are not available for all MPS types. Accordingly, researchers have tested novel therapies for MPS, including nanotechnology-based enzyme delivery systems and gene therapy. In this review, we aim to analyze some of the approaches involving nanotechnology as alternative treatments for MPS. Areas covered: We analyze nanotechnology-based systems, focusing on the biomaterials, such as polymers and lipids, that comprise these nanostructures, and we have highlighted studies that describe their use as enzyme and gene delivery systems for the treatment of MPS diseases. Expert opinion: Some protocols, such as the use of polymer-based systems or nanostructured carriers associated with enzymes and nanotechnology-based carriers for gene therapy, along with combined approaches, seem to be the future of MPS therapy.

  13. Maximum-power-point tracking with reduced mechanical stress applied to wind-energy-conversion-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.G. [Departamento de Electronica y Comunicaciones, Universidad de los Andes, nucleo la Hechicera, 5101 Merida (Venezuela); Figueres, E.; Garcera, G. [Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Carranza, O. [Escuela Superior de Computo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Batiz s/n, 07738 DF (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents an improved maximum-power-point tracking algorithm for wind-energy-conversion-systems. The proposed method significantly reduces the turbine mechanical stress with regard to conventional techniques, so that both the maintenance needs and the medium time between failures are expected to be improved. To achieve these objectives, a sensorless speed control loop receives its reference signal from a modified Perturb and Observe algorithm, in which the typical steps on the reference speed have been substituted by a fixed and well-defined slope ramp signal. As a result, it is achieved a soft dynamic response of both the torque and the speed of the wind turbine, so that the whole system suffers from a lower mechanical stress than with conventional P and O techniques. The proposed method has been applied to a wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator operating at variable speed, which is connected to the distribution grid by means of a back to back converter. (author)

  14. Performance of Differential-Phase-Shift Keying Protocol Applying 1310 nm Up-Conversion Single-Photon Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Chen-Xu; JIAO Rong-Zhen; ZHANG Wen-Han

    2008-01-01

    The performance of the differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) protocol applying a 1310nm up-conversion single-photon detector is analysed. The error rate and the communication rate as a function of distance for three quantum key distribution protocols, the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992, and the DPSK, are presented. Then we compare the performance of these three protocols using the 1310 nm up-conversion detector. We draw the conclusion that the DPSK protocol applying the detector has significant advantage over the other two protocols. Longer transmission distance and lower error rate can be achieved.

  15. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  16. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  17. Behavioural treatment of a food refusal conversion disorder in a mentally retarded adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, B; Haydon, S; Sapan, J

    1990-12-01

    A 31-year-old woman with mental retardation who demonstrated total food refusal as the symptom of a conversion disorder was successfully treated with behavioural management techniques. The treatment utilized a shaping paradigm combined with relaxation procedures. The results supported the hypothesis that conversion disorder symptoms are maintained through their consequences, and the efficacy of behavioural treatments for those disorders.

  18. User Centered Design as a Framework for Applying Conversation Analysis in Hearing Aid Consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Matthews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    collaboration, as well as successes and pitfalls. In particular we focus on the role of conversation analysists both from the perspective of the designers and the conversation analysts. To illustrate this, we have selected a project on hearing aid fitting. To understand the perspective of the users (the person...... with hearing loss and the hearing aid fitter is imperative because the compliance rate for hearing aid use is staggeringly low. One of the barriers of hearing aid use lies in problematic encounters between the person with hearing loss and audiologists. Buur, J and Matthews, B. (2008) ‘Participatory Innovation...

  19. User Centered Design as a Framework for Applying Conversation Analysis in Hearing Aid Consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Matthews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    and Bagger, 1999) and, more recently, Participatory Innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008) which is uniquely compatible with conversation analysis. Designers following this approach study how a ‘user’ of goods or services interacts with products and other interaction partners in order to derive ideas...

  20. Applying conversation analysis to foster accurate reporting in the diet history interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, L C; Brenninger, V; Barnard, J

    2000-07-01

    Inaccuracy in reporting dietary intakes is a major problem in managing diet-related disease. There is no single best method of dietary assessment, but the diet history lends itself well to the clinical setting. In many diet histories data are collected orally, so analysis of interviews can provide insights into reporting behaviors. Conversation analysis is a qualitative method that describes the systematic organization of talk between people. Patterns are identified and checked for consistency within and among individual interviews. The aim of this study was to describe consistent ways of reporting diet histories and to identify conversational features of problematic reporting. Diet history interviews from 62 overweight and insulin-resistant adult volunteers (50 women, 12 men) attending an outpatient clinic and 14 healthy volunteers (7 men, 7 women) participating in an energy balance study were audiotaped and transcribed. Conversation analysis identified a remarkably consistent pattern of reporting diet histories and 3 conversational features that indicated problematic reporting: "it depends," denoting variability (least of all at breakfast); "probably," suggesting guesswork (related to portion sizes); and elaborated talk on certain foods, distinguishing sensitive topics (e.g., alcohol, chocolate, butter/margarine, take-out foods) from safe topics. These findings indicate that there are ways in which dietetics practitioners may conduct the diet history interview to foster more accurate reporting.

  1. Applying systemic functional linguistics to conversations with dementia: the linguistic construction of relationships between participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nicole; Mok, Zaneta

    2012-02-01

    Social isolation in dementia is a growing concern as the incidence and prevalence of dementing conditions is on the rise in many societies. Positive social interactions, which foster the construction and enactment of positive interpersonal relationships and therefore positive discursive identities, make an important contribution to emotional well-being. In this article, we investigate how two women diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer's type use language to relate to each other and two visiting graduate students. We use Systemic Functional Linguistics as an analytical framework, specifically investigating the use of vocatives and naming, and conversational moves and exchanges.

  2. Luminescence properties of Eu3+/CDs/PVA composite applied in light conversion film

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangling; He, Youling; Zhuang, Jianle; Zhang, Haoran; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, blue-light-emitting carbon dots (CDs) were composited with red-light-emitting europium ions (Eu3+) solutions under the synergistic reaction of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to prepare the light conversion film. The formation mechanism of Eu3+/CDs/PVA film was detailedly discussed. It is the first report that this composite was synthesized through direct recombination of CDs and Eu3+ solutions instead of traditional methods based on Eu3+ coordination compound. Furthermore, tunable photoluminescence property can be successfully achieved by controlling the ratio of CDs to doped Eu3+, this property can meet the variable light component requirements for different species of plants.

  3. A Review of Temporal Aspects of Hand Gesture Analysis Applied to Discourse Analysis and Natural Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. B. Madeo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, there has been an increasinginterest in hand gesture analysis systems. Recent works have employedpattern recognition techniques and have focused on the development of systems with more natural userinterfaces. These systems may use gestures to control interfaces or recognize sign language gestures, whichcan provide systems with multimodal interaction; or consist in multimodal tools to help psycholinguists tounderstand new aspects of discourse analysis and to automate laborious tasks.Gestures are characterizedby several aspects, mainly by movementsand sequence of postures. Since data referring to movementsorsequencescarry temporal information, this paper presents aliteraturereviewabouttemporal aspects ofhand gesture analysis, focusing on applications related to natural conversation and psycholinguisticanalysis, using Systematic Literature Review methodology. In our results, we organized works according totype of analysis, methods, highlighting the use of Machine Learning techniques, and applications.

  4. Statistical Decision Theory Applied to Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheiss, T. E.; El-Mahdi, Anas M.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical decision theory has been applied to the treatment planning decision of radiation therapy. The decision involves the choice of parameters which determine the radiation dose distribution. To choose among dose distributions requires a decision rule which reflects the uncertainty of possible outcomes for any specific dose distribution and the various risks associated with each outcome. A relative gravity or morbidity is assigned to each possible complication of treatment. In this stud...

  5. Optimization of Conversion Treatment on Austenitic Stainless Steel Using Experimental Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. El Hajjaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion coating is commonly used as treatment to improve the adherence of ceramics films. The conversion coating properties depend on the structure of alloy as well as on the treatment parameters. These conversion coatings must be characterized by strong interfacial adhesion, high roughness, and high real surface area, which were measured by an electrochemical method. The influence of all the elaboration factors (temperature, time, and bath composition: sulphuric acid, thiosulphate as accelerator, propargyl alcohol as inhibitor, and surface state and also the interactions between these factors were evaluated, using statistical experimental design. The specific surface area and optical factor (α correspond to the quantitative responses. The evaluation showed, by using a designed experimental procedure, that the most important factor was “surface state.” Sanded surface allows the formation of conversion coating with high real surface area. A further aim was to optimise two parameters: treatment time and temperature using Doehlert shell design and simplex method. The growth of the conversion coating is also influenced by treatment time and temperature. With such optimized conditions, the real surface area of conversion coating obtained was about 235 m2/m2.

  6. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  7. Cognitive rehabilitation treatment for mental slowness in conversion disorder : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vroege, L.; Khasho, D.; Foruz, A.; Van Der Feltz-cornelis, C.M.; Walla, P.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation treatment (CRT) has been described in patients with brain injury, but it has not been attempted in cases of cognitive dysfunction without organic cause. This case report describes CRT of neurocognitive impairment in a 54-year-old female patient with conversion disorder (CD).

  8. Behavioral Treatment of Conversion Disorder in Adolescence: A Case Example of Globus Hystericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Thevenin, Deborah M.; Runyon, Melissa K.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of a patient diagnosed with a conversion disorder characterized by a perceived lump in the throat and subsequent weight loss. Results indicate that the behavioral therapy procedures contributed to increased weight and improved eating behavior. (RJM)

  9. Improvement of power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic-assisted UHF rectifiers by non-silicide technique applied to photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Koji

    2015-04-01

    Non-silicide PV cell structures were successfully applied to the photovoltaic (PV)-assisted UHF rectifier, which is one example realization of the “synergistic ambient energy harvesting” concept. Silicide blocking of PV cell area was experimentally verified to be effective for increasing photo-generated bias voltage, which resulted in the improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier by enhanced VTH compensation effect. Increase in both transparency of light and quantum efficiency of PV cells obtained by eliminating silicide layer affects the PCE improvement almost equally. 25.8% of PCE was achieved under the conditions of an RF input power of -20 dBm, a frequency of 920 MHz, an output load of 47 kΩ, and a typical indoor light irradiance level of 1 W/m2. In addition, when the non-silicide PV cell technique was applied to the voltage-boosted PV-cell structures, 32.1% peak PCE was achieved at 10 W/m2.

  10. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume III. Wind conversion systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The variability of energy output inherent in wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has led to the investigation of energy storage as a means of managing the available energy when immediate, direct use is not possible or desirable. This portion of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a wind energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with wind energy conversion systems.

  11. Effect of Post Heat Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of Phytic Acid Conversion Coated Magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K. Gupta; K. Mensah-Darkwa; D. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    An environment friendly chemical conversion coating for magnesium was obtained by using a phytic acid solution.The effect of post-coating 1heat treatment on the microstructures and corrosion properties of phytic acid conversion coated magnesium was investigated.It was observed that the microstructure and corrosion resistive properties were improved for the heat treated samples.The corrosion current density for bare magnesium,phytic acid conversion coated magnesium,and post-coating heat treated magnesium was calculated to be 2.48 × 10-5,1.18 × 10-6,and 9.27 × 10-7 A/cm2,respectively.The lowest corrosion current density for the heat treated sample indicated its highest corrosion resistive effect for the magnesium.The maximum corrosion protective nature of the heat treated sample was further confirmed by the largest value of impedance in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies.

  12. The influence of applied heat treatments on whey protein denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetahagić Safet

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstituted skim milk with 8.01% DM was standardized with 3% skim milk powder and with 3% demineralized whey powder (DWP, respectively. Gained milk samples are named as 8%, 11% and 8%+3%DWP. All samples were heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min, respectively. Untreated milk was used as control. Milk samples were coagulated by glucono-d-lactone (GDL at the temperature of 45ºC until pH 4.60 was reached. Milk nitrogen matter content decreased during heat treatments, but linear relationship between applied heat treatments and nitrogen matter decreasing was not found. Nitrogen matter content of sera gained from both untreated and heat treated milk increased with the increase of milk dry matter content and with the addition of DWP. The higher temperature of applied heat treatment, the smaller sera nitrogen matter content. Nitrogen matter content in sera obtained from untreated milk were 64.90 mg%, 96.80 mg% and 117.3 mg% for milk 8%, 11% and 8%+3.0% DWP, respectively. Sera samples obtained from milk 8% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min had 38.70 mg% 38.30 mg% and 37.20 mg% of nitrogen matter, respectively. Sera samples obtained from milk 11% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min had 55.90 mg%, 52.80 mg% and 51.30 mg% of nitrogen matter, respectively. Sera samples obtained from milk 8% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min had 69.50 mg%, 66.20 mg% and 66.00 mg% of nitrogen matter respectively. Distribution of nitrogen matter from untreated milk to milk sera were 12.01%, 11.14% and 17.69% for milk 8%, 11% and 8%+3.0% DWP respectively. Distribution of nitrogen matter from milk 8% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min to sera samples were 6.99%, 6.72% and 6.59%, respectively. Distribution of nitrogen matter from milk 11% heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min to sera samples, were 6.02%, 5.32% and 5.21%, respectively

  13. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation as a Treatment for Conversion Disorder: A Case Report and Medical Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eNoll-Hussong; Sabrina eHolzapfel; Dan ePokorny; Simone D Herberger

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) has been demonstrated to modulate transiently a variety of cognitive ...

  14. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-07

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

  15. Optimisation of the phosphate conversion treatment for generating protective coatings; Optimizacion del tratamiento de fosfatado como metodo de proteccion frente a la corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofre-Bustamante, E.; Olvera, A.; Barba, A.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Carboneras, M.; Alvarez, M.; Garcia-Alonso, M. C.; Escudero, M. L.

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the phosphate treatment as a chemical conversion treatment (CCT) free of chromium, from the basis of the study of a commercial treatment applied in phosphoric solution at different concentrations (100% and dilutions 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10). The optimum immersion time for the phosphate conversion treatment was established from the evolution over time of the open circuit potential. Protection against corrosion of the conversion layers was evaluated by polarisation resistance and electrochemical impedance measurements. The adhesion to the substrate was evaluated by pull-off tests. Results have shown that the application of an organic coating on the substrate with a previous phosphate treatment in 1:5 dilution (10 min.) increases the corrosion resistance in, at least, one order of magnitude with respect to the non phosphate-coated metal and improves the adhesion to the substrate, since the conversion layer obtained is part of the substrate and the surface generated increases the number and area of active sites. (Author)

  16. Initial implementation of the conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number to electron density in tissue inhomogeneity corrections: An anthropomorphic phantom study of radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukihara, Masayoshi [Division of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Noto, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata 951-8520 (Japan); Sasamoto, Ryuta; Hayakawa, Takahide; Saito, Masatoshi, E-mail: masaito@clg.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To achieve accurate tissue inhomogeneity corrections in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide range of ρ{sub e}. The purpose of this study is to present an initial implementation of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method for a treatment planning system (TPS). In this paper, two example radiotherapy plans are used to evaluate the reliability of dose calculations in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method. Methods: CT images were acquired using a clinical dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner operated in the dual-energy mode with two tube potential pairs and an additional tin (Sn) filter for the high-kV tube (80–140 kV/Sn and 100–140 kV/Sn). Single-energy CT using the same DSCT scanner was also performed at 120 kV to compare the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method with a conventional conversion from a CT number to ρ{sub e} (Hounsfield units, HU–ρ{sub e} conversion). Lookup tables for ρ{sub e} calibration were obtained from the CT image acquisitions for tissue substitutes in an electron density phantom (EDP). To investigate the beam-hardening effect on dosimetric uncertainties, two EDPs with different sizes (a body EDP and a head EDP) were used for the ρ{sub e} calibration. Each acquired lookup table was applied to two radiotherapy plans designed using the XiO TPS with the superposition algorithm for an anthropomorphic phantom. The first radiotherapy plan was for an oral cavity tumor and the second was for a lung tumor. Results: In both treatment plans, the performance of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion was superior to that of the conventional HU–ρ{sub e} conversion in terms of the reliability of dose calculations. Especially, for the oral tumor plan, which dealt with dentition and bony structures, treatment

  17. Applying Lean: Implementation of a Rapid Triage and Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrell, Karen L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency department (ED crowding creates issues with patient satisfaction, long wait times and leaving the ED without being seen by a doctor (LWBS. Our objective was to evaluate how applying Lean principles to develop a Rapid Triage and Treatment (RTT system affected ED metrics in our community hospital.Methods: Using Lean principles, we made ED process improvements that led to the RTT system. Using this system, patients undergo a rapid triage with low-acuity patients seen and treated by a physician in the triage area. No changes in staffing, physical space or hospital resources occurred during the study period. We then performed a retrospective, observational study comparing hospital electronic medical record data six months before and six months after implementation of the RTT system.Results: ED census was 30,981 in the six months prior to RTT and 33,926 after. Ambulance arrivals, ED patient acuity and hospital admission rates were unchanged throughout the study periods. Mean ED length of stay was longer in the period before RTT (4.2 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.2-4.3; standard deviation [SD] = 3.9 than after (3.6 hours, 95% CI = 3.6-3.7; SD = 3.7. Mean ED arrival to physician start time was 62.2 minutes (95% CI = 61.5-63.0; SD = 58.9 prior to RTT and 41.9 minutes (95% CI = 41.5-42.4; SD = 30.9 after. The LWBS rate for the six months prior to RTT was 4.5% (95% CI = 3.1-5.5 and 1.5% (95% CI = 0.6-1.8 after RTT initiation.Conclusion: Our experience shows that changes in ED processes using Lean thinking and available resources can improve efficiency. In this community hospital ED, use of an RTT system decreased patient wait times and LWBS rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:184-191.

  18. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Rickard; Behrens, Claus F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise c...

  19. Applying coagulation, flocculation and discfiltration in tertiary treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Reducing eutrophication in our surface waters caused by nutrient overload is of importance in order to ensure an environment in ecological balance for future generations. Municipal wastewater treatment plants are the main point source of nutrients emissions. Effluent water can be treated by introducing a final advanced treatment step to existing wastewater treatment plants. The present thesis concerns addition of coagulation, polymer aided flocculation and discfiltration usi...

  20. Oral to subcutaneous methotrexate dose-conversion strategy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Michael H; Sadowski, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Both the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) guidelines recommend the use of methotrexate (MTX) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when there is no contraindication. While MTX is the foundation of RA therapy (Singh et al. in Arthritis Care Res 64:625-639,2012), absorption saturation compromises its oral bioavailability (BA). Differences in the relative BA of oral versus subcutaneous (SC) MTX demonstrate the need for guidance on successful dose-conversion strategies. This study was designed to compare MTX PK profiles as a result of MTX administration via three different treatment administrations: oral, SC MTX administered via an auto-injector (MTXAI) into the abdomen (MTXAIab) and into the thigh (MTXAIth). In this paper, we establish a dose-conversion method based on the BA of MTX from oral and SC administration. SC administration provided higher exposure of MTX than the same dose given orally. Unlike the exposure limitations of oral MTX, dose-proportional exposure was seen with SC MTX.

  1. Enhanced Conversion Efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells via Electrochemical Passivation Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Wei; Thomas, Stuart R; Chen, Chia-Wei; Wang, Yi-Chung; Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Yen, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Wen-Chi; Wang, Zhiming M; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2016-03-01

    Defect control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) materials, no matter what the defect type or density, is a significant issue, correlating directly to PV performance. These defects act as recombination centers and can be briefly categorized into interface recombination and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination, both of which can lead to reduced PV performance. Here, we introduce an electrochemical passivation treatment for CIGS films that can lower the oxygen concentration at the CIGS surface as observed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis. Temperature-dependent J-V characteristics of CIGS solar cells reveal that interface recombination is suppressed and an improved rollover condition can be achieved following our electrochemical treatment. As a result, the surface defects are passivated, and the power conversion efficiency performance of the solar cell devices can be enhanced from 4.73 to 7.75%.

  2. The flocculants applied in the oil refining plant wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Shalay, V. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    Flocculation methods for the oil refinery wastewater treatment are necessary, effective and economic, and are used, as a rule, for the demulsification of petroleum products from wastewater. In addition, flocculants can be used to remove other pollutants, not only oil products. The research purpose was to analyze the separate indicators level, measured on the oil refinery wastewater treatment facilities. Oil refinery wastewater purification rate was studied, indicating a different level of indicators considered. An influence of cationic and anionic flocculants working efficiency showed that the flocculants allows to increase the flotation technological indicators and to increase the solids content in water.

  3. Applying neurobiology to the treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Peck, Stephanie Knatz; Wierenga, Christina E; Kaye, Walter H

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe, biologically based brain disorder with significant medical complications. It is critical that new, effective treatments are developed to interrupt the persistent course of the illness due to the medical and psychological sequelae. Several psychosocial, behavioral and pharmacologic interventions have been investigated in adult anorexia nervosa; however, evidence shows that their impact is weak and treatment effects are generally small. This paper describes a new neurobiological anorexia nervosa model that shifts focus from solely external influences, such as social and family, to include internal influences that integrate genetic and neurobiological contributions, across the age span. The model serves as a theoretical structure for a new, five-day treatment, outlined in this paper, targeting anorexia nervosa temperament, which integrates neurobiological dimensions into evidence-based treatment interventions. The treatment is in two phases. Phase I is a five day, 40 hour treatment for anorexia nervosa adults. Phase II is the follow-up and is currently being developed. Preliminary qualitative acceptability data on 37 adults with anorexia nervosa and 60 supports (e.g., spouses, parents, aunts, friends, partners, children of anorexia nervosa adults) are promising from Phase I. Clients with anorexia nervosa and their supports report that learning neurobiological facts improved their understanding of the illness and helped equip them with better tools to manage anorexia nervosa traits and symptoms. In addition, nutritional knowledge changed significantly. This is the first neurobiologically based, five-day treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa and their supports. It is a new model that outlines underlying genetic and neurobiological contributions to anorexia nervosa that serves as a foundation to treat both traits and symptoms. Preliminary qualitative findings are promising, with both clients and supports reporting that the

  4. Heat Treatment Influences Monomer Conversion and Bond Strength of Indirect Composite Resin Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Malta, Daniel Alexandre Menezes Pedrosa; Enciso, Reyes; Monteiro-Junior, Sylvio

    2015-12-01

    To assess the resin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and the degree of conversion (DC) of indirect composite resin restorations polymerized with light and heat. Two direct (Filtek Z100 and Premise) and one indirect (Premise Indirect) composite resins were polymerized with a combination of light and heat (138°C for 20 min). For MTBS, 42 cylinders were fabricated (n = 7). After the surface treatment, cylinders were bonded to each other using adhesive resin (Optibond FL). Specimens were stored in water for 24 h. Another 15 cylinders (n = 5) were fabricated for determining degree of conversion using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry immediately and at 24 h. The MTBS and the DC was submitted to two-way ANOVA. The interaction with existing data was explored with univariate ANOVA and two-way ANOVA. Tukey's HSD post-hoc test was used to detect pairwise differences (α = 0.05). The MTBS to light and heat polymerized Z100 was 75.7 MPa, significantly higher than that to Premise (58.6 MPa) and Premise Indirect (63.9 MPa). The immediate DC for Z100, Premise, and Premise Indirect were 51.0%, 68.7%, and 61.8%, respectively. The DC at 24 h ranged from 53.4% (Z100) to 72.8% (Premise Indirect) and significantly increased for Premise Indirect only. Comparison with previously published data revealed that the heat treatment increased both MTBS and DC of Premise and Premise Indirect. Z100 showed better bond strength but lower DC. Heat treatment and a 24-h delay before delivery can benefit DC of Premise Indirect. The increase in DC of Premise and Premise Indirect did not affect their bond strength.

  5. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  6. Brachytherapy treatment planning algorithm applied to prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Rodríguez, M. R.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.

    2000-10-01

    An application of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for treatment planning optimization in prostate brachytherapy is presented. The importance of multi-objective selection criteria based on the contour of the volume of interest and radiosensitive structures such as the rectum and urethra is discussed. First results are obtained for a simple test case which presents radial symmetry.

  7. Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: A case report and medical hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eNoll-Hussong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS has been demonstrated to modulate transiently a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal-parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure.

  8. Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: a case report and medical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Holzapfel, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal-parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure.

  9. ABOUT HEAT TREATMENTS APPLIED TO FERROUS ALLOYS AND METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Stancioiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials and non-ferrous alloys lends itself through more plastic deformation processes. It is known that after deformation the material structure, as well as properties that are no longer adequate therefore is applied recrystallization annealing for the purpose of restore the initial structure. To increase the hardness of non-ferrous alloys it must after hardening the cooling rate to be slow. This is explained by the fact that of chemical compounds give time to precipitate on the edge of grain to the base of the constituents of alloys.

  10. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression, creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved.

  11. Surgical treatment of scoliosis: a review of techniques currently applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Toru

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this review, basic knowledge and recent innovation of surgical treatment for scoliosis will be described. Surgical treatment for scoliosis is indicated, in general, for the curve exceeding 45 or 50 degrees by the Cobb's method on the ground that: 1 Curves larger than 50 degrees progress even after skeletal maturity. 2 Curves of greater magnitude cause loss of pulmonary function, and much larger curves cause respiratory failure. 3 Larger the curve progress, more difficult to treat with surgery. Posterior fusion with instrumentation has been a standard of the surgical treatment for scoliosis. In modern instrumentation systems, more anchors are used to connect the rod and the spine, resulting in better correction and less frequent implant failures. Segmental pedicle screw constructs or hybrid constructs using pedicle screws, hooks, and wires are the trend of today. Anterior instrumentation surgery had been a choice of treatment for the thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis because better correction can be obtained with shorter fusion levels. Recently, superiority of anterior surgery for the thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis has been lost. Initial enthusiasm for anterior instrumentation for the thoracic curve using video assisted thoracoscopic surgery technique has faded out. Various attempts are being made with use of fusionless surgery. To control growth, epiphysiodesis on the convex side of the deformity with or without instrumentation is a technique to provide gradual progressive correction and to arrest the deterioration of the curves. To avoid fusion for skeletally immature children with spinal cord injury or myelodysplasia, vertebral wedge ostetomies are performed for the treatment of progressive paralytic scoliosis. For right thoracic curve with idiopathic scoliosis, multiple vertebral wedge osteotomies without fusion are performed. To provide correction and maintain it during the growing years while allowing spinal growth for

  12. The effect of surface pre-conditioning treatments on the local composition of Zr-based conversion coatings formed on aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo, J. [Materials innovations institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD (Netherlands); Vandendael, I. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Research Group of Electrochemical and Surface Engineering, Pleinlaan 2 Brussels, B-1050 (Belgium); Posner, R. [Henkel AG & Co. KGaA, Henkelstr. 67, 40589 Dusseldorf (Germany); Wit, J.H.W. de [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD (Netherlands); Mol, J.M.C., E-mail: J.M.C.Mol@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD (Netherlands); Terryn, H. [Materials innovations institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, Delft, 2628 CD (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Research Group of Electrochemical and Surface Engineering, Pleinlaan 2 Brussels, B-1050 (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Field Emission Auger Electron Spectroscopy was used for local elemental analysis. • Acid and alkaline pre-conditioning treatments induces Cu-enrichment on AA6014. • A Cu-containing Zr-based conversion treatment for aluminium alloys was evaluated. • Cu-rich areas enhance the local formation of Zr-based conversion films on AA6014. • Thermal pre-conditioning treatments inhibits the formation of Zr-based coatings. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of different alkaline, acidic and thermal pre-conditioning treatments applied to different Al alloy surfaces. The obtained results are compared to the characteristics of Zr-based conversion coatings that were subsequently generated on top of these substrates. Focus is laid on typical elemental distributions on the sample surfaces, in particular on the amount of precipitated functional additives such as Cu species that are present in the substrate matrix as well as in the conversion bath solutions. To this aim, Field Emission Auger Electron spectra, depth profiles and surface maps with superior local resolution were acquired and compared to scanning electron microscopy images of the sample. The results show how de-alloying processes, which occur at and around intermetallic particles in the Al matrix during typical industrial alkaline or acidic cleaning procedures, provide a significant source of crystallization cores for any following coating processes. This is in particular due for Cu-species, as the resulting local Cu structures on the surface strongly affect the film formation and compositions of state-of-the-art Zr-based films. The findings are highly relevant for industrial treatments of aluminium surfaces, especially for those that undergo corrosion protection and painting process steps prior to usage.

  13. Corrosion prevention of magnesium surfaces via surface conversion treatments using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin

    2016-09-06

    A method for conversion coating a magnesium-containing surface, the method comprising contacting the magnesium-containing surface with an ionic liquid compound under conditions that result in decomposition of the ionic liquid compound to produce a conversion coated magnesium-containing surface having a substantially improved corrosion resistance relative to the magnesium-containing surface before said conversion coating. Also described are the resulting conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface, as well as mechanical components and devices containing the conversion-coated magnesium-containing surface.

  14. Specialist inpatient treatment for severe motor conversion disorder: a retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ruaidhri; Moriarty, John; Mellers, John D; Shotbolt, Paul; Pastena, Rosa; Landes, Nadine; Goldstein, Laura; Fleminger, Simon; David, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    Gold standard protocols have yet to be established for the treatment of motor conversion disorder (MCD). There is limited evidence to support inpatient, multidisciplinary intervention in chronic, severe cases. To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of MCD patients admitted to a specialist neuropsychiatric inpatient unit. All patients admitted to the Lishman Unit (years 2007-2011) with a diagnosis of MCD were included. Data relevant to characteristics and status with regard to mobility, activities of daily living (ADLs) and Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score at admission and discharge were extracted. Thirty-three cases (78.8% female) were included; the median duration of illness was 48 months. In comparison with brain injury patients admitted to the same unit, more cases had histories of childhood sexual abuse (36.4%, n=12), premorbid non-dissociative mental illness (81.1%, n=27) and employment as a healthcare/social-care worker (45.5%, n=15). Cases showed significant improvements in MRS scores (p<0.001), mobility (p<0.001) and ADL (p=0.002) following inpatient treatment. Patients with severe, long-standing MCD can achieve significant improvements in functioning after admission to a neuropsychiatry unit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Organic dairy farmers' decision making in the first 2 years after conversion in relation to mastitis treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, M.; Thamsborg, S. M.; Bennedsgaard, T. W.

    2003-01-01

    and minimise the use of antimicrobials and the risk of antimicrobial resistance in organic farming, a study based on qualitative research interviews with newly converted organic farmers was carried out. Twenty farmers, 18-26 months after conversion, were interviewed focusing on mastitis treatment patterns...... symptoms of mastitis and affected general condition of the cow would cause antimicrobial treatment in all herds. Almost all other mastitis treatment choices were based on herd level considerations. Changes due to conversion to organic farming were experienced on the level of land and crop production......In organic dairy farming, a goal about improved animal welfare and avoidance of the use of chemicals has introduced restrictions in the use of antimicrobials for treatment of infectious diseases. Mastitis is the major cause of antimicrobial treatments in Danish dairy farming. In order to improve...

  16. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash filtrates into zeolites 2: utilization in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Filtrates were collected using a codisposal reaction wherein fly ash was reacted with acid mine drainage. These codisposal filtrates were then analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for quantitative determination of the SiO2 and Al2O3 content. Alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis was then applied to the filtrates to convert the fly ash material into zeolites. The zeolites formed under the experimental conditions were faujasite, sodalite, and zeolite A. The use of the fly ash-derived zeolites and a commercial zeolite was explored in wastewater decontamination experiments as it was applied to acid mine drainage in different dosages. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, As, and Pb metal ions in the treated wastewater were investigated. The results of the treatment of the acid mine drainage with the prepared fly ash zeolites showed that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Hg were decreased as the zeolite dosages of the fly ash zeolite (FAZ1) increased.

  17. Effete of bronchoscopic cryotherapy and injection treatment on negative sputum conversion and immune function of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of bronchoscopic cryotherapy and injection treatment on negative sputum conversion and immune function of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Methods:A total of 60 patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis were randomly divided into observation group and control group, control group received 3DVThAE/15DVThE treatment and observation group received bronchoscopic cryotherapy and injection + 3DVThAE/15DVThE treatment. Differences in negative sputum conversion, serum ADA and inflammatory factors, immune function index values,etc. were compared between two groups after treatment.Results: Negative sputum conversion rate of observation group 6, 12 and 18 months after treatment were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); ADA, CRP and IL-10 levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and IFN-γ level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05); peripheral blood CD3+ and CD4+T lymphocyte levels and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were higher than those of control group, and CD8+T lymphocyte level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); IgA, IgM and IgG levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bronchoscopic cryotherapy and injection therapy can improve the condition in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and optimize treatment outcome.

  18. Rapid heat treatment for anatase conversion of titania nanotube orthopedic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosle, Sachin M.; Friedrich, Craig R.

    2017-10-01

    The amorphous to anatase transformation of anodized nanotubular titania surfaces has been studied by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A more rapid heat treatment for conversion of amorphous to crystalline anatase favorable for orthopedic implant applications was demonstrated. Nanotube titania surfaces were fabricated by electrochemical anodization of Ti6Al4V in an electrolyte containing 0.2 wt% NH4F, 60% ethylene glycol and 40% deionized water. The resulting surfaces were systematically heat treated in air with isochronal and isothermal experiments to study the temperature and time dependent transformation respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows that the anatase phase transformation of TiO2 in the as-anodized amorphous nanotube layer can be achieved in as little as 5 min at 350 °C in contrast to reports of higher temperature and much longer time. Crystallinity analysis at different temperatures and times yield transformation rate coefficients and activation energy for crystalline anatase coalescence. TEM confirms the (101) TiO2 presence within the nanotubes. These results confirm that for applications where amorphous titania nanotube surfaces are converted to crystalline anatase, a 5 min production flow-through heating process could be used instead of a 3 h batch process, reducing time, cost, and complexity.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1592 - Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POTW treatment plant? 63.1592 Section 63.1592 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works General Requirements § 63.1592 Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant? (a) Table 1 to this...

  20. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  1. Experimental Confirmation of Nonlinear-Model- Predictive Control Applied Offline to a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator for Ocean-Wave Energy Conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Tom, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    To further maximize power absorption in both regular and irregular ocean wave environments, nonlinear-model-predictive control (NMPC) was applied to a model-scale point absorber developed at the University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. The NMPC strategy requires a power-takeoff (PTO) unit that could be turned on and off, as the generator would be inactive for up to 60% of the wave period. To confirm the effectiveness of this NMPC strategy, an in-house-designed permanent magnet linear generator (PMLG) was chosen as the PTO. The time-varying performance of the PMLG was first characterized by dry-bench tests, using mechanical relays to control the electromagnetic conversion process. The on/off sequencing of the PMLG was tested under regular and irregular wave excitation to validate NMPC simulations using control inputs obtained from running the choice optimizer offline. Experimental results indicate that successful implementation was achieved and absorbed power using NMPC was up to 50% greater than the passive system, which utilized no controller. Previous investigations into MPC applied to wave energy converters have lacked the experimental results to confirm the reported gains in power absorption. However, after considering the PMLG mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency, the electrical power output was not consistently maximized. To improve output power, a mathematical relation between the efficiency and damping magnitude of the PMLG was inserted in the system model to maximize the electrical power output through continued use of NMPC which helps separate this work from previous investigators. Of significance, results from latter simulations provided a damping time series that was active over a larger portion of the wave period requiring the actuation of the applied electrical load, rather than on/off control.

  2. Guidelines for applying management treatments to benefit breeding waterfowl in the Dakotas and Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report, created by the Region 6, Habitat and Population Evaluation Team (HAPET), provides biological guidelines for applying management treatments designed to...

  3. Association of serum levels of iron, copper, and zinc, and inflammatory markers with bacteriological sputum conversion during tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Milena Lima de; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; Delogo, Karina Neves; Miranda, Pryscila Fernandes Campino; Mesquita, Eliene Denites Duarte; de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho; Netto, Antônio Ruffino; Dos Anjos, Marcelino José; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; de Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2014-08-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are key micronutrients that play an important role in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between serum levels of those micronutrients, inflammatory markers, and the smear and culture conversion of M. tuberculosis during 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Seventy-five male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (mean age, 40.0 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated at baseline and again at 30 and 60 days of tuberculosis treatment. Serum levels of iron, copper, zinc, albumin, globulin, C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin, and smear and cultures for M. tuberculosis in sputum samples were analyzed. Compared to healthy subjects, at baseline, patients with PTB had lower serum iron levels, higher copper levels and copper/zinc ratio, and similar zinc levels. During the tuberculosis treatment, no significant changes in the serum levels of iron, zinc, and copper/zinc were observed. Lower serum copper levels were associated with bacteriological conversion in tuberculosis treatment (tuberculosis-negative) at 30 days but not at 60 days (tuberculosis-positive). C-reactive protein levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio were lower in tuberculosis-negative patients than in tuberculosis-positive patients at 30 and 60 days after treatment. Albumin and hemoglobin levels and the albumin/globulin ratio in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis increased during the study period, regardless of the bacteriological results. High serum globulin levels did not change among pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the study. Serum copper levels and the C-reactive protein/albumin ratio may be important parameters to evaluate the persistence of non-conversion after 60 days of tuberculosis treatment, and they may serve as predictors for relapse after successful treatment.

  4. Maleic acid treatment of bioabated corn stover liquors improves cellulose conversion to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimination of inhibitory compounds released during pretreatment of lignocellulose is critical for efficient cellulose conversion and ethanol fermentation. This study examined the effect of bioabated liquor from pretreated corn stover on enzyme hydrolysis of Solka Floc or pretreated corn stover soli...

  5. Conversión sigma-delta aplicada al control de inversores resonantes; Sigma-Delta Conversion Applied to the Control of the Resonant Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesyani León Viltre

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio sobre la conversión sigma-delta aplicada al control de inversores de enlace decontinua resonantes. Este tipo de configuración inversora (inversor resonante con enlace CD es factiblede utilizar como parte integrante de un sistema fotovoltaico de energía porque presenta la ventaja de quetodos los elementos conmutan a tensión o corriente cero, tanto los elementos de alta frecuencia como losque actúan de inversor, sin necesidad de modular la tensión de continua, lo cual simplifica considerablementeel lazo de control. La conversión análoga digital es una etapa clave en la mayoría de los sistemaselectrónicos modernos. Una vez, en formato digital, las señales pueden ser fácilmente almacenadas yprocesadas para obtener la información deseada.  This paper presents an analysis of the sigma-delta conversion applied to the control of the DC linkresonant inverters. This inverter configuration is often employed as a part of photovoltaic system becauseit presents the advantage that the semiconductors elements commute at zero tension or zero current. Ithappen on the high frequency elements and the inverter elements, and it is not necessary to modulate theDC tension, condition that simplified the control loop. Conversion analog-digital is an important step of thealmost every modern electronics systems. After the signal is translated to the digital format, it can beprocessed easily in order to obtain the required information.

  6. The effect of surface pre-conditioning treatments on the local composition of Zr-based conversion coatings formed on aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, J.; Vandendael, I.; Posner, R.; de Wit, J. H. W.; Mol, J. M. C.; Terryn, H.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of different alkaline, acidic and thermal pre-conditioning treatments applied to different Al alloy surfaces. The obtained results are compared to the characteristics of Zr-based conversion coatings that were subsequently generated on top of these substrates. Focus is laid on typical elemental distributions on the sample surfaces, in particular on the amount of precipitated functional additives such as Cu species that are present in the substrate matrix as well as in the conversion bath solutions. To this aim, Field Emission Auger Electron spectra, depth profiles and surface maps with superior local resolution were acquired and compared to scanning electron microscopy images of the sample. The results show how de-alloying processes, which occur at and around intermetallic particles in the Al matrix during typical industrial alkaline or acidic cleaning procedures, provide a significant source of crystallization cores for any following coating processes. This is in particular due for Cu-species, as the resulting local Cu structures on the surface strongly affect the film formation and compositions of state-of-the-art Zr-based films. The findings are highly relevant for industrial treatments of aluminium surfaces, especially for those that undergo corrosion protection and painting process steps prior to usage.

  7. Simple device to determine the pressure applied by pressure clips for the treatment of earlobe keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Sasidharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids of the ear are common problems. Various treatment modalities are available for the treatment of ear keloids. Surgical excision with intralesional steroid injection along with compression therapy has the least recurrence rate. Various types of devices are available for pressure therapy. Pressure applied by these devices is uncontrolled and is associated with the risk of pressure necrosis. We describe here a simple and easy to use device to measure pressure applied by these clips for better outcome. Objectives: To devise a simple method to measure the pressure applied by various pressure clips used in ear keloid pressure therapy. Materials and Methods: By using a force sensitive resistor (FSR, the pressure applied gets converted into voltage using electrical wires, resistors, capacitors, converter, amplifier, diode, nine-volt (9V cadmium battery and the voltage is measured using a multimeter. The measured voltage is then converted into pressure using pressure voltage graph that depicts the actual pressure applied by the pressure clip. Results: The pressure applied by different clips was variable. The spring clips were adjustable by slight variation in the design whereas the pressure applied by binder clips and magnet discs was not adjustable. Conclusion: The uncontrolled/suboptimal pressure applied by certain pressure clips can be monitored to provide optimal pressure therapy in ear keloid for better outcome.

  8. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of recycle uranium to UF/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-04-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from a model recycle uranium conversion and uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released radioactive materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist the US NRC in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of a licensable UF/sub 6/ production plant and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of uranium. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments is calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. The methodology used in estimating the costs is presented. (34 tables, 11 figs.)

  9. (Applied Conversation Analysis as an approach for the study of language and gender: The case of services for female victims of violence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ostermann

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I show how (Applied Conversation Analysis might help us understand human actions in everyday situations. In order to do so, I make use of the results of an investigation of services provided to female victims of domestic violence. I comparatively analyze the discursive practices of professionals in two parallel institutions created to address violence against women in Brazil: a unit of an all-female police station (DDM and a feminist center of intervention on violence against women (CIV-Mulher or CIV in their interactions with female victims of domestic violence. The analysis of the interactional data shows that the police officers tend behave with more distance from and control over the victims. The feminists, on the other hand, seem to prioritize more cooperation with and closeness towards the women they serve. I also discuss how studies of this kind might help us broaden our understanding of the relationship between language and gender as well as of power relations.

  10. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  11. [New methods of treatment applied in the hospital of Sochi during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiukhov, S A

    2013-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 Sochi was turned into the largest hospital base in the south of the USSR. All told, 335 thousand wonded and seriously ill soldiers were treated in the hospitals of Sochi. During the war physicians applied many new, including, early unknown medical methods of treatment. Poor provision with medical equipment, instruments, bandages and medicines was made up for using of local resources. Adoption of new treatment methods based on the use of local medicines allowed the Sochi's physicians to save many lives during the war.

  12. Impacts of tilling and covering treatments on the biosolids solar drying conversion from class B to class A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inhong; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tillage and cover treatments of solar drying on the conversion of class B treated sewage sludge to a class A product. The experiments were performed over two years at Green Valley, Arizona in steel-constructed sand-filled drying beds of 1.0 m (width) x 3.0 m (length) x 0.6 m (depth). Freshly produced aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids from nearby wastewater treatment plants received tillage and cover treatments for expediting solar drying and microbial inactivation. During the summer drying, covered drying bed increased faecal inactivation rate by 26% over other treatments and automated rain shield abated faecal coliform regrowth from summer rains. Tilling accelerated evaporation of moisture from the biosolids and increased the inactivation rate of faecal coliforms during the summer season. An automated retractable roof to protect the biosolids from rain aided in maintaining class A criteria by preventing dried biosolids from re-wetting by rainfall. However, results from tilling and passive solar heating during the cold winter seasons did not improve the faecal coliform inactivation rate due mainly to lower ambient temperatures. Thus, tilling and cover treatments can be effective in accelerating biosolids solar drying and thus enhancing pathogen inactivation during the summer season. Investigation on the effects of tillage depth and frequency is recommended to determine optimal tilling practice.

  13. Effectiveness of Three Decontamination Treatments Against Influenza Virus Applied to Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    filtering facepiece respirators contami­ nated with H1N1 aerosols and droplets. Am J Infect Control; 39: 1-9. Rutten IM. (2007) Handbook of nonwoven ... filter media . Oxford. UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. Jeng DK. Kaczmarek KA. Woodworth AG. et al. ( 1987) Mech­ anism of microwave sterilization in the dry...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0080 EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DECONTAMINATION TREATMENTS AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS APPLIED TO FILTERING FACEPIECE RESPIRATORS

  14. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  15. Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Sherman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The least restrictive alternative concept is widely used in mental health law. This paper addresses how the concept has been applied to treatment decisions. The paper offers both a legal and a behavioral analysis to some problems that have emerged in recent years concerning the selection of behavioral procedures used to change client behavior. The paper also offers ways of improving the application of the concept, which involve developing a more behaviorally functional perspective toward restrictiveness. PMID:22478138

  16. High-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment: diversifying from end-of the pipe treatment to resource oriented conversation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Decades of developments and implementations in the field of high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment have put the technology at a competitive level. With respect to sustainability and cost-effectiveness, anaerobic treatment has a much better score than many alternatives. Particularly, the energy con

  17. Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Rofé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder remains a mystery that has only become more complicated with the decline of the scientific status of psychoanalysis (e.g., Piper, Lillevik, & Kritzer, 2008; Rofé, 2008 and recent neurological findings suggest that this behavior is controlled by biological mechanisms (van Beilen, Vogt, & Leenders, 2010. Moreover, existing theories have difficulty explaining the efficacy of various interventions, such as psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, drug therapy and religious therapy. This article reviews research and clinical evidence pertaining to both the development and treatment of conversion disorder and shows that this seemingly incompatible evidence can be integrated within a new theory, the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis (RCTN; Rofé, 2010. Despite the striking differences, RCTN continues Freud's framework of thinking as it employs a new concept of repression and replaces the unconscious with self-deception. Moreover, it incorporates Freud's idea, implicitly expressed in his theory, that neurotic disorders are, in fact, rational behaviors.

  18. Insulin Analogs Applied with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (Pump in the Treatment of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Tuncel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is an important health problem that should be treated efficiently because of its high prevalence and high morbidity and mortality due to its complications. In patients with DM, the application of a treatment which provides physiologic insulin secretion as such in healthy individuals is directly related with the prevention of diabetes complications. Insulin analogs, which were developed in recent years and shown to have pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic superiority to human insulin, have made it possible to obtain natural insulin pattern in the body. In addition to development of insulin analogs, introduction of insulin application method of “continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion” (insulin pump has led a new era in the treatment of DM. In this review, treatment of type 1 and 2 DM patients with insulin analogs, particularly insulin aspart, applied with insulin pump was discussed in the light of the current literature.

  19. Clinical Studies Applying Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E. Jäkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC seems to be resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and the general treatment regimen of cytokine therapy produces only modest responses while inducing severe side effects. Nowadays standard of care is the treatment with VEGF-inhibiting agents or mTOR inhibition; nevertheless, immunotherapy can induce complete remissions and long-term survival in selected patients. Among different adoptive lymphocyte therapies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells have a particularly advantageous profile as these cells are easily available, have a high proliferative rate, and exhibit a high antitumor activity. Here, we reviewed clinical studies applying CIK cells, either alone or with standard therapies, for the treatment of RCC. The adverse events in all studies were mild, transient, and easily controllable. In vitro studies revealed an increased antitumor activity of peripheral lymphocytes of participants after CIK cell treatment and CIK cell therapy was able to induce complete clinical responses in RCC patients. The combination of CIK cell therapy and standard therapy was superior to standard therapy alone. These studies suggest that CIK cell immunotherapy is a safe and competent treatment strategy for RCC patients and further studies should investigate different treatment combinations and schedules for optimal application of CIK cells.

  20. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  1. Applied Self-Statement Modification and Applied Modified Desensitization in the Treatment of Speech Anxiety: The Synergy Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Diane C.

    A study examined the relative effectiveness and synergistic effect of two treatments for reducing speech anxiety--Self-Statement Modification (SSM), a therapy focused on modification of cognitive behavior; and Modified Desensitization (MD), a therapy focused on physiological variables, utilizing relaxation training, group hierarchy construction,…

  2. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  3. Overcoming the Recalcitrance for the Conversion of Kenaf Pulp to Glucose via Microwave-Assisted Pre-Treatment Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Hurtado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the pre-treatment of cellulose from kenaf plant to yield sugar precursors for the production of ethanol or butanol for use as biofuel additives. In order to convert the crystalline cellulosic form to the amorphous form that can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond to yield sugars, kenaf pulp samples were subjected to two different pre-treatment processes. In the acid pre-treatment, the pulp samples were treated with 37.5% hydrochloric acid in the presence of FeCl3 at 50 °C or 90 °C whereas in the alkaline method, the pulp samples were treated with 25% sodium hydroxide at room temperature and with 2% or 5% sodium hydroxide at 50 °C. Microwave-assisted NaOH-treatment of the cellulose was also investigated and demonstrated to be capable of producing high glucose yield without adverse environmental impact by circumventing the use of large amounts of concentrated acids i.e., 83–85% phosphoric acid employed in most digestion processes. The treated samples were digested with the cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma reesei. The amount of glucose produced was quantified using the QuantichromTM glucose bioassay for assessing the efficiency of glucose production for each of the treatment processes. The microwave-assisted alkaline pre-treatment processes conducted at 50 °C were found to be the most effective in the conversion of the crystalline cellulose to the amorphous form based on the significantly higher yields of sugar produced by enzymatic hydrolysis compared to the untreated sample.

  4. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  5. Neoadjuvant and conversion treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastasis: the potential role of bevacizumab and other antiangiogenic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alfonso, Pilar; Ferrer, Ana; Gil, Silvia; Dueñas, Rosario; Pérez, María Teresa; Molina, Raquel; Capdevila, Jaume; Safont, María José; Castañón, Carmen; Cano, Juana María; Lara, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    More than 50 % of patients with colorectal cancer develop liver metastases. Surgical resection is the only available treatment that improves survival in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). New antiangiogenic targeted therapies, such as bevacizumab, aflibercept, and regorafenib, in combination with neoadjuvant and conversion chemotherapy may lead to improved response rates in this population of patients and increase the proportion of patients eligible for surgical resection. The present review discusses the available data for antiangiogenic targeted agents in this setting. One of these therapies, bevacizumab, which targets the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has demonstrated good results in this setting. In patients with initially unresectable CRLM, the combination of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) plus bevacizumab has led to high response and resection rates. This combination is also effective for patients with unresectable CRLM. Moreover, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting of liver metastasis has a higher impact on pathological response rate. This drug also has a manageable safety profile, and according to recent data, bevacizumab may protect against the sinusoidal dilation provoked in the liver by certain cytotoxic agents. In phase II trials, antiangiogenic therapy has demonstrated benefits in the presurgical treatment of CRLM and may represent a new treatment pathway for these patients.

  6. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  7. Should inhomogeneity corrections be applied during treatment planning of tangential breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijnheer, B.J.; Heukelom, S.; Lanson, J.H. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Battum, L.J. van; Bree, N.A.M. van (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands) Dr. Daniel Den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Department of Clinical Physics); Tienhoven, G. van (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1991-12-01

    Due to the inclusion of lung tissue in the treatment volume, some parts of the breast will get a higher dose during tangential breast irradiation because of the lower lung density. Data on the accuracy of dose calculation algorithms, investigated by phantom measurements, determinations of the geometry and density of the actual lung in the patient and results of in vivo dose measurements, are presented. From this information it can be concluded that a lung correction varying between about 3 and 7% is needed but its magnitude is slightly overpredicted in a number of commercial treatment planning systems. Because this increase in dose is already in a high dose region, it is recommended that inhomogeneity corrections should be applied during tangential breast irradiation. (author). 20 refs.; 4 tabs.

  8. [The setting in observation and involuntary treatments: a conversation between the law and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2013-09-01

    The law of June 26, 1990 (protection measure of the mental patients) has replaced the old law of collocation of 1850 (review in 1873). Conceived in the line of the principles of the European Convention of the Humans right, it constitutes an important reform of the involuntary treatment of the mental patients and recalls, without any doubt, that the patient is prone of right. The article describes the scope of application of the law of June 26, 1990, and the methods of initiation of a protection measure. Then, the measure in a hospital environment (ordinary procedure and urgent procedure), as well as the measure in a family environment are approached in their waning. Furthermore, the author discusses the networks between physicians and lawyers and the difficulty to communicate between these two worlds, such as Justice and Medicine.

  9. The use of effective treatments: the case of an adolescent girl with anorexia nervosa in the context of a conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mandy; Madden, Sloane; Peters, Lorna

    2013-04-01

    The use of empirically supported treatment (EST) has been shown to enhance treatment outcome. The purpose of this case study was to suggest that ESTs further encourage effective reconceptualisation and the ongoing delivery of effective treatment, especially in the case of complex or atypical presentations or response to treatment. This report describes the case of an adolescent girl who underwent Maudsley family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) for a period of 12 months. Atypical response lead to an understanding of her presentation as representing a primary conversion disorder, within which AN symptoms were conceptualised as another somatic conversion of emotional distress. The report details her clinical presentation and management over the course of her illness. The case offers an important opportunity to explore the central role of the use of ESTs in guiding effective treatment delivery.

  10. Effects of applied potential on phosphine formation in synthetic wastewater treatment by Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Niu, Xiaojun; Chen, Weiyi; An, Shaorong; Sheng, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Phosphine (PH3) emission from conventional biological wastewater treatment is very inefficient (ng-μg m(-3)). In this work, we investigated the feasibility of promoting PH3 formation from inorganic phosphorus (IP) or organic phosphorus (OP) containing synthetic wastewater treatment by Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) for the first time. Positive effect of applied potential on PH3 production was observed after methanogens was inhibited. The highest production of PH3 (1103.10 ± 72.02 ng m(-3)) was obtained in IP-fed MEC operated at -0.6 V, which was about 5-fold and 2-fold compared to that in open circuit experiment and OP-fed MEC, respectively. Meanwhile, PH3 formation corresponded positively with current density and alkaline phosphatase activity. This result showed that suitable potential could enhance the activity of relevant enzymes and boost the biosynthesis of PH3. Bacterial communities analysis based on high-throughput sequencing revealed that applied potential was conductive to the enrichment of phosphate-reducing organisms in contrast to the control test. These results provide a new idea for resource utilization of phosphorus in wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  12. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  13. Applying Process-Based Models for Subsurface Flow Treatment Wetlands: Recent Developments and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Langergraber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, only few process-based models for subsurface flow treatment wetlands have been developed. For modelling a treatment wetland, these models have to comprise a number of sub-models to describe water flow, pollutant transport, pollutant transformation and degradation, effects of wetland plants, and transport and deposition of suspended particulate matter. The two most advanced models are the HYDRUS Wetland Module and BIO-PORE. These two models are briefly described. This paper shows typical simulation results for vertical flow wetlands and discusses experiences and challenges using process-based wetland models in relation to the sub-models describing the most important wetland processes. It can be demonstrated that existing simulation tools can be applied for simulating processes in treatment wetlands. Most important for achieving a good match between measured and simulated pollutant concentrations is a good calibration of the water flow and transport models. Only after these calibrations have been made and the effect of the influent fractionation on simulation results has been considered, should changing the parameters of the biokinetic models be taken into account. Modelling the effects of wetland plants is possible and has to be considered when important. Up to now, models describing clogging are the least established models among the sub-models required for a complete wetland model and thus further development and research is required.

  14. Practical Study on Treatment of Selected Decorated Tapestry in Applied Art Museum, Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Kamal FAHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of treatment of tapestry textile, that considers the most common technique used in decoration of textile since the new kingdom until now, it is called Kabaty. The paper deals with selected piece of museum of Applied Art Faculty in Cairo. Treatment procedure was performed by several stages; firstly, Dating by comparing the decoration technique, the type of material and the decorative motifs existed in the object with another one known its date. Then samples taken from object were examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope to identify type of fibers and surface morphology .x-ray analysis was performed to identify mordant and dust. FTIR analysis to identify dyes in dyed samples. Then, the paper deal with the treatment of tapestry pieces by testing sensitive of fiber to water, mechanical cleaning and chemical cleaning to remove stain, washing stage using distilled water, and finally consolidation the object by fixed on support of natural linen which was stretched on wooden frame treated by anti-fungal substance.

  15. Micronutrients evaluation in Bidens pilosa L., a plant applied in diabetes treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has increasingly affected individuals over the last years. World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide number of diabetes cases will rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Besides the therapy with pharmaceutical drugs, many diabetic patients use medicinal plants to control the glycemic levels. This herb has anti-diabetic action due to the presence of organic compounds and micronutrients. Among the plants applied in diabetes treatment, Bidens pilosa L., popularly known in Brazil as picao preto, belongs to the family of Asteraceaes, grows fast and is globally distributed. The aim of this study was evaluate the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in aerial parts of Bidens pilosa samples, as well as its growth substrate by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were separated into two groups named control and treatment. During the plant development, micronutrient solution, containing Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn, was added to the treatment group. It was observed that micronutrient solution added to the Biden pilosa samples may had contributed to the preferentially absorption of Fe, Mg and V, as well as to decrease Zn absorption. (author)

  16. APPLIED STUDY ON BRAIN ATLAS AFTER AND BEFORE TREATMENT BY SIBELIUM IN ISCHEMIC VASCULAR DIZZINESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingshun; LI Laiyou; LIU Qiuying; LIU Qinyrui; GU Lanjie

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨西比灵的临床疗效和脑电地形图的应用价值.方法:应用西比灵治疗300例缺血性血管性头晕患者,通过临床症征和脑电地形图观察其疗效.结果:西比灵治疗缺血性血管性头晕有效率为100%,脑电地形图在治疗前后有明显改变.结论:西比灵是治疗缺血性血管性头晕的较理想药物.脑电地形图是观察西比灵疗效和作用机理的有效指标.%Objective: To explore clinical curative effect of sibelium and applied value of brain atlas. Methods: 300 patients with ischemic vascular dizziness were treated by sibelium. The curative effect of sibelium was observated by clinical symptom and sigh and brain atlas. Results: The effective rate of sibelium in treatment of ischemic vascular dizziness was 100%. The change of brain atlas was obvious before and after treatment. Conclusion: Sibelium was an ideal drug in treatment of ischemic vascular dizziness. Brain atlas was an effective index in observation of curative effect and mechanism of action of sibelium.

  17. Testing New Drugs for Treatment of Melanoma Patients Applying Connectivity Map Database Analysis with Melanoma Gene Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0794 TITLE: Testing New Drugs for Treatment of...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 15 September 2011 – 14 September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Testing New Drugs for Treatment of...4 Introduction: Project Title: Testing New Drugs for treatment of Melanoma Patients Applying Connectivity Map Database Analysis with Melanoma

  18. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  19. Improved biological wastewater treatment and sludge characteristics by applying magnetic field to aerobic granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnets with non-uniform magnetic field and an electromagnet with 3–5 mT uniform magnetic field were applied to investigate their effects on both aerobic granulation and COD and ammonium removal in reactors with less than 7% coverage of magnetic field. It was found that both types of magnets had little influence on the granulation speed and the settling ability of granular sludge at the steady state. However, the maximum specific COD degradation rate and the maximum specific NH4+-N removal rate were increased by 45–54% and 30–50%, respectively, in the magnetic fields. Mean effluent COD with the electromagnet and the permanent magnet field, respectively, at the steady state, was 28 mg l−1 and 6 mg l−1, respectively, lower than the control at a statistical significance level of alpha = 0.05. No statistically significant increase in NH4+-N removal was observed at the steady state probably due to almost complete NH4+-N removal before the end of the cycle. In addition, it was found that extracellular polymeric substances in granular sludge with electromagnet were 77% more while soluble microbial products were much less compared with the control, suggesting a positively changed metabolism of granular sludge at steady state. The results in this study indicated that low-intensity magnetic field has a great potential to be applied in granular sludge for an improved wastewater treatment.

  20. Locally Applied Valproate Enhances Survival in Rats after Neocortical Treatment with Tetanus Toxin and Cobalt Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In neocortical epilepsies not satisfactorily responsive to systemic antiepileptic drug therapy, local application of antiepileptic agents onto the epileptic focus may enhance treatment efficacy and tolerability. We describe the effects of focally applied valproate (VPA in a newly emerging rat model of neocortical epilepsy induced by tetanus toxin (TeT plus cobalt chloride (CoCl2. Methods. In rats, VPA ( or sodium chloride (NaCl ( containing polycaprolactone (PCL implants were applied onto the right motor cortex treated before with a triple injection of 75 ng TeT plus 15 mg CoCl2. Video-EEG monitoring was performed with intracortical depth electrodes. Results. All rats randomized to the NaCl group died within one week after surgery. In contrast, the rats treated with local VPA survived significantly longer (. In both groups, witnessed deaths occurred in the context of seizures. At least of the rats surviving the first postoperative day developed neocortical epilepsy with recurrent spontaneous seizures. Conclusions. The novel TeT/CoCl2 approach targets at a new model of neocortical epilepsy in rats and allows the investigation of local epilepsy therapy strategies. In this vehicle-controlled study, local application of VPA significantly enhanced survival in rats, possibly by focal antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic mechanisms.

  1. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the…

  2. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedidi, I.; Saidi, S.; Khemakhem, S.; Larbot, A.; Elloumi-Ammar, N.; Fourati, A.; Charfi, A.; Salah, A.B.; Amar, R.B. [Science Faculty of Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700{sup o}C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24h then a sintering at 800{sup o}C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 {mu} m and the thickness was around 20 {mu} m. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m{sup 2} bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 1001 h{sup -1} m{sup -2}). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  3. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  4. Study of water-repellent treatments applied on limestone from Andalusian Cathedrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas, R.

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals have been treated with different water-repellent treatments, to evaluate the effects of this products. The stones studied are limestone, calcarenite and dolomite; the products applied are organosilicones and acrylics. In this work properties related with water access and movement through the stone have been measured and compared their values before and after the application of the treatments.

    Se han tratado varios tipos de piedra utilizados en Catedrales Andaluzas con diversos productos hidrófugos, con el fin de evaluar las características conferidas por los mismos. Los tipos de piedra son de naturaleza caliza, calcarenitas y dolomías; los productos son organosilícicos y acrílicos. En este trabajo se han medido las propiedades relacionadas con el acceso y movimiento de agua en la piedra, comparándose sus valores antes y después de la aplicación del tratamiento.

  5. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  6. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  7. Consolidating and water repellent treatments applied to wet and salt contaminated granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, B.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison was made of the efficacy of two consolidants and two water repellents applied to samples of granite under optimum conditions, with the efficacy of the same products applied to the granite in the presence of soluble salts or water. The amount of product absorbed and the amount of dry polymer remaining after treatment were compared. The results show that the presence of water and soluble salts in the stone significantly modifies the consumption of the products (in particular the water repellents and also the level of dry polymer retained. The water repellents were found to be much less effective when the substrate contained salts, whereas the presence of water did not appear to influence their efficacy. The lack of correlation between uptake, active dry polymer, and efficacy led to the conclusion that the presence of salts or water markedly changes the kinetics of the polymerization of the products.

    Se analiza la eficacia de dos consolidantes y dos hidrofugantes aplicados a rocas graníticas en condiciones óptimas comparativamente a la eficacia de los mismos productos aplicados sobre los mismos sustratos conteniendo cierta cantidad de sales solubles o de agua. Se compara la cantidad de producto absorbido y la cantidad de materia seca presente tras el curado. Los resultados indican que la presencia de agua y de sales solubles en la piedra modifica significativamente el consumo de los productos, sobre todo el de los hidrofugantes, así como la cantidad de materia seca. Se observa, asimismo, un fuerte detrimento en la eficacia de los hidrofugantes cuando el sustrato contiene sales mientras que, al contrario, la presencia de agua no parece infiuir en dicha eficacia. La falta de correlación entre el consumo, materia seca activa y eficacia lleva a concluir que la presencia de sales o agua modifica sensiblemente la cinética de la polimeración de los productos.

  8. Importance of integrated management system applied in health establishments in order to raise treatment quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term “management” is best characterized as “managing” economic or social processes to achieve objectives through a rational use of material and immaterial resources by applying the principles, functions, and management methods. This study has been aimed at evaluating the value of an integrated quality management system implemented at the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of Vojvodina to improve the quality of treatment. Material and Methods. In the period from 2008 to 2010 about 40 employees from the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of Vojvodina attended various courses given by the lecturers of the Faculty of Technical Sciences, where the function and significance of the “International Standards Organization” were explained, after which standards of interest were implemented at the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of Vojvodina. Results. The Department of Cardiology has introduced 11 cardiac procedures with 5 special instructions, 14 general procedures, and 7 specific procedures with 2 instructions. The Department of Cardiac Surgery has introduced 7 procedures to be implemented. The “Vojvodina score” model was put into practice for the perioperative evaluation of cardiac surgery risk. During 2014, the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of Vojvodina obtained accreditation for the period of 7 years. Conclusion. The integrated quality management system must be applied in order to achieve a high level of health care in the shortest possible time and with the least possible consumption of material and human resources. The application of this system in practice gives a realistic insight into the working processes and facilitates their functioning. It demands and requires constant monitoring of the system efficiency along with continuous changes and improvements of all elements of the working processes and functional units.

  9. VMAT to arclet plan conversion in a treatment planning system. Feasibility and dosimetric relationship between VMAT, arclet, and stationary fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Licht, Norbert; Nuesken, Frank; Ruebe, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jochen [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Norton, Ian [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to make dynamic rotation treatment with mARC available for the non-dedicated Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system by converting SmartArc plans, offering insight into the relationship between SmartArc, mARC, and stationary field irradiation. A scripting solution is presented that can be run in the Pinnacle system. This allows for the conversion of SmartArc plans into mARC format. The dose distribution of the converted mARC plan can be evaluated both in the form of a ''real'' mARC plan with arclets and - as is generally done in treatment planning systems certified for mARC planning - by approximating the arclets as stationary fields. We present the proof of principle and dosimetric comparisons. The converted plans were irradiated without problems. For the measured 3D dose distributions, on average over 90 % points agreed with the calculated dose distributions (mARC and stationary field plans) within the gamma criteria of 3 % deviation in the local dose, 3-mm distance to agreement, for all dose values above 10 % of the maximum. The agreement between the three calculated dose distributions (SmartArc with both converted plans) was above 87 % (above 92 % when comparing mARC with stationary fields). Our solution offers the possibility of mARC planning in Pinnacle. The dose comparisons furthermore prove that the dosimetric differences between SmartArc and mARC, when appropriately translated, are minor. (orig.) [German] Diese Studie praesentiert die Konversion von SmartArc-Plaenen in mARC-Format innerhalb des Philips Pinnacle Bestrahlungsplanungssystems und vergleicht SmartArc, mARC und Stehfeldbestrahlungstechniken. Innerhalb des Pinnacle-Systems wird die Konversion von SmartArc- zu mARC-Plaenen skriptbasiert durchgefuehrt. Die resultierenden Dosisverteilungen werden sowohl mit einem Plan mit Arclet-Abstrahlung als auch mit angenaeherten Stehfelder-Plaenen verglichen. Die konvertierten Plaene koennen problemlos

  10. A dual model HU conversion from MRI intensity values within and outside of bone segment for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Juha, E-mail: juha.p.korhonen@hus.fi [Clinical Research Institute Helsinki University Central Hospital Ltd., POB-700, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Kapanen, Mika [Clinical Research Institute Helsinki University Central Hospital Ltd., POB-700, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital, POB-2000, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Keyriläinen, Jani; Seppälä, Tiina; Tenhunen, Mikko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The lack of electron density information in magnetic resonance images (MRI) poses a major challenge for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). In this study the authors convert MRI intensity values into Hounsfield units (HUs) in the male pelvis and thus enable accurate MRI-based RTP for prostate cancer patients with varying tissue anatomy and body fat contents. Methods: T{sub 1}/T{sub 2}*-weighted MRI intensity values and standard computed tomography (CT) image HUs in the male pelvis were analyzed using image data of 10 prostate cancer patients. The collected data were utilized to generate a dual model HU conversion technique from MRI intensity values of the single image set separately within and outside of contoured pelvic bones. Within the bone segment local MRI intensity values were converted to HUs by applying a second-order polynomial model. This model was tuned for each patient by two patient-specific adjustments: MR signal normalization to correct shifts in absolute intensity level and application of a cutoff value to accurately represent low density bony tissue HUs. For soft tissues, such as fat and muscle, located outside of the bone contours, a threshold-based segmentation method without requirements for any patient-specific adjustments was introduced to convert MRI intensity values into HUs. The dual model HU conversion technique was implemented by constructing pseudo-CT images for 10 other prostate cancer patients. The feasibility of these images for RTP was evaluated by comparing HUs in the generated pseudo-CT images with those in standard CT images, and by determining deviations in MRI-based dose distributions compared to those in CT images with 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the anisotropic analytical algorithm and 360° volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with the Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm. Results: The average HU differences between the constructed pseudo-CT images and standard CT images of each

  11. A novel conversion of the groundwater treatment sludge to magnetic particles for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suiyi; Fang, Shuai; Huo, Mingxin; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yu; Yang, Xia; Geng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Bian, Dejun; Huo, Hongliang

    2015-07-15

    Iron sludge, produced from filtration and backwash of groundwater treatment plant, has long been considered as a waste for landfill. In this study, iron sludge was reused to synthesize Fe3O4 magnetic particles (MPs) by using a novel solvothermal process. Iron sludge contained abundant amounts of silicon, iron, and aluminum and did not exhibit magnetic properties. After treatment for 4h, the amorphous Fe in iron sludge was transformed into magnetite Fe3O4, which could be easily separated from aqueous solution with a magnet. The prepared particles demonstrated the intrinsic properties of soft magnetic materials and could aggregate into a size of 1 μm. MPs treated for 10h exhibited excellent magnetic properties and a saturation magnetization value of 9 emu/g. The obtained particles presented the optimal adsorption of methylene blue under mild conditions, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 99.4 mg/g, which was higher than that of granular active carbon. The simple solvothermal method can be used to prepare Fe3O4 MPs from iron sludge, and the products could be applied to treatment of dyeing wastewater.

  12. Life cycle assessment applied to wastewater treatment: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Ll; Foley, J; Guest, J S; Hospido, A; Larsen, H F; Morera, S; Shaw, A

    2013-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique to quantify the impacts associated with a product, service or process from cradle-to-grave perspective. Within the field of wastewater treatment (WWT) LCA was first applied in the 1990s. In the pursuit of more environmentally sustainable WWT, it is clear that LCA is a valuable tool to elucidate the broader environmental impacts of design and operation decisions. With growing interest from utilities, practitioners, and researchers in the use of LCA in WWT systems, it is important to make a review of what has been achieved and describe the challenges for the forthcoming years. This work presents a comprehensive review of 45 papers dealing with WWT and LCA. The analysis of the papers showed that within the constraints of the ISO standards, there is variability in the definition of the functional unit and the system boundaries, the selection of the impact assessment methodology and the procedure followed for interpreting the results. The need for stricter adherence to ISO methodological standards to ensure quality and transparency is made clear and emerging challenges for LCA applications in WWT are discussed, including: a paradigm shift from pollutant removal to resource recovery, the adaptation of LCA methodologies to new target compounds, the development of regional factors, the improvement of the data quality and the reduction of uncertainty. Finally, the need for better integration and communication with decision-makers is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease activity in cotton soil after applying thiamethoxam as seed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-05-01

    Soil enzymes are indicators of microbial activities in soil and are often considered as an indicator of soil health and fertility. They are very sensitive to the agricultural practices, pH of the soil, nutrients, inhibitors and weather conditions. To understand the effect of an insecticide, thiamethoxam, on different soil enzyme activities, the experiments were conducted at cotton experimental fields of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The results here were presented to understand the impact of thiamethoxam on soil enzyme activities. Thiamethoxam was applied as seed treatment to control the pest. Soil from three localities, i.e. soil in which seed was treated with recommended dose at 2.1 g a.i. kg(-1), soil in which seed was treated with four times recommended dose at 8.4 g a.i. kg(-1) and from the control field, were tested for different enzyme activities. Phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities were high in control soil in comparison to control soil while no effect of this insecticide on urease activity. Thiamethoxam had inhibitory effects on dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities. Therefore, it can be attributed that agricultural practices, weather conditions and use of thiamethoxam might be responsible for the different level of enzyme activities in soil.

  14. TiO2 Nanosols Applied Directly on Textiles Using Different Purification Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ortelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-cleaning applications using TiO2 coatings on various supporting media have been attracting increasing interest in recent years. This work discusses the issue of self-cleaning textile production on an industrial scale. A method for producing self-cleaning textiles starting from a commercial colloidal nanosuspension (nanosol of TiO2 is described. Three different treatments were developed for purifying and neutralizing the commercial TiO2 nanosol: washing by ultrafiltration; purifying with an anion exchange resin; and neutralizing in an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The different purified TiO2 nanosols were characterized in terms of particle size distribution (using dynamic light scattering, electrical conductivity, and ζ potential (using electrophoretic light scattering. The TiO2-coated textiles’ functional properties were judged on their photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB, used as a stain model. The photocatalytic performance of the differently treated TiO2-coated textiles was compared, revealing the advantages of purification with an anion exchange resin. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying commercial TiO2 nanosol directly on textile surfaces, overcoming problems of existing methods that limit the industrial scalability of the process.

  15. A comparison of cognitive therapy, applied relaxation, and nitrous oxide sedation in the treatment of dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, T; Vassend, O; Hoffart, A

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term efficacy of cognitive therapy and applied relaxation in dental fear treatment and to compare these methods with conventional pharmacological sedation (nitrous oxide sedation). Patients (n = 65) with severe dental fear were randomly assigned to the different treatment methods and received 10 weekly sessions of individual therapy. Dropout rates were low, and all patients who completed the therapy sessions were able to receive dental treatment. Scores on dental fear tests were significantly reduced compared with pretreatment level for all treatment groups. There were no major differences between treatment methods in this short-term perspective.

  16. A Conversation on Data Mining Strategies in LC-MS Untargeted Metabolomics: Pre-Processing and Pre-Treatment Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugizimana, Fidele; Steenkamp, Paul A; Piater, Lizelle A; Dubery, Ian A

    2016-11-03

    Untargeted metabolomic studies generate information-rich, high-dimensional, and complex datasets that remain challenging to handle and fully exploit. Despite the remarkable progress in the development of tools and algorithms, the "exhaustive" extraction of information from these metabolomic datasets is still a non-trivial undertaking. A conversation on data mining strategies for a maximal information extraction from metabolomic data is needed. Using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode generated from a LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic study (sorghum plants responding dynamically to infection by a fungal pathogen) were used. Raw data were pre-processed with MarkerLynx(TM) software (Waters Corporation, Manchester, UK). Here, two parameters were varied: the intensity threshold (50-100 counts) and the mass tolerance (0.005-0.01 Da). After the pre-processing, the datasets were imported into SIMCA (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden) for more data cleaning and statistical modeling. In addition, different scaling (unit variance, Pareto, etc.) and data transformation (log and power) methods were explored. The results showed that the pre-processing parameters (or algorithms) influence the output dataset with regard to the number of defined features. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the pre-treatment of data prior to statistical modeling affects the subspace approximation outcome: e.g., the amount of variation in X-data that the model can explain and predict. The pre-processing and pre-treatment steps subsequently influence the number of statistically significant extracted/selected features (variables). Thus, as informed by the results, to maximize the value of untargeted metabolomic data, understanding

  17. Predictability of conversation partners

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, Song et al. (2010) found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one's conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one's next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between close sensor nodes. We find t...

  18. Private pediatric neuropsychology practice multimodal treatment of ADHD: an applied approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljan, Paul; Bree, Kathleen D; Reuter, Alison E F; Reuter, Scott D; Wingers, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As neuropsychologists and psychologists specializing in the assessment and treatment of pediatric mental health concerns, one of the most prominent diagnoses we encounter is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Following a pediatric neuropsychological evaluation, parents often request recommendations for treatment. This article addresses our approach to the treatment of ADHD from the private practice perspective. We will review our primary treatment methodology as well as integrative and alternative treatment approaches.

  19. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  20. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.

    In this thesis the possibilities are presented for fixed-film post-treatment of anaerobically digested domestic sewage and water reconditioning in aquacultural water recirculation systems. Emphasis i...

  1. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.

    In

  2. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.In this the

  3. Conversational Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines narcissistic communication and the ways it is exhibited in everyday conversation. Identifies the following behavioral referents: boasting, refocusing the topic of conversation on the self, exaggerating hand and body movements, using a loud tone of voice, and "glazing over" when others speak. Suggests that conversational…

  4. Contentious Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  5. Efficiency Research on Meat Industry Waste Water Treatment Applying the Method of Dissolved Air Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinas Gerasimovas; Robertas Urbanavičius

    2012-01-01

    To protect environment from industrial pollution, strict requirements for waste water treatment are imposed. The purpose of research is to establish an optimal ratio of saturated liquid and meat industry waste water. Research included JCC “Traidenis” waste water treatment system installed in JSC “BHJ Baltic”. Investigations into treated waste water indicated that an optimal ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1 under duration time of 8 minutes. Efficient waste water treatment made...

  6. Effects of imitative and conversational recasting treatment on the acquisition of grammar in children with specific language impairment and younger language-normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K E; Camarata, S M; Welsh, J; Butkovsky, L; Camarata, M

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relative effectiveness of imitative treatment and conversational recast treatment in children with language impairment and in a group of children with normal language skills. Language treatment outcomes were compared between a group of older (4.7 to 6.7) specifically-language-impaired (SLI) children and a group of younger (2.2 to 4.2) language-normal (LN) children matched on language levels and on intervention targets. The results indicated: (a) Target acquisition was more rapid under conversational recast treatment for both groups: (b) This outcome held for targets absent initially (in pretreatment sampling and probing) as well as for initially partially mastered targets. (c) SLI children sometimes can learn grammatical structures as efficiently as language-normal children if similar language input is tailored to their specific developmental language levels. Implications of these findings for language treatment strategies with SLI children are discussed. Theoretical models compatible with the data also are considered.

  7. Locally applied valproate enhances survival in rats after neocortical treatment with tetanus toxin and cobalt chloride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias; Hebel, Jonas M; Rassner, Michael P; Volz, Silvanie; Freiman, Thomas M; Feuerstein, Thomas J; Zentner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    In neocortical epilepsies not satisfactorily responsive to systemic antiepileptic drug therapy, local application of antiepileptic agents onto the epileptic focus may enhance treatment efficacy and tolerability...

  8. Efficacy of Onabotulinum Toxin A (Botox versus Abobotulinum Toxin A (Dysport Using a Conversion Factor (1 : 2.5 in Treatment of Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mohamed El Kahky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Two preparations of botulinum A toxin (BTX-A are commercially available for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH: Botox (Allergan; 100 U/vial and Dysport (Ipsen Limited; 500 U/vial, which are not bioequivalent. Results regarding an appropriate conversion factor between them are controversial. Objectives. This paper aims to compare the efficacy of Botox and Dysport in PPH using a conversion factor of 1 : 2.5. Methods. Eight patients with severe PPH received intradermal injections of Botox in one palm and Dysport in the other in the same session. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline and posttreatment for 8 months using Minor’s iodine starch test, Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI test. Results. At 3 weeks, a significant decrease in sweating for both preparations was noted which was more pronounced with Dysport compared with Botox. At 8 weeks, this difference turned insignificant. Continued evaluation showed similar improvement in both palms with a nonsignificant difference. Patients with longer disease duration were more liable to relapse. Conclusion. The efficacy and safety of Botox and Dysport injections were similar using a conversion factor of 1 : 2.5. There was a trend towards a more rapid action after Dysport treatment but without significant importance.

  9. Incorporating Applied Behavior Analysis to Assess and Support Educators' Treatment Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Fallon, Lindsay M.

    2017-01-01

    For evidence-based interventions to be effective for students they must be consistently implemented, however, many teachers struggle with treatment integrity and require support. Although many implementation support strategies are research based, there is little empirical guidance about the types of treatment integrity, implementers, and contexts…

  10. Marketing research for EE G Mound Applied Technologies' heat treatment process of high strength materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackson, R.H.

    1991-10-09

    This report summarizes research conducted by ITI to evaluate the commercialization potential of EG G Mound Applied Technologies' heat treatment process of high strength materials. The remainder of the report describes the nature of demand for maraging steel, extent of demand, competitors, environmental trends, technology life cycle, industry structure, and conclusion. (JL)

  11. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  12. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  13. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  14. Analysis of data from radioactive wastes treatment process and implementation of a data management applied program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeo, H. S.; Son, J. S.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Lee, Y. H [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    As for the generated radioactive waste, a nuclide and a form are various, and by small quantity occurs the irregular times in KAERI. Record management of a radioactive waste personal history is an important element in disposal. A data collection of a liquid / solid radioactive waste treatment process of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by treatment process. Data on the actual treatment process that is not limited experiment improve by a document, human traces, saving of material resources and improve with efficiency of tracking about a radioactive waste and a process and give help to radioactive waste material valance and inventory study.

  15. EPS solubilization treatment by applying the biosurfactant rhamnolipid to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingpu; Xu, Dong; Trinh, Xuantung; Liu, Shuangyuan; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Junmei; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-10-01

    Application of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) solubilization treatment with biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) to reduce clogging in constructed wetlands was first conducted in this study. The results showed significant improvement in the solubilization and dispersion of clogging matter following the treatment. And RL dosage of 0.09-0.15g/L altered microbial group make-up and had an overall positive effect on the growth of microorganisms. Moreover, RL was found to enhance EPS dissolution and dispersion, which was beneficial for the release of enzymes embedded in the EPS, and resulted in enhanced pollutant removal. The treatment had no apparent detrimental effect on wetland plants. Our results indicate that the optimum dosage of RL is 0.12g/L, and that the approach provides a promising and moderate option to reverse wetland clogging through RL-mediated solubilization treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  17. Residual waters treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis: a study of experimental parameters applied to the photoelectrocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Santana

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of electrochemically-assisted heterogeneous photo-catalysis will be discussed. Several operational parameters will also be discussed, in order to achieve optimum efficiency of this photo-degradation system, such as: the influence of variables as support electrolyte, applied potential, dye initial concentration, pH and choice of a UV source on dye degradation.

  18. A Study on the Effect of Applying Cast Splints in Treatment of Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarezadeh

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tennis elbow is a common orthopedic disease affecting elbow in middle aged people. Ninety percent of patients are cured using conservative treatments. In the past, emphasis was placed on the use of long arm splints for its treatment; however, recent studies put doubt on the use of this method of treatment for the complications arising from the application of splints. The results of using long arm splints for the treatment of Methods: This was a case series non randomized clinical trial involving 25 patients treated with long arm castsplints, and 25 patients treated without the use of splint. Local corticosteroid injections and oral NSAIDs were administered for all patients. The two groups were compared in the third week, third month and sixth month of their treatment for the presence of local tenderness and pain in passive flexion test of wrist and fingers against resistance. Using SPSS 9.0, data were analyzed via repeated measurements test of ANOVA Results: Patients in case and control groups had mean ages 43.6 ± 7.2 and 43.6 ± 6 years, respectively. Prior to any treatments, all patients in this study suffered from pain and tenderness in the origin of forearm extensor muscles. Their pain exacerbated upon passive flexion of wrist and fingers against resistance. No significant difference was seen in third week, third month and sixth month (P value =0.32, and no significant difference was seen in the results of our tests regarding the presence of local tenderness and pain in passive flexion of wrist and fingers against resistance between the two groups Conclusions: After a follow-up period of six months, this study demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the two groups treated with and without long arm splints. Keywords: Tennis elbow, Conservative treatment, Laterals epicondylitis, Cast splint

  19. AnSBBR applied to a personal care industry wastewater treatment: effects of fill time, volume treated per cycle, and organic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Oliveira, Ricardo Polisaitis; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed regarding the effect of the relation between fill time, volume treated per cycle, and influent concentration at different applied organic loadings on the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam with recirculation of the liquid phase (AnSBBR) applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry. Total cycle length of the reactor was 8 h (480 min). Fill times were 10 min in the batch operation, 4 h in the fed-batch operation, and a 10-min batch followed by a 4-h fed batch in the mixed operation. Settling time was not necessary since the biomass was immobilized and decant time was 10 min. Volume of liquid medium in the reactor was 2.5 L, whereas volume treated per cycle ranged from 0.88 to 2.5 L in accordance with fill time. Influent concentration varied from 300 to 1,425 mg COD/L, resulting in an applied volumetric organic load of 0.9 and 1.5 g COD/L.d. Recirculation flow rate was 20 L/h, and the reactor was maintained at 30 °C. Values of organic matter removal efficiency of filtered effluent samples were below 71% in the batch operations and above 74% in the operations of fed batch followed by batch. Feeding wastewater during part of the operational cycle was beneficial to the system, as it resulted in indirect control over the conversion of substrate into intermediates that would negatively interfere with the biochemical reactions regarding the degradation of organic matter. As a result, the average substrate consumption increased, leading to higher organic removal efficiencies in the fed-batch operations.

  20. The Application of Conversational Implicature in Doctor-Patient Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-patient conversation is the major way of communication between doctors and patients. A good conversa-tion helps to construct a harmonious doctor-patient relationship. This paper attempts to analyze the doctor-patient conversation by applying the Theory of Conversational Implicature. The theory is accepted as the cooperative principle consisting of four max-ims:quantity, quality, relation, manner. This paper will analyse how the four maxims work and the violating of the maxims in the doctor-patient conversation. Through linguistic study of the conversation, we try to find out the problems in the doctor-patient conversation and to provide some directive linguistic suggestions to doctors and patients.

  1. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  2. MARKETING STUDIES OF LOCAL MARKET OF DRUGS WHICH ARE APPLIED FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ORAL CAVITY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tsarakhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomatological market has actively developed recent years. Domestic experts received an access to contemporary technologies of dental diseases treatment in the world. This conditioned the appearance of new drugs and parapharmaceutical products applied in dental practice on the pharmaceutical market. In this connection, study of these drugs market, their price policy, demand and supply. Assortment of parapharmaceutical products applied in dental practice for oral cavity hygiene is represented mainly by liquid forms, such as mouth rinse, balms, elixirs, and a special place is occupied by toothpastes. Their assortment amounts to more than 700 types. Drugs, applied in dental practice are represented by the following groups: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiallergenic, anesthetics, drugs which stimulate tissues regeneration, fluoric drugs. The purpose of this study was the analysis of regional pharmaceutical market assortment, which offers parapharmaceutical goods and drugs for prevention and treatment of oral cavity diseases to the stomatological establishments. Pharmaceutical market of the Republic of North Ossetia – Alania is represented by a wide range of drugs for dental diseases treatment. This group is represented in the assortment of practically all distributors. The drugs for dental diseases treatment is not only supplied by domestic producers but also go from pharmaceutical companies of 29 foreign countries, which influences positively on the state of drug therapy of paradontum in the region.

  3. Scaling up HIV treatment in Peru: applying lessons from DOTS-Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jose Luis; Munoz, Maribel; Palacios, Eda; Espiritu, Beatriz; Mestanza, Lorena; Chalco, Katiuska; Llaro, Karim; Guerra, Dalia; Shin, Sonya; Bayona, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Many countries with financial support for HIV treatment experience delays in scale-up because of bureaucratic, operational, and technical obstacles. The authors describe the Peruvian National HIV Program's response to such challenges. A team of consultants experienced in the scale-up of the Peruvian national program to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis worked with the national HIV program to identify and address key factors contributing to slow enrollment of HIV patients into the antiretroviral treatment program. The rate of enrollment into the antiretroviral treatment program increased from 124 patients/month in the first 9 months of the program to 226 patients/month in the last 7 months, an increase of 83%. This strategy achieved 38.5% coverage of the population in need. Effective programmatic expansion of the Peruvian National HIV Program was facilitated by a multidisciplinary collaboration in a systematized effort to overcome barriers to scale-up.

  4. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.

  5. Assessment of the nutrient removal effectiveness of floating treatment wetlands applied to urban retention ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Sample, David J

    2014-05-01

    The application of floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) in point and non-point source pollution control has received much attention recently. Although the potential of this emerging technology is supported by various studies, quantifying FTW performance in urban retention ponds remains elusive due to significant research gaps. Actual urban retention pond water was utilized in this mesocosm study to evaluate phosphorus and nitrogen removal efficiency of FTWs. Multiple treatments were used to investigate the contribution of each component in the FTW system with a seven-day retention time. The four treatments included a control, floating mat, pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.), and softstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani). The water samples collected on Day 0 (initial) and 7 were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP), total particulate phosphorus, orthophosphate, total nitrogen (TN), organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a. Statistical tests were used to evaluate the differences between the four treatments. The effects of temperature on TP and TN removal rates of the FTWs were described by the modified Arrhenius equation. Our results indicated that all three FTW designs, planted and unplanted floating mats, could significantly improve phosphorus and nitrogen removal efficiency (%, E-TP and E-TN) compared to the control treatment during the growing season, i.e., May through August. The E-TP and E-TN was enhanced by 8.2% and 18.2% in the FTW treatments planted with the pickerelweed and softstem bulrush, respectively. Organic matter decomposition was likely to be the primary contributor of nutrient removal by FTWs in urban retention ponds. Such a mechanism is fostered by microbes within the attached biofilms on the floating mats and plant root surfaces. Among the results of the four treatments, the FTWs planted with pickerelweed had the highest E-TP, and behaved similarly with the other two FTW treatments for nitrogen removal

  6. Comparison of bacteriological conversion and treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients with and without diabetes in Mexico: Preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Torrico, M; Caminero Luna, J; Migliori, G B; D'Ambrosio, L; Carrillo-Alduenda, J L; Villareal-Velarde, H; Torres-Cruz, A; Flores-Ergara, H; Martínez-Mendoza, D; García-Sancho, C; Centis, R; Salazar-Lezama, M Á; Pérez-Padilla, R

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City.

  7. Gender Differences in Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛媛

    2014-01-01

    Men and women applied language distinct from each other in many ways. The thesis gives an illustration of gender dif-ferences in conversation and different interpretive frames within which the discourse between men and women take place. More profoundly, it tries to explain them from perspective of socialization.

  8. Up-Conversion Y2O3:Yb(3+),Er(3+) Hollow Spherical Drug Carrier with Improved Degradability for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Kun; Zhang, Cuimiao; Sun, Wentong; Liu, Huifang; Jin, Yi; Li, Zhenhua; Liang, Xing-Jie; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-09-28

    The rare earth hollow spheres with up-conversion luminescence properties have shown potential applications in drug delivery and bioimaging fields. However, there have been few reports for the degradation properties of rare earth oxide drug carriers. Herein, uniform and well-dispersed Y2O3:Yb(3+),Er(3+) hollow spheres (YOHSs) have been fabricated by a general Pechini sol-gel process with melamine formaldehyde colloidal spheres as template. The novel YOHSs with up-conversion luminescence has good drug loading amount and drug-release efficiency; moreover, it exhibits pH-responsive release patterns. In particular, the YOHSs sample exhibits low cytotoxicity and excellent degradable properties in acid buffer. After the sample was loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), the antitumor result in vitro indicates that YOHS-DOX might be effective in cancer treatment. The animal imaging test also reveals that the YOHSs drug carrier can be used as an outstanding luminescent probe for bioimaging in vivo application prospects. The results suggest that the degradable drug carrier with up-conversion luminescence may enhance the delivery efficiency of drugs and improve the cancer therapy in clinical applications.

  9. The effect of lameness treatments and treatments for other health disorders on the weight gain and feed conversion in boars at a Danish test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; houe, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Lameness in finishers can cause economic losses to farmers and lameness affects the welfare of pigs. In order to study the economic losses, we investigated the effect of lameness on productivity, measured as the mean daily weight gain (MDWG) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR), and evaluated...

  10. Expert systems applied to sewage treatment works; Los sistemas expertos aplicados a las estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, M.; Lafuente, J.; Sanchez, M.; Cortes, V.; Tomas, R. [Unitat d`Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The number of waste water treatment plants is increasing in order improve the water quality levels. The use of conventional automatic control systems applied to these processes deals with some difficulties, like complexity of the system, or the presence of cualitative knowledge. In this context, knowledge based systems (KBS) could be an interesting alternative to solve the management problem. In this paper, the authors present a knowledge based architecture for real time supervision and control of wastewater treatment plants that tries to overcome some of these troubles. The development of the KBS and the methodology employed are discussed. Finally a case study showing how the KBS works is presented. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. A generalised chemical precipitation modelling approach in wastewater treatment applied to calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Batstone, Damien J.; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    , the present study aims to identify a broadly applicable precipitation modelling approach. The study uses two experimental platforms applied to calcite precipitating from synthetic aqueous solutions to identify and validate the model approach. Firstly, dynamic pH titration tests are performed to define...... of the mineral particulate state (Xcryst) and, for calcite, have a 2nd order dependency (exponent n ¼ 2.05 ± 0.29) on thermodynamic supersaturation (s). Parameter analysis indicated that the model was more tolerant to a fast kinetic coefficient (kcryst) and so, in general, it is recommended that a large kcryst...

  12. Modelling of the dispersed air flotation process applied to dairy wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Puget

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a mathematical model for a continuously operating flotation tank to provide the scale-up and optimization of the separation system. The fluid dynamic of the tank was assumed to be a perfect mixture and the flotation kinetics to be a first-order reaction, as suggested by the batch operation. The experiments were carried out in a continuously operating 60 L tank, used in the treatment of a synthetic dairy waste at its isoelectric point. A mathematical model that describes the behavior of a continuously operating flotation tank used in the treatment of a synthetic dairy waste at its isoelectric point is not only proposed, but also validated with experimental data.

  13. A gamma-ray therapeutic system applied to treatment of body tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu; DUAN Zheng-Cheng; ZHU Guo-Li; GONG Shi-Hua; LI Xiao-Ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to treat malignant tumors in human body, a stereotactic gamma-ray whole-body therapeutic system has been developed. This system is a typical large mechatronics treatment machine. In this paper, its main working principles and characteristics are introduced. This system comprises a special gallows frame with an open vertical structure, a changeable collimator device by which the size of convergence center can be chosen, and a 3D treatment couch. A computer brings the couch to target position automatically. Therefore precise and dynamic rotary converging therapy for tumors located anywhere in the body has been realized. The system's performance has been proved in practice, which includes good curative effect, reliable automation, and safe and secure operation.

  14. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores by alkaline hydrolysis applied to medical waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Sílvia C; Nunes, Olga C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Almeida, Manuel F

    2015-09-15

    Although alkaline hydrolysis treatment emerges as an alternative disinfection/sterilization method for medical waste, information on its effects on the inactivation of biological indicators is scarce. The effects of alkaline treatment on the resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were investigated and the influence of temperature (80 °C, 100 °C and 110 °C) and NaOH concentration was evaluated. In addition, spore inactivation in the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, used as surrogate of medical waste, was also assessed. The effectiveness of the alkaline treatment was carried out by determination of survival curves and D-values. No significant differences were seen in D-values obtained at 80 °C and 100 °C for NaOH concentrations of 0.5 M and 0.75 M. The D-values obtained at 110 °C (2.3-0.5 min) were approximately 3 times lower than those at 100 °C (8.8-1.6 min). Independent of the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, 6 log10 reduction times varied between 66 and 5 min at 100 °C-0.1 M NaOH and 110 °C-1 M NaOH, respectively. The alkaline treatment may be used in future as a disinfection or sterilization alternative method for contaminated waste.

  15. Examination of Glucocorticoid Treatment on Bone Marrow Stroma: Implications for Bone Disease and Applied Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Ryan Michael

    2002-01-01

    Long-term exposure to pharmacological doses of glucocorticoids has been associated with the development of osteopenia and avascular necrosis. Bone loss may be partially attributed to a steroid-induced decrease in the osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells found in the bone marrow. In order to determine if there is a change in the osteogenic potential of the bone marrow stroma following glucocorticoid treatment, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered methylprednisolone f...

  16. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TREATMENT OF ANAL FISSURE BY APPLYING SPHINCTEROTOMY WITH ACUPOTOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段海涛; 沈瑞子; 阳建明; 温伟平; 邱仁斌

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect end features of acupotomy in the treatment of anal fis-sure. Methods: Seventy-six cases with anal fissure were randomly divided into two groups, namely, acupotomy groupin which 37 patients were treated by anal internal sphincterotomy with acupotomy, and conventional anal sphincteroto-my group (conventional group, n=39) that was treated by conventional amputation of the anal sphincter. Results: Af-ter treatment, twenty-six over 37 cases in acupotomy group recovered completely and the other 9 cases were improvedclinically, with the total effective rate being 94.59%. In conventional group, 27 over 39 cases recovered completelyand the other 11 cases were improved clinically. The total effective rate was 97.44%. There was no significant differ-ence in the curative rate between two groups. However, compared with those of conventional group, patients inacupotomy group had significantly less bleeding, earlier healing of fissure and less pain. Conclusion: The results sug-gest that acupotomy treatment of anal fissure with anal sphincterotomy is a better therapeutic technique with advantagesof easier manipulation, earlier healing and milder wound, less infectious complications end pain.

  17. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2011-08-01

    Phototherapy improves cellular activation which is an important factor for the treatment of cellulite. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate the effects of a new (noninvasive and nonpharmacological) clinical procedure to improve body aesthetics: infrared-LED (850 nm) plus treadmill training. Twenty women (25-55 years old) participated in this study. They were separated in two groups: the control group, which carried out only the treadmill training (n = 10), and the LED group, with phototherapy during the treadmill training (n = 10). The training was performed for 45 minutes twice a week over 3 months at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HR(max)). The irradiation parameters were 39 mW/cm(2) and a fluence of 106 J/cm(2). The treatment was evaluated by interpreting body composition parameters, photographs and thermography. This was primarily a treatment for cellulite with a reduction of saddlebag and thigh circumference. At the same time, the treadmill training prevented an increase of body fat, as well as the loss of lean mass. Moreover, thermal images of the temperature modification of the thighs are presented. These positive effects can result in a further improvement of body aesthetics using infrared-LED together with treadmill training.

  18. Applying Transpalpebral Rheoophthalmography to Monitor Effectiveness of the Treatment of Patients with Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry M. Shamaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of ocular hemodynamics is an important element in diagnosis of all forms of glaucoma. Existing methods, unlike the transpalpebral rheoophthalmography (TP-ROG, evaluate only the posterior eye segment. This study evaluates the opportunities of new TP-ROG technology to assess the effectiveness of the glaucoma treatment. The proposed TP-ROG method is characterized by ease of use and the lack of direct contact between the surface of the eyeball and the electrodes; this method is highly informative and quite accurate, which allows us to objectively assess the state of ocular hemodynamics in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

  19. Bullous contact dermatitis caused by self-applied crushed Paederus fuscipes for the treatment of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dong-O; Kang, Jung-Dae; Youn, Nyoung-Hoon; Park, Seok-Don

    2003-11-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a linear, blistering contact dermatitis caused by pederin, a potent vesicant agent that is contained in insects belonging to the genus Paederus. This form of dermatitis usually occurs accidentally in those who have contact with this insect during the summer season. We report a peculiar case of a patient developing severe chemical burnlike lesions after application to her skin of many crushed Paederus fuscipes that she collected from the soil of a riverbank in the early spring for the treatment of her vitiligo.

  20. [The marketing analysis of assortment of market of pharmaceuticals applied in treatment of psoriasis in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotvitskaya, A A; Karlo, V V

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of assortment of pharmaceuticals for treatment of psoriasis recommended by Minzdrav of Ukraine and present at the national pharmaceutical market is made. The characteristics of distribution of national and foreign producers of antihistamine and anti-psoriatic pharmaceuticals are established The availability of particular medicinal forms of various producers is analyzed too. The characteristics and tendencies in consumption of these groups of pharmaceuticals in natural and monetary units are analyzed including dynamics of changes of mean wholesale prices during the analyzed period.

  1. Applying the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay to study treatment approaches in urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Margaretha A; Sathe, Anuja; Romano, Andrea; Hoffmann, Michèle J; Schulz, Wolfgang A; van Koeveringe, Gommert A; Albers, Peter; Nawroth, Roman; Niegisch, Günter

    2017-09-01

    Rapid development of novel treatment options demands valid preclinical screening models for urothelial carcinoma (UC). The translational value of high-throughput drug testing using 2-dimensional (2D) cultures is limited while for xenograft models handling efforts and costs often become prohibitive for larger-scale drug testing. Therefore, we investigated to which extent the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay might provide an alternative model to study antineoplastic treatment approaches for UC. The ability of 8 human UC cell lines (UCCs) to form tumors after implantation on CAMs was investigated. Epithelial-like RT-112 and mesenchymal-like T-24 UCCs in cell culture or as CAM tumors were treated with cisplatin alone or combined with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) romidepsin and suberanilohydroxamic acid. Tumor weight, size, and bioluminescence activity were monitored; tumor specimens were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure protein and mRNA expression. UCCs were reliably implantable on the CAM, but tumor development varied among cell lines. Expression of differentiation markers (E-cadherin, vimentin, CK5, CK18, and CK20) was similar in CAM tumors and 2D cultures. Cellular phenotypes also remained stable after recultivation of CAM tumors in 2D cultures. Bioluminescence images correlated with tumor weight. Cisplatin and HDACi decreased weight and growth of CAM tumors in a dose-dependent manner, but HDACi treatment acted less efficiently as in 2D cultures, especially on its typically associated molecular markers. Synergistic effects of HDACi and subsequent cisplatin treatment on UCCs were neither detected in 2D cultures nor detected in CAM tumors. Our results demonstrate that the CAM assay is a useful tool for studying tumor growth and response to conventional anticancer drugs under 3D conditions, especially cytotoxic drugs as cisplatin. With some

  2. Conversational Telugu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  3. Conversion Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Robert S; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Barry, John J

    2006-01-01

    ... to proceed after establishing a diagnosis of conversion disorder. Case Presentation "Ms. A," a 53-year-old left-handed woman, was admitted to our epilepsy monitoring unit for evaluation of a 4-month history of tremors, head bobbing, and episodic loss of awareness. The onset of these symptoms was 1 week after she had visited an emergency department...

  4. Applied multi-pulsed laser in surface treatment and numerical-experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laazizi, Abdellah; Courant, Bruno; Jacquemin, Frédéric; Andrzejewski, Henri

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison between simulation and experimental results of the melting process of metallic material by a pulsed laser source Nd-YAG. The simulations of temperature and velocity fields of melted material were done by solving the transient heat transfer and fluid-flow equations. Variations of the thermophysical properties were considered. Furthermore, the model included the effects of the surface-tension gradient on the fluid surface and the buoyancy force. The simulation was useful in improving our understanding of the phenomena occurring in the treated material. Using a laser triangulation sensor, an experimental study was also conducted on the surface profile of the melted zones to seek a relationship between the so-called keyhole effect and the laser triangulation measurements. The keyhole effect induced strong surface deformations and often formed cavities, which were undesirable in the surface treatment process. The laser power, energy density, and treatment duration could be optimized to prevent the keyhole effect. The predicted laser melted zone (LMZ) morphology was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental measurements for various irradiation conditions, as long as the keyhole effect did not occur.

  5. Condutivity effect in electro-coagulation-flotation applied to physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the effect of conductivity on the simultaneous applicability of water electrolysis , chemical coagulation and flotation fundamentals in the treatment of wastewater with large amounts of suspended matter, characterizing electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF . Results from experiments carried out in a pilot study implanted and operated in the Laboratory of Environment Control (LCA, at the State University of Campinas in Limeira are presented. ECF was developed in an electrolytic reactor where water passed through aluminum electrodes connected to a power supply. Electrochemical reactions promoted Al3+ ions emission from anode, neutralizing repulsive pollutant forces, forming flakes. An evolution of micro hydrogen bubbles occurred, carrying the flakes to the top of the solution, causing flotation and polluter removal. System monitoring aimed at reaching optimal operation conditions regarding time of liquid permanence in the reactor, influence of the NaC1 addition on the increase of affluent conductivity, and influence of polarity inversion over cathodic passivation. Results from carwash wastewater treatment reported 86% efficiency rate for color, 90,15% for turbidity and 85,43% for oil and axle-grease removal.

  6. Evaluation of water repellent treatments applied to stones used in andalusian cathedrals. II. Salt crystallization test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Sánchez, R.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we have studied the changes that have ocurred in the properties related to water access and movement in the stone after the application of water repellent treatments. In this work we compare the weathering resistance of treated and untreated samples by means of sodium sulphate crystallization test. After finishing the test (75 cycles properties related to water have been measured again to know if the treatments have undergone any kind of deterioration and lose their water repellent characteristics.

    En un artículo anterior se han evaluado los cambios producidos en las propiedades relacionadas con el acceso y movimiento de agua en la piedra como consecuencia de la aplicación de tratamientos de hidrofugación. En este trabajo se compara la resistencia a la alteración producida por sales de las probetas tratadas y sin tratar, sometiéndolas al ensayo de cristalización de sulfato sódico. Tras finalizar el ensayo (75 ciclos se han medido nuevamente las propiedades relacionadas con el agua, con objeto de comprobar si los tratamientos han sufrido alguna alteración y si mantienen sus características hidrófugas.

  7. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.

  8. 3D scanning and printing as conversation tools: an innovative treatment of a vandalized bronze statue, The Thinker by Rodin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.; van der Molen, R.; Saunders, D.; Strlic, M.; Korenberg, C.; Luxford, N.; Birkhölzer, K.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution discusses the innovative treatment of a severely vandalized bronze sculpture, The Thinker by Auguste Rodin, from the Singer Museum in Laren, The Netherlands. Additional aspects of this controversial treatment such as decision making and documentation are also discussed. In 2007 the

  9. 3D scanning and printing as conversation tools: an innovative treatment of a vandalized bronze statue, The Thinker by Rodin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Beentjes; R. van der Molen

    2011-01-01

    This contribution discusses the innovative treatment of a severely vandalized bronze sculpture, The Thinker by Auguste Rodin, from the Singer Museum in Laren, The Netherlands. Additional aspects of this controversial treatment such as decision making and documentation are also discussed. In 2007 the

  10. Patient profiling can identify patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) at risk for conversion from non-operative to surgical treatment: initial steps to reduce ineffective ASD management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Jalai, Cyrus M; Line, Breton G; Poorman, Gregory W; Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Burton, Douglas C; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Klineberg, Eric O; Hart, Robert A; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Bess, Shay

    2017-07-05

    Non-operative management is a common initial treatment for patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) despite reported superiority of surgery with regard to outcomes. Ineffective medical care is a large source of resource drain on the health system. Characterization of patients with ASD likely to elect for operative treatment from non-operative management may allow for more efficient patient counseling and cost savings. This study aimed to identify deformity and disability characteristics of patients with ASD who ultimately convert to operative treatment compared with those who remain non-operative and those who initially choose surgery. A retrospective review was carried out. A total of 510 patients with ASD (189 non-operative, 321 operative) with minimum 2-year follow-up comprised the patient sample. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-Form 36 Health Assessment (SF-36), Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22r), and spinopelvic radiographic alignment were the outcome measures. Demographic, radiographic, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) from a cohort of patients with ASD prospectively enrolled into a multicenter database were evaluated. Patients were divided into three treatment cohorts: Non-operative (NON=initial non-operative treatment and remained non-operative), Operative (OP=initial operative treatment), and Crossover (CROSS=initial non-operative treatment with subsequent conversion to operative treatment). NON and OP groups were propensity score-matched (PSM) to CROSS for baseline demographics (age, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index). Time to crossover was divided into early (1 year). Outcome measures were compared across and within treatment groups at four time points (baseline, 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years). Following PSM, 118 patients were included (NON=39, OP=38, CROSS=41). Crossover rate was 21.7% (41/189). Mean time to crossover was 394 days. All groups had similar baseline sagittal alignment, but CROSS had larger

  11. Life cycle assessment applied to wastewater treatment; Analyse de cycle de vie appliquee aux systemes de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renou, S.

    2006-01-15

    Nowadays, the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems are not properly analyzed. Thus, the development of an exhaustive and reliable method is needed to help stakeholders to choose the best environmental solutions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was selected as a starting point to answer this problem. LCA has been tested. This tool is essential to analyze the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems. In order to fulfill our goal, the best compromise seems to be the association of LCA, to assess global impacts, with others methodologies, to assess local impacts. Finally, a software has been developed to compare urban sludge treatment and recovering process trains. Two impacts, energy and greenhouse effect, are currently included in. The software and its development steps are described and illustrated through two case studies. This tool has made LCA easier to apply and more useful to wastewater field stakeholders. (author)

  12. Design on Frequency Conversion Control System of Brine Pump Applied in Freezing Station Based on PLC%基于 PLC 的冻结站盐水泵变频控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巍; 郑晓亮; 李松高

    2014-01-01

    According to the problems of high fault rate ,poor speed regulation performances ,complicated operation ,high energy consumption and others existed in a control system of brine pump applied in a mine shaft freezing station ,the paper provided a plan that a PLC and frequency convertor applied to control the operation of the brine pump and a configuration software WinCC applied to timely monitor and control the working status of the system .The actual application of the freezing station to the mine ventilation shaft in Yangcun Mine showed that frequency conversion control system of the brine pump was high in automation and good in the speed regulation performance.The energy saving effect was re-markable and over RMB 90 000 of electric power fee could be saved in a month.%针对目前井筒冻结站盐水泵控制系统存在的故障率高、调速性能差、操作复杂、能耗大等问题,提出了一种采用PLC和变频器来控制盐水泵运行,并采用组态软件WinCC来实时监控系统工作状态的方案。杨村煤矿风井冻结站实际应用表明,盐水泵变频控制系统自动化程度高,调速性能好,节能效果明显,1个月可节约电费9万元以上。

  13. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  14. Wastewater treatment enhancement by applying a lipopeptide biosurfactant to a lignocellulosic biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ameneiro, M; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-10-20

    In this work, a natural lipopeptide biosurfactant obtained from corn steep liquor was included in the formulation of a lignocellulosic biocomposite used for the treatment of wastewater. The results obtained indicate that the dye sorption capacity of the hydrogel containing hydrolysed vineyard pruning waste can be significantly promoted via surfactant modification using natural detergents. The elimination of dye compounds and the removal of sulphates were increased around 10% and 62%, respectively, when the biocomposite modified with biosurfactant was used. This outcome can be intrinsically related to the rougher, rounder, more compact and better-emulsified sphere achieved after the addition of the lipopeptide biosurfactant. The bioadsorption process followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model and both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion were involved in the bioadsorption mechanism. Therefore, the utilisation of biosurfactants shows great potential in the formulation of eco-friendly adsorbents for environmental application.

  15. Applied Interventions in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity Through the Research of Professor Jane Wardle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Helen; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2017-03-01

    Obesity presents a challenge for practitioners, policy makers, researchers and for those with obesity themselves. This review focuses on psychological approaches to its management and prevention in children and adults. Through exploring the work of the late Professor Jane Wardle, we look at the earliest behavioural treatment approaches and how psychological theory has been used to develop more contemporary approaches, for example incorporating genetic feedback and habit formation theory into interventions. We also explore how Jane has challenged thinking about the causal pathways of obesity in relation to eating behaviour. Beyond academic work, Jane was an advocate of developing interventions which had real-world applications. Therefore, we discuss how she not only developed new interventions but also made these widely available and the charity that she established.

  16. Buonocore memorial lecture. Adhesive dentistry applied to the treatment of traumatic dental injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, J O

    2001-01-01

    Dental adhesive techniques have led to a significant simplification of the immediate and definitive treatment of traumatic dental injuries. Composite restoration of fractured teeth, bonding of tooth fragments, the use of laminate veneers or porcelain onlays and resin retained bridges are some of the ways adhesive techniques are used to treat fractured teeth. Furthermore, splinting of luxated teeth almost entirely relies on the combination of adhesion and a flexible resin which simulates the mobility of a normal periodontal ligament during the healing period. The internal strengthening of immature root-filled teeth with composite using an adhesive technique may possibly prevent late root fractures caused by weakening of the tooth structure resulting from endodontic procedures. Finally, the adhesive principle using a retro-seal with composite after apicoectomy significantly increases the healing rate and healing mode.

  17. Design of sewage treatment system by applying fuzzy adaptive PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang-Ping; Li, Hong-Chan

    2013-03-01

    In the sewage treatment system, the dissolved oxygen concentration control, due to its nonlinear, time-varying, large time delay and uncertainty, is difficult to establish the exact mathematical model. While the conventional PID controller only works with good linear not far from its operating point, it is difficult to realize the system control when the operating point far off. In order to solve the above problems, the paper proposed a method which combine fuzzy control with PID methods and designed a fuzzy adaptive PID controller based on S7-300 PLC .It employs fuzzy inference method to achieve the online tuning for PID parameters. The control algorithm by simulation and practical application show that the system has stronger robustness and better adaptability.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Techniques Applied to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis Alonso, Benito; Hidalgo-Tobón, Silvia S.; Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects at least 10 million people worldwide. It is a neurodegenerative disease, which is currently diagnosed by neurological examination. No neuroimaging investigation or blood biomarker is available to aid diagnosis and prognosis. Most effort toward diagnosis using magnetic resonance (MR) has been focused on the use of structural/anatomical neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, deep brain stimulation, a current strategy for treating PD, is guided by MR imaging (MRI). For clinical prognosis, diagnosis, and follow-up investigations, blood oxygen level-dependent MRI, DTI, spectroscopy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation have been used. These techniques represent the state of the art in the last 5 years. Here, we focus on MR techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26191037

  19. Full-scale application of focused-pulsed pre-treatment for improving biosolids digestion and conversion to methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Lee, Hyung-sool; Zhang, Husen; Alder, Jared; Banaszak, James E; Lopez, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    We tested at full-scale the innovative Focused Pulsed (FP) technology for pre-treating waste sludge in order to improve methane gas production and biosolids reduction in sludge digestion, but without incurring problems of odors, toxicity, and high costs for chemical or energy consumption. FP pre-treatment of a mixture of primary and secondary sludge increased the soluble COD by 160% and DOC 120% over the control. FP pre-treatment of 63% of the input waste sludge increased biogas production by over 40% and reduced biosolids requiring disposal by 30% when compared to the plant baseline. FP pre-treatment also correlated with a shift of the bacterial and archaeal communities. The most significant change was that the acetate-cleaving Methanosaeta became the dominant methanogen. Full FP pre-treatment should increase biogas production and biosolids removal by 60% and 40%, respectively. Full FP pre-treatment should generate energy benefits of at least 2.7 times and as high as 18 times the FP energy input, depending on heat recovery from FP treatment. For a plant treating 76,000 m3/d of wastewater (380 m3-sludge/d), FP treatment should generate an annual economic benefit of approximately $540,000 net of electricity and other operating and maintenance costs. This represents a payback period of three years or less.

  20. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  1. Decision making for pregnant adolescents: applying reasoned action theory to research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, N J

    1993-06-01

    Unmarried adolescent mothers face greater risk of less schooling, more emotional problems, higher poverty, and less income than those who relinquish their infants for adoption. Currently, around 5% of unmarried mothers give up their children for adoption (52,000 children annually, of which 24,500 are infants). Reasoned-action theory according to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) was utilized in order to examine the potent family and personal variables that underlie this decision. In addition, a literature review of research studies applying reasoned-action theory to pregnant teenagers is provided, along with suggestions for clinical application of the theory. Family support has been found an important variable in the teenagers' decision. Family members may encourage or discourage the teenagers to keep the baby. Families may come closer together to cope with an unplanned pregnancy; however, some families experience deterioration of adaptability over time. The theory focuses 1) on the relationship of the individual and the decision or behavioral intention (BI), and 2) on immediate sociopsychological determinants of a BI. In some instances behavior (B) and BI are unrelated. The theory characterizes BIs in terms of the subjective probability concerning behavioral performance. The person's intention to perform a behavior is the result of a choice between behavioral alternatives: 1) adoption, 2) keeping the child as single mother, 3) keeping the child and raising it with the father in a formal relationship, 4) keeping the child and raising it with the help of parents. According to the Fishbein and Ajzen model, differences between minority and White relinquishment rates occur because these groups 1) differ in their beliefs and attitudes toward behavioral alternatives, 2) differ in normative beliefs, and/or 3) differ in relative weights they accord to attitudes versus cultural norms. This model with many variables is useful in measuring behavior, choice, and BI; attitudes and

  2. Effectiveness of three decontamination treatments against influenza virus applied to filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, Michael B; Heimbuch, Brian K; Brown, Teanne L; Wander, Joseph D; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are recommended for use as precautions against airborne pathogenic microorganisms; however, during pandemics demand for FFRs may far exceed availability. Reuse of FFRs following decontamination has been proposed but few reported studies have addressed the feasibility. Concerns regarding biocidal efficacy, respirator performance post decontamination, decontamination cost, and user safety have impeded adoption of reuse measures. This study examined the effectiveness of three energetic decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), microwave-generated steam, and moist heat] on two National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified N95 FFRs (3M models 1860s and 1870) contaminated with H5N1. An aerosol settling chamber was used to apply virus-laden droplets to FFRs in a method designed to simulate respiratory deposition of droplets onto surfaces. When FFRs were examined post decontamination by viral culture, all three decontamination methods were effective, reducing virus load by > 4 log median tissue culture infective dose. Analysis of treated FFRs using a quantitative molecular amplification assay (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) indicated that UVGI decontamination resulted in lower levels of detectable viral RNA than the other two methods. Filter performance was evaluated before and after decontamination using a 1% NaCl aerosol. As all FFRs displayed <5% penetration by 300-nm particles, no profound reduction in filtration performance was caused in the FFRs tested by exposure to virus and subsequent decontamination by the methods used. These findings indicate that, when properly implemented, these methods effectively decontaminate H5N1 on the two FFR models tested and do not drastically affect their filtering function; however, other considerations may influence decisions to reuse FFRs.

  3. Microbiological and physicochemical treatments applied to metallurgic industry aiming water reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Crystal Bello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the reuse of the water in a system composed of a sewage treatment plant (STP using prolonged aeration with activated sludge and a compact water treatment plant (CWTP in a metallurgic industry. The processes for obtaining the water for reuse were microbiological and physicochemical. The domestic sewage was then pumped to the STP, where biological flocks were formed and clarified water was obtained. The efficiency of the microbiological process in the STP was evaluated for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and sedimentary solids (SS. The efficiency of physicochemical processes for clarifying the water and disinfection was evaluated through analysis of pH, turbidity, color, aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count, free chlorine, hardness, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates and dissolved total solids (DTS. In the reuse of the water, acute toxicity for the microcrustaceans Daphnia similis was also evaluated.Estudou-se o reuso de água de um sistema composto por estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE com aeração prolongada e lodo ativado, e em uma estação compacta de tratamento de água (ECTA de uma indústria metalúrgica. Os processos para obtenção da água de reuso foram: microbiológico e físico-químico. O esgoto doméstico foi bombeado para a ETE, onde houve formação de flocos biológicos e água clarificada. Avaliou-se a eficiência do processo microbiológico da ETE mediante a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e sólidos sedimentáveis (SS. A eficiência do processo físico-químico de clarificação e desinfecção foi avaliada mediante análises de pH, turbidez, cor, contagem de bactérias heterotróficas aeróbias, cloro livre, dureza, alcalinidade, cloretos, sulfatos, sólidos totais dissolvidos (STD. Na água de reuso além desses parâmetros avaliou-se a toxicidade aguda ao microcrustáceo Daphnia similis.

  4. Conversion treatment using sirolimus for kidney transplant recipients%西罗莫司在肾移植受者中的转换治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志强; 万有贵; 陈博; 徐文英; 封玉宏; 周洪澜

    2011-01-01

    背景:传统的钙调磷酸酶抑制剂能导致慢性移植肾肾病的发生,新型免疫抑制剂西罗莫司的出现就为替换这一治疗方案提供了可能.目的:验证西罗莫司在肾移植后受者中转换治疗的临床效果及其安全性.方法:对同种异体肾移植后以口服钙调磷酸酶抑制剂为主的60例受者,进行以西罗莫司为主的转换治疗,观察转换后6个月内临床效果、安全性和不良反应.结果与结论:西罗莫司转换治疗后6个月内急性排斥反应发生率为13.3%.因慢性移植肾肾病进行药物转换的受者,转换后肾功能改善;其他转换后移植后肝损害及高血糖有所改善.结果提示西罗莫司在转换治疗时疗效优于钙调磷酸酶抑制剂.%BACKGROUND: Traditional calcium the phosphoric acid enzymes inhibitors can result in a chronic renal transplants kidney disease. Vaccination sirolimus inhibitors provide new substitution for the treatment.OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy and safety of conversion treatment of sirolimus for kidney transplant recipients.METHODS: Sixty eligible kidney transplant recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitor as main immunosuppressives were converted to sirolimus. The clinical outcome, complications and side effects were observed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION : Eight recipients (13.3%) experienced acute rejection. The renal functions of recipients with chronic renal transplants kidney disease were improved after conversion treatment. The liver damage or hyperglycemia also improved in other recipients. The results demonstrated that sirolimus is superior to calcineurin inhibitor in conversion treatment.

  5. Characteristics of materials and thermal treatments applied to gearwheels obtained by plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, I.; Dulgheru, V.; Trifan, N.

    2016-08-01

    A variety of materials are used in the manufacture of gearwheels. These materials satisfy various working conditions for gears. Such gears are made of metallic materials - ferrous, non-ferrous and from plastic materials. Among ferrous materials the following are used: irons; cast, forged and rolled steels; among non-ferrous materials the following are used: bronze, aluminium alloys, brass, etc., and of plastics the following are used: textolite, polyamide, polyacetal. In the practice of exploitation and in the process of special research it was established that the permissible load, according to teeth contact resistance, is generally determined by the hardness of the material. The highest hardness and respectively, the smallest sizes and reduced mass of the transmission can be obtained in the manufacture of steel gears via thermal treatment. It is obvious that by plastic deformation at cold it cannot be obtained gearwheels with complicated configuration as deformed plastic metal will form cracks caused by low plasticity. To improve processability by plastic deformation the mouldings for gearwheels are heated. With increasing the heating temperature, plasticity increases and resistance to deformation decreases.

  6. PYROLYSIS OF ALGAL BIOMASS OBTAINED FROM HIGH RATE ALGAE PONDS APPLIED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda eVargas E Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735mg/l. The algal productivity in the average depth was measured at 41,8 gm-2day-1 in pond A and at 47.1 gm-2day-1 in pond B. Algae obtained from the HRAP B were separated by the process of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. In the presence of alum, a separation efficiency in the range of 97% solids removal was obtained. After centrifugation the biomass was dried and comminuted. The biofuel production experiments were conducted via pyrolysis in a tubular quartz glass reactor which was inserted in a furnace for external heating. The tests were carried out in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 60ml/min. The system was operated at 400°C, 500°C and 600°C in order to determine the influence of temperature on the obtained fractional yields. The studies showed that the pyrolysis product yield was influenced by temperature, with a maximum liquid phase (bio-oil and water production rate of 44% at 500°C, 45% for char and around 11% for gas.

  7. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  8. Geochemical modelling of EGS fracture stimulation applying weak and strong acid treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Sif Pind Aradottir, Edda

    2015-04-01

    Engineered Geothermal systems (EGS) provide geothermal power by tapping into the Earth's deep geothermal resources that are otherwise not exploitable due to lack of water and fractures, location or rock type. EGS technologies have the potential to cost effectively produce large amounts of electricity almost anywhere in the world. The EGS technology creates permeability in the rock by hydro-fracturing the reservoir with cold water pumped into the first well (the injection well) at a high pressure. The second well (the production well) intersects the stimulated fracture system and returns the hot water to the surface where electricity can be generated. A significant technological hurdle is ensuring effective connection between the wells and the fracture system and to control the deep-rooted fractures (can exceed 5 000 m depth). A large area for heat transfer and sufficient mass flow needs to be ensured between wells without creating fast flowing paths in the fracture network. Maintaining flow through the fracture system can cause considerable energy penalty to the overall process. Therefore, chemical methods to maintain fractures and prevent scaling can be necessary to prevent excessive pressure build up in the re-injection wells of EGS systems. The effect of different acid treatments on the porosity development of selected rock types was simulated with the aid of the Petrasim interface to the Toughreact simulation code. The thermodynamic and kinetic database of Aradottir et al. (2014) was expanded to include new minerals and the most important fluoride bearing species involved in mineral reactions during acid stimulation of geothermal systems. A series of simulations with injection waters containing fluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and CO2 or mixtures thereof were then carried out and porosity development in the fracture system monitored. The periodic injection of weak acid mixtures into EGS systems may be cost effective in some isolated cases to prevent pressure

  9. The influence of dry matter, applied heat treatment and storage period on the viscosity of stirred yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denin-Đurđević Jelena D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Skim milk powder reconstituted to 8.44% TS, 9.65% TS and 10.84% TS respectively was used for investigation. Untreated milk and milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min and 90ºC/10 min, respectively, were used for the investigation. Milk was inoculated with 2.5% of yogurt culture (containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the ratio 1:1 at 43ºC. Samples were incubated until pH 4.6 was reached. Samples were immediately cooled to 4ºC and held at that temperature during 14 days. Acid casein gel was stirred after 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. Measurements were done at 30 rpm during 2 min, at 20ºC. According to the investigation, it could be concluded that both applied heat treatment and dry matter content influence viscosity of stirred yogurt. Viscosity increases when dry matter content increases. The smallest viscosity had yogurt produced from untreated milk with 8.44% TS, while samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS had the highest viscosity. Applied heat treatments had significant influence on viscosity of yogurt gained by stirring of acid casein gels after 7 and 14 days of storage. Stirred yogurt produced from milk heat treated at 90ºC/10 min had a higher viscosity than samples produced from milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min. Storage period influenced average viscosity of stirred yogurt. Samples of stirred yogurt produced from milk with 8.44% TS showed a decrease of average viscosity during storage regardless of the applied heat treatment of milk. The highest average viscosity had samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS.

  10. Minoxidil topical treatment may be more efficient if applied on damp scalp in comparison with dry scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, T; Barbalho, G N; Gelfuso, G M; Gratieri, T

    2016-09-01

    There is yet no consensus among prescribers whether minoxidil (MXD) formulations should be applied on wet/damp or dry scalp and no clear FDA guidelines on the matter. We hypothesized that the use of MXD on damp scalp may lead to higher drug penetration. First, because the drug diffusion and consequent deposition into the hair follicle may be favored when follicle cast is humid. Second, because humidity may also prevent drug crystallization and, therefore, maintain a higher thermodynamic activity for longer periods, which leads to increased penetration. Following in vitro experiments on rat and porcine skin we confirmed the hypothesis, which could markedly improve treatment effectiveness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hydrothermal Treatment (HTT) of Microalgae: Evaluation of the Process As Conversion Method in an Algae Biorefinery Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, L.; Torri, C.; Samori, C.; Spek, van der J.J.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HTT) technology is evaluated for its potential as a process to convert algae and algal debris into a liquid fuel, within a sustainable algae biorefinery concept in which, next to fuels (gaseous and liquid), high value products are coproduced, nutrients and water are recyc

  12. Hydrothermal Treatment (HTT) of Microalgae: Evaluation of the Process As Conversion Method in an Algae Biorefinery Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Torri, C.; Samori, C.; van der Spek, J.J.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HTT) technology is evaluated for its potential as a process to convert algae and algal debris into a liquid fuel, within a sustainable algae biorefinery concept in which, next to fuels (gaseous and liquid), high value products are coproduced, nutrients and water are

  13. Treatment of near-skull brain tissue with a focused device using shear-mode conversion: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave. Rm C713 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-12-21

    Shear mode transmission through the skull has been previously proposed as a new trans-skull propagation technique for noninvasive therapeutic ultrasound (Clement 2004 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115 1356-64). The main advantage of choosing shear over longitudinal mode resides on the fact that there is less wavefront distortion with the former. In the present study, the regions of the brain suitable for shear-mode transmission were established for a simple focused ultrasound device. The device consists of a spherically curved transducer that has a focal length of 10 cm, an aperture between 30{sup 0} and 60{sup 0} and operates at 0.74 MHz. The regions suitable for shear-mode transmission were determined by the shear wave acoustic windows that matched the shape of the device acoustic field. The acoustic windows were calculated using segmentation and triangulation of outer and inner faces of skull from 3D-MRI head datasets. Nine heads of healthy adults were analyzed. The surface considered for the calculations was the head region found above the supra-orbital margin. For every inspected point in the brain volume, the axis of the device was determined by the vector between this inspection point and a point located in the center of the brain. Numerical predictions of the acoustic field, where shear-mode conversion through the skull was considered, were obtained and compared to the case of water-only conditions. The brain tissue that is close to the skull showed suitable acoustic windows for shear waves. The central region of the brain seems to be unreachable using shear-mode. Analysis of the acoustic fields showed a proportional relation between the acoustic window for shear mode and the effective degree of focusing. However, this relation showed significant differences among specimens. In general, highly focused fields were obtained when the acoustic window for shear waves (A{sub SW}) intersected more than 67% of the entering acoustic window (A{sub TX}) of the device. The

  14. Treatment of near-skull brain tissue with a focused device using shear-mode conversion: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2007-12-01

    Shear mode transmission through the skull has been previously proposed as a new trans-skull propagation technique for noninvasive therapeutic ultrasound (Clement 2004 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115 1356-64). The main advantage of choosing shear over longitudinal mode resides on the fact that there is less wavefront distortion with the former. In the present study, the regions of the brain suitable for shear-mode transmission were established for a simple focused ultrasound device. The device consists of a spherically curved transducer that has a focal length of 10 cm, an aperture between 30° and 60° and operates at 0.74 MHz. The regions suitable for shear-mode transmission were determined by the shear wave acoustic windows that matched the shape of the device acoustic field. The acoustic windows were calculated using segmentation and triangulation of outer and inner faces of skull from 3D-MRI head datasets. Nine heads of healthy adults were analyzed. The surface considered for the calculations was the head region found above the supra-orbital margin. For every inspected point in the brain volume, the axis of the device was determined by the vector between this inspection point and a point located in the center of the brain. Numerical predictions of the acoustic field, where shear-mode conversion through the skull was considered, were obtained and compared to the case of water-only conditions. The brain tissue that is close to the skull showed suitable acoustic windows for shear waves. The central region of the brain seems to be unreachable using shear-mode. Analysis of the acoustic fields showed a proportional relation between the acoustic window for shear mode and the effective degree of focusing. However, this relation showed significant differences among specimens. In general, highly focused fields were obtained when the acoustic window for shear waves (ASW) intersected more than 67% of the entering acoustic window (ATX) of the device. The average depth from the

  15. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  16. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  17. Conversion of activated-sludge reactors to microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment coupled to electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Tomoya; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-11-01

    Wastewater can be treated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with the aid of microbes that oxidize organic compounds using anodes as electron acceptors. Previous studies have suggested the utility of cassette-electrode (CE) MFCs for wastewater treatment, in which rice paddy-field soil was used as the inoculum. The present study attempted to convert an activated-sludge (AS) reactor to CE-MFC and use aerobic sludge in the tank as the source of microbes. We used laboratory-scale (1 L in capacity) reactors that were initially operated in an AS mode to treat synthetic wastewater, containing starch, yeast extract, peptone, plant oil, and detergents. After the organics removal became stable, the aeration was terminated, and CEs were inserted to initiate an MFC-mode operation. It was demonstrated that the MFC-mode operation treated the wastewater at similar efficiencies to those observed in the AS-mode operation with COD-removal efficiencies of 75-80%, maximum power densities of 150-200 mW m(-2) and Coulombic efficiencies of 20-30%. These values were similar to those of CE-MFC inoculated with the soil. Anode microbial communities were analyzed by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Comparative analyses revealed that anode communities enriched from the aerobic sludge were largely different from those from the soil, suggesting that similar reactor performances can be supported by different community structures. The study demonstrates that it is possible to construct wastewater-treatment MFCs by inserting CEs into water-treatment tanks.

  18. Improved enzymatic conversion of cellulose by ethylene treatment. Final report of innovative research program subtask, December 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, J C; Murphy, V G

    1978-10-01

    The stimulating effect of ethylene upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated to determine the mechanism of the stimulatory action. The mechanism was not determined; however, it was tentatively concluded that prolonged ethylene treatment unmasks the cellulose by dissolving contaminating materials such as lignin, hemicellulose, pectin, or ash. The presence of ethylene during the enzymatic hydrolysis appears to involve enzyme-substrate interactions in many cases. The evidence supports the opinion that a 20 to 40% improvement in the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose may be obtained by the use of ethylene in the enzyme reactor. (JSR)

  19. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  20. Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safaa M. Raghab; Ahmed M. Abd El Meguid; Hala A. Hegazi

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Borg El Arab landfill in Alexandria using an aerobic treatment process which was applied...

  1. Conversion to Paradoxical Finding on Technetium-99m-labeled RBC Scintigraphy after Treatment for Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung-Min; Song, Ho-Chun; Kim, Jahae; Choi, Soo Jin Na

    2013-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman reported that after exposure to cold temperatures her fingers appeared blue and her hands and feet felt cold. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) associated with peripheral vascular disease was suspected. Technetium (Tc)-99m-labeled RBC hand scintigraphy after cold change showed decreased blood pool activity in her fingers. The patient's symptoms improved after she received sarpogrelate HCL (200 mg/day) and nifedifine (40 mg/day). Follow-up scintigraphy performed 7 months after the patient started treatment showed paradoxically increased blood pool activity in her fingers after cold challenge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with secondary RP showing paradoxical change on scintigraphy after she received medication that improved her symptoms.

  2. Hydrothermal treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of Tamarix ramosissima: evaluation of the process as a conversion method in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-05-01

    The present work investigated the effects of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of Tamarix ramosissima by determination of sugar and inhibitor formation in the liquid fraction, and chemical and morphological changes of the pretreated solid material coupled with an evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis. HTT was carried out in a batch reactor system at a maximal temperature (TMAX 180-240 °C) and evaluated for severities logRo ranging from 2.40 to 4.17. The liquid fractions were analyzed by HPLC, GPC, and GC-MS. The morphology and composition of the solid residues were characterized using an array of techniques, such as SEM, XRD, BET surface area, and CP/MAS (13)C NMR. Using a variety of tools, we have developed a better understanding of how HTT process affects biomass structure and cellulose properties that impact on its digestibility. These results provided new insights into the factors limiting enzymatic digestibility and mechanism of biomass deconstruction during hydrothermal process. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of a modified version of the applied relaxation technique in treatment of perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saensak S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, KhonKaen University, KhonKaen, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Awareness of the risks associated with hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms has sparked a global decline in this treatment. Alternative treatments to relieve menopausal symptoms are therefore required. The applied relaxation (AR technique has proven to be successful for symptom amelioration, but requires participation in 12 weekly classes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation version (MR of AR for treatment of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. Methods: We conducted a12-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women visiting the menopausal clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to an MR or AR group. The MR group (n=36 received a single session of (MR training and the AR group (n=35 received conventional 12-week training. Participants were instructed to practice the techniques daily at home for 12 weeks. The main outcome was the measure on the severity scale and frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. Results: All participants completed the study. Total severity scores in both groups decreased after 12 weeks, but there was no difference between the groups (P=0.93. The severity score for hot flashes in the MR group decreased more than in the AR group (P=0.02. The severity scores for night sweats and sleep disturbances decreased in both groups. The frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and

  4. IVIG treatment of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: a randomised double-blinded exploratory study of the effect on brain atrophy, cognition and conversion to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, Shawn; Au, William; Parise, Carol; Rose, Kimberley; Donnel, Tammy; Hankins, Andrea; Chan, Matthew; Ghassemi, Azad

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on brain atrophy and cognitive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). 50 participant 50-84 years of age with amnestic MCI were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every 2 weeks for a total of 5 infusions (2 g/kg total dose) in a randomised double-blinded design. MRI brain was completed at baseline, 12  and 24 months. Cognitive testing was completed at baseline and every 4 months. Participants were stratified into early and late (LMCI) MCI stages. Average annualised per cent change in ventricular volume was computed as a measure of brain atrophy. There was significantly less brain atrophy (p=0.037, adjusted for MCI status) in the IVIG group (5.87%) when compared with placebo (8.14%) at 12 months; at 24 months, the reduction in brain atrophy no longer reached statistical significance. The LMCI participants who received IVIG performed better on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog; p=0.011) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; p=0.004) at 1 year; these differences were not present after 2 years. There was no difference in conversion to AD dementia between the treatment and control groups after 2 years; however, at 1 year, there were fewer conversions from LMCI to AD dementia in the IVIG group (33.3%) when compared with control group (58.3%). This exploratory study provides limited evidence that a short course of IVIG administered in the MCI stage of AD reduces brain atrophy, prevents cognitive decline in LMCI and delays conversion to AD dementia for at least 1 year; however, this effect of IVIG appears to wane by 2 years. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01300728. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Treatment of Sleep Deprivation-induced Circadian Rhythm Disorder by Applying Garlic Cream on Acupoint Shenque(CV 8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dong; SHI Na; ZHU Chong-tian; HUANG Yong; ZHU Zhong-chun

    2007-01-01

    To observe the regulative effect of applying garlic cream on acupoint Shenque (CV8) on circadian rhythm disorder induced by sleep deprivation.Methods:Twenty healthy adult men were randomly divided into normal group(group A),sleep deprivation group (group B) and treatment group (group C).Subjects in group B and C received 48-hour sleep deprivation,and in the meantime subjects in group C were treated by applying garlic cream on acupoint Shenque(CV8),while subjects in group A received no any treatment,then contents of serum noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were detected.Results:The contents of NA in three groups all appeared typical circadian rhythm(P<0.01 when group A is compared with group C,and P<0.05 when group A is compared with group B).The peak value in group A was 158.377 and appeared at 10:56,peak value in group B was 291.529 and appeared at 19:44,peak value in group C was 255.964 and appeared at 17:06.The peak phase in group B shifted more obviously when compared with group A,and the peak phase in group C recovered slightly when compared with group B.The contents of 5-HT in group A showed typical circadian rhythm (P<0.01) and the circadian rhythms in group B and C disappeared (P>0.05).the peak value in group A was 196.563 and appeared at about13:10.Conclusion:The application of garlic cream on acupoint Shenque (CV8) Can adjust the disturbed circadian rhythm and accelerate the recovery of circadian rhythm.It is a simple and effective therapeutic method for adjusting circadian rhythm disorder.

  6. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories “stress responses,” “protein metabolism” and “secondary metabolism,” highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to “transport,” “hormone” and “cell wall” might contribute to the

  7. Enhancing filterability of activated sludge from landfill leachate treatment plant by applying electrical field ineffective on bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Gulizar Kurtoglu; Sekman, Elif; Top, Selin; Sagir, Ece; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan; Guvenc, Senem Yazici

    2017-03-09

    The aim of this study is to investigate filterability enhancement of activated sludge supplied form a full-scale leachate treatment plant by applying DC electric field while keeping the biological operational conditions in desirable range. The activated sludge samples were received from the nitrification tank in the leachate treatment plant of Istanbul's Odayeri Sanitary Landfill Site. Experimental sets were conducted as laboratory-scale batch studies and were duplicated for 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A of electrical currents and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min of exposure times under continuous aeration. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, and oxidation reduction potential in the mixture right after each experimental set and biochemical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen in supernatant were analyzed to define the sets that remain in the range of ideal biological operational conditions. Later on, sludge filterability properties such as capillary suction time, specific resistance to filtration, zeta potential, and particle size were measured for remaining harmless sets. Additionally, cost analyses were conducted in respect to energy and electrode consumptions. Application of 2A DC electric field and 15-min exposure time was found to be the most favorable conditions to enhance filterability of the landfill leachate-activated sludge.

  8. Use of a device that applies external kneading-like force on the abdomen for treatment of constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Mimidis; David Galinsky; Efraim Rimon; Vassilios Papadopoulos; Yehuda Zicherman; Dimitrios Oreopoulos

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a recently developed device that applies kneading-like motion on the abdomen in improving constipation in elderly long-term care patients.METHODS: Thirty constipated elderly patients were randomly selected from two nursing homes. They were instructed to use the device once daily for 20 min. Rate of bowel movements, volume and consistency of stool and the use of laxantia were all recorded during a 3-wk baseline period and for 12-wk treatment period. Colonic transit time (CTT) was measured in 13 patients by radiopaque markers during the baseline and at the end of treatment.RESULTS: Bowel movement rate (BM/week) increased from 1.4±0.4 BM/wk during baseline to 3.9±0.8 BM/wk during treatment (P<5.0×10-7). Stool amount that was "low" in 30 patients during baseline increased in 21 patients at the end of the study period (χ2 = 19.048-P =1.3×10-5). Stool consistency, that was "hard" in 25 patients and "soft" in 5 patients during baseline, ameliorated in 23 patients at the end of the study (only 2 patients referred "hard" stool) (χ2= 21.043-P = 4.0×10-6). The mean baseline CTT measured was 92.3±32.3 h at baseline and decreased to 49.4±31.3 h during the study period (P = 0.000208). No side effects were observed during the study period.CONCLUSION: External mechanical vibration of the abdomen reduced CTT and helped to relieve severe constipation in elderly constipated patients.

  9. Effectiveness of a modified version of the applied relaxation technique in treatment of perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saensak, Suprawita; Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Somboonporn, Woraluk; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2013-01-01

    Awareness of the risks associated with hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms has sparked a global decline in this treatment. Alternative treatments to relieve menopausal symptoms are therefore required. The applied relaxation (AR) technique has proven to be successful for symptom amelioration, but requires participation in 12 weekly classes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation version (MR) of AR for treatment of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. We conducted a12-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women visiting the menopausal clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to an MR or AR group. The MR group (n=36) received a single session of (MR) training and the AR group (n=35) received conventional 12-week training. Participants were instructed to practice the techniques daily at home for 12 weeks. The main outcome was the measure on the severity scale and frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances. All participants completed the study. Total severity scores in both groups decreased after 12 weeks, but there was no difference between the groups (P=0.93). The severity score for hot flashes in the MR group decreased more than in the AR group (P=0.02). The severity scores for night sweats and sleep disturbances decreased in both groups. The frequency of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances were also decreased in both groups. A shorter, modified version of the AR was equally effective or slightly better than the conventional AR for the relief of hot flashes, night sweats, and sleep disturbances in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Recommendations for future research include confirmatory studies and trials with larger samples.

  10. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Messina; Anna Maria Fogliani

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  11. AZ91镁合金表面铈盐-硅烷转化膜对比处理研究%Comparison of Surface Treatment of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy with Cerium and Silane Conversion Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈言坤; 鲁彦玲; 郭毅; 杜仕国

    2011-01-01

    With different immersion treatment, four kinds of conversion coatings including pure cerium conversion, KH560 silane conversion, cerium - silane conversion and silane - cerium conversion coatings were prepared. The corrosion resistance of four kinds of conversion coatings were studied and compared by use of IR, SEM, EDS, Tafel and EIS. The results showed that there were no interaction between cerium coating and silane coating, and they could form conversion coating independently. The cerium - silane conversion coating and silane - cerium coating showed better corrosion resistance than pure cerium coating and silane coating did. The reason of difference between cerium coating and silane coating needed to be studied further.%利用不同的浸泡处理,制备了单纯铈盐转化膜、KH560硅烷转化膜、铈盐硅烷转化膜和硅烷铈盐4种转化膜,结合FT-IR、SEM、EDS、Tafel、EIS等分析手段,对比考察了4种转化膜对镁合金耐腐蚀能力的情况,结果表明:铈盐转化膜和硅烷转化膜之间没有相互影响,均具有独立成膜的能力;铈盐硅烷转化膜和硅烷铈盐转化膜比单纯的铈盐转化膜和单纯的硅烷转化膜具有更好的耐腐蚀能力;铈盐硅烷转化膜和硅烷铈盐转化膜耐腐蚀能力的差别和原因,尚需要进一步的试验研究.

  12. Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Delbès, Céline; Rogelj, Irena; Bogovic-Matijasić, Bojana; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-04-01

    The microbiological quality, safety, and composition of mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk (90:10) used for cheesemaking were evaluated before and after thermization at 60 and 67 degrees C for 30 s. Such mild thermal treatments are commonly applied to reduce natural contaminants of raw milk before processing for traditional hard Greek cheeses. Raw milk samples had an average total bacterial count of 7.3 log CFU/ml; most of these bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pseudomonads. The LAB flora of raw milk was dominated by enterococci (40.8%), followed by lactococci (20.4%), leuconostocs (18.4%), and mesophilic lactobacilli (10.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (30.1%) and Enterococcus faecium (13.7%) were the most common LAB isolates, followed by Enterococcus durans, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc lactis. Thermization at 60 degrees C for 30 s was effective for reducing raw milk contamination by enterobacteria (5.1 log CFU/ml), coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.3 log CFU/ml), and Listeria (present in 25-ml samples) to safe levels, but it also reduced mesophilic lactococci, leuconostocs, lactobacilli, and selected enterococci (72.0%) in thermized milk. Thermization at 67 degrees C for 30 s had a major inactivation effect on all bacterial groups. Two nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis strains (M78 and M104) were isolated from raw milk, but neither nisin-producing nor other bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were isolated from thermized milk. Thus, thermization treatments control harmful bacteria but also may have a negative impact on milk quality by reducing desirable LAB and the biodiversity of raw milk bacteria overall, inactivating potentially protective LAB strains and enhancing the ability of potentially pathogenic enterococci to grow in fresh cheese curds.

  13. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  14. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C10H8) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  15. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anis, Samsudin, E-mail: samsudin-anis@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kampus Sekaran, Gunungpati, 50229 Semarang, 8508101 (Indonesia); Zainal, Z. A., E-mail: mezainal@usm.my [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-06-03

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  16. Correcting mortality for loss to follow-up: a nomogram applied to antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates that in sub-Saharan Africa about 4 million HIV-infected patients had started antiretroviral therapy (ART by the end of 2008. Loss of patients to follow-up and care is an important problem for treatment programmes in this region. As mortality is high in these patients compared to patients remaining in care, ART programmes with high rates of loss to follow-up may substantially underestimate mortality of all patients starting ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a nomogram to correct mortality estimates for loss to follow-up, based on the fact that mortality of all patients starting ART in a treatment programme is a weighted average of mortality among patients lost to follow-up and patients remaining in care. The nomogram gives a correction factor based on the percentage of patients lost to follow-up at a given point in time, and the estimated ratio of mortality between patients lost and not lost to follow-up. The mortality observed among patients retained in care is then multiplied by the correction factor to obtain an estimate of programme-level mortality that takes all deaths into account. A web calculator directly calculates the corrected, programme-level mortality with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. We applied the method to 11 ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients retained in care had a mortality at 1 year of 1.4% to 12.0%; loss to follow-up ranged from 2.8% to 28.7%; and the correction factor from 1.2 to 8.0. The absolute difference between uncorrected and corrected mortality at 1 year ranged from 1.6% to 9.8%, and was above 5% in four programmes. The largest difference in mortality was in a programme with 28.7% of patients lost to follow-up at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of bias in mortality estimates can be large in ART programmes with substantial loss to follow-up. Programmes should routinely report mortality among patients retained in care and the proportion of patients

  17. Applying data mining techniques for increasing implantation rate by selecting best sperms for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirroshandel, Seyed Abolghasem; Ghasemian, Fatemeh; Monji-Azad, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Aspiration of a good-quality sperm during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one of the main concerns. Understanding the influence of individual sperm morphology on fertilization, embryo quality, and pregnancy probability is one of the most important subjects in male factor infertility. Embryologists need to decide the best sperm for injection in real time during ICSI cycle. Our objective is to predict the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome before injection of each sperm in an ICSI cycle for male factor infertility with the aim of providing a decision support system on the sperm selection. The information was collected from 219 patients with male factor infertility at the infertility therapy center of Alzahra hospital in Rasht from 2012 through 2014. The prepared dataset included the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome of 1544 injected sperms into the related oocytes. In our study, embryo transfer was performed at day 3. Each sperm was represented with thirteen clinical features. Data preprocessing was the first step in the proposed data mining algorithm. After applying more than 30 classifiers, 9 successful classifiers were selected and evaluated by 10-fold cross validation technique using precision, recall, F1, and AUC measures. Another important experiment was measuring the effect of each feature in prediction process. In zygote and embryo quality prediction, IBK and RandomCommittee models provided 79.2% and 83.8% F1, respectively. In implantation outcome prediction, KStar model achieved 95.9% F1, which is even better than prediction of human experts. All these predictions can be done in real time. A machine learning-based decision support system would be helpful in sperm selection phase of ICSI cycle to improve the success rate of ICSI treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on the Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Phosphoric Conversion Coatings on AZ31 Magnesium by Applying Magnetic Field%外加磁场下AZ31镁合金磷化膜结构及耐蚀性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亮; 赵明; 高福勇

    2011-01-01

    为了获得优良的AZ31镁合金磷化膜,采用外加磁场作用于镁合金的磷化过程.利用SEM,AFM,XRD和电化学工作站等仪器,研究转化膜的表面形貌、结构及耐蚀性.研究结果表明:磁场方向垂直于镁合金样品情况下显著促进AZ31镁合金转化膜的形成,转化膜主要由晶态Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O与A1PO4和非晶态Mn化合物组成,外加磁场作用于磷化过程能获得高耐蚀性的致密转化膜.%In order to obtain excellent phosphate conversion coatings on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy, a novel phosphate process for magnesium alloy by applying magnetic field was developed. The surface morphology, structure and corrosion resistance of conversion coating were studied by SEM, AFM, XRD and Electrochemistry workstation. The results show conversion coatings of AZ31 magnesium alloy can be further formed when the direction of magnetic field is vertical to the surface of magnesium alloy. Conversion coatings are mainly made up of crystal Zn3(PO4)2 ? 4H2O and AlPO4 and non-crystal Mn compounds. We can obtain the dense conversion coatings by applying magnetic fields in the phosphate process.

  19. AnSBBR applied to the treatment of metalworking fluid wastewater: effect of organic and shock load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhinha, Pedro P; Flôres, Anderson; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-11-01

    An investigation was performed regarding the application of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor containing immobilized biomass on inert polyurethane foam (AnSBBR) to the treatment of soluble metalworking fluids to remove organic matter and produce methane. The effect of increasing organic matter and reactor fill time, as well as shock load, on reactor stability and efficiency have been analyzed. The 5-L AnSBBR was operated at 30 degrees C in 8-h cycles, agitation of 400 rpm, and treated 2.0 L effluent per cycle. Organic matter was increased by increasing the influent concentration (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Fill times investigated were in the batch mode (fill time 10 min) and fed-batch followed by batch (fill time 4 h). In the batch mode, organic matter removal efficiencies were 87%, 86%, and 80% for influent concentrations of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mgCOD/L (1.50, 3.12, and 6.08 gCOD/L.d), respectively. At 3,000 mgCOD/L (9.38 gCOD/L.d), operational stability could not be achieved. The reactor managed to maintain stability when a shock load twice as high the feed concentration was applied, evidencing the robustness of the reactor to potential concentration variations in the wastewater being treated. Increasing the fill time to 4 h did not improve removal efficiency, which was 72% for 2,000 mgCOD/L. Thus, gradual feeding did not improve organic matter removal. The concentration of methane formed at 6.08 gCOD/L was 5.20 mmolCH(4), which corresponded to 78% of the biogas composition. The behavior of the reactor during batch and fed-batch feeding could be explained by a kinetic model that considers organic matter consumption, production, and consumption of total volatile acids and methane production.

  20. Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK™. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK™ and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria

  1. Evaluation of consolidating and water repellent treatments applied to the miocene sandstone used in Tunisian Heritage Monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoghlami, K.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary The research reported in the present paper focused on the behaviour of the Miocene sandstone used to build the Roman aqueduct at Zaghouan-Carthage and other Tunisian Heritage monuments, after application of water repellent and consolidating treatments as a preliminary to restoration. Commercial consolidants and water repellents were used in the experiments: two ethyl silicate consolidants, Tegovakon (TV and Keim-Silex OH (KSOH; two (siloxane water repellents, Tegosivin THE 328 (THE and Tegosivin HLJ00 (THE; and a dual (consolidate and water repellent action substance, Keim- Silex H (KSH (silicate acid ester base with siloxane. A mixed treatment consisting of successive coats of TV and THL (TVHL was also applied. These organosilicate consolidants and water repellents acted on the porous structure of the sandstone, reducing total porosity and water vapour permeability. The water repellent THE was found to affect these properties least, with a pore size distribution that resembled the distribution in the untreated sandstone most closely. Water repellents diminish water absorption and consolidants increase mechanical strength. The TV-THL mix, which yielded results similar to those obtained with water repellents alone, was unable to prevent the substantial scaling that occurs during (RILEM salt crystallisation-induced artificial ageing. The best results were found with the dual action consolidant! water repellent product (KSH, which improved the mechanical properties while affording protection from the decay caused by salts in artificial ageing trials. This substance was found to reduce water vapour permeability, however

    Esta investigación se centra en la evaluación del comportamiento de la arenisca miocénica utilizada en el acueducto de Zaghouan-Cartago y otros monumentos del Patrimonio Monumental de Túnez tras la aplicación de tratamientos de hidrofugación y de consolidación. Para los tratamientos se han seleccionado productos

  2. Effectiveness of ultrasound treatment applied with exercise therapy on patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şilte Karamanlioğlu, Duygu; Aktas, Ilknur; Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Kaysin, Meryem; Girgin, Nuray

    2016-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate effectiveness of ultrasound treatment applied with exercise therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Fifty-two patients, who were diagnosed according to modified New York criteria, were aged 25-60, and have spine pain, were randomly assigned to two groups. Ultrasound (US) and exercise therapy were applied to treatment group (27); placebo US treatment and exercise therapy were applied to control group (25). Patients were evaluated before treatment, at the end of treatment, and 4 weeks after the treatment. Daily and night pain, morning stiffness, patient global assessment (PGA), doctor global assessment (DGA), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL) questionnaire, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and ASDAS C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as clinical parameters. In US group, all parameters showed significant improvements at 2 and 6 weeks, in comparison with the baseline. In placebo US group, significant improvement was obtained for all parameters (except tragus-to-wall distance and modified Schober test at 2 weeks and lumbar side flexion and modified Schober test at 6 weeks). Comparison of the groups showed significantly superior results of US group for parameters of BASMI (p exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  3. APPLYING LCC METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INVESTMENT OF PROJECTS OF THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Hurynovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is referring to the current problems of the evaluation of the effectiveness of an investment of new plans and of the modernization of existing sewage treatment plants including aspects of the optimization of costs of the sewage treatment. He shows the modernization of the sewage treatment plant the Evaluation of the life cycle as the adequate tool assisting choice of the best variant or the level. He is presenting characteristics of LCС methodology and examples of using to the technology assessment the sewage treatment.

  4. The Evolution of Fungicide Resistance Resulting from Combinations of Foliar-Acting Systemic Seed Treatments and Foliar-Applied Fungicides: A Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, James L; van den Bosch, Frank; Paveley, Neil D; Helps, Joseph; van den Berg, Femke

    2016-01-01

    For the treatment of foliar diseases of cereals, fungicides may be applied as foliar sprays or systemic seed treatments which are translocated to leaves. Little research has been done to assess the resistance risks associated with foliar-acting systemic seed treatments when used alone or in combination with foliar sprays, even though both types of treatment may share the same mode of action. It is therefore unknown to what extent adding a systemic seed treatment to a foliar spray programme poses an additional resistance risk and whether in the presence of a seed treatment additional resistance management strategies (such as limiting the total number of treatments) are necessary to limit the evolution of fungicide-resistance. A mathematical model was developed to simulate an epidemic and the resistance evolution of Zymoseptoria tritici on winter wheat, which was used to compare different combinations of seed and foliar treatments by calculating the fungicide effective life, i.e. the number of years before effective disease control is lost to resistance. A range of parameterizations for the seed treatment fungicide and different fungicide uptake models were compared. Despite the different parameterizations, the model consistently predicted the same trends in that i) similar levels of efficacy delivered either by a foliar-acting seed treatment, or a foliar application, resulted in broadly similar resistance selection, ii) adding a foliar-acting seed treatment to a foliar spray programme increased resistance selection and usually decreased effective life, and iii) splitting a given total dose-by adding a seed treatment to foliar treatments, but decreasing dose per treatment-gave effective lives that were the same as, or shorter than those given by the spray programme alone. For our chosen plant-pathogen-fungicide system, the model results suggest that to effectively manage selection for fungicide-resistance, foliar acting systemic seed treatments should be included as

  5. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  6. Model-based evaluation on the conversion ratio of ammonium to nitrite in a nitritation process for ammonium-rich wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ming; YANG Qi; ZENG Guang-ming; A. Cornelius; K. H. Rosenwinkel; S. Kunst; D. Weichgrebe

    2004-01-01

    Modeling for nitritation process was discussed and analyzed quantlitatively for the factors that influence nitrite accumulation. The results indicated that pH, inorganic carbon source and Hydraulic Retention Time(HRT) as well as biomass concentration are the main factors that influenced the conversion ratio of ammonium to nitrite. A constant high pH can lead to a high nitritation rate and results in high conversion ratio on condition that free ammonia inhibition do not happen. In a CSTR system, without pH control, this conversion ratio can be monitored by pH variation in the reactor. The pH goes down far from the inlet level means a strongly nitrite accumulation. High concentration of alkalinity can promoted the conversion ratio by means of accelerating the nitritation rate through providing sufficient inorganic carbon source(carbon dioxide). When inorganic carbon source was depleted, the nitritation process stopped. HRT adjustment could be an efficient way to make the nitritation system run more flexible, which to some extent can meet the requirements of the fluctuant of inlet parameters such as ammonium concentration, pH, and temperature and so on. Biomass concentration is the key point, especially for a CSTR system in steady state, which was normally circumscribed by the characteristics of bacteria and may also affected by aeration mode and can be increased by prolonging the HRT on the condition of no nitrate accumulation when no recirculation available. The higher the biomass concentration is, the better the nitrite accumulation can be obtained.

  7. Enhanced catalytic performance of zeolite ZSM-5 for conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether by combining alkaline treatment and partial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Ying; de Jongh, Petra E.; Bonati, Matteo L. M.; Law, David J.; Sunley, Glenn J.; de Jong, Krijn P.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite ZSM-5 (MFI) due to its excellent hydrothermal stability and high catalytic activity for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (MID) has been considered for use in combination with a methanol synthesis catalyst, such as Cu/ZnO/Al2O3, in the conversion of syngas to dimethyl ether. However, th

  8. Enhanced catalytic performance of zeolite ZSM-5 for conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether by combining alkaline treatment and partial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Ying; de Jongh, Petra E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; Bonati, Matteo L. M.; Law, David J.; Sunley, Glenn J.; de Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite ZSM-5 (MFI) due to its excellent hydrothermal stability and high catalytic activity for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (MID) has been considered for use in combination with a methanol synthesis catalyst, such as Cu/ZnO/Al2O3, in the conversion of syngas to dimethyl ether. However,

  9. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  10. Photo-Fenton processes assisted by solar light used as preliminary step to biological treatment applied to winery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, R; Ormad, M P; Ovelleiro, J L

    2007-01-01

    Winery wastewaters are difficult to treat by conventional biological processes, because they are seasonal and experience substantial flow variations. Photocatalytic advanced oxidation is a promising technology for wastewaters containing high amounts of organic matter. In this research work, solar assisted photo-Fenton processes of both heterogeneous and homogeneous phase are used in the pre-treatment of winery wastewaters. The results of these experiments have confirmed the suitability of the photo-Fenton processes, due to these treatments achieving purification levels of up to 50% (measured as total organic carbon). The intermediate effluents are treated adequately by aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge process), due to the decrease in organic matter concentration present in winery wastewaters. The possibility of a combined photo-Fenton process, based on the use of sunlight, and aerobic biological treatment (activated sludge) is suggested.

  11. Investigations of efficacy of intramammary applied antimicrobials and glucocorticosteroides in the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in cows. The investigations indicate that antibiotic preparation A (neomycin, polimixine B, oleandomycin and prednisolone exhibited a greater efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus sp., but a smaller efficacy in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation B (amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone exhibited a higher efficacy in the treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Micrococcus, but a weaker effect in the treatment of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Preparation C (procaine penicillin G, streptomycin, neomycin sulfate and prednisolone acetate exihibited efficacy in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Esherichie coli. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molekularno-genetička i ekofiziološka istraživanja u zaštiti autohtonih animalnih genetičkih resursa, očuvanju dobrobiti, zdravlja i reprodukcije gajenih životinja i proizvodnji bezbedne hrane

  12. Treatment of atrophic scars with fractionated CO2 laser facilitating delivery of topically applied poly-L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rkein, Ali; Ozog, David; Waibel, Jill S

    2014-06-01

    Atrophic scars represent a loss of collagen and a challenging reconstructive dilemma with disappointing traditional treatments. To study the safety and efficacy of the treatment of atrophic scars using an ablative fractionated CO2 laser and topical poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) immediately after to improve atrophic scars. This was an uncontrolled, institutional review board-approved, prospective study evaluating the treatment of atrophic scars. Four blinded dermatologists evaluated a total of 20 photographs taken at baseline and 3 months after the laser and PLLA treatments using the Modified Manchester Scar Scale. Four criteria were evaluated: (1) overall improvement, (2) improvement in scar atrophy, (3) improvement in scar color/dyschromia mismatch, and (4) improvement in scar contour. All 4 observers accurately identified 76 of the 80 "before" and "after" photographs. Therefore, the blinded evaluating physicians agreed that at the 3-month follow-up visit, 95% of the scars had improved. Each criterion demonstrated an average improvement of at least 33%. The combination of using an ablative fractional CO2 laser and PLLA in the treatment of atrophic scars has a synergistic effect on their inherent properties in up-regulating new collagen synthesis to improve atrophic scars.

  13. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  14. 内燃法热处理的卧式应用%The Internal Combustion Heat Treatment Applied in Horizontal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武爱兵

    2015-01-01

    内燃法热处理是以轻质柴油为燃料,以容器壳体为炉膛,通过雾化燃烧释放热量对容器进行热处理的一种工艺.本文对卧式状态进行内燃法热处理的内部导流结构、防变形装置等的要求进行了详细阐述.%The internal combustion heat treatment is a craft, which based on light diesel fuel, vessel as the furnace, through the atomization combustion heat release to heat treatment. This paper details the internal setting diversion structure, prevent deformation, in horizontal state of the internal combustion heat treatment method.

  15. A review of segmentation and deformable registration methods applied to adaptive cervical cancer radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Holloway, Lois; Lim, Karen; Chan, Philip; Veera, Jacqueline; Vinod, Shalini K; Liney, Gary; Greer, Peter B; Dowling, Jason

    2015-06-01

    Manual contouring and registration for radiotherapy treatment planning and online adaptation for cervical cancer radiation therapy in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) are often necessary. However manual intervention is time consuming and may suffer from inter or intra-rater variability. In recent years a number of computer-guided automatic or semi-automatic segmentation and registration methods have been proposed. Segmentation and registration in CT and MRI for this purpose is a challenging task due to soft tissue deformation, inter-patient shape and appearance variation and anatomical changes over the course of treatment. The objective of this work is to provide a state-of-the-art review of computer-aided methods developed for adaptive treatment planning and radiation therapy planning for cervical cancer radiation therapy. Segmentation and registration methods published with the goal of cervical cancer treatment planning and adaptation have been identified from the literature (PubMed and Google Scholar). A comprehensive description of each method is provided. Similarities and differences of these methods are highlighted and the strengths and weaknesses of these methods are discussed. A discussion about choice of an appropriate method for a given modality is provided. In the reviewed papers a Dice similarity coefficient of around 0.85 along with mean absolute surface distance of 2-4mm for the clinically treated volume were reported for transfer of contours from planning day to the treatment day. Most segmentation and non-rigid registration methods have been primarily designed for adaptive re-planning for the transfer of contours from planning day to the treatment day. The use of shape priors significantly improved segmentation and registration accuracy compared to other models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  17. The role of electron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain and for radiosynovectomy: applications of conversion electron emitter Tin-117m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh C. Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of radionuclides continue to be investigated and/or clinically used for different therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. The choice of a particular radionuclide with regard to appropriate emissions, linear energy transfer (LET, and physical half-life, etc., is dictated to a large extent by the character of the disease (e.g., solid tumor or metastatic disease, and by the carrier to selectively transport the radionuclide to the desired site. An impressive body of information has appeared in the recent literature that addresses many of these considerations. This article summarizes and discusses the role of high-LET electron emitters and their advantage in the treatment of cancer or for other disorders in specific situations. Areas such as bone pain palliation, bone malignancy therapy, and radiation synovectomy are covered in greater detail. Projections are made as to the future directions and progress in these areas. A discussion of the various issues related to the selection criteria that are useful for choosing the appropriate radionuclide for a particular application is included. Use of high-LET electron emitters is discussed in greater detail, with particular emphasis on the use of conversion electron emitter tin-117m for various therapeutic applications.Uma variedade de radionuclídeos continua a ser investigada e/ou clinicamente utilizada para diferentes aplicações terapêuticas em medicina nuclear. A escolha de um radionuclídeo, considerando-se sua emissão apropriada, transferência linear de energia (LET e meia-vida física é determinada na maior parte pelo caráter da doença (p.ex., tumor sólido ou doença metastática, e pelo carreador que transporta o radionuclídeo seletivamente para o sítio desejado. Um notável conjunto de informações voltadas para essas considerações tem aparecido na literatura recente. Esse trabalho resume e discute o papel de emissores de elétrons de alta-LET e sua vantagem no

  18. A Preliminary Study in Applying the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model in Consultation to Increase Treatment Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Candace J.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated the use of the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model (Decision Model; Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, & Lane, 2007) to improve teacher treatment integrity for a function-based classroom management plan. The participants were a special education teacher and three elementary-age students receiving special…

  19. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of this part) may be reclassified as a rural... (MSA) as determined under the most recent version of the Goldsmith Modification, the Rural-Urban... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban...

  20. Microradiography and confocal laser scanning microscopy applied to enamel lesions formed in vivo with and without fluoride varnish treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogaard, B; Duschner, H; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    The aim of the present investigation was to combine 2 techniques suitable for lesion characterization: quantitative microradiography (TMR) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on in vivo induced lesions with and without a fluoride varnish (Duraphat(R)) treatment. Orthodontic bands were

  1. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  2. Effect of application rates and media types on nitrogen and surfactant removal in trickling filters applied to the post-treatment of effluents from UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P. G. S. de; Taveres, F. v. F.; Chernicharo, C. A. I.

    2009-07-01

    Tricking filters are a very promising alternative for the post treatment of effluents from UASB reactors treating domestic sewage,especially in developing countries. Although a fair amount of information is already available regarding organic mater removal in this combined system, very little is known in relation to nitrogen and surfactant removal in trickling filters post-UASB reactors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect evaluate and compare the effect of different application rates and packing media types on trickling filters applied to the post-treatment of effluents from UASB reactors, regarding the removal of ammonia nitrogen and surfactants. (Author)

  3. Applying the polarity rapid assessment method to characterize nitrosamine precursors and to understand their removal by drinking water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Bei, Er; Li, Shixiang; Ouyang, Yueying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, I H Mel

    2015-12-15

    Some N-nitrosamines (NAs) have been identified as emerging disinfection by-products during water treatment. Thus, it is essential to understand the characteristics of the NA precursors. In this study, the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and the classical resin fractionation method were studied as methods to fractionate the NA precursors during drinking water treatment. The results showed that PRAM has much higher selectivity for NA precursors than the resin approach. The normalized N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA FP) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) FP of four resin fractions was at the same level as the average yield of the bulk organic matter whereas that of the cationic fraction by PRAM showed 50 times the average. Thus, the cationic fraction was shown to be the most important NDMA precursor contributor. The PRAM method also helped understand which portions of the NA precursor were removed by different water treatment processes. Activated carbon (AC) adsorption removed over 90% of the non-polar PRAM fraction (that sorbs onto the C18 solid phase extraction [SPE] cartridge) of NDMA and NDEA precursors. Bio-treatment removed 80-90% of the cationic fraction of PRAM (that is retained on the cation exchange SPE cartridge) and 40-60% of the non-cationic fractions. Ozonation removed 50-60% of the non-polar PRAM fraction of NA precursors and transformed part of them into the polar fraction. Coagulation and sedimentation had very limited removal of various PRAM fractions of NA precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NGL data conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  5. 用Visual C++实现旧代码向Windows应用转换的几种方法%Achieving the Conversion from Old Codes to Applying Process of Windows with Visual C++

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丹林; 王飞; 范翠香

    2001-01-01

    Visual C++是目前对Windows进行应用程序开发的最好工具,在软件工程开发中得到了越来越广泛的应用。从其它开发环境转到Visual C++开发环境,会存在原有应用程序向Windows应用转换的问题,本文主要介绍在Visual C++中实现这种转换的几种方法。%Today Visual C++ is the best tool in the development of applying process of windows. It has been wildly used in the development of software engineering. When turning to the development environment of Visual C++ from other development environments, there should be problems of changing the old applying process to the applying process of windows. This paper mainly introduces some methods of achieving the change with Visual C++.

  6. Quality of life assessment by applying EORTC questionnaires to rectal cancer patients after surgery and neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Arraras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality of Life (QoL is a key element in rectal cancer (RC patients. Aims: this study assesses QoL in a sample of RC patients in their treatment follow-up period, and compares surgery modalities. Patients and methods: eighty four locally advanced RC patients who had received surgery and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy were included in the study. Of these, 70 had adjuvant chemotherapy. All patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-CR29 once at least one year after completion of their treatment. Low anterior resection (LAR patients also completed a Functional Evaluation questionnaire. Results: QoL scores in the EORTC questionnaires for the sample as a whole were high in most dimensions, in line with the general population's QoL values, although moderate limitations (> 30 points were observed in urinary frequency, flatulence, impotence and sexual function. The scores for the Functional Evaluation were adequate (mean combined bowel function score of 18.2. LAR patients had a higher stool frequency than those with abdominoperineal resection (APR; p < 0.001. No differences in body image were found amongst LAR and APR patients. LAR patients with a lower anastomosis had higher faecal incontinence (p = 0.02, whereas those with a reservoir had better emotional functioning (p = 0.04 and higher faecal incontinence (p = 0.03. Conclusions: QoL scores and functional evaluation indicated patients had adapted to their disease and treatment. The few differences in QoL found between surgery modalities are in line with other recent studies and in contrast with earlier ones that suggested a lower QoL in APR patients.

  7. The Results of Applying Chondroprotectors in the Integrated Rehabilitation Treatment of Athletes with Post-Traumatic Patellar Chondropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya V. Kapustina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the effect of chondroitin sulfate on the course of post-traumatic patellar chondropathy in 60 athletes. It has been established that the application of chondroprotective therapy in the integrated rehabilitation treatment of athletes with post-traumatic chondropathy reduces the pain syndrome and improves the functional condition of knee joints and facilitates boosting one’s sports activity and improving one’s quality of life, based on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS questionnaire data.

  8. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  9. New cleaning strategies based on carbon nanomaterials applied to the deteriorated marble surfaces: A comparative study with enzyme based treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Federica, E-mail: federica.valentini@uniroma2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Diamanti, Alessia; Carbone, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Bauer, E.M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISM-CNR), RM 1, Via Salaria km 29.3, 00015 Monterotondo (Italy); Palleschi, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Pentelic marbles from Basilica Neptuni in Rome-Italy (27-25 B.C.) show the signs of deterioration phenomena, which can be identified as black crust as well as black and grey patina. The present study has the twofold objective of assessing the entity of the deterioration and proposing new cleaning strategies based on nanotechnologies. The former is achieved by performing optical microscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC), stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The second objective of this study, involves different treatments based on a new cleaning strategy with carbon nanomaterials and bio-cleaning (used here for comparison) performed with enzymes, as glucose oxidase (GOD) and lipase. Nanomicelles assembled with functionalised carbon nano-fibres (CNF-COOH) and dispersed in Tween 20 medium show the highest cleaning performances in terms of removal of the black crust, compared with the pristine single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and the enzyme-based cleaning treatments. In particular, in these last two cases, the GOD-based biocleaning is efficient in removing the grey and dark patina, but works slow on the black crust. Finally, the lipase based cleaning approach is efficient in the black patina removal, though at the working temperature of 38 Degree-Sign C.

  10. A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, N; Kuroda, T

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  11. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  12. The effect on CdS/CdTe solar cell conversion efficiency of the presence of fluorine in the usual CdCl2 treatment of CdTe

    OpenAIRE

    O. K. Echendu; Dharmadasa, I

    2015-01-01

    The addition of CdF2 to the CdCl2 solution used in the well-known CdCl2 treatment of CdS/CdTe solar cells has been observed to drastically improve the conversion efficiency of fully fabricated CdS/CdTe solar cells. The observed improvement is as a result of further enhancement of structural and optoelectronic properties of the CdCl2+CdF2-treated CdTe layers compared to the CdCl2-treated CdTe layers. A set of CdS/CdTe samples were grown by electrochemical deposition under different conditions ...

  13. A comparison of a modified sequential oral sensory approach to an applied behavior-analytic approach in the treatment of food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Volkert, Valerie M

    2016-09-01

    Treatments of pediatric feeding disorders based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have the most empirical support in the research literature (Volkert & Piazza, 2012); however, professionals often recommend, and caregivers often use, treatments that have limited empirical support. In the current investigation, we compared a modified sequential oral sensory approach (M-SOS; Benson, Parke, Gannon, & Muñoz, 2013) to an ABA approach for the treatment of the food selectivity of 6 children with autism. We randomly assigned 3 children to ABA and 3 children to M-SOS and compared the effects of treatment in a multiple baseline design across novel, healthy target foods. We used a multielement design to assess treatment generalization. Consumption of target foods increased for children who received ABA, but not for children who received M-SOS. We subsequently implemented ABA with the children for whom M-SOS was not effective and observed a potential treatment generalization effect during ABA when M-SOS preceded ABA.

  14. Optimizing optical Bragg scattering for single-photon frequency conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lefrancois, Simon; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    We develop a systematic theory for optimising single-photon frequency conversion using optical Bragg scattering. The efficiency and phase-matching conditions for the desired Bragg scattering conversion as well as spurious scattering and modulation instability are identified. We find that third-order dispersion can suppress unwanted processes, while dispersion above the fourth order limits the maximum conversion efficiency. We apply the optimisation conditions to frequency conversion in highly nonlinear fiber, silicon nitride waveguides and silicon nanowires. Efficient conversion is confirmed using full numerical simulations. These design rules will assist the development of efficient quantum frequency conversion between multicolour single photon sources for integration in complex quantum networks.

  15. The influence of applied heat-treatment on in 718 fatigue life at three point flexural bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inconel alloy 718 is an iron-nickel based superalloy with a working temperature up to 650 °C. Presented phases such as γ'' (Ni3Nb, γ' (Ni3Al, and δ (delta – Ni3Nb are responsible for the alloy's unique properties. The δ – delta phase is profitable when situated at grain boundaries in small quantities due to increasing fatigue life. However, at temperatures close to 650 °C the γ'' transforms to δ – delta and causes a decrease in fatigue life. Heat-treatment (800°C/ for 72 hours and its influence on fatigue life are discussed in this paper. Fatigue tests were carried out at room temperature. After the tests we plotted the S-N curves for both stages. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy fractography was carried out as well.

  16. Methods applied in determining the variations of strength and srtucture of plutonic rock material exposed to artificial weathering treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihalainen, P.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the most significant factors determining the weathering of natural rock material proved to be the water saturation of the samples and the chemical composition of the pore water. The action of hydrolysis caused by the acidity of the pore water, combined with repeated freezing and thawing in 100% relative humidity proved to be the most significant factor in the alteration of the strength and structure of the studied material, the Inari anorthosite. The action of these methods disintegrated the rock material more than any other weathering treatment or any other combination of the treatments used in this study. The changes in the strength of the rock material were most reliably illustrated by the changes in tensile strength, measured by the changes in the modulus of rupture and the point load index. In several cases the standard deviations of the results exceeded the absolute changes of the corresponding parameter value. By progressing weathering, the porosity of the Inari anorthosite changed in such a way that both the frost and salt weathering increased primarily the proportion of the large pores while the hydrolysis increased the proportion of the small pores of the total porosity. It is rather difficult to simulate in the laboratory the changes in strength and structure of building stone caused by natural weathering, since the effectiveness of the climatic and environmental factors affecting the rock surface in real conditions varies from case to case and according to the duration of the weathering action. An unweathered firm silicate rock with low porosity, such as the Inari anorthosite, has such a resistance against weathering that the necessary series of laboratory experiments to determine the changes in strength inevitably take several months.

  17. Statistical design applied to hydric property behaviour for monitoring granite consolidation and/or water-repellent treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rives, V.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of granite conservation treatments (consolidation and/or water-repellency wide/y used to protect heritage structures was evaluated on the basis of the changes occurring in the intrinsic characteristics of the stone (imbibition capacity open porosity total water-accessible porosity water vapour permeability and capillar absorption coefficient. A statistical analysis conducted of the values obtained for these properties/ which showed differences in fluid flow through the rocks/ found that the application of consolidants followed by water repellency treatment was more effective than either procedure alone, substantially enhancing the properties of the stone from the standpoint of its use as a construction material.La adecuación de tratamientos de conservación (consolidación y/o hidrofugación realizados sobre granitos ampliamente utilizados en el patrimonio cultura se evaluó por los cambios experimentados en las características intrínsecas de estas rocas (capacidad de imbibición/ porosidad abierta/ porosidad total accesible al agua/ permeabilidad al vapor de agua y coeficiente de absorción capilar. Se realizó un análisis estadístico de los valores obtenidos de estas propiedades que muestra diferentes capacidades para el transporte de fluidos a través de las rocas/ indicando que el tratamiento con consolidantes y posterior aplicación de hidrofugantes tiene mayor efecto que los dos aplicados independientemente y mejora notablemente sus propiedades como material de construcción.

  18. Vapour Treatment Method Against Other Pyro- and Hydrometallurgical Processes Applied to Recover Platinum From Used Auto Catalytic Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agnieszka FORNALCZYK; Mariola SATERNUS

    2013-01-01

    Today more and more cars are produced every year.All of them have to be equipped with catalytic converters,the main role of which is to obtain substances harmless to the environment instead of exhausted gases.Catalytic converters contain platinum group metals (PGM) especially platinum,palladium and rhodium.The price of these metals and their increasing demand are the reasons why today it is necessary to recycle used auto catalytic converters.There are many available methods of recovering PGM metals from them,especially platinum.These methods used mainly hydrometallurgical processes; however pyrometallurgical ones become more and more popular.The article presents results of the research mainly concerning pyrometallurgical processes.Two groups of research were carried out.In the first one different metals such as lead,magnesium and copper were used as a metal collector.During the tests,platinum went to those metals forming an alloy.In other research metal vapours were blown through catalytic converter carrier (grinded or whole).In the tests metals such as calcium,magnesium,cadmium and zinc were applied.As a result white or grey powder (metal plus platinum) was obtained.The tables present results of the research.Processing parameters and conclusions are also shown.To compare efficiency of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods catalytic converter carrier and samples of copper with platinum obtained from pyrometallurgical method were solved in aqua regia,mixture of aqua regia and fluoric acid.

  19. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  20. Uranium conversion; Conversion de l`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the activities of the Comurhex company, created in 1971 and which became a 100% Cogema`s daughter company in 1992. The Comurhex company is in charge of the conversion of natural uranium into gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The two steps of the conversion operation are performed in the Malvesi and Pierrelatte (France) industrial sites and represent 31% (14000 t/year) of the uranium conversion capacity of western countries. The refining and UF{sub 4} production (Malvesi) and the UF{sub 6} fabrication (Pierrelatte) processes are described. Comurhex is also one of the few companies in the world which produces UF{sub 6} from the uranium of spent fuels. (J.S.)

  1. SU-E-T-608: Performance Comparison of Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems Applied to Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, CN, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the performances of four commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used for the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Ten patients of nasopharyngeal (4 cases), esophageal (3 cases) and cervical (3 cases) cancer were randomly selected from a 3-month IMRT plan pool at one radiotherapy center. For each patient, four IMRT plans were newly generated by using four commercial TPS (Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio), and then verified with Matrixx (two-dimensional array/IBA Company) on Varian23EX accelerator. A pass rate (PR) calculated from the Gamma index by OminiPro IMRT 1.5 software was evaluated at four plan verification standards (1%/1mm, 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, 4%/4mm and 5%/5mm) for each treatment plan. Overall and multiple pairwise comparisons of PRs were statistically conducted by analysis of covariance (ANOVA) F and LSD tests among four TPSs. Results: Overall significant (p>0.05) differences of PRs were found among four TPSs with F test values of 3.8 (p=0.02), 21.1(>0.01), 14.0 (>0.01), 8.3(>0.01) at standards of 1%/1mm to 4%/4mm respectively, except at 5%/5mm standard with 2.6 (p=0.06). All means (standard deviation) of PRs at 3%/3mm of 94.3 ± 3.3 (Corvus), 98.8 ± 0.8 (Monaco), 97.5± 1.7 (Pinnacle), 98.4 ± 1.0 (Xio) were above 90% and met clinical requirement. Multiple pairwise comparisons had not demonstrated a consistent low or high pattern on either TPS. Conclusion: Matrixx dose verification results show that the validation pass rates of Monaco and Xio plans are relatively higher than those of the other two; Pinnacle plan shows slight higher pass rate than Corvus plan; lowest pass rate was achieved by the Corvus plan among these four kinds of TPS.

  2. A comparison of the effectiveness of low-, moderate- and high-dose ultrasound therapy applied in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Irfan; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Ucar, Mehmet; Yagiz, Erman; Isik, Mustafa; Bahsi, Ayse

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to compare and evaluate the effects of ultrasound (US) treatment applied at low-, medium- and high-power-pain threshold (HPPT) doses to trigger points in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The study comprised 61 (40 female and 21 male) patients diagnosed with MPS, aged between 18 and 60 years. The patients were randomly allocated to three groups for the US application at different dosages. Group I patients received treatment of medium-dose US (1.5 Watt/cm(2)), Group II received HPPT US, and Group III received low-dose US (0.5 W/cm(2)). The patients were evaluated pre-treatment and 3 weeks after treatment in respect of visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, number of trigger points (NTP), pressure pain threshold (PPT), Range of Tragus-Acromioclavicular joint (RT-AJ) and neck pain disability scores (NPDS). A significant improvement was determined after treatment in all scores except PPT in Group I, in all scores in Group II, and only in the VAS score in Group III. When the groups were compared post-treatment in respect of improvement in NTP, VAS, RT-AJ and NPDS scores, Group II showed significant superiority over Group I, and Group I was determined to have significant superiority over Group III in respect of VAS, RT-AJ and NPDS scores (p < 0.05). In the treatment of MPS, US therapy at HPPT dose can be considered as an alternative therapy method, which is more economical and more effective than low-dose and conventional US therapy.

  3. Topically applied botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: results of a randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogau, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can be delivered to targeted skin sites with topical application for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis. This randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled study enrolled 12 patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis with greater than 50 mg of sweat produced per 5 minutes. BTX-A (200 U), combined with a proprietary transport peptide molecule to bind the toxin in a noncovalent manner, was topically applied to one axilla; vehicle without BTX-A was applied to the other axilla. Rates of sweat production were measured and imaged at baseline and 4 weeks after application. Two patients were excluded from analyses. At 4 weeks, 10 axillae treated topically with BTX-A demonstrated a 65.3+/-21.5% mean reduction in sweating relative to the same-patient, vehicle-control axillae, which had a 25.3+/-66.2% mean reduction. The 40% difference in mean sweat reduction between groups was statistically significant (pproduction in the BTX-A-treated versus the vehicle-treated axillae. Topically applied BTX-A appears to be safe and may prove to be effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  4. Combined electrocoagulation and TiO{sub 2} photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Sampaio, Luiz Carlos; Nozaki, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Hioka, Noboru [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: nhioka2@yahoo.com.br

    2009-02-15

    The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO{sub 2}) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cm x 2.50 cm x 0.10 cm), current density 763 A m{sup -2}, 90 min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4 h irradiation, 0.25 g L{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} and 10 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753 mg L{sup -1} for the sample from the factory, 160 mg L{sup -1} after EC and 50 mg L{sup -1} after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification.

  5. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2.

  6. Culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) for Latino women with treatment-resistant PTSD: a pilot study comparing CA-CBT to applied muscle relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Hofmann, Stefan G; Rivera, Edwin; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H

    2011-04-01

    We examined the therapeutic efficacy of a culturally adapted form of CBT (CA-CBT) for PTSD as compared to applied muscle relaxation (AMR) for female Latino patients with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants were randomized to receive either CA-CBT (n = 12) or AMR (n = 12), and were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at a 12-week follow-up. The treatments were manualized and delivered in the form of group therapy across 14 weekly sessions. Assessments included a measure of PTSD, anxiety, culturally relevant idioms of distress (nervios and ataque de nervios), and emotion regulation ability. Patients receiving CA-CBT improved significantly more than in the AMR condition. Effect size estimates showed very large reductions in PTSD symptoms from pretreatment to posttreatment in the CA-CBT group (Cohen's d = 2.6) but only modest improvements in the AMR group (0.8). These results suggest that CA-CBT can be beneficial for previously treatment-resistant PTSD in Latino women.

  7. Economic feasibility of methoprene applied as a surface treatment and as an aerosol alone and in combination with two other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Emily A; Arthur, Frank H; Nechols, James R; Langemeier, Michael R

    2013-06-01

    Economic evaluations of integrated pest management strategies are becoming increasingly important as restrictions on conventional insecticides continue to become more stringent and chemical control costs rise. Aerosol treatments with insect growth regulators alone and in combination with conventional contact insecticides may be a feasible alternative to expensive and highly toxic fumigants such as methyl bromide for control of the Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)). Average calculated mortality of Indianmeal moth eggs exposed to surface applied methoprene, aerosol methoprene alone and in combination with esfenvalerate and synergized pyrethrins is 55.0, 69.0, and 94.6%, respectively. Temperature effects on development time makes frequency and timing of insecticide applications very important as evidenced by simulations of population levels in response to a variety of treatment dates by diet, and become critical in situations where survival of Indianmeal moth is high. Using a measurement of risk that is equal to deviations below a target mortality goal (99%), we are able to optimize cost and frequency of application using simulated mortality data for each of the treatment strategies. Optimal timing of each insecticide treatment depends heavily on the rate of development by diet. This type of analysis helps pest control operators and managers by showing consequences of treatment scenarios in time and cost.

  8. Effect of corona pre-treatment on the performance of gas barrier layers applied by atomic layer deposition onto polymer-coated paperboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi, E-mail: terhi.hirvikorpi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Vaehae-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Harlin, Ali, E-mail: ali.harlin@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Marles, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.marles@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Miikkulainen, Ville, E-mail: ville.miikkulainen@picosun.com [Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@tkk.fi [Aalto University School of Technology and Science, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Kemistintie 1A, Espoo, P.O. Box 16100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    The effect of corona pre-treatment on the performance of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} gas barrier layers applied by atomic layer deposition onto polymer-coated paperboards was studied. Both polyethylene and polylactide coated paperboards were corona treated prior to ALD. Corona treatment increased surface energies of the paperboard substrates, and this effect was still observed after several days. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} films were grown on top of the polymer coatings at temperature of 100 deg. C using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. For SiO{sub 2} depositions a new precursor, bis(diethylamido) silane, was used. The positive effect of the corona pre-treatment on the barrier properties of the polymer-coated paperboards with the ALD-grown layers was more significant with polyethylene coated paperboard and with thin deposited layers (shorter ALD process). SiO{sub 2} performed similarly to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the PE coated board when it comes to the oxygen barrier, while the performance of SiO{sub 2} with the biopolymer-coated board was more moderate. The effect of corona pre-treatment was negligible or even negative with the biopolymer-coated board. The ALD film growth and the effect of corona treatment on different substrates require further investigation.

  9. Translation of Conversational Implicatures in Pride and Prejudice%Translation of Conversational Implicatures in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹

    2011-01-01

    Based on the conversational implicatures which attempts to explain the implicit meaning in the utterances, this paper aims to apply the Cooperative Principles of conversational implicatures to the translation of Pride and Prejudice. The paper presents translational strategies through the analysis and translation of the conversational implicatures of the selected chapter of the novel. The conclusion is that conversational implicautures, if practiced properly by the translators, would be of great help to the target readers in understanding the text.

  10. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  11. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  12. 封闭处理对镁合金磷酸钡转化膜的影响%Effect of sealing treatment on barium phosphate conversion coating of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华兰; 赖勇来; 杨湘杰; 郭洪民

    2012-01-01

    The effect of sealing treatment on barium phosphate conversion coating of magnesium alloy was studied in Na2SiO3 and NaOH solution. The morphologies and phase composition of the barium phosphate conversion coating before and after sealing were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the coating was tested by total immersion corrosion test and electrochemical measurement. The results indicated that the sealed barium phosphate conversion coating is leveler, smoother and denser. The elements of C and Si and some crystal substances such as SiO2, BaSi4O9, Na2SiO3, and MgF2 exist in the sealed conversion coating, but not in the unsealed one. The corrosion resistance of the barium phosphate conversion coating of magnesium alloy is improved obviously after sealing.%在Na2SiO3和NaOH溶液中,研究了封闭处理对AZ91D 镁合金磷酸钡转化膜的影响,采用扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线衍射谱(XRD)研究了封闭前后磷酸钡转化膜的表面形貌及其相组成,采用全浸蚀试验和电化学方法检测了膜层的抗腐蚀性能.结果表明,封闭后的磷酸盐转化膜更加平整、致密.与封闭前的转化膜相比,封闭后的转化膜新增了C、Si元素和一些晶态物质,如SiO2、BaSi4O9、Na2SiO3和MgF2.封闭处理可以明显提高镁合金磷酸钡转化膜的抗腐蚀性能.

  13. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  14. Design and Methods of the Pan-Canadian Applying Biomarkers to Minimize Long-Term Effects of Childhood/Adolescent Cancer Treatment (ABLE) Nephrotoxicity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelly R.; Rod Rassekh, Shahrad; Schultz, Kirk R.; Pinsk, Maury; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Mammen, Cherry; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Devarajan, Prasad; Cuvelier, Geoff D. E.; Mitchell, Lesley G.; Baruchel, Sylvain; Palijan, Ana; Carleton, Bruce C.; Ross, Colin J. D.; Zappitelli, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors experience adverse drug events leading to lifelong health issues. The Applying Biomarkers to Minimize Long-Term Effects of Childhood/Adolescent Cancer Treatment (ABLE) team was established to validate and apply biomarkers of cancer treatment effects, with a goal of identifying children at high risk of developing cancer treatment complications associated with thrombosis, graft-versus-host disease, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Cisplatin is a chemotherapy well known to cause acute and chronic nephrotoxicity. Data on biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) and late renal outcomes in children treated with cisplatin are limited. Objective: To describe the design and methods of the pan-Canadian ABLE Nephrotoxicity study, which aims to evaluate urine biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin [NGAL] and kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1]) for AKI diagnosis, and determine whether they predict risk of long-term renal outcomes (chronic kidney disease [CKD], hypertension). Design: This is a 3-year observational prospective cohort study. Setting: The study includes 12 Canadian pediatric oncology centers. Patients: The target recruitment goal is 150 patients aged less than 18 years receiving cisplatin. Exclusion criteria: Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) renal transplantation at baseline. Measurements: Serum creatinine (SCr), urine NGAL, and KIM-1 are measured during cisplatin infusion episodes (pre-infusion, immediate post-infusion, discharge sampling). At follow-up visits, eGFR, microalbuminuria, and blood pressure are measured and outcomes are collected. Methods: Outcomes: AKI is defined as per SCr criteria of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. CKD is defined as eGFR cancer treatment complications. The Nephrotoxicity study is a novel study of AKI biomarkers in children treated with cisplatin that will greatly inform on late cisplatin renal outcomes and follow

  15. The Conversation Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  16. Content for Conversation Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  17. Canning Canned Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Michael P.; Daigaku, Sanyo

    Ways to improve the role-playing conversations found in most second language textbooks are outlined. It is argued that the conversations are often restrictive, dull, and repetitive, and students respond to them in kind. The teacher can make the target language used more interesting by creating new characters, situations, settings, or objectives.…

  18. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  19. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  20. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  1. Bulking on the activated slugde process applied to the cheese whey effluent treatment: characterization and use of chemical flocullants to improve settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Duran

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work was studied the activated sludge process applied to an effluent treatment from a cheese manufacture (cheese whey, which is characterized by the high organic content containing easily biodegradable compounds as lactose. In the diluted whey treatment, it was found that the activated sludge is an adequate system at a diluted condition (100x, 50x, 25x e 10x and treatment (HRT varying between 6-36 h and suspended solid (SS between 2800-19417mgL-1. However, the system is susceptible to bulking occurrence. Chemical flocculants were evaluated in order to monitoring the biological flocs sedimentation present in a continuous activated sludge system under bulking conditions. The treatment was carried out in a continuous reactor at laboratory scale and the coagulants (Al2 (SO43 and FeSO4 .7H2O were added to sludge at 50-200 mg L-1 concentration range. The results showed that Al3+ presented higher settling capacity compared with Fe2+ effect, and the good settling characteristics were observed in terms of SVI (sludge volume index. However, more detailed studies in this direction should be done to evaluate if the characteristic organisms in the activated sludge are not irreversible suppressed with the use of chemical flocculants.

  2. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  3. One-dimensional full wave treatment of mode conversion process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monakhov, I.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; NGuyen, F

    1998-09-01

    A consistent picture of the mode conversion (MC) process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded plasma of a tokamak is discussed, which clarifies the role of the global fast wave interference and cavity effects in the determination of the MC efficiency. This picture is supported by simulations with one-dimensional full wave kinetic code `VICE`. The concept of the `global resonator`, formed by the R = n{sup 2}{sub ||} boundary cutoffs [B. Saoutic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1647 (1996)], is justified, as well as the importance of a proper tunneling factor choice {eta}{sub cr} = 0.22 [A. K. Ram et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 1976 (1996)]. The MC scheme behavior appears to be very sensitive to the MC layer position relative to the global wave field pattern, i.e. to the local value of `poloidal` electric field at the resonance. Optimal MC regimes are found to be attainable without requirement of a particular parallel wavenumber choice. (author) 40 refs.

  4. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  5. Acute treatment with kerosene damages the dermal barrier and alters the distribution of topically applied benzo(a)pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDow, Kathy; Schumann, Brenda L; Luse, Nicole; Warshawsky, Dave; Pickens, William L; Hoath, Steven B; Talaska, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    The dermal route is important in many occupational exposures. Some materials may reduce the barrier function of the skin to enhance absorption and effect on internal organs. We have reported previously that kerosene cleaning following treatment with used engine oil increased DNA adduct levels in the lungs of mice compared with animals treated with used oil alone. To investigate what other physiological parameters might be affected by kerosene, we conducted in vitro and in vivo measurements of skin barrier function. We also topically applied (3)H-BAP(100 nM in 25 μL acetone) and washed half the mice with 25 μL kerosene 1 hr after carcinogen application. Groups of four mice were euthanized from 1 to 72 hr after treatment. Skin, lungs, and livers were harvested from each animal and stored separately. Kerosene application reduced the barrier function of the skin in vitro beyond the effect of the acetone vehicle and the vehicle plus BAP. In vivo studies indicated that kerosene treatment reduced the barrier function at 4 and 8 hr post application and that the barrier function recovered at 24 hr after a single treatment. The fraction of the radiolabel remaining in the skin of animals treated with (3)H-BAP and washed with kerosene was significantly less than those not washed, beginning at 24 hr (pKerosene treatment compromises dermal barrier function and the ability of the skin to retain water, enhances carcinogen absorption, and alters organ distribution. This appears to contribute to the increase in BAP DNA adducts we reported earlier.

  6. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  7. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  8. From waste water treatment to land management: Conversion of aquatic biomass to biochar for soil amelioration and the fortification of crops with essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Cole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-07-01

    Macroalgae can be grown in industrial waste water to sequester metals and the resulting biomass used for biotechnological applications. We have previously cultivated the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium at a coal-fired power station to treat a metal-contaminated effluent from that facility. We then produced biochar from this biomass and determined the suitability of both the biomass and the biochar for soil amelioration. The dried biomass of Oedogonium cultivated in the waste water contained several elements for which there are terrestrial biosolids criteria (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se and Zn) and leached significant amounts of these elements into solution. Here, we demonstrate that these biomass leachates impair the germination and growth of radishes as a model crop. However, the biochar produced from this same biomass leaches negligible amounts of metal into solution and the leachates support high germination and growth of radishes. Biochar produced at 750 °C leaches the least metal and has the highest recalcitrant C content. When this biochar is added to a low-quality soil it improves the retention of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Mo) from fertilizer in the soil and the growth of radishes by 35-40%. Radishes grown in the soils amended with the biochar have equal or lower metal contents than radishes grown in soil without biochar, but much higher concentrations of essential trace elements (Mo) and macro nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg). The cultivation of macroalgae is an effective waste water bioremediation technology that also produces biomass that can be used as a feedstock for conversion to biochar for soil amelioration.

  9. The conversion partial denture: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Michael P; Brudvik, James S

    2004-04-01

    The treatment alternative described maximizes the benefit of remaining teeth while allowing simplified alteration of the prosthesis if abutments are lost during the life span of the removable partial denture (RPD). A conversion partial is an RPD whose tooth-frame assembly components are individually fabricated and then joined with an acrylic resin major connector. The conversion RPD optimizes retention and stabilization of a terminal dentition and can be easily converted to an immediate complete denture.

  10. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  11. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  12. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  13. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conversion of Induction Heating Deposited Monetite Coating to Hydroxyapatite Coating on Ht-C Composites by Hydrothermal Treatment in KOH Aqueous/ammonia Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Xiong, Xin-Bo; Zeng, Xie-Rong; Zou, Chun-Li; Zou, Ji-Zhao

    Carbon/carbon composites with hydroxyapatite coatings are one of the attractive materials in the dental and orthopedic fields. In this study, hydrothermal treatment, in KOH aqueous and ammonia solutions, was used to convert an induction-heating-deposited monetite coating to an adherent HA coating on H2O2 treated C/C composites. The structure, morphology and chemical composition of the as-received HA coatings were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and EDS. A scratch test was conducted to measure the adhesion of HA coatings to HT-C/C substrate. The results show that well-crystallized carbonate hydroxyapatite coatings could be achieved under the two reaction mediums. However, the as-obtained HA coatings after KOH hydrothermal treatment have higher crystallinity and Ca/P ratio than those after ammonia hydrothermal treatment, and reveal an average critical load of 29 N which is more than two times as high as that for HA coatings after ammonia hydrothermal treatment.

  15. 新格莱斯会话含义理论在远程英语听力教学中的行动研究%An Action Research on Applying the Theory of Neo-Gricean Conversational Implicature to English Listening Class in Distance Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒晓杨

    2014-01-01

    Neo-Gricean Conversational Implicature put forward by Levinson has three pragmatic principles:quantity principle, principle of informativeness, and manner principle, each of which has two sides:speaker's maxim and listener's rule. The theory can be used to explain daily conversation activities. Most of the students are adult students in open and distance education, who find it a challenge to grasp the real meaning of what is being said in English listening class, while neo-Gricean conversational implicature can be applied to help distance learners solve this problem. An action research with the process of "finding problems, reflection, and adjusting teaching design" is conducted in the paper to explore how neo-Gricean conversational implicature is applied to English listening class in distance education. The findings indicate that consciously developing neo-Gricean conversational implicature in listening class meets the learning needs of part-time adult students in distance education, that constructing ecological teaching and learning environment by means of modern technology, integrating authentic teaching resources, designing situational teaching activities which meet the distance students' needs can promote the students' inference ability and listening comprehension, so that their proficiency in listening is improved.%新格莱斯会话含义理论从“说话人准则”和“听话人推论”两个方面提出了语言学习的三大原则:数量原则、信息原则、方式原则。这一理论适用的语义场景是日常生活的交际活动。在远程开放教育领域,由于大多数学生都是成人学习者,这一特殊性决定了实施英语听力教学面临较大的挑战和难度。在实际的听力教学中,成人学习者大多只关注听力材料的字面意思,而不能理解话语的言下之意,从而导致对说话者的真实意图产生理解上的错误。运用新格莱斯会话含义理论有助于学习者推断出

  16. The effect of cerium-based conversion treatment on the cathodic delamination and corrosion protection performance of carbon steel-fusion-bonded epoxy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanzadeh, B.; Rostami, M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of surface pre-treatment of pipe surface by green cerium compound and phosphoric acid solution on the fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coating performance was studied. The composition and surface morphology of the steel samples treated by acid and Ce solutions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Also, the surface free energy was evaluated on these samples through contact angle measurements. In addition, the effect of Ce and acid washing procedures on the adhesion properties and corrosion protection performance of the FBE was examined by pull-off, salt spray and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Results showed that compared to acid washing, the chemical treatment by Ce solution noticeably increased the surface free energy of steel, improved the adhesion properties of FBE, decreased the cathodic delamination rate of FBE, and enhanced the coating corrosion resistance compared to the acid washed samples.

  17. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  18. Managing social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how companies can manage (monitor and control) social media conversations. Regardless of the companies’ presence in social media networks, they or their industry are constantly being discussed in social media. Therefore organisations should be present in social media, monitor and participate in conversations, in order to turn them into their benefit. There are software and services available to help in monitoring. Variety of tools and statistic de...

  19. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  20. Entrepreneurship Teaching Conducted as Strategic Reflexive Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael

    The paper intends exploring and ascertaining whether the concept of strategic reflexive conversation can profitably be applied to entrepreneurship. As a start, a process of conceptualisation is undertaken, which is instrumental in placing the notion of strategic reflexive conversation...... into a knowledge management perspective. Strategic reflexive conversation is presented in an enhanced and updated version, which is contrasted to entrepreneurship through reflection. The findings indicate and it can be concluded that, with some important reservations, strategic reflexive conversation can...... and empirical studies. No doubt the reported study can be enhanced and refined in a theoretical sense and be empirically supported. The paper addresses a potentially significant theme and aims to stimulate discussion, which can provide input and ideas for enhancing practice-oriented entrepreneurship...

  1. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Scholz, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Royalty, Kevin [Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  2. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  3. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  4. Monte Carlo study of conversion factors for ionization chamber dosimetry in solid slab phantoms for MV photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-wook; Lee, Jai-ki

    2016-08-01

    For high energy photon beams, solid phantom to water dose conversion factors were calculated by using a Monte Carlo method, and the result were compared with measurements and published data. Based on the absorbed dose to water dosimetry protocol, the conversion factor was theoretically divided into stopping powers ratios, perturbation factors and ratios of absorbed dose to water and that to solid phantom. Data for a Farmer-type chamber and a solid phantom based on polystyrene which is one of the most common material were applied to calculate the conversion factors for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. All measurements were conducted after 10 Gy pre-irradiation and thermal equilibrium had been established with solid slabs in a treatment room. The calculated and the measured conversion factors were in good agreement and could be used to confirm the feasibility of the solid phantom as a substitute for water for high energy photon beam.

  5. Relevance of Toxicity Assessment in Wastewater Treatments: Case Study—Four Fenton Processes Applied to the Mineralization of C.I. Acid Red 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idel-aouad, Rajaa; Valiente, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen; Vilaseca, Mercè; Yaacoubi, Abdlrani; Tanouti, Boumediene; López-Mesas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fenton and Fenton-like processes, both in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases, have been applied to an aqueous solution containing the dye AR 14 in order to study the mineralization and toxicity of the solutions generated after color elimination. The mineralization of AR 14 occurred slower than the decolorization. The Microtox analysis of the treated solutions showed low toxicity intrinsic to the chemicals used in the process rather than the degradation products obtained after the treatment of the dye solution. The dye degradation for the Fenton oxidation process was initially faster than for the Fenton-like process but after a short time, the four processes showed similar degradation yields. All processes have shown good results being the heterogeneous process the most convenient since the pH adjustment is not necessary, the catalyst is recovered and reused and the generation of contaminated sludge is avoided. PMID:26167334

  6. Washing water treatment for simultaneous removal of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ from gases, with conversion of dithionates and salts of sulfonic acid. Waschwasseraufbereitung fuer die simultane SO/sub 2/- und NO/sub x/-Gasreinigung mit Umwandlung von Dithionaten und Salzen der Sulfonsaeure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-03-19

    The main application no. P 3519681.5 refers to a water treatment process for simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ gas purification. In this process, a component current of the washing water reacts in a vessel containing hydrated lime. For the further improvement of this process, a short-lived dispersing agent is applied, in accordance with the invention, to the component current of the washing water, so as to increase the precipitation of CaSO/sub 3/.1/2H/sub 2/O, CaSO/sub 4/.2H/sub 2/O and iron(II)/iron(III) hydroxide solids, without affecting subsequent reactions to the washing-water treatment. In a further development, the acid waste water (filtrate) from the EDTA precipitation is treated not in an evaporating plant or a spray drying system, but in a decomposition plant consisting of a heat exchanger, a flow-type calorifier, recirculation and conduction pipes, as well as a pollutant recycling pipe to the crude gas installed in front of the scrubber; for the conversion of dithionates and salts of sulphonic acid such as HON(SO/sub 3/Na)/sub 2/, NH(SO/sub 3/Na)/sub 2/, N(SO/sub 3/Na)/sub 3/ into sulphate and sulphite, strongly acidified solutions of such salts are heated for a defined period via heat exchangers, with or without the use of pressure, with the heated solutions decomposing in the process.

  7. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  8. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  9. Nd:YAG laser-induced morphology change and photothermal conversion of gold nanorods with potential application in the treatment of port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Linzhuang; Chen, Bin; Li, Dong; Ma, Jun; Wu, Wenjuan; Wang, Guoxiang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the principle of selective photothermolysis, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser has great potential for the treatment of deeper and larger PWS. However, the clinical effectiveness is limited because of the weak absorption of blood to Nd:YAG laser. The aim of this study is to obtain the optimal irradiation conditions to effectively destroy vascular lesions with the assistance of PEG-modified gold NRs to enhance blood absorption of Nd:YAG laser. In our study, PEG-modified gold NRs were prepared by the seeded growth method. Gold NRs after exposure to Nd:YAG laser were characterized using absorption spectra and transmission electron microscope images. The tissue-like phantom containing a glass capillary with blood was prepared and exposed to Nd:YAG laser to investigate the laser energy density and pulse number required for blood coagulation before and after the addition of gold NRs in blood. The results show that the millisecond Nd:YAG laser irradiation does not result in the shape change of gold NRs. After injection of gold NRs into the bloodstream (4.60 mg/kg), the absorbance of blood at 1064 nm increased 3.9 times. The threshold energy density for the treatment of PWS decreased by 33% (from 30 to 20 J/cm(2)). Our findings provide an experimental guide for choosing laser parameters and gold NRs concentration for the treatment of deeper and larger PWS with the assistance of PEG-modified gold NRs in vivo in the future.

  10. Conditioning of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate liquors by treatment with lime or ammonium hydroxide to improve conversion of sugars to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Edward W; Schell, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass enhances the ability of enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but produces many toxic compounds that inhibit fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treating hydrolysate liquor with Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH for improving ethanol yields. Corn stover was pretreated in a pilot-scale reactor and then the liquor fraction (hydrolysate) was extracted and treated with various amounts of Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH at several temperatures. Glucose and xylose in the treated liquor were fermented to ethanol using a glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Sugar losses up to 10% occurred during treatment with Ca(OH)2, but these losses were two to fourfold lower with NH4OH treatment. Ethanol yields for NH4OH-treated hydrolysate were 33% greater than those achieved in Ca(OH)2-treated hydrolysate and pH adjustment to either 6.0 or 8.5 with NH4OH prior to fermentation produced equivalent ethanol yields.

  11. A new strategy for improvement of the corrosion resistance of a green cerium conversion coating through thermal treatment procedure before and after application of epoxy coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahidashti, Z.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of post-heating of CeCC on its surface morphology and chemistry has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The corrosion protection performance of the coatings was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of thermal treatment of CeCC on the corrosion protection performance of epoxy coating was investigated by EIS. Results showed that the heat treatment of Ce film noticeably improved its corrosion resistance and adhesion properties compared to that of untreated samples. The CeCC deposited on the steel substrate at room temperature had a highly cracked structure, while the amount of micro-cracks significantly reduced after post-heating procedure. Results obtained from EIS analysis confirmed the effect of post-heating of CeCC on its corrosion protection performance enhancement. The increase of post-heating temperature and time up to 140 °C and 3 h led to better results.

  12. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  13. Conversion to Paradoxical Finding on Technetium-99m-labeled RBC Scintigraphy after Treatment for Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jungmin; Song, Hochun; Kim, Jahae; Choi, Soo Jin Na [Chosun Univ. Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    An 18-year-old woman reported that after exposure to cold temperatures her fingers appeared blue and her hands and feet felt cold. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) associated with peripheral vascular disease was suspected. Technetium (Tc)-99m-labeled RBC hand scintigraphy after cold change showed decreased blood pool activity in her fingers. The patient's symptoms improved after she received sarpogrelate HCL (200 mg/day) and nifedifine (40 mg/day). Follow-up scintigraphy performed 7 months after the patient started treatment showed paradoxically increased blood pool activity in her fingers after cold challenge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with secondary RP showing paradoxical change on scintigraphy after she received medication that improved her symptoms.

  14. SU-E-T-265: Development of Dose-To-Water Conversion Models for Pre-Treatment Verification with the New AS1200 Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri, N [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Baltes, C; Keller, P [Varian Medical Systems Imaging, Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); Greer, P [Newcastle Mater Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate models for dose verification of flattened (FF) and flattening filter free (FFF) beams for the new Varian aS1200 backscatter-shielded electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods: The model converts EPID images to incident energy fluence using deconvolution of EPID scatter kernels and fluence to dose in water using convolution with dose-to-water kernels. Model parameters were optimized using non-transmission EPID images of varying jaw defined field sizes for energies of 6 and 10 MV FF and FFF beams. Energy fluence was obtained from the Acuros planning system and reference dose profiles and output factors were measured at depths of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm in a water phantom. Images for 34 IMRT fields acquired at 6 and 10 MV FF energy were converted to dose at 10 cm depth in water and compared to treatment planning system dose plane calculations using gamma criteria. Results: Gamma evaluations for the IMRT fields had mean (1 standard deviation) pass rates of 99.4% (0.8%) and mean gamma scores of 0.32 (0.06) with 2%, 2 mm criteria and 10% of maximum dose threshold. Conclusion: The developed model has been shown to be highly accurate for pre-treatment verification with the new aS1200 imager which does not display support-arm backscatter artefact and has improved dosimetric properties. Further investigation of FFF modes is in progress. The model is currently being evaluated at sites for potential clinical release.

  15. The Analysis of Local Anesthesia Applied in Surgical Treatment of Inguinal Hernia%腹股沟疝手术的局部麻醉分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析腹股沟疝手术的局部麻醉效果。方法搜集2013年8月~2014年8月我院接收的腹股沟疝手术55例患者,按照不同麻醉方法分为对照组与研究组。给予对照组26例常规麻醉,给予研究组29例局部麻醉。观察对照组与研究组的麻醉效果,并比较。结果与对照组相比,研究组手术时间较短,并发症的发生率较低,住院天数较短,有明显差异,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论腹股沟疝手术局部麻醉效果较好,对减少并发症、促进患者身体恢复具有重要意义,值得推广。%Objective The local anesthesia effect on surgical treatment of inguinal hernia is to be analyzed. Methods Choose 55 patients with inguinal hernia who are treated in hospital from August 2013 to August 2014 and separate them into control group and study group according to different anesthesia methods. 26 patients in control group are given conventional anesthesia treatment,while 29 patients in control group are given local anesthesia treatment,and then observe and compare the anesthesia efficacy of two groups. Results Compared to control group,the surgical time,and hospitalization days of patients in study group are fewer,besides,the patients’complications incidence in study group are less than control group,there is a treatment differential between the two groups,such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Local anesthesia treatment is much more effective to cure patients with inguinal hernia and reduce complication incidence,in addition,it is conducive to the recovery of patients. Therefore,it is quite worthy to be promoted and applied.

  16. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.

  17. Gamma-rays and heat-treatment conversions of point defects in massive rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Pedro L.; Barreto, Sandra B.; Miranda, Milena R.; Gonzaga, Raysa S. G.; Casals, Sandra A.

    2017-05-01

    An extensive characterization of trace elements and point defects in rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province (BPP) in the northeast of Brazil was carried out by complementary spectroscopic methods. The aim here was to document the change in the configuration of point defects into the quartz lattice induced by heat-treatment and ionizing radiation. The samples were extracted from the core of two granitic rare element (REL) pegmatites, Taboa (Carnaúba dos Dantas, RN) and Alto do Feio (Pedra Lavrada, PB). The contents of Al, P, Ti, Ni, Fe, Ge, Li, Be, B and K were measured by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Polished plates were heat-treated at 500 and 1000 °C and then irradiated with 50 kGy of γ rays. Point defects were characterized by optical (UV-Vis), infrared (IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. In the as-received condition, [AlO4/H]0 centers, Li- and B-dependent OH defects were observed. Point defects related to Al and Li species were significantly affected by heat-treatment at 1000 °C and/or γ radiation. Paramagnetic centers such as [AlO4]0, [GeO4/Li]0, [TiO4/Li]0 and [O2 3-/Li]0 were created by the diffusion of Li+ ions from their original diamagnetic centers related to substitutional Al3+ and OH-species. The smoky color developed after irradiation and the signal intensities of the paramagnetic centers were independent from the original rose color grade. The samples from the Taboa (TB) pegmatite showed the highest concentration of Al, Ti, Fe and Li elements as well as the highest signal intensities for [AlO4]0, [AlO4/H]0, [GeO4/Li]0 and [TiO4/Li]0 centers. Although TB also showed the higher concentration of B element, the intensity of the 3597 cm-1 IR band related to [BO4/H]0 centers was higher for Alto do Feio (AF) samples. This result suggests that the uptake of B into the quartz core of each pegmatite took place through different mechanisms. It was concluded that the change in

  18. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  19. Direct conversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  20. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    on - and support “positive deviants” (Pascal, Sternin and Sternin) – courageous individuals and groups (inmates as well as staff) who transform conversations into new actions and behavioral traits that become beckons of an improved future. In the following we explore concrete examples of efforts at improving......Some would say this article is an impossibility - the authors being a project manager from the Department of Prisons an (ex) inmate and a Designer doing an industrial PhD in the prisons. We hope that others may see this article as an embodiment of how taking part in new conversations...... and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...

  1. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  2. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  3. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  4. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the Methane Yield and Composition of Digested Manure Fibers Applying Different Ammonia Concentrations and Treatment Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most biogas plants. Thus, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS at six different concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 32% and for 1, 3 and 5 days at 22 °C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield. It was shown that the optimal duration was three days for both 5% and 25% w/w reagent concentrations in ammonia tested. Carbohydrates and phosphorus content remained unaffected, while a slight decrease in Klason lignin and non-soluble organic nitrogen content was observed after AAS. It is concluded that AAS is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76% to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190%–265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS durations were tested, compared to the 1st series were different ammonia concentrations were applied.

  5. Attainment of biofuel in pilot unity by using the low temperature conversion technology; Obtencao de biocombustivel em unidade piloto utilizando a tecnologia de conversao a baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]|[Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Damasceno, Raimundo Nonato [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica]|[Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica; Senra, Paulo Mauricio de Albuquerque [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao

    2004-07-01

    This paper refers the oil attainment in a pilot unity, trough the low temperature conversion process applied to the industrial residue generated in petrochemistry industry effluent treatment station. Physical-chemical parameters such as sulfur density content, flash point, point of fluidity and calorific power were obtained. The characterization of oil indicates the possibility in classifying as fuel oil.

  6. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  7. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  8. 大黄敷脐治疗便秘的Meta分析%Meta analysis of umbilical area applying with rhubarb in treatment of constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉娇; 陈璇; 王洋; 吴心雨

    2016-01-01

    [目的]评价大黄敷脐对便秘治疗效果的影响。[方法]计算机检索PubMed、The Cochrane Library、EMBASE、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库(WanFang Data)、维普数据库(VIP)和中国生物医学数据库(CBM),检索时限均为建库至2015年5月关于大黄敷脐治疗便秘的随机对照试验,并追溯纳入研究的参考文献。由两名研究员对文献质量进行评价。应用 RevMan 5.2进行Meta分析,采用 Cochrane 系统评价员手册5.0.2推荐的工具评价其方法学质量。[结果]共纳入10个治疗便秘的随机对照试验,涉及850例病人,纳入的所有文献均为中文文献。Meta分析结果表明:大黄敷脐治疗便秘总有效率高于对照组[RR=1.59,95%CI (1.29,1.95),P<0.00001];与常规护理措施相比,大黄联合薄荷脑能有效治疗便秘[RR=2.77,95%CI(1.54,4.98),P<0.0006]。所有试验均无严重不良事件报道。[结论]大黄敷脐治疗便秘安全有效,但因缺乏高质量的研究,目前还不能得到较为可靠的结论。%Objective:To evaluate the influence of umbilical area applying with rhubarb on curative effect of con-stipation.Methods:It searched PubMed、The Cochrane Library、EMBASE、CNKI、WanFang Data、VIP and CBM from inception to May 2015 on the rhubarb umbilical area applying for constipation in randomized controlled tri-als,and traced references of included studies.The literature quality was evaluated by two researchers.RevMan 5.2 version was used for Meta analysis.Cochrane system evaluation manual 5.0.2 recommended tool was used to evaluate the quality of its methodology.Results:10 randomized controlled trials for treatment of constipation with 850 patients were included.All the included literatures were Chinese literature.Meta analysis results showed that the total effective rate of rhubarb umbilical area applying was higher than that of control group[RR=1.59,95%CI(1.29,1.95),P<0.000 01].Compared with the conventional nursing measures

  9. Do conversations with virtual avatars increase feelings of social anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Mark B; Briceno, Nicole F; Gresham, Robert; Jouriles, Ernest N; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Smits, Jasper A J

    2013-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology provides a way to conduct exposure therapy with patients with social anxiety. However, the primary limitation of current technology is that the operator is limited to pre-programed avatars that cannot be controlled to interact/converse with the patient in real time. The current study piloted new technology allowing the operator to directly control the avatar (including speaking) during VR conversations. Using an incomplete repeated measures (VR vs. in vivo conversation) design and random starting order with rotation counterbalancing, participants (N = 26) provided ratings of fear and presence during both VR and in vivo conversations. Results showed that VR conversation successfully elevated fear ratings relative to baseline (d = 2.29). Participants also rated their fear higher during VR conversation than during in vivo conversation (d = 0.85). However, in vivo conversation was rated as more realistic than VR conversation (d = 0.74). No participants dropped out and 100% completed both VR and in vivo conversations. Qualitative participant comments suggested that the VR conversations would be more realistic if they did not meet the actor/operator and if they were not in the same room as the participant. Overall, the data suggest that the novel technology allowing real time interaction/conversation in VR may prove useful for the treatment of social anxiety in future studies.

  10. 探地雷达在治理城市塌陷区中的应用%GROUND PENETRATING RADAR APPLIED IN TREATMENT OF SUBSIDENCE IN A CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施延昭; 张国鸿

    2016-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar is a means to detect internal structure and distribution law of underground medium by broadband high-frequency electromagnetic wave, and has been widely applied in many fields such as hazard geology exploration, geotechnical survey and engineering quality inspection. This paper brought an example of the technique used in engineering quality inspection of treatment of city subsidence, by comparison of the detection result of the radar with two high-frequency antennas with 2D model forward modeling result, gave a definite conclusion on the treatment quality and whether a hidden subsidence exists or not.%探地雷达是利用宽带高频电磁波以脉冲形式来探测地表之下介质内部结构分布规律的一种地球物理方法。它广泛用于灾害地质勘查、岩土工程调查和工程质量检测等众多领域。本文给出了一个在治理城市塌陷区的工程质量检测中的应用实例,通过两种高频天线的探地雷达检测和二维模型正演结果对比,对塌陷区治理质量以及是否存在隐伏塌陷隐患给出了明确的结语。

  11. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  12. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  13. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  14. Solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, George W.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience.

  15. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  16. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  17. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  18. Paralympics and conversion disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Anthony S

    ...' for whose disorders are the most stigmatised. Psychiatry has a strong claim on this with mental illness generally regarded as among the most feared and least understood. 1 And within psychiatry there is a similar hierarchy such that patients with 'hysteria' or conversion disorder (CD) are those found to be least satisfying to treat and are least like...

  19. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  20. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  1. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  2. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  3. Silent Conversations in the Labyrinth of Artistic Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eis, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores silent conversations with the past, but also navigates through the labyrinth of artistic process, with its manifold passages of research, chance occurrence and aesthetic experimentation. The double metaphors of silent conversations and labyrinths apply to the essay and the artwork within it, to the research and to the practice.…

  4. The in-vitro antiproliferative effect of PRI-2191 and imatinib applied in combined treatment with cisplatin, idarubicin, or docetaxel on human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalska, Marta; Nasulewicz-Goldeman, Anna; Opolska, Aleksandra; Maciejewska, Magdalena; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI571) is a specific inhibitor of the Bcr/Abl fusion tyrosine kinase that exhibits potent antileukemic effects in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Bcr/Abl-positive K562 and Bcr/Abl-negative HL-60 human leukemia cells were used to investigate the effect of PRI-2191, a calcitriol analog, on the biological effects of imatinib combined with other anticancer drugs. The results show that PRI-2191 enhances the antiproliferative effect of imatinib on HL-60 cells. When these two agents together are applied with either docetaxel or cisplatin, but not with idarubicin, the antiproliferative effect could still be enhanced. Moreover, when the interaction between the chemotherapy agents was antagonistic or additive, PRI-2191 could even shift it to synergism. This effect correlated with an accumulation of HL-60 cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and a decrease in the percentage of cells in the G2/M and S stage in the ternary combinations used. PRI-2191 did not influence apoptosis induced by imatinib alone or in ternary combinations with all the chemotherapy agents used. These results may suggest that the stronger antiproliferative effect of the combined treatment with PRI-2191 on HL-60 cells is related to cell cycle arrest rather than to the induction of apoptosis.

  5. Microbial diversity of a full-scale UASB reactor applied to poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment: integration of 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delforno, Tiago Palladino; Lacerda Júnior, Gileno Vieira; Noronha, Melline F; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A; Oliveira, Valéria M

    2017-02-23

    The 16S rRNA gene amplicon and whole-genome shotgun metagenomic (WGSM) sequencing approaches were used to investigate wide-spectrum profiles of microbial composition and metabolic diversity from a full-scale UASB reactor applied to poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. The data were generated by using MiSeq 2 × 250 bp and HiSeq 2 × 150 bp Illumina sequencing platforms for 16S amplicon and WGSM sequencing, respectively. Each approach revealed a distinct microbial community profile, with Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter as predominant genus for the WGSM dataset and Clostridium and Methanosaeta for the 16S rRNA gene amplicon dataset. The virome characterization revealed the presence of two viral families with Bacteria and Archaea as host, Myoviridae, and Siphoviridae. A wide functional diversity was found with predominance of genes involved in the metabolism of acetone, butanol, and ethanol synthesis; and one-carbon metabolism (e.g., methanogenesis). Genes related to the acetotrophic methanogenesis pathways were more abundant than methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic, corroborating the taxonomic results that showed the prevalence of the acetotrophic genus Methanosaeta. Moreover, the dataset indicated a variety of metabolic genes involved in sulfur, nitrogen, iron, and phosphorus cycles, with many genera able to act in all cycles. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) revealed that microbial community contained 43 different types of antibiotic resistance genes, some of them were associated with growth chicken promotion (e.g., bacitracin, tetracycline, and polymyxin).

  6. Graph clustering techniques applied to the glycomic response in glioblastoma cells to treatments with STAT3 phosphorylation inhibition and fetal bovine serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görke, Robert; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Plant, Claudia; He, Huan; Emmett, Mark R.; Nilsson, Carol; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles A.

    2011-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a very small percentage of the total tumor population however they pose a big challenge in treating cancer. Glycans play a key role in cancer therapeutics since overexpression of them depending on the glycan type can lead either to cell death or more invasive metastasis. Two major components, fetal bovine serum (FBS) and STAT3, are known to up- or down-regulate certain glycolipid or phospholipid compositions found in glioblastoma CSCs. The analysis and the understanding of the global interactional behavior of lipidomic networks remains a challenging task and can not be accomplished solely based on intuitive reasoning. The present contribution aims at applying graph clustering networks to analyze the functional aspects of certain activators or inhibitors at the molecular level in glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). This research enhances our understanding of the differences in phenotype changes and determining the responses of glycans to certain treatments for the aggressive GSCs, and represents together with a quantitative phosphoproteomic study1 the most detailed systems biology study of GSCs differentiation known so far. Thus, these new paradigms are providing unique understanding of the mechanisms involved in GSC maintenance and tumorigenicity and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  7. Comparative investigation on integrated vertical-flow biofilters applying sulfur-based and pyrite-based autotrophic denitrification for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhe; Li, Lu; Feng, Chuanping; Dong, Shanshan; Chen, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Two parallel biofilters applying sulfur/pyrite-based autotrophic denitrification were investigated for removing COD, TP and TN by a coordinated process. Results demonstrated good performance by removing 86.32% vs 87.14% COD and 92.56% vs 89.65% NH4(+)-N. Biofilter with sulfur (BS) was superior on nitrate (89.74% vs 80.72%) and TN removal (83.18% vs 70.42%) while biofilter with pyrite (BP) was better on TP removal (82.58% vs 77.40%) and maintaining sulfate (27.56mgL(-1) vs 41.55mgL(-1)) and pH (7.13 vs 6.31). Water-permeable adsorbents lowered clogging risk and buffered loading. Clone library revealed reasons of diversities, pH variation and sulfate accumulation of both biofilters. Sulfur was efficient on denitrification but whose byproducts were troublesome, pyrite produced less byproduct but which was sensitive to organics. This research was the first attempt to systematically compare two promising alternatives and their merits/demerits for rural wastewater on-site treatment.

  8. INFLUENCE OF THE APPLIED ORGANIC LOAD (OLR ON TEXTILE WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING SUBMERGED ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS (SAMBR IN THE PRESENCE OF REDOX MEDIATOR AND POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON (PAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. L. Baêta

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper evaluated the treatment of textile wastewater in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBR operated on a bench scale. Particularly, the influence of operational conditions, such as the applied organic rate (OLR and the dilution factor (for toxicity attenuation of the textile wastewater, was evaluated on color and organic matter removal. In addition, the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC on SAMBR-1 and the addition of yeast extract (source of the redox mediator riboflavin were also investigated. The results showed that reducing the textile wastewater dilution factor from 10× (phase 1 to 4× (phase 2 and 0× (no dilution decreased the COD and color removal efficiencies in both SAMBRs, probably due to an increase in the toxic load. Nevertheless, PAC adsorbed toxic compounds found in the textile wastewater and helped biomass acclimatization, which led to higher COD and color removal efficiencies in SAMBR-1. The presence of yeast extract enhanced color removal efficiencies 3-fold in both SAMBRs when they were fed with undiluted textile wastewater.

  9. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  10. 160 Gb/s Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM wavelength conversion and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2007-01-01

    In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown.......In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown....

  11. Temperature Development on the External Root Surface During Laser-Assisted Endodontic Treatment Applying a Microchopped Mode of a 980 nm Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Farmakis, Eleftherios Terry R; Kopic, Josip; Kurzmann, Christoph; Moritz, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the temperature increase of the external root surface during laser-assisted endodontic treatment using a diode laser (980 nm) in a microchopped mode. Ten freshly extracted, human maxillary incisors with mature apices were collected, prepared to size F4 at working length (ProTaper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), mounted to a holder, and irradiated (using spiral movements in coronal direction) with a diode laser (GENTLEray 980 Classic Plus; KaVo, Biberach, Germany) with a 200 μm fiber in four different treatment groups: Group 1 (control group) was irradiated in six cycles of 5-sec irradiation/20-sec pause with 2.5 W in the pulse mode. Groups 2 to 4 were irradiated at six cycles of 5-sec irradiation/20-sec pause in the microchopped mode (Group 2-1.6 W; Group 3-2.0 W; Group 4-2.5 W). The applied mode was 25 ms on/25 ms off. Within the on period, the laser delivered an intermittent sequence of energy complexes and the maximum output was equal to the nominated output of the device (12 W). Canals were kept moist by sterile saline irrigation in between irradiations, and temperature changes were continuously measured using a thermal imaging camera. Recordings were analyzed by a mixed model (analysis of variance [ANOVA] for repeated measurements). The highest mean of temperature rise, 1.94°C ± 1.07°C, was measured in Group 4, followed by Group 3 (1.74°C ± 1.22°C) and Group 2 (1.58°C ± 1.18°C). The lowest increase occurred in Group 1 (1.06°C ± 1.20°C). There was a significant difference (p = 0.041) between the groups. Significant differences were found between Groups 1 and 4 (p = 0.007) and 1 and 2 (p = 0.035). In addition, a marginally significant difference between Groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.052) was noted. There was no significant difference between Groups 2, 3, and 4. Despite the low mean values reported, the highest temperature increase (+5.7°C) was

  12. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaer

  13. Vaporization and Conversion of Ethanolamines used in Metalworking Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-bum Kim

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: MEAs easily evaporated even when MWFs were applied, cleaned, refilled, and when they were in fluid storage tanks without any metalworking being performed. The conversion of TEA to DEA and MEA was found in the machining operations.

  14. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  15. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and relationships may allow us to transcend the barriers of our formal positions. To us it is a testimony of the struggles and the good times we have shared while attempting to improve life in prisons. Also, this is an occasion for reflection on what we have learned from the process. The User Driven Innovation (in...... for guards. It has turned the focus of the organization towards the importance of relationship-building. In 2011 the Director General and the Prison Governors stated that building positive relations is the most important future task for Danish prisons both in regards to improving prison environments...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  16. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  17. Les conversions de cens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche entamée sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, la réflexion s’est dirigée vers la question de la conversion, c’est-à-dire du passage d’une forme à une autre dans la mesure des valeurs (argent contre nature, objets dont l’usage se transforme en s’échangeant, conversions monétaires. Un cycle de trois rencontres est prévu afin de débrouiller une question complexe qui devrait permettre au groupe d’éclairer la question de la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge. La...

  18. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  19. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  20. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    . Diuron (a phenylurea herbicide) and atrazine (from the triazine chemical class) are the most studied pesticides from Directive 2013/39/EU. Fenton-based processes are the most frequently applied to treat priority compounds in water and their efficiency typically increases with the operating temperature as well as under UV or solar light. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is the second most used treatment to destroy pollutants defined in the Directive. Ozone alone promotes the partial oxidation of pollutants, and an increase in the effluent biodegradability, but complete mineralization of pollutants is difficult. To overcome this drawback, ozonation has been combined with heterogeneous catalysts, addition of H2O2, other AOPs (such as photocatalysis) or membrane technologies.

  1. Surgical treatment of Ebstein's anomaly by tricuspid valvuloplasty applying autologous pericardium%利用自体心包片修复三尖瓣治疗Ebstein畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琛; 邵孟平

    2013-01-01

    目的 介绍一种利用自体心包片修复三尖瓣治疗Ebstein畸形的新方法和临床经验.方法 2008年1月至2012年6月手术治疗8例Ebstein畸形患者,根据Carpentier病理分型,B型1例,C型6例,D型1例.术中在Carpentier术式的基础上,应用戊二醛处理过的自体心包片重建前瓣、后瓣,增加瓣叶对合面积.结果 围术期无死亡.三尖瓣成形术后超声心动图示三尖瓣反流明显减轻.随访3~48个月,超声心动图表现明显改善,所有患者心功能均恢复至Ⅰ~Ⅱ级.结论 利用自体心包片修复三尖瓣治疗Ebstein畸形拓宽了瓣膜成形的适应证,能够更好地恢复三尖瓣的解剖形态及功能.%Objective To introduce a new method for surgical treatment of Ebstein's anomaly by tricuspid valvuloplasty applying autologous pericardium and summarize the clinical experience. Methods Eight patients of Ebstein's anomaly were treated from Jan. ,2008 to June,2012,and divided into one of type B,6 of type C and one of type D based on the Carpentier' s criteria for pathological classification. During the operations, autologous pericardia treated with glutaraldehyde were used to rebuild anterior and posterior valves, and increase the closing area of valves on the basis of the Carpentier method. Results There was no death during the perioperative period. Tricuspid regurgitation was mitigated significantly as indicated by ultrasonic cardiograms after tricuspid valvuloplasty. In the follow-up period of 3 to 48 months, the ultrasonic cardiogram performance was significantly improved and the heart function was restored to NYHA Class I or Ⅱ in all the patients. Conclusions The application of tricuspid valvuloplasty to the treatment of Ebstein s anomaly by autologous pericardium broadens indications for valvoplasty,and is more effective in restoring the anatomical form and functionality of the tricuspid.

  2. Natural gas conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  3. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  4. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part I. The fluorination-fractionation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-07-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the fluorination-fractionation (dry hydrofluor) process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  5. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    This chapter presents an overview of ocean energy conversion in respect of its significance as the renewable energy resources. It deals with the thermodynamic principles relating to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Besides, it provides an in...

  6. Constructing familyness: Pedagogical conversations between professional parents and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.; Noordegraaf, martine

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes conversation between professional ‘parents’ and of out-of-home placed adolescents in specialized foster care. Videotaped and transcribed interactions of six family treatment homes were analyzed by interactional analysis. The topics of all conversations were initiated by the

  7. Zr-based conversion coatings for multi-metal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerezo Palacios, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD work, a new surface treatment based on the application of Zr-based conversion coatings by immersion in a Cu containing Zr-based conversion solution was investigated as a replacement of the traditional phosphating process for the automotive industry. Nowadays most of the cars are made of

  8. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  9. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  10. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  11. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  12. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  13. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  14. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-05-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  15. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  16. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  17. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  18. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin;

    that ensures phase matching over a broad spectral range in the BBO crystal. Since the tuning mechanism relies on all-passive components with extremely short response times the proposed method is well suited for short pulse, broad bandwidth laser sources like mode-locked lasers or super-continuum sources......We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  19. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    . The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  20. The Effect of TCM Auxiliary Treatment on Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with Positive Sputum Smear Negative Conversion%中医辨证辅助治疗对肺结核痰涂片阳性患者转阴率的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore TCM auxiliary treatment effect on the therapeutic effect of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with sputum smear positive.Method:100 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected from January 2011 to December 2013 and were divided into two groups according to randomly method,50 cases in each group.Two group patients were given medicine standard chemotherapy,the observation group was given the TCM auxiliary treatment.The curative effects after 1,3 and 6 months were evaluated,focuse on clinical symptom improvement rate,the sputum negative conversion rate and the improvement rate of image were emphatically observed.Result:After 1 months of treatment,two groups of patients with clinical symptoms improvement rate,the sputum negative conversion rate and image to learn conversion rate the differences had no statistically significant(P>0.05).After 3 months and 6 months treatment,two groups clinical symptom improvement rate,the sputum negative conversion rate and image to learn conversion rate were observed,significantly higher than the those of the control group,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05);治疗3个月后及6个月后,观察组患者的临床症状好转率、痰菌转阴率及影像学好转率显著高于对照组,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:中医辨证论治辅助治疗肺结核痰涂片阳性患者,能起到满意的效果。

  1. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  2. Equipment for gas conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    Equipment is proposed for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv), possibly in a mixture with air, in order to produce an inorganic gas, which chiefly consists of H2 and COx. It consists of a reaction pipe made of an inorganic refractory ceramic and equipped along the wall circumference with heaters. The reaction pipe is filled with a combined, multilayer catalyst (Kt) carrier, made of gamma-A1203 which in the transverse cross section has a multipore reticular or fibrous structure. Replacement of the traditional steel (St) materials for the walls of the reaction pipe with ceramic materials reduces the output of the hydrocarbon which contaminates the surface (Pv) of the catalyst; the use of a multilayer carrier for the catalyst made of gamma-A1203 with a porous reticular or fibrous structure reduces the pressure losses in the reactor and facilitates the replacement of the spent catalyst. The equipment is designed for vapor conversion of natural gas, C3H8, and vapors of kerosene, naphtha and so on.

  3. Effect of Fluoride Conversion Treatment on Bio-Corrosion Behavior of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy%氟处理对AZ31B镁合金生物耐蚀降解行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绮; 刘新杰; 颜廷亭; 谭丽丽; 张炳春; 杨柯

    2011-01-01

    采用低温化学方法在AZ31B镁合金表面制备出氟涂层,并研究了涂层的表面特征,氟处理后AZ31B镁合金在模拟体液中的腐蚀行为.结果表明,氟涂层均匀致密,与基体结合良好.经氟处理后的AZ31B镁合金的耐蚀性能有较大提高,其在模拟体液中的降解缓慢,合金浸泡后溶液的pH值保持在7.5~8.8之间,有效降低了合金降解而引起的碱性增强趋势.氟涂层在模拟体液中会逐渐转化为Ca3(PO4)2,新生成的表面膜会继续起到保护合金基体的作用.%Fluoride-coating was prepared on AZ31B magnesium alloy by an immersion treatment in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature, and the surface morphology, composition, corrosion resistance and degradation mechanism of the coated alloy were studied. The results show that the conversion coating is compact with good bonding to the alloy. The corrosion resistance of the fluoride coated AZ31B alloy is obviously improved, and its degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) is slow. The pH value of the SBF (the coated alloy immersed in) keeps in a range of 7.5 to 8.8, which can effectively reduce the alkalization caused by the biodegradation of the alloy. The fluoride coating gradually transform into Ca3(PO4)2 in SBF, which will continue protect the alloy from the corrosion.

  4. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  5. Surface characteristics of chemical conversion coating for Mg-Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masazumi OKIDO; Ryoichi ICHINO; Seong-Jong KIM; Seok-Ki JANG

    2009-01-01

    The chemical conversion coating was formed on Mg alloy for low cost and harmlessness in environment by using the colloidal silica as the main component. The film formed at 298 K was thick, which was thought to be the combination of Si and O. In salt spray test, the ratio of black rust on the specimen that did not conducted chemical conversion treatment was five times or more than those of the chemical conversion treated specimen. The film of chemical conversion coating produced by alkali treatment process was thinner than the specimen produced in basic chemical conversion treatment solution.

  6. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  7. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

    2010-01-01

    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  8. Conversations About Responsible Nanoresearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølberg, Kamilla Lein; Strand, Roger

    2011-04-01

    There is currently a strong focus on responsible research in relation to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This study presents a series of conversations with nanoresearchers, with the 'European Commission recommendation on a code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research' (EC-CoC) as its point of departure. Six types of reactions to the document are developed, illustrating the diversity existing within the scientific community in responses towards this kind of new approaches to governance. Three broad notions of responsible nanoresearch are presented. The article concludes by arguing that while the suggestion put forward in the EC-CoC brings the concept of responsible nanoresearch a long way, one crucial element is to be wanted, namely responsible nanoresearch as increased awareness of moral choices.

  9. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference.Conversation with Meir Sternberg.Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  10. [Conversion Disorder in Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Paula Andrea; Vásquez, Rafael; Cote, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Conversion disorder is diagnosed late, by exclusion and with a high risk of complications. There is a wide experience in adults that is not extrapolated to paediatric patients. According to the literature, the prognosis is better in children, but this changes when other variables such are included, such as comorbidities, late diagnosis and a very convincing social image of the neurological disease. To review the medical literature on the clinical features, diagnosis, comorbidities and treatment of this disorder. A literature research was performed on Medline and Pubmed, the terms used were "conversion disorder", pseudoseizures, treatment, clinic, children ("conversion disorder" OR hysteria OR hysterical) (child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR paediatric). The most relevant material found is included in this review. Conversion disorder is often an imprecise diagnosis in high complexity paediatric services. No consensus was found in the literature search on how to treat patients after the initial diagnosis. The evidence that it becomes chronic is not strong enough, just as the evidence is not convincing enough to argue that comorbidity factors are those maintained over time. Clearly, there is no medical experience of the natural history of this disorder in children and adolescents. It is only known is that it is a complex condition, on which there is experience only in the diagnosis and treatment of the acute state, but not so in the long-term care. It is proposed that each patient is studied in detail in order to define the psychiatric diagnosis and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  12. Embodied Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provoost, Simon; Lau, Ho Ming; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen

    2017-05-09

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors. We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research. Given the large variety of applied methodologies, types of applications, and scientific disciplines involved in ECA research, we conducted a systematic scoping review. Scoping reviews aim to map key concepts and types of evidence underlying an area of research, and answer less-specific questions than traditional systematic reviews. Systematic searches for ECA applications in the treatment of mood, anxiety, psychotic, autism spectrum, and substance use disorders were conducted in databases in the fields of psychology and computer science, as well as in interdisciplinary databases. Studies were included if they conveyed primary research findings on an ECA application that targeted one of the disorders. We mapped each study's background information, how the different disorders were addressed, how ECAs and users could interact with one another, methodological aspects, and the study's aims and outcomes. This study included N=54 publications (N=49 studies). More than half of the studies (n=26) focused on autism treatment, and ECAs were used most often for social skills training (n=23). Applications ranged from simple reinforcement of social behaviors through emotional expressions to sophisticated multimodal conversational systems. Most applications (n=43) were still in the development and piloting phase, that is, not yet ready for routine practice evaluation or application. Few studies conducted controlled research into clinical effects of ECAs, such as a

  13. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  14. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  15. Review on Telephone Conversations Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咏梅

    2014-01-01

    Telephone conversation, one of the most common uses of human communication, has been a hot topic in linguistic field in modern times. This essay aims at reviewing the main theories and findings in telephone conversation analysis and provid-ing some insights of this aspect which can often be overlooked in our daily life. It is also hoped that this essay can help to pave a foundation for further in-depth study in telephone conversations.

  16. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  17. Conversion Deafness Presenting as Sudden Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Piao Wang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion deafness is a somatoform disorder characterized by hearing loss without an anatomic or pathophysiologic lesion. Clinically, discrepancies between behavior hearing thresholds and objective electrophysiologic examinations, such as impedance audiometry, otoacoustic emissions (OAE, and auditory brainstem response (ABR, will raise the suspicion of this disorder. It is judged to be due to psychological factors and that patients do not intentionally produce the symptom. Conversion deafness is sometimes reported in children but is extremely rare among adults. Two young adults with this disease are presented. These 2 patients were both under enormous stress from the national entrance examinations for universities. Pure tone audiometry showed bilateral hearing deterioration, but OAE and ABR were normal. The hearing of both patients recovered after treatment. The diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of this disorder are also discussed. It is important to discover the psychological stress in patients with conversion deafness. This report aims to increase awareness of this condition and avoid unnecessary steroid use in its treatment.

  18. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a…

  19. Conversations across Meaning Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Progressive interpretations of scientific theories have long been denounced as naive, because of the inescapability of meaning variance. The charge reportedly applies to recent realist moves that focus on theory-parts rather than whole theories. This paper considers the question of what "theory-parts" of epistemic significance (if any) relevantly…

  20. New Supernova Constraints on active-sterile neutrino conversions

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Carpi, Sergio; Semikoz, Victor B.; Furtado Valle, José Wagner

    1994-01-01

    We consider active-sterile neutrino conversions in a supernova in the presence of random magnetic field domains. For large enough fields the magnetization of the medium may enhance the active to sterile neutrino conversion rates. Neglecting neutrino transition magnetic moments we show that for keV neutrino mass squared differences these limits may overcome those that would apply in the case of zero magnetic field.

  1. Improving Quality of Voice Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhid, M.; Tinati, M. A.

    New improvement scheme for voice conversion are proposed in this paper. We take Human factor cepstral coefficients (HFCC), a modification of MFCC that uses the known relationship between center frequency and critical bandwidth from human psychoacoustics to decouple filter bandwidth from filter spacing, as the basic feature. We propose U/V (Unvoiced/Voiced) decision rule such that two sets of codebooks are used to capture the difference between unvoiced and voiced segments of the source speaker. Moreover, we apply three schemes to refine the synthesized voice, including pitch refinement, energy equalization, and frame concatenation. The acceptable performance of the voice conversion system can be verified through ABX listening test and MOS grad.

  2. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  3. Treatment of liquid wastes generated by maintenance operations applied to motor vehicles; Tratamiento de residuos liquidos generados en las operaciones de mantenimiento de vehiculos a motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloret i Bosca, G.; Boch Mossi, F.; Oyonarte Andres, S.; Colomer Signes, S.; Soro Casanova, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Life European project Urban-Bat presents an innovating approach to liquid wastes generated by maintenance operations applied to bus fleets by defining, through implementation of Best Available Technologies (Bat), a waste management model based on reduction of environmental impact and on life span increase of raw materials. This will take place at the very point of generation thus minimizing the need for an external waste management. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Effect of Two Anti-Fungal Treatments (Metrafenone and Boscalid Plus Kresoxim-methyl Applied to Vines on the Color and Phenol Profile of Different Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Briz-Cid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines.

  5. Kind attention and non-judgment in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy applied to the treatment of insomnia: state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, M; Côté, G; Bélisle, D; Lorrain, D

    2014-10-01

    Psychophysiological insomnia is characterized by acquired sleep difficulties and/or a state of hypervigilance when going to bed. This mental and physiological condition prevents sleep onset regardless of the presence of anxious or depressive disorders. Despite the fact that cognitive behavioural therapies have been shown to be effective for this disorder, some people are not responding to this treatment. It is therefore important to explore new ways of increasing the effectiveness of current treatments. Approaches based on mindfulness, which promote a non-judgemental acceptance of the living experience, are increasingly reported in the literature to be effective in the treatment of various physical and psychological health conditions, being particularly efficient in reducing the stress and discomfort associated with these problems. This article focuses on some cognitive factors associated with maintaining insomnia and suggests that approaches based on mindfulness, through certain action mechanisms, may help to improve sleep. A review of recent studies on the application of mindfulness-based approaches to treat insomnia is hereby presented. Avenues for future research to improve insomnia treatment protocols based on mindfulness are suggested.

  6. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  7. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  8. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  9. Civil Conversations Using Primary Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Laurel; Pereira, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Primary source documents can be a key element in conversation and deliberation. They lend authenticity to student consideration of issues facing people's democracy and stimulate student interest. In addition, conversation about a primary document leads to a much deeper understanding of that document and can raise authentic questions for further…

  10. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  11. Conversing Life: An Autoethnographic Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelson, Christopher N.; Burton, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography is a constructed account of a co-exploration into the nature and effects of a longitudinal dyadic conversation process from a relational constructionist perspective. The conversations, between me as participant autoethnographer and a co-participant, aimed at maximising personal learning for both. Through co-created contexts of…

  12. Cosmopolitanism - Conversation with Stuart Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Forty minute conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner, filmed and edited by Haim Bresheeth. Synopsis by Sarah Harrison. Conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner on the theme of Cosmopolitanism (to be shown at the Association of Social Anthropologists Silver Jubilee conference in 2006), in March 2006

  13. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  14. The Practicalities of Document Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps involved in the conversion of source documents to scanned digital image format. Topics addressed include document preparation, including photographs and oversized material; indexing procedures, including automatic indexing possibilities; scanning documents, including resolution and throughput; quality control; backfile conversion;…

  15. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  16. Applied research of pediatric pneumonia serum CK, CTnT levels and ECG change characteristics in diagnosis and treatment of disease and prognostic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhang; Yan-Lin Xiao; Xian-Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study pneumonia infant's serum creatine kinase and troponin T level changes and combined with electrocardiogram analysis to discuss its meaning to pneumonia infant's clinical diagnosis and treatment.Method: 73 cases of pneumonia infants were selected as study group in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2014, meanwhile select 58 cases of healthy infants as control group, to proceed serum CK and CTnT and electrocardiogram examination of both groups.Results: Before treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK level rised, CK-MB and CTnT levels significantly rised, 65.71% of children with pneumonia appeared abnormal electrocardiogram, mainly showed atrial premature beats and sinus tachycardia; severe pneumonia group's CK level significantly rised, CK-MB and CTnT levels highly significantly rised, 86.84% of children with pneumonia appeared abnormal electrocardiogram, mainly showed atrial premature beats, sinus tachycardia, bundle-branch block, P-wave high point and so on. After treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels recovered to normal range, ECG returned to normal mostly; severe pneumonia group's CK level obviously returned to normal range, but CK-MB and CTnT levels still exist significant difference. After treatment, severe pneumonia group's CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels were highly significantly lower than before treatment; Compared with ordinary group after treatment, its CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels were higher, but no significant difference, electrocardiogram also returned to normal, only sinus tachycardia and bundle branch block were difficult to return to normal. Conclusion: Serum CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels of pneumonia infants rise along with the aggravation of disease, and ECG level is abnormal, after treatment, most pneumonia infants are cured. This illustrates infant pneumonia could easily cause multiple organ system damage, especially myocardial injury, monitoring CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels, combined with electrocardiogram data

  17. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador;

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  18. Applied research of pediatric pneumonia serum CK, CTnT levels andECG change characteristics in diagnosis and treatment of disease and prognostic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through studying pneumonia infant's serum creatine kinase and troponin T level changes and combined with electrocardiogram analysis to discuss its meaning to pneumonia infant's clinical diagnosis and treatment. Method: 73 cases of pneumonia infants were selected as the study group in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2014, meanwhile 58 cases of healthy infants were selected as the control group, to proceed serum CK and CTnT and electrocardiogram examination of both groups. Results: Before treatment, ordinary pneumonia group's CK level raised (P>0.05),CK-MB and CTnT levels significantly raised (P0.05), ECG returned to normal; severe pneumonia group's CK level obviously returned to normal range (P>0.05), but CK-MB and CTnT levels still exist significant difference (P0.05), electrocardiogram also returned to normal, only sinus tachycardia and bundle branch block were difficult to return to normal. Conclusion: Serum CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels of pneumonia infants rise along with the aggravation of disease, and ECG level is abnormal, after treatment, most pneumonia infants are cured. This illustrates infant pneumonia could easily cause multiple organ system damage, especially myocardial injury, monitoring CK, CK-MB and CTnT levels, combined with electrocardiogram data has important reference value to the diagnosis of pneumonia.

  19. Microwave-assisted nitric acid treatment of sepiolite and functionalization with polyethylenimine applied to CO2 capture and CO2/N2 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa-García, E.; Cecilia, J. A.; Bastos-Neto, M.; Cavalcante, C. L.; Azevedo, D. C. S.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E.

    2017-07-01

    Sepiolite was treated in HNO3 solutions with the assistance of microwave radiation. This treatment caused the progressive depletion of Mg2+, the gradual degradation of the sepiolite structure and the formation of an amorphous silica phase, which contributes to a noticeable increase of the surface area. The use of microwaves during acid treatment, after few minutes, led to materials with similar SBET to those obtained after 48 h with conventional heating methods. The influence of mineralogical impurities, crystallinity and chemical composition in the reactivity of sepiolite to this treatment was also studied. The obtained materials were impregnated with polyethylenimine and assessed for CO2 capture and CO2/N2 selectivity at different temperatures. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Sips models. The adsorption data revealed that sepiolite can be an interesting adsorbent for CO2 capture, achieving a capacity of 1.70 mmol g-1 at 338 K and 1 bar, providing a high CO2/N2 selectivity (440 mol CO2/mol N2).

  20. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  1. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  2. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  3. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  4. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  5. Evaluation of the standard normal variate method for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data treatment applied to the discrimination of painting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Trichereau, B.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.; Detalle, V.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is frequently used for in situ analyses to identify pigments from mural paintings. Nonetheless, in situ analyses require a robust instrumentation in order to face to hard experimental conditions. This may imply variation of fluencies and thus inducing variation of LIBS signal, which degrades spectra and then results. Usually, to overcome these experimental errors, LIBS signal is processed. Signal processing methods most commonly used are the baseline subtraction and the normalization by using a spectral line. However, the latter suggests that this chosen element is a constant component of the material, which may not be the case in paint layers organized in stratigraphic layers. For this reason, it is sometimes difficult to apply this normalization. In this study, another normalization will be carried out to throw off these signal variations. Standard normal variate (SNV) is a normalization designed for these conditions. It is sometimes implemented in Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and in Raman Spectroscopy but rarely in LIBS. The SNV transformation is not newly applied on LIBS data, but for the first time the effect of SNV on LIBS spectra was evaluated in details (energy of laser, shot by shot, quantification). The aim of this paper is the quick visualization of the different layers of a stratigraphic painting sample by simple data representations (3D or 2D) after SNV normalization. In this investigation, we showed the potential power of SNV transformation to overcome undesired LIBS signal variations but also its limit of application. This method appears as a promising way to normalize LIBS data, which may be interesting for in-situ depth analyses.

  6. Simultaneous constraint and phase conversion processing of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Thompson, Elliott D.; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.; DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Parrell, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Jodi L.

    2003-04-29

    A method of making an oxide superconductor article includes subjecting an oxide superconductor precursor to a texturing operation to orient grains of the oxide superconductor precursor to obtain a highly textured precursor; and converting the textured oxide superconducting precursor into an oxide superconductor, while simultaneously applying a force to the precursor which at least matches the expansion force experienced by the precursor during phase conversion to the oxide superconductor. The density and the degree of texture of the oxide superconductor precursor are retained during phase conversion. The constraining force may be applied isostatically.

  7. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-01-01

    In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974) examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the author...

  8. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  9. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  10. 生物流化床处理废水的研究进展%Progress in fluidized bed bioreactor applied to wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯杨阳; 廖延广; 陈英文; 沈树宝

    2014-01-01

    The fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) has attracted considerable interest due to the advantages,such as high treatment efficiency,high volume load,fast mass transfer and wide range of application. Its application to wastewater treatment in recent years is introduced. In addition , the main problems at present and development di-rection of fluidized bed bioreactor in the future are pointed out.%生物流化床技术因具有处理效率高、容积负荷大、传质速度快、应用范围广等优点受到了广泛的关注。介绍了近年来国内外生物流化床技术在废水处理中的应用研究情况,并指出了生物流化床技术目前存在的主要问题及今后的发展方向。

  11. Equivalence of cell survival data for radiation dose and thermal dose in ablative treatments: analysis applied to essential tremor thalamotomy by focused ultrasound and gamma knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, D; Lee, M; Ter Haar, G; Sela, B; Eames, M; Snell, J; Kassell, N; Sheehan, J; Larner, J M; Aubry, J-F

    2017-01-31

    Thermal dose and absorbed radiation dose have historically been difficult to compare because different biological mechanisms are at work. Thermal dose denatures proteins and the radiation dose causes DNA damage in order to achieve ablation. The purpose of this paper is to use the proportion of cell survival as a potential common unit by which to measure the biological effect of each procedure. Survival curves for both thermal and radiation doses have been extracted from previously published data for three different cell types. Fits of these curves were used to convert both thermal and radiation dose into the same quantified biological effect: fraction of surviving cells. They have also been used to generate and compare survival profiles from the only indication for which clinical data are available for both focused ultrasound (FUS) thermal ablation and radiation ablation: essential tremor thalamotomy. All cell types could be fitted with coefficients of determination greater than 0.992. As an illustration, survival profiles of clinical thalamotomies performed by radiosurgery and FUS are plotted on a same graph for the same metric: fraction of surviving cells. FUS and Gamma Knife have the potential to be used in combination to deliver a more effective treatment (for example, FUS may be used to debulk the main tumour mass, and radiation to treat the surrounding tumour bed). In this case, a model which compares thermal and radiation treatments is valuable in order to adjust the dose between the two.

  12. 镁合金ZM5“无铬”化学转化处理%Treatment for Mg-based alloys by a chrome-free chemical conversion solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绒霞

    2012-01-01

    采用含磷酸盐-高锰酸盐的“无铬”化学转化液处理方法,在镁合金ZM5表面形成了一层化学转化膜,用金相显微镜、腐蚀实验分别研究了化学转化膜层表面形貌、耐腐蚀性.结果表明,化学转化处理的最佳工艺条件为:KMnO4质量浓度20 g/L,Na3PO4质量浓度100 g/L,KF质量浓度40 g/L,转化液呈弱碱性,pH =7~8,温度50℃,化学转化时间40 min.在镁合金ZM5表面形成的化学转化膜耐腐蚀性能良好,对镁合金基体有较好的保护作用.%A technology of chrome-free chemical conversion coating on Mg-based alloys by phosphate-per-manganate was studied. The morphology and corrosion resistance of chemical conversion coating were test-ed by metallographic microscope and corrosive test. The results indicated that the best technology condi-tion is that the concentration of KMnO4 is 20 g/L,Na3PO4 is 100 g/L,KF is 40 g/L,and the pH is 7~8, the temperature is 50 ℃, the time of the chemical conversion is 40 min. Chemical conversion coating formed on the furface of Mg-based alloys,has good corrosion resistance and better protection of Mg-based matrix.

  13. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were

  14. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    morphology of nanostructured photocatalysts can reduce the migration distance of charge carriers. Improving the conductivity of photocatalysts by using graphitic materials can also improve the transport of charge carriers. Upon charge carrier migration, electrons and holes also tend to recombine. The suppression of recombination can be achieved by constructing heterojunctions that enhance charge separation in the photocatalysts. Surface states acting as recombination centers should also be removed to improve the photocatalytic efficiency. Moreover, surface reactions, which are the core chemical processes during the solar energy conversion, can be enhanced by applying cocatalysts as well as suppressing side reactions. All of these strategies have been proved to be essential for enhancing the activities of semiconductor photocatalysts. It is hoped that delicate manipulation of photogenerated charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts will hold the key to effective solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

  15. Raman enhanced polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion based on two-pump four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-12-12

    Backward Raman amplification is applied to improve the conversion efficiency of two-orthogonal-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) with polarization insensitivity. Wavelength conversion with ~0dB efficiency and negligible polarization dependency is demonstrated by using a common highly nonlinear fiber without pump dithering. The conversion efficiency is increased by ~29dB with Raman enhancement. We also discuss the impact of the Raman pump power and the FWM pump powers on the performance of wavelength conversion. The results indicate that moderate pump powers without inducing significant spontaneous noise and stimulated Brillouin scattering are favorable to ensure high conversion efficiency and low excess noise for performance optimization.

  16. Calculation of the release of total organic matter and total mineral using the hydrodynamic equations applied to palm oil mill effluent treatment by cascaded anaerobic ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes to remove organic matter from palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been used widely in Malaysia. Still the amounts of total organic and total mineral released from POME that may cause degradation of the receiving environment need to be verified. This paper proposes the use of the hydrodynamic equations to estimate performance of the cascaded anaerobic ponds (CAP) and to calculate amounts of total organic matter and total mineral released from POME. The CAP efficiencies to remove biochemical oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total solids and volatile solids (VS) as high as 94.5, 93.6, 96.3 and 98.2 %, respectively, are estimated. The amounts of total organic matter and total mineral as high as 538 kg VS/day and 895 kg FS/day, respectively, released from POME to the receiving water are calculated. The implication of the proposed hydrodynamic equations contributes to more versatile environmental assessment techniques, sometimes replacing laboratory analysis.

  17. 3D augmented reality mirror visual feedback therapy applied to the treatment of persistent, unilateral upper extremity neuropathic pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouraux, Dominique; Brassinne, Eric; Sobczak, Stéphane; Nonclercq, Antoine; Warzée, Nadine; Sizer, Phillip S; Tuna, Turgay; Penelle, Benoît

    2017-07-01

    Objective: We assessed whether or not pain relief could be achieved with a new system that combines 3D augmented reality system (3DARS) and the principles of mirror visual feedback. Methods: Twenty-two patients between 18 and 75 years of age who suffered of chronic neuropathic pain. Each patient performed five 3DARS sessions treatment of 20 mins spread over a period of one week. The following pain parameters were assessed: (1) visual analogic scale after each treatment session (2) McGill pain scale and DN4 questionnaire were completed before the first session and 24 h after the last session. Results: The mean improvement of VAS per session was 29% (p < 0.001). There was an immediate session effect demonstrating a systematic improvement in pain between the beginning and the end of each session. We noted that this pain reduction was partially preserved until the next session. If we compare the pain level at baseline and 24 h after the last session, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.001) of pain of 37%. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.001) on the McGill Pain Questionnaire and DN4 questionnaire (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results indicate that 3DARS induced a significant pain decrease for patients who presented chronic neuropathic pain in a unilateral upper extremity. While further research is necessary before definitive conclusions can be drawn, clinicians could implement the approach as a preparatory adjunct for providing temporary pain relief aimed at enhancing chronic pain patients' tolerance of manual therapy and exercise intervention. Level of Evidence: 4.

  18. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  19. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  20. Feature conversion for concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Feature conversion for concurrent engineering integrates two modern product development paradigms. Concurrent engineering is a product development paradigm in which multiple engineering disciplines participate. It optimizes a product with respect to available resources and product quality, for which

  1. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  2. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  3. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  4. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  5. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  6. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.

  7. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  8. Conversational implicature in business negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀云

    2008-01-01

    Conversational implicature is a feature of language in use. This paper is trying to explore the conversational implicature phenomenonin business negotiation. From pragmatics view, it analyses the potential meaning of break off the Negotiation and carry on the negotiation in business negotiation. Through carefully selected examples, it manages to show how to behave politely in business negotiation. It's hoped that this paper can help those who are in such field to achieve successful negotiation.

  9. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Siegal; Luca Surian; Ayumi Matsuo; Alessandra Geraci; Laura Iozzi; Yuko Okumura; Shoji Itakura

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be...

  10. Clinical Research of External Applying ZhengGuling Wine for Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis%正骨灵外用酒治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亚锋; 杨隆奎; 刘立华; 袁恭贵

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To ohserve the therapeutic efficacy of external applying ZhengGuling wine for treatment of knee osteo-arthritis. Methods:200 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly divided into control group and treatment group, 100 patients in each group. The two groups were given external applying ZhengGuling wine and guzhining Caji respectively,and all the patients received TDP irradiation. All cases received follow-up at day 7 to evaluate therapeutic effect. Results: The good improvement rate was 91% in the treatment group while 86% in the control group, and there was no statistical significant difference between the two groups(P>0. 05). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion:With no adverse effect, external applying ZhengGuling wine for treatment of knee osteoarthritis has the same therapeutic efficacy as guzhining Caji.%目的:观察正骨灵外用酒治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效.方法:将膝关节骨性关节炎患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组100例,分别给予正骨灵外用酒和骨质宁擦剂外用治疗,同时均予TDP照射,并于治疗后第7天后进行评分,进行疗效分析.结果:愈显率治疗组为91%,对照组为86%,2组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组均未见严重不良反应.结论:正骨灵外用酒外用治疗膝关节骨性关节炎与骨质宁擦剂同样有显著疗效,且无副作用.

  11. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  12. MRSA prevalence rates detected in a tertiary care hospital in Austria and successful treatment of MRSA positive patients applying a decontamination regime with octenidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, G; Pux, C; Babeluk, R; Hermann, B; Stoiser, E; De Campo, A; Grisold, A; Zollner-Schwetz, I; Krause, R; Schippinger, W

    2017-08-28

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decontamination regimens predominantly use chlorhexidine bathing in combination with mupirocin nasal ointment. However, resistances in Staphylococcus aureus strains are increasingly common and there is a need of alternative, safe and feasible protocols. This interventional cohort study performed at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Graz, Austria, aimed to (1) determine MRSA prevalence at different body sites and (2) assess the efficacy of the decontamination using octenidine-based leave-on products added to existing robust infection control measures. All inpatients of this tertiary care hospital being treated in geriatric medical wards (GWs) and apallic care units (ACUs) were screened for MRSA and decontamination rates were determined after one, two or three decontamination cycles, respectively. At baseline, MRSA was detected in 25 of the 126 patients screened (19.8%). We found MRSA in 13/126 (10.3%) swabs from nasal vestibules, in 12/126 (9.5%) skin swabs, in 11/51 (21.6%) swabs from PEG-stomata or suprapubic catheters and in 8/13 (61.5%) tracheostomata swabs. A maximum of three 5-day decontamination cycles reduced the number of MRSA positive patients by 68.0%. Excluding non-compliant and deceased patients, decontamination reduced MRSA carriage by 93.3% (n = 15). No adverse events related to the applied decontamination regimen occurred. Exclusive screening of the nose might underreport MRSA prevalence rates. In this study, decontamination with octenidine-based leave-on products was safe and effective in a critical patient population.

  13. What can the treatment of Parkinson's disease learn from dementia care; applying a bio-psycho-social approach to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant

    2017-07-07

    Within contemporary medical practice, Parkinson's disease (PD) is treated using a biomedical, neurological approach, which although bringing numerous benefits can struggle to engage with how people with PD experience the disease. A bio-psycho-social approach has not yet been established in PD; however, bio-psycho-social approaches adopted within dementia care practice could bring significant benefit to PD care. This paper summarises existing bio-psycho-social models of dementia care and explores how these models could also usefully be applied to care for PD. Specifically, this paper adapts the bio-psycho-social model for dementia developed by Spector and Orrell (), to suggest a bio-psycho-social model, which could be used to inform routine care in PD. Drawing on the biopsychosocial model of Dementia put forward by Spector and Orrell (), this paper explores the application of a bio-psycho-social model of PD. This model conceptualises PD as a trajectory, in which several interrelated fixed and tractable factors influence both PD's symptomology and the various biological and psychosocial challenges individuals will face as their disease progresses. Using an individual case study, this paper then illustrates how such a model can assist clinicians in identifying suitable interventions for people living with PD. This model concludes by discussing how a bio-psycho-social model could be used as a tool in PD's routine care. The model also encourages the development of a theoretical and practical framework for the future development of the role of the PD specialist nurse within routine practice. A biopsychosocial approach to Parkinson's Disease provides an opportunity to move towards a holistic model of care practice which addresses a wider range of factors affecting people living with PD. The paper puts forward a framework through which PD care practice can move towards a biopsychosocial perspective. PD specialist nurses are particularly well placed to adopt such a model

  14. Challenges and opportunities of applying P4 medicine and traditional Chinese medicine for cancer treatment and prevention in the 21st century:Amedical oncologist’s perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H. Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the deadliest diseases, cancer needs a stronger dose of P4 medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory first proposed by Dr. Hood and TCM intervention, as cancer treatment still largely relies on the decade-old cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. This overview uses colorectal cancer model to discuss pitfalls in current cancer prevention and treatment strategies, which saw many randomized phase III studies failing to meet the study primary endpoints or marginally meeting the study objectives. Complete sequencing of whole human genome provided much of the hopes as well as hypes for precision medicine, as genomic diversity, ever changing tumor mutation landscape, SNP and complex microRNA regulation from the intron region and epigenetics make genotype to phenotype correlation study increasingly challenging. As a participant of One hundred Persons Pioneers Project, I witnessed first hand how a comprehensive scientific wellness study that integrates whole genomics, microbiome, and metabolome nutrition along with comprehensive laboratory examinations can be used to diagnose pre-illness in all “healthy” participants. Pre-illness can be best intervened by none pharmaceutical means and traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM adept in restoring internal healing mechanisms, opening up the blocked network and balancing the five-elements homeostasis. Following TCM principles, we were able to design a therapy that effectively targets colon cancer stem cells and its microenvironment leading to more doubling of overall survival with reduction in overall toxicities. Pre-illness diagnosis, cancer immunotherapy, TCM medicine is about restoring internal healing power by letting go brakes on “good” immune systems to go after the “bad” cancer cells. Time is ripe to integrate our knowledge in genomics immune systems, stem cell biology, nutrition, inflammation, metabolism, systems medicine, and modern TCM to deliver a

  15. Translation of Conversational Implicature and the Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Grice introduced the theory of conversational implicature which is essential in translation, especially in conversation translation of fictions. Four most commonly-seen and effective strategies of translating the conversational implicature are going to discussed.

  16. Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockaitis, G; Pantoja, J L R; Rodrigues, J A D; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a new type of anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) in which the support for the biomass consists of polyurethane foam strips placed along the length of the bioreactor. This configuration prevents the accumulation of biomass or solids in the bed as well as clogging and channeling effects. In this study, complex synthetic wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand of 404.4 mg O(2) L(-1) is treated by the reactor. The ABFSB, which has a working volume of 4.77 L, was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. A removal efficiency of 78 % for organic matter and an effluent pH of 6.97 were achieved. An analysis of the organic volatile acids produced by the ABFSB indicated that it operated under stable conditions during an experimental run of 36 days. The stable and efficient operation of the bioreactor was compared with the configurations of other anaerobic bioreactors used for complex wastewater treatment. The results of the study indicate that the ABFSB is a technological alternative to packed-bed bioreactors.

  17. A systematic approach to Bronze corrosion products and the methods of treatment , applied on three bronze anklets from Dhamar museum , Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three bronze anklets were found during the archaeological excavation of Yemeni mission 2002 A.D, in Gabal al- lawd , Jawf area , Yemen , they dated back to Minaean period in Yemen [sixth century B.C – 24 B.C] , and now they are situated in Dhamar regional museum .They were suffered from the deterioration aspects , two of these anklets had a thick corrosion products of pale green / brown , the third anklet had a rust-colored Black and Brown with the presence of small parts and scattered pale green. The aim of this paper is to examine, in detail, the corrosion of the selected objects that was grown during the long-term burial and identify its products that will help us to understand the corrosive factors and the degradation mechanisms , as well as their constituting metals in order to carry out scientific treatment and conservation .For this purpose ,samples from the objects were examined by Metallographic Microscope (ME , Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, the corrosion products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence( XRF was used to determine the objects metallic constituents . XRD data showed that the corrosion products constitute of cuprite , atacamite , and paratacamite , whereas XRF analysis declared that the anklets compose of bronze alloy . Microscopic examination reveals that the three anklets were suffered from the deterioration spots , which dispersed on the metal surface . Chemical cleaning was chosen for treating the objects , finally they were isolated to preserve them against further attack.

  18. Transcription Against an Applied Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Wang, Michelle D.; Svoboda, Karel; Landick, Robert; Block, Steven M.; Gelles, Jeff

    1995-12-01

    The force produced by a single molecule of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase during transcription was measured optically. Polymerase immobilized on a surface was used to transcribe a DNA template attached to a polystyrene bead 0.5 micrometer in diameter. The bead position was measured by interferometry while a force opposing translocation of the polymerase along the DNA was applied with an optical trap. At saturating nucleoside triphosphate concentrations, polymerase molecules stalled reversibly at a mean applied force estimated to be 14 piconewtons. This force is substantially larger than those measured for the cytoskeletal motors kinesin and myosin and exceeds mechanical loads that are estimated to oppose transcriptional elongation in vivo. The data are consistent with efficient conversion of the free energy liberated by RNA synthesis into mechanical work.

  19. Does the use of a prescriptive clinical prediction rule increase the likelihood of applying inappropriate treatments? A survey using clinical vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learman, Kenneth; Showalter, Christopher; Cook, Chad

    2012-12-01

    Clinical prediction rules (CPR) have been promoted as a natural progression in treatment decision-making. Methodological limitations of derivation and validation studies have resulted in some researchers questioning the indiscriminate use of CPRs. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the lumbar spine manipulation CPR (LCPR) use on clinical decision making through a survey of practicing clinicians. A sample of 535 physiotherapists from the United States, who routinely use thrust manipulation (TM), agreed to participate in this study. Those who use and those who do not use the LCPR determined group designation. A 9-step clinical vignette progressed a fictitious patient meeting the LCPR from no medical concern to significant concern for general health. A 2 × 9 chi-square was used to analyze the progression of decision-making. APTA board certification (P = 0.04), gender (P < 0.01), and manual therapy course attendance (P = 0.04) may increase and following the McKenzie philosophy (P < 0.01) may decrease the use of the LCPR. Subjects using the LCPR were more likely to choose to manipulate the patient (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02) during the first 2 scenarios of the vignette but both groups avoided TM equally as the medical concerns progressed. The results would suggest that subjects who routinely use TM would modify their decision-making to accommodate medical complications that preclude the indication for TM, and hence a potentially harmful intervention. This propensity to modify behaviour, was seen in both groups, regardless of their initial tendency to use the LCPR.

  20. Abreaction for conversion disorder: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman A; Wuerz, Axel; Agrawal, Niruj

    2010-08-01

    The value of drug interviews in the treatment of conversion disorder is at present unknown. To review all the available papers published in English that report on the use of drug interviews for treating conversion/dissociative disorder. Databases (including EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were searched from 1920 to 2009. Selected publications had to report on the use of drug interviews in people diagnosed with a conversion/dissociative disorder. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Predictors of a positive response were ascertained using meta-analytic techniques. Fifty-five papers meeting inclusion criteria were identified. No studies compared the intervention with a suitable control group. However, two studies reported high response rates when drug interview was used in individuals with treatment-resistant conversion disorder. In the meta-analysis, the use of suggestion and occurrence of emotional catharsis during the interview were positively associated with recovery. Combining two medications and comorbid psychiatric disorder were negatively associated with recovery. The evidence for effectiveness of drug interviews is of poor quality but it may be of benefit in the treatment of acute and treatment-resistant conversion disorder. A proactive approach during the interview, making suggestions the individual will respond, could influence outcome. Comorbid psychiatric disorder should be treated conventionally. Experimental studies to determine efficacy are required.

  1. Obtaining fuel oils from the low temperature conversion of biomass waste; Obtencao de oleo combustivel a partir da conversao a baixa temperatura de biomassa residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Cinelli, Leonardo Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Romeiro, Gilberto Alves; Damasceno, Raimundo Nonato [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: gilbertoromeiro@ig.com.br; Senra, Paulo Mauricio de Albuquerque [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: paulo.senra@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper refers to the characterization and application of oil obtained through the 'Low Temperature Conversion Process' applied to industrial waste generated in the treatment of effluent from the petrochemical industry. Physical and chemical parameters, such as viscosity, density, sulfur content, flash point, point of fluidity were obtained. The characterization of the oil obtained indicates the possibility of classifying it as oil fuel. Also, studying the application of the oil in engines. Developed from studies on the feasibility of producing biodiesel from sludge of sewage treatment plants in Germany of the 1980s, the 'Low Temperature Conversion-LTC' technique, is a thermo chemical process, whose main goal is to extend the life of liabilities environment. The LTC is being applied in various biomass of urban, industrial and agricultural origin, looking up through the thermal conversion transform them into products of potential commercial value. Depending on the type of biomass used in the process, are obtained a fraction lipophilic and a carbonaceous solid waste in a varying of proportions, plus a fraction hydrophilic and conversion gas. The lipophilic fraction is targeted to studies about the feasibility of its application as fuel or other compounds with possible commercial application (such as greases, oils, resins, etc.), while the carbonaceous residue is directed to studies about its activation for the used as activated charcoal, in addition to the possible direct use as energy.

  2. The Socioeconomic Assessment of Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    , reduction of compensation payment rate lowers the treatment effect of the SLCP on participating households from both River basins. Lastly, the third paper, ― The effect of the Sloping Land Conversion Program on farm household productivity in rural China, investigates the treatment effect (the causal effect......Abstract This thesis mainly focuses on the socioeconomic impact of the largest Ecological Recovery Program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), also called Grain for Green Program (GFG) in China. The central government initiated this program in 1999 and it was launched nationwide in 2002...... of household survey data, this study aims to improve our understanding of the treatment effect of the SLCP on farm households, which is split into three parts. The first paper ― The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China: Effects on Rural Households’ Livelihood Diversification, evaluates the effects...

  3. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  4. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-05-08

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Applied biotechnology in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell-Chen, E P; Williamson, V M; Westerdahl, B B

    1993-12-01

    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides.

  6. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  7. Calibration method for direct conversion receiver front-ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology induced process tolerances in analog circuits cause device characteristics different from specification. For direct conversion receiver front-ends a system level calibration method is presented. The malfunctions of the devices are compensated by tuning dominant circuit parameters. Thereto optimization techniques are applied which use measurement values and special evaluation functions.

  8. On the merits of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy in geosciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Bertelsen, P.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl;

    2006-01-01

    Described are some applications of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in geosciences. It is shown how easily this technique can be applied in existing Mossbauer laboratories to investigate natural samples. Some examples demonstrate the kind of information CEMS can give...... on the weathering history or mechanical properties of samples. The possible application of CEMS on Mars is discussed....

  9. Measuring prosodic alignment in cooperative task-based conversations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet P.; Heylen, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate prosodic alignment in task-based conversations. We use the HCRC Map Task Corpus and investigate how familiarity affects prosodic alignment and how task success is related to prosodic alignment. A variety of existing alignment measures is used and applied to our data. In

  10. Composition and corrosion resistance of cerium conversion films on 2195Al-Li alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Dong; FENG Xingguo; SUN Mingren; MA Xinxin; TANG Guangze

    2012-01-01

    The Ce conversion films on 2195Al-Li alloy without and with post-treatment were studied and the corrosion resistance was evaluated as well.The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEN),and the chemical composition was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The corrosion behaviors of 2195Al-Li alloy and conversion coating were assessed by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves.The experimental results indicated that after post-treatment the surface quality was improved significantly.According to XPS,the conversion coating after post-treatment was mainly composed of CeO2,Ce2O3,Ce-OH and a little MoO3 and MoO2.The results of potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the conversion coating with post-treatment possessed better corrosion resistance than bare alloy and Ce conversion coating without post-treatment.

  11. A radiologist`s guide to the imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Pt. 1. General considerations, physical examination as applied to real-time sonography and radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerscovich, E.O. [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 2516 Stockton Blvd., Ticon II Building, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States)

    1997-07-07

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has a broad spectrum of presentation with the minor findings resolving spontaneously and the most severe ones resulting in disability, if not diagnosed early in life. Diagnosis in the first few months of life allows conservative treatment with complete resolution in most cases. Suspicion of DDH is based on ethnic, family, and pregnancy history, and on physical examination of the newborn. Imaging assists in the diagnosis and follows the treatment. Different modalities have their own advantages and disadvantages. This article deals with the description of the disease, risk factors, statistics, the physical examination as applied to real-time sonography, and imaging (plain radiography, arthrography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging). (orig.). With 26 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Frequency conversion of structured light

    CERN Document Server

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent frequency conversion of structured light, optical beams in which the phase varies in each point of the transverse plane, from the near infrared (803nm) to the visible (527nm). The frequency conversion process makes use of sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate (ppLN) crystal with the help of a 1540-nm Gaussian pump beam. We perform far-field intensity measurements of the frequency-converted field, and verify the sought-after transformation of the characteristic intensity and phase profiles for various input modes. The coherence of the frequency-conversion process is confirmed using a mode-projection technique with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. The presented results could be of great relevance to novel applications in high-resolution microscopy and quantum information processing.

  13. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  14. La Conversation par le theatre (Conversation through Theater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoff, Marie-Jose

    1986-01-01

    A successful advanced college-level French conversation course using French theater as a basis for students to learn oral skills has six phases: an overview of the history of French theater, reading, adaptation of the text, rehearsal-readings, final rehearsals, and performance. (MSE)

  15. Wavelength conversion devices and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian; Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke;

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks are currently subject to an immense interest because of the extra capacity and flexibility they provide together with the possibilities for graceful system upgrades. For full network flexibility it is very attractive to be able to translate the chann...... wavelengths in an easy way and preferably without opto-electronic conversion. Here, we will first briefly look at advantages of employing optical wavelength converters in WDM networks and next review the optical wavelength conversion devices with emphasis on recent developments....

  16. Improvements of the One-to-Many Eigenvoice Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Yamato; Toda, Tomoki; Saruwatari, Hiroshi; Shikano, Kiyohiro

    We have developed a one-to-many eigenvoice conversion (EVC) system that allows us to convert a single source speaker's voice into an arbitrary target speaker's voice using an eigenvoice Gaussian mixture model (EV-GMM). This system is capable of effectively building a conversion model for an arbitrary target speaker by adapting the EV-GMM using only a small amount of speech data uttered by the target speaker in a text-independent manner. However, the conversion performance is still insufficient for the following reasons: 1) the excitation signal is not precisely modeled; 2) the oversmoothing of the converted spectrum causes muffled sounds in converted speech; and 3) the conversion model is affected by redundant acoustic variations among a lot of pre-stored target speakers used for building the EV-GMM. In order to address these problems, we apply the following promising techniques to one-to-many EVC: 1) mixed excitation; 2) a conversion algorithm considering global variance; and 3) adaptive training of the EV-GMM. The experimental results demonstrate that the conversion performance of one-to-many EVC is significantly improved by integrating all of these techniques into the one-to-many EVC system.

  17. Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Planning Model as Applied to Supplementation : Model Description, User Guide, and Theoretical Documentation for the Model Introduced in the Summary Report Series on Supplementation in the Columbia Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes the formulation and operation of a model designed to assist in planning supplementation projects. It also has application in examining a broader array of questions related to natural fish production and stock restoration. The model is referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) Model because of its utility in helping to diagnose and identify possible treatments to be applied to natural production problems for salmonids. It was developed through the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP), which was an initiative to help coordinate supplementation planning in the Columbia Basin. The model is operated within the spreadsheet environment of Quattro Pro using a system of customized menus. No experience with spreadsheet macros is required to operate it. As currently configured, the model should only be applied to spring chinook; modifications are required to apply it to fall chinook and other species. The purpose of the model is to enable managers to consider possible outcomes of supplementation under different sets of assumptions about the natural production system and the integration of supplementation fish into that system. It was designed to help assess uncertainty and the relative risks and benefits of alternative supplementation strategies. The model is a tool to facilitate both planning and learning; it is not a predictive model. This document consists of three principal parts. Part I provides a description of the model. Part II is a guide to running the model. Part III provides theoretical documentation. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of many of the model's parameters is provided in the appendix. This analysis was used to test whether the model produces consistent and reasonable results and to assess the relative effects of specific parameter inputs on outcome.

  18. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  19. Conversation with Marcia Baxter Magolda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Gideon L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the reconstruction of conversations and e-mail correspondences with Dr. Marcia Baxter Magolda regarding students'"ways of knowing." Dr. Baxter Magolda reveals various ways in which students beginning college learn, offers examples of effective teaching, and exemplifies principles for promoting learning. (VWC)

  20. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    here-between in contact with Tecnica Ital.26:65-71, Jan/Feb.1961. said second electrode. (U.S. Patent Off. Off. Gaz. 773:260, Dec.5,1961). In Italian...DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT. Mikrochim. Acta p.457-466, 3168 S 1951. Huber, H. and Bensimon, J. SUR LA CONVERSION DIRECTE DE CHALEUR EN (In English

  1. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  2. Turbulence and energy conversion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report examines the role of fluid mechanics research (particularly turbulence research) in improving energy conversion systems. In this report two of the listed application areas are selected as examples: fluidization and cavitation. Research needs in general, and research possibilities for ECUT in particular, are examined.

  3. Teachers' Conversation with Partial Autobiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Naoko

    2002-01-01

    Reports a teachers' conversation group that was part of a course in a Japanese as a second language teacher education program. Explains the rationale for using this format and quotes part of a story one student wrote and two stories told by other students on a theme in the written story. Relates these two stories to histories of students'…

  4. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  5. Coaching Conversations: Enacting Instructional Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed coaching conversations and interviews of four coach/teacher partnerships for specific ways in which kindergarten and first-grade teachers, and coaches, conceptualized instructional scaffolding for guided reading. Interview transcripts were coded for coaches' and teachers' specific hypotheses/ ideas regarding instructional…

  6. 盐酸多奈哌齐在老年痴呆治疗中的应用研究%The Applied Research of Donepezil Hydrochloride in Treatment of Alzheimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢成玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究老年痴呆患者采用盐酸多奈哌齐治疗的方法和效果。方法选取2013年1月~2014年4月收治的86例老年痴呆患者进行治疗,随机分组,实验组49例患者采用盐酸多奈哌齐的治疗,对照组37例患者采取基础治疗,观察患者的治疗效果。结果实验组治疗有效率为85.71%,对照组治疗有效率为59.46%。两组患者的治疗效果差异显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论老年痴呆患者采用盐酸多奈哌齐的治疗,不良反应少,安全性高,缓解患者的身体症状。%Objective The treatment and efficiency of donepezil hydrochloride in Alzheimer are to be investigated. Methods Choose 86 patients with Alzheimer who are treated in hospital from January 2013 to April 2014 and separate them into control group and study group at random. 49 patients in study group are given donepezil hydrochloride treatment and 37 patients in control group are given elementary treatment. And then observe the treatment efficiency of two groups. Results The treatment efficiency in study group is up to 85.71%and treatment efficiency in control group is up to 59.46%,there is a treatment differential between the two groups,such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Donepezil hydrochloride treatment is quite effective and safe to cure Alzheimer and relieve patients’ symptoms with less side-effect,which is worthy to be promoted and applied.

  7. Vectorial beam propagation simulation of a novel polarization conversion waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoping; van Brug, Hedser H.; Frankena, Hans J.; van der Tol, Jos J.; Pedersen, Jorgen W.

    1995-02-01

    The vectorial beam propagation method has successfully been applied to a passive polarization converting waveguide structure. A complete polarization conversion has been simulated. The propagating fields are calculated and the power attenuation is evaluated. The influence of structural changes of the device on the polarization conversion is investigated.

  8. 长蛇灸治疗强直性脊柱炎中的护理安全管理%Nursing security management of hydra moxibustion treatment applied in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊丽萍; 龚小燕; 潘芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨长蛇灸治疗强直性脊柱炎中的护理安全问题及其防范措施,防止不良并发症发生.方法 对患者施灸前做好充分的灸前准备,并针对治疗中容易发生的皮肤过敏及感染、烫伤、晕厥等安全问题进行积极防范以及灸后的护理干预.结果 38例患者无并发症发生,保障了患者安全.结论 针对长蛇灸治疗强直性脊柱炎中的护理安全问题积极防范,可以保障患者安全.%Objective To explore nursing safety problems and management strategies of hydra moxibustion treatment applied in patients with ankyiosing spondylitis, so as to prevent the occurrence of adverse complications. Methods Adequate preparation was done before hydra moxibustion treatment, and the problems, which were easy to occur during the treatment,such as skin allergies and infections,burns,syncope and other safety issues, were prevented actively,and nursing interventions after hydra moxibustion treatment were strengthened. Result No adverse complications happened in 38 patients, and the safty of patients was protected. Conclusion Positive prevention of nursing security problems during hydra moxibustion treatment can enhance the safety of patients.

  9. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up a turn at a transition relevance place the turn holder will normally continue. In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up

  10. Color space conversion of digital photofinishing by neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhong Mu; Feihong Yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A practical neural network model was designed to realize the color space conversion of digital photofinishing. The sampling, network structure and training process were introduced respectively. But in actual training, the networks fall into local minimum in all probability. To solve this problem, evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm was applied and the learning rate was adaptively adjusted. In the experiment, the performance of network was compared with pre-optimizing. Then the color space conversion was evaluated by the simulation error of samples from the point of color difference.

  11. AN INTELLIGENT CONVERSATION AGENT FOR HEALTH CARE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karpagam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Computer Interaction is one of the pervasive application areas of computer science to develop with multimodal interaction for information sharings. The conversation agent acts as the major core area for developing interfaces between a system and user with applied AI for proper responses. In this paper, the interactive system plays a vital role in improving knowledge in the domain of health through the intelligent interface between machine and human with text and speech. The primary aim is to enrich the knowledge and help the user in the domain of health using conversation agent to offer immediate response with human companion feel.

  12. Engineering Interfaces for Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stacey

    2011-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the related quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) show promise as inexpensive, efficient next-generation photovoltaic technologies. A typical cell design consists of a sensitizer chemisorbed to a nanoporous Ti O2 substrate; the sensitizer absorbs a photon and an excited electron is injected into the Ti O2 where it diffuses to the anode. However, many devices suffer from a high rate of electron-hole recombination at the interface between Ti O2 and the hole conductive material, leading to reduced conversion efficiency. In this work we explore whether a passivating layer at the interface can improve efficiency by acting as a barrier against electron recombination. We have studied both organic and inorganic approaches to modifying the interfacial properties in DSSC and QDSSC devices. In studies of CdS-based QDSSCs, a series of organic self-assembled monolayers were formed at the interface, and their effect on CdS uptake and resulting optoelectronic and device properties was investigated. In DSSCs, nanoscale inorganic dielectric films of different thicknesses were applied to the interface using atomic layer deposition prior to dye absorption. The effect on device performance was measured experimentally and compared with predictions from kinetic models. The results of these investigations will be discussed in the context of the ability of interface engineering to improve photovoltaic energy conversion.

  13. Electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2017-01-31

    An electrocatalytic process for carbon dioxide conversion includes combining a Catalytically Active Element and Helper Catalyst in the presence of carbon dioxide, allowing a reaction to proceed to produce a reaction product, and applying electrical energy to said reaction to achieve electrochemical conversion of said reactant to said reaction product. The Catalytically Active Element can be a metal in the form of supported or unsupported particles or flakes with an average size between 0.6 nm and 100 nm. the reaction products comprise at least one of CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and CF.sub.3COOH.

  14. Detection of unintended stress effects based on a metabonomic study in tomato fruits after treatment with carbofuran pesticide. Capabilities of MCR-ALS applied to LC-MS three-way data arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, Isidro; Culzoni, María J; Siano, Gabriel G; Gil García, María D; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Martínez Galera, María

    2009-10-15

    A chemometric strategy based on multivariate curve resolution and alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) applied to LC-MS three-way data arrays has been developed to perform a metabonomic study in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits (cultivar Rambo) following treatment with carbofuran. This methodology has proved to be adequate for the detection of unintended stress effects due to the previous treatment with this pesticide. MCR-ALS was performed on augmented matrices built with the LC-MS three-way data obtained from treated and nontreated samples through the sampling time. The strategy allowed us to obtain the concentration and spectra profiles of the main components (previously estimated with the SVD algorithm) from samples treated with pesticide as well as from blank samples, showing how they vary with time after plants treatment with the pesticide. In addition, a simple resolved mass spectrum was obtained corresponding to the peaks of a particular component in all matrices, thus avoiding ambiguity in the compound identity assignment. Different time profiles were found for some metabolites in treated and nontreated samples, which demonstrate that the presence of pesticide causes changes thorough time in the behavior of certain endogenous tomato metabolites as a result of physiological stress.

  15. Microreactor for electrochemical conversion in drug screening and proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical conversions play an important role in processes relevant to industry and society, such as the electrolysis and treatment of water, the operation of fuel cells and batteries, and the production of fine chemicals. In this thesis, the focus is on two major applications in which

  16. The Practice and Ethics of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, despite declassification of homosexuality as mental illness, efforts to sexually reorient lesbians and gay men continue. Examines construct of sexual orientation. Reviews literature in psychotherapeutic and religious conversion therapies, finding no evidence that such treatments are effective in their intended purpose. Establishes need…

  17. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M. F., E-mail: MFMoyers@roadrunner.com [Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai, China 201321 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. Methods: A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. Results: For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. Conclusions: The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote

  18. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  19. Sex Conversion Induced by Hydrostatic Pressure in the Marine Copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquier, V D; Belser, W L

    1965-12-17

    High hydrostatic pressure applied to the naupliar larval stages of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus converts some individuals that would have become males into females. The copepodid stages are not sensitive to pressureinduced conversion.

  20. Formation and characterization of cerium conversion coatings on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lingjie; LEI Jinglei; YU Shenghai; TIAN Yujing; JIANG Qiquan; PAN Fusheng

    2008-01-01

    Chemical conversion treatment by rare earth metal salt solution was considered as an alternative to chromium chemical conversion treatment to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In this study, cerium conversion coatings formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy were characterized and the formation mechanism was discussed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that cerium conversion coating consisted of cerium hydroxides/oxides, in which both tetravalent cerium Ce(IV) and trivalent cerium Ce(III) species co-existed. Cerium conversion coating was a two-layer structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that the morphology of the inside layer was different from that of the outside one, which was responsible for the inherent adhesive weakness of the coating. Corrosion potential (Ecorr) measurements indicated that poor adhesion limited the improvement of the corrosion resistance of the coating. During the treating process, the increased pH value of the cerium salt solution led to the precipitation of cerium hydroxides/oxides. The formation kinetics of the coating followed a parabolic curve.