WorldWideScience

Sample records for conversion technology based

  1. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  2. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  3. Proton conducting polymeric materials for hydrogen based electrochemical energy conversion technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David

    on the development and characterization of polymer based proton conducting membranes for operation at temperatures above 100 °C. The most frequently recurring experimental methods and techniques are described in Chapter 2. For PEM steam and liquid water electrolysis at temperatures up to 130 °C (Chapter 3 and 4...... and water electrolyzers. This thesis gives an overview of the principles and the current state-of-the-art technology of the hydrogen based electrochemical energy conversion technologies, with special emphasis on the PEM based water electrolyzers and fuel cells (Chapter 1). The fundamental thermodynamics...... of the recast Nafion® membranes at elevated temperature could be slightly improved by annealing the membrane in order to increase its degree of crystallinity. Short side chain (SSC) PFSA membranes such as Aquivion™ (Solvey Solexis), on the other hand, are generally characterized by a considerably higher degree...

  4. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  5. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  6. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  7. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  8. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  9. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  10. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  11. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  12. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  13. A new oxalate co-conversion technology based on liquid/liquid extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borda, Gilles; Ode, Denis; Duhamet, Jean; Allegri, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The current objective of fabricating non proliferating nuclear fuel by 'direct' coprecipitation of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides requires a new process to replace the (co)precipitation step. The technological impact of an increased capacity on the work zone could require the development of a different concept for a continuous device capable of ensuring the proposed goal. A new type of device designed and patented by the Cea was tested in 2007. The patent is for organic confinement in a pulsed column. First, precipitation of cerium or neodymium alone has been carried out in this device, with satisfactory results. Moreover, a recent test campaign demonstrated that a uranium-cerium co-precipitate easily forms when the two nitrates are mixed in a pulsed column of the same size operating under very similar process conditions. Qualitatively, the co-precipitate meets the process requirements. (authors)

  14. A new oxalate co-conversion technology based on liquid/liquid extraction columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda, Gilles; Ode, Denis; Duhamet, Jean; Allegri, Patrick [CEA Nuclear Energy Division - Fuel Cycle Technology Division - System and Chemical Engineering Device Marcoule - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The current objective of fabricating non proliferating nuclear fuel by 'direct' coprecipitation of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides requires a new process to replace the (co)precipitation step. The technological impact of an increased capacity on the work zone could require the development of a different concept for a continuous device capable of ensuring the proposed goal. A new type of device designed and patented by the Cea was tested in 2007. The patent is for organic confinement in a pulsed column. First, precipitation of cerium or neodymium alone has been carried out in this device, with satisfactory results. Moreover, a recent test campaign demonstrated that a uranium-cerium co-precipitate easily forms when the two nitrates are mixed in a pulsed column of the same size operating under very similar process conditions. Qualitatively, the co-precipitate meets the process requirements. (authors)

  15. A new co conversion technology based on liquid/liquid extraction column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda, Gilles; Ode, Denis; Duhamet, Jean; Brackx, Emmanuelle [CEA Valrho - Marcoule - BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    The current objective of implementing 'direct' coprecipitation of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides for nuclear fuel re-fabrication leads to reconsider the (co)precipitation step, and more precisely its adaptability to new flowrates' specifications. Indeed, coprecipitation of a uranium fraction together with plutonium results in an appreciable increase in the process flow rates for this step. The technological impact of the increase in capacity could require the development of a different concept for a continuous device capable of ensuring the proposed process. A new type of device designed and patented by the CEA has been tested since 2007. The patent is for organic confinement in a pulsed column (PC) or Couette column (CC). The precipitation reaction between the oxalate complexing agent and a surrogate nitrate-cerium(II) or neodymium(III) alone, or coprecipitated uranium(IV) and cerium(III), occurs within an emulsion created in the device by these two phases flowing with a counter-current chemically inert organic phase (for example TPH) produced by the stirring action of the pulsator (PC) or the central rotor (CC). The precipitate is confined and thus does not form deposits on the vessel walls (which are also water-repellent); it flows downward by gravity and exits the column continuously into a settling tank. This paper describes the recent results obtained with this new technology for precipitation of Ce and Nd and coprecipitation of U + Ce in pulsed column and Couette column. It describes a first modeling allowing further extrapolation of this device to high capacities. (authors)

  16. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  17. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  18. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  19. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B C; Hauserman, W B [Energy and Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  1. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  2. Plasma technology - a novel solution for CO2 conversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeckx, Ramses; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-10-02

    CO 2 conversion into value-added chemicals and fuels is considered as one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Due to the limitations of the traditional thermal approaches, several novel technologies are being developed. One promising approach in this field, which has received little attention to date, is plasma technology. Its advantages include mild operating conditions, easy upscaling, and gas activation by energetic electrons instead of heat. This allows thermodynamically difficult reactions, such as CO 2 splitting and the dry reformation of methane, to occur with reasonable energy cost. In this review, after exploring the traditional thermal approaches, we have provided a brief overview of the fierce competition between various novel approaches in a quest to find the most effective and efficient CO 2 conversion technology. This is needed to critically assess whether plasma technology can be successful in an already crowded arena. The following questions need to be answered in this regard: are there key advantages to using plasma technology over other novel approaches, and if so, what is the flip side to the use of this technology? Can plasma technology be successful on its own, or can synergies be achieved by combining it with other technologies? To answer these specific questions and to evaluate the potentials and limitations of plasma technology in general, this review presents the current state-of-the-art and a critical assessment of plasma-based CO 2 conversion, as well as the future challenges for its practical implementation.

  3. The Nature of Primary Students' Conversation in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom conversations are core to establishing successful learning for students. This research explores the nature of conversation in technology education in the primary classroom and the implications for teaching and learning. Over a year, two units of work in technology were taught in two primary classrooms. Most data was gathered in Round 2…

  4. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  5. Assessment of tidal and wave energy conversion technologies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented an attractive option to help meet Canada's future energy needs, notably the vast and energetic Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic coastal waters which make ocean renewable energy, particularly tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) and wave energy conversion (WEC). There is much uncertainty regarding the possible environmental impacts associated with their deployment and operation. In support of commercial development of the industry, a review of scientific knowledge was needed for the development of policy and regulations consistent with Canada's conservation and sustainability priorities. In April 2009, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) hosted a two-day national science advisory process meeting in order to determine the current state of knowledge on the environmental impacts of tidal and wave energy conversion technologies and their application in the Canadian context based on published reports. Potential mitigation measures were identified and the feasibility of developing a relevant Canadian statement of practice was determined. This report presented an assessment and analysis of wave power, including the impacts on physical processes; impacts on habitat characteristics; impacts on water quality; impacts of noise and vibrations; impacts of electromagnetic fields; impacts of physical encounters; cumulative impacts; and mitigation measures. It was concluded that there is a recognized need to develop and maintain national and regional georeferenced, interoperable, standards-based databases that enable access by governments, developers, academics, non-governmental organizations and the general public. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  6. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  7. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  8. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  9. Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical cells and systems play a key role in a wide range of industry sectors. These devices are critical enabling technologies for renewable energy; energy management, conservation, and storage; pollution control/monitoring; and greenhouse gas reduction. A large number of electrochemical energy technologies have been developed in the past. These systems continue to be optimized in terms of cost, life time, and performance, leading to their continued expansion into existing and emerging market sectors. The more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel cells, large format lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical reactors; ion transport membranes and supercapacitors. This growing demand (multi billion dollars) for electrochemical energy systems along with the increasing maturity of a number of technologies is having a significant effect on the global research and development effort which is increasing in both in size and depth. A number of new technologies, which will have substantial impact on the environment and the way we produce and utilize energy, are under development. This paper presents an overview of several emerging electrochemical energy technologies along with a discussion some of the key technical challenges. PMID:25309898

  10. Converse PUF-based authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocabas, U.; Peter, Andreas; Katzenbeisser, S.; Sadeghi, A.

    Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are key tools in the construction of lightweight authentication and key exchange protocols. So far, all existing PUF-based authentication protocols follow the same paradigm: A resource-constrained prover, holding a PUF, wants to authenticate to a resource-rich

  11. Review of Biojet Fuel Conversion Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Batan, Liaw [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Biomass-derived jet (biojet) fuel has become a key element in the aviation industry’s strategy to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. Researchers from the oil-refining industry, the aviation industry, government, biofuel companies, agricultural organizations, and academia are working toward developing commercially viable and sustainable processes that produce long-lasting renewable jet fuels with low production costs and low greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, jet fuels must meet ASTM International specifications and potentially be a 100% drop-in replacement for the current petroleum jet fuel. The combustion characteristics and engine tests demonstrate the benefits of running the aviation gas turbine with biojet fuels. In this study, the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels, categorized by alcohols-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet pathways, are reviewed. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.

  12. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Low-cost feedstock conversion to biodiesel via ultrasound technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, O.; Petrik, L.; Amigun, B.; Ameer, F. [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Amigun, B. [Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock - in this case waste cooking oil - in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 {sup o}C, a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration were obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound. (authors)

  14. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, Omotola [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Petrik, Leslie [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Amigun, Bamikole [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa) and Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ameer, Faraouk [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-09-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 deg C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  15. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  16. Using information technology to support knowledge conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main roles of Information Technology in Knowledge Management programs is to accelerate the speed of knowledge transfer and creation. The Knowledge Management tools intend to help the processes of collecting and organizing the knowledge of groups of individuals in order to make this knowledge available in a shared base. Due to the largeness of the concept of knowledge, the software market for Knowledge Management seems to be quite confusing. Technology vendors are developing different implementations of the Knowledge Management concepts in their software products. Because of the variety and quantity of Knowledge Management tools available on the market, a typology may be a valuable aid to organizations that are looking for answers to specific needs. The objective of this article is to present guidelines that help to design such a typology. Knowledge Management solutions such as intranet systems, Electronic Document Management (EDM, groupware, workflow, artificial intelligence-based systems, Business Intelligence (BI, knowledge map systems, innovation support, competitive intelligence tools and knowledge portals are discussed in terms of their potential contributions to the processes of creating, registering and sharing knowledge. A number of Knowledge Management tools (Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Business Objects, Aris Toolset, File Net, Gingo, Vigipro, Sopheon have been checked. The potential of each category of solutions to support the transfer of tacit and/or explicit knowledge and to facilitate the knowledge conversion spiral in the sense of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 is discussed.

  17. Student Emotions in Conversation-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Blair A.; Zapata-Rivera, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Students can experience a variety of emotions while completing assessments. Some emotions can get in the way of students performing their best (e.g., anxiety, frustration), whereas other emotions can facilitate student performance (e.g., engagement). Many new, non-traditional assessments, such as automated conversation-based assessments (CBA), are…

  18. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  19. Betavoltaic Battery Conversion Efficiency Improvement Based on Interlayer Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Da-Rang; Jiang Lan; Yin Jian-Hua; Lin Nai; Tan Yuan-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Significant differences among the doping densities of PN junctions in semiconductors cause lattice mismatch and lattice defects that increase the recombination current of betavoltaic batteries. This extensively decreases the open circuit voltage and the short current, which results in low conversion efficiency. This study proposes P + PINN + -structure based betavoltaic batteries by adding an interlayer to typical PIN structures to improve conversion efficiency. Numerical simulations are conducted for the energy deposition of beta particles along the thickness direction in semiconductors. Based on this, 63 Ni-radiation GaAs batteries with PIN and P + PINN + structures are designed and fabricated to experimentally verify the proposed design. It turns out that the conversion efficiency of the betavoltaic battery with the proposed P + PINN + structure is about 1.45 times higher than that with the traditional PIN structure. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Electrochemical conversion technologies for optimal design of decentralized multi-energy systems : Modeling framework and technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    The design and operation of integrated multi-energy systems require models that adequately describe the behavior of conversion and storage technologies. Typically, linear conversion performance or fixed data from technology manufacturers are employed, especially for new or advanced technologies.

  1. Technology and Teaching: A Conversation among Faculty Regarding the Pros and Cons of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew T.; Preston, John; Page, C. Steven; Harper, Rebecca; Dillard, Benita; Flynn, Joseph; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2014-01-01

    Technology is often touted as the savior of education (Collins & Haverson, 2009). However, is technology the panacea that it is made out to be? This paper is an extended conversation among a group of faculty members at three different universities and their attitudes and beliefs about technology and education. Three professors shared their…

  2. The Impacts on Illegal Farmland Conversion of Adopting Remote Sensing Technology for Land Inspection in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiyang Zhong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While China’s central government has adopted remote sensing technology in land inspection since 2000, little empirical research has been done on its effect. This study aims to measure the effect of satellite imagery-based land inspection (SIBI on illegal farmland conversion. The data used in this study were collected for the period from 1997 to 2010 at the province-level. The econometrics approach for panel data model was used in this research. The results showed that SIBI has a deterrent effect of approximately 2.42 ha for every increase of 1% in proportion to the area of prefecture-level regions inspected in a province-level region. The results also indicate land inspections with RS (Remote Sensing technology saved approximately 11,880 ha farmland from illegal conversion during 2000–2010 with an estimated contribution of reducing illegal farmland conversion by nearly 11%. Furthermore, the governance structure change for land inspection has also contributed to deterring illegal farmland conversion. The deterrent effects due to land inspection by the Supervisor of State Land (SSL are about 7332 ha during 2008–2010 with an estimated contribution of reducing illegal farmland conversion by nearly 33%. In conclusion, although SIBI has strengthened China’s central capacity to uncover illegal farmland conversion and weakened local governments’ abilities to hide illegal farmland conversion, it has limited impact on illegal farmland conversion since it is just a technical tool. Improvements in the land inspection governance structure have also helped to deter illegal farmland conversion.

  3. Comparative efficiency of technologies for conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's eastern regions to NEA countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, Aleksandr; Tyurina, Elina; Mednikov, Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents perspective technologies for combined conversion of fossil fuels into synthetic liquid fuels and electricity. The comparative efficiency of various process flows of conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's east that are aimed at supplying electricity to remote consumers is presented. These also include process flows based on production of synthetic liquid fuel.

  4. Product information representation for feature conversion and implementation of group technology automated coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, A. J.; Zhu, Guowang; Gao, Jian; Sun, Jian

    1996-03-01

    Feature conversion, also called feature transformation and feature mapping, is defined as the process of converting features from one view of an object to another view of the object. In a relatively simple implementation, for each application the design features are automatically converted into features specific for that application. All modifications have to be made via the design features. This is the approach that has attracted most attention until now. In the ideal situation, however, conversions directly from application views to the design view, and to other applications views, are also possible. In this paper, some difficulties faced in feature conversion are discussed. A new representation scheme of feature-based parts models has been proposed for the purpose of one-way feature conversion. The parts models consist of five different levels of abstraction, extending from an assembly level and its attributes, single parts and their attributes, single features and their attributes, one containing the geometric reference element and finally one for detailed geometry. One implementation of feature conversion for rotational components within GT (Group Technology) has already been undertaken using an automated coding procedure operating on a design-feature database. This database has been generated by a feature-based design system, and the GT coding scheme used in this paper is a specific scheme created for a textile machine manufacturing plant. Such feature conversion techniques presented here are only in their early stages of development and further research is underway.

  5. Foresight Study on Advanced Conversion Technologies of Fossil Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver, A.; Cabrera, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Observatorio de Prospectiva Tecnologica Industrial (OPTI) is a Foundation supported by the Ministry of Industry and Energy, (MINER) and has as main objective to provide a basic information and knowledge on technology evolution. This information will be accessible to the Administration and to the Companies and can be taking into account in planning and decision making of technology policies. Ciemat is member of OPTI and is the organism in charge of the actions in the Energy sector. CIEMAT has the responsibility on the realisation of the sector studies to get in three years (1998 to 2001) a foresight vision of the critical technology topics. The OPTI integrated strategic plan undertake the analysis of other seven technology sectors, with the same criteria on methodological aspects. Delphi method was used for the realization of the studies. It consisted of a survey conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire to check the experts opinion. The time frame of the studies was defined from 1999 to 2015. The study presented in this document has been performed by CIEMAT in the second stage of the OPTI activities. The main goal behind this study is to identify the advanced clean and efficient technologies for the conversion of fossil fuels to promote in our country. The questionnaire was addressed to 250 experts and the response rate was about the 37%, ratifying the final results. The spanish position and the barriers for the development of each technology has been determined and also the recommended measures to facilitate their performance in the future. This basic information is consider of main interest, taking in account the actual energetic situation with a foreseeable demand increase and fossil fuels dependence. (Author) 17 refs

  6. Symposium proceedings: environmental aspects of fuel conversion technology, II, December 1975, Hollywood, Florida. [34 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, F.A. (comp.)

    1976-06-01

    The report covers EPA's second symposium on the environmental aspects of fuel conversion technology. Its main objective was to review and discuss environmentally related information in the field of fuel conversion technology. Specific topics were environmental problem definition, process technology, control technology, and process measurements. Thirty-four papers were abstracted and indexed separately.

  7. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  8. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zr-based conversion coatings for multi-metal substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerezo Palacios, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD work, a new surface treatment based on the application of Zr-based conversion coatings by immersion in a Cu containing Zr-based conversion solution was investigated as a replacement of the traditional phosphating process for the automotive industry. Nowadays most of the cars are made of

  10. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a

  11. ECUT (Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies) program: Biocatalysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Larry

    1989-03-01

    The Annual Report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1988 research activities and accomplishments, for the Biocatalysis Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Division. The ECUT Biocatalysis Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The Biocatalysis Project is a mission-oriented, applied research and exploratory development activity directed toward resolution of the major generic technical barriers that impede the development of biologically catalyzed commercial chemical production. The approach toward achieving project objectives involves an integrated participation of universities, industrial companies and government research laboratories. The Project's technical activities were organized into three work elements: (1) The Molecular Modeling and Applied Genetics work element includes research on modeling of biological systems, developing rigorous methods for the prediction of three-dimensional (tertiary) protein structure from the amino acid sequence (primary structure) for designing new biocatalysis, defining kinetic models of biocatalyst reactivity, and developing genetically engineered solutions to the generic technical barriers that preclude widespread application of biocatalysis. (2) The Bioprocess Engineering work element supports efforts in novel bioreactor concepts that are likely to lead to substantially higher levels of reactor productivity, product yields and lower separation energetics. Results of work within this work element will be used to establish the technical feasibility of critical bioprocess monitoring and control subsystems. (3) The Bioprocess Design and Assessment work element attempts to develop procedures (via user-friendly computer software) for assessing the energy-economics of biocatalyzed chemical production processes, and initiation of technology transfer for advanced bioprocesses.

  12. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ''Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting

  13. Organizational Capability Deployment Analysis for Technology Conversion into Processes, Products and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Daniela Hamanaka Gusberti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Organizational Capabilities as the basic components of business models that emerged under the New Product Development Process and Technological Management. In the context of the new Technology Based Companies Development, it adopts a qualitative research in order to identify, analyze and underpin the organizational capability deployment in a process of technology conversion into product and service. The analysis was carried out considering concepts from literature review, in a technology based enterprise started by an academic spin-off company. The analysis enabled the elicitation of a Business Model and the discussion of their components, and correspondent evolution hypothesis. The paper provides an example of capability deployment accordingly the established theory illustrated by a case study. The study not just enumerate the needed partners, resources, customer channels, it enabled the description of their connection, representing the logic behind the decision made to develop the conceptual model. This detailed representation of the model allows better addressed discussions.

  14. Symposium proceedings: environmental aspects of fuel conversion technology, IV (April 1979, Hollywood, FL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, F.A.; Jones, N.S. (comps.)

    1979-09-01

    The proceedings document presentations made at the symposium on Environmental Aspects of Fuel Conversion Technology are presented. The symposium acted as a colloquium for discussion of environmentally related information on coal gasification and liquefaction. The program included sessions on program approach, environmental assessment, and control technology development. Process developers, process users, research scientists and state and federal government officials participated in this symposium, the fourth to be conducted by IERL-RTP on the subject since 1974. Separate abstracts have been prepared of individual presentations for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Development of FR fuel cycle in Japan (3) - Current state on unified technology of De-nitration conversion and granulation for the simplified pellet fuel production based on microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Ishii, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Kato, Y.; Kurita, T.; Yoshimoto, K.; Kihara, Y.; Namekawa, T.; Fujii, K. I.

    2008-01-01

    The major experimental results and current state on unified and simplified de-nitration conversion processing are explained. This technology was enabled by the nitrate solutions mixing method which is our original idea proposed in FS phase II project and transferred to present FaCT project where the mass production is the supreme subject. The major results obtained up to present, which are based on the two originalities, are as follows; (1) The mixing rate of the plutonium nitrate solution (PNS) into the uranium nitrate solution (UNS) was satisfactorily adjusted by the feeding of 0.5 litter step, (2) Excellent size uniformity around 10 μm was obtained in the MOX powders including 30 wt% of PUO 2 products, (3) In the microwave heating, a mild and stable boiling occurred at whole space in the evaporation dish and the size of bubbles gradually became smaller closing to the finishing stage, (4) The Can coefficient of raw MOX powders containing 30 wt% of PUO 2 was ranged 20-40 just before granulation, being rather difficult to pack them in a die, but after the granulation, the packing rate reached 100 %. (authors)

  16. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  17. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  18. Solid State Microchp Based On Thermophotovoltaic And Thermoelectric Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Worek, William M.; Brown, Christopher; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Butcher, Thomas; Horne, Edward

    2012-01-01

    MicroCHP involves the coproduction of both heat and electric power in (typically) residential heating systems. A range of different energy conversion technologies are currently receiving attention for this application including Stirling engines, internal combustion engines, fuel cells, and Rankine cycles with steam or organic compounds as working fluids. In this work the use of ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) and ThermoElectric (TE) conversion devices either alone or in combination for power product...

  19. Technologies for all-optical wavelength conversion in DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Different techniques for all-optical wavelength conversion are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages seen from a system perspective are highlighted. All-optical wavelength conversion will play a major role in making cost-effective network nodes in future high-speed WDM networks, where...

  20. Advanced Reactor Technology/Energy Conversion Project FY17 Accomplishments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the ART Energy Conversion (EC) Project is to provide solutions to convert the heat from an advanced reactor to useful products that support commercial application of the reactor designs.

  1. Design of batch audio/video conversion platform based on JavaEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yansong; Jiang, Lianpin

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of digital publishing industry, the direction of audio / video publishing shows the diversity of coding standards for audio and video files, massive data and other significant features. Faced with massive and diverse data, how to quickly and efficiently convert to a unified code format has brought great difficulties to the digital publishing organization. In view of this demand and present situation in this paper, basing on the development architecture of Sptring+SpringMVC+Mybatis, and combined with the open source FFMPEG format conversion tool, a distributed online audio and video format conversion platform with a B/S structure is proposed. Based on the Java language, the key technologies and strategies designed in the design of platform architecture are analyzed emphatically in this paper, designing and developing a efficient audio and video format conversion system, which is composed of “Front display system”, "core scheduling server " and " conversion server ". The test results show that, compared with the ordinary audio and video conversion scheme, the use of batch audio and video format conversion platform can effectively improve the conversion efficiency of audio and video files, and reduce the complexity of the work. Practice has proved that the key technology discussed in this paper can be applied in the field of large batch file processing, and has certain practical application value.

  2. A feasibility study of conceptual design for international clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Hamada, Akiyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Clean energy is more and more required worldwide in proportion to actualization of global environmental issues including global warming. Therefore, it is an urgent task to realize promotion of worldwide introduction of clean energy which exists abundantly and is widely distributed in the world, such as hydropower and solar energy, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuel. However, since the renewable energy, differing from so called fossil fuel, is impossible to transport for long distance and store as it is, its utilization is subject to be limited. As one possible resolution of this kind of issues, 'International clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology' which enables conversion of renewable energy from low cost hydropower into hydrogen energy and also into the transportable and storable form, is a meaningful concept. This system technology enables dealing of this hydrogen energy in international market as in the same manner as fossil fuel. It is considered to enable promotion of international and large scale introduction of such clean energy, along with the contribution to diversified and stabilized international energy supply. In this study, based upon the above-mentioned point of view and assumption of two sites, one on supply side and another on demand side of hydrogen energy, three systems are presumed. One of the systems consists of liquid hydrogen as transportation and storage medium of hydrogen, and the others intermediately convert hydrogen into methanol or ammonia as an energy carrier. A overall conceptual design of each system spanning from hydrogen production to its utilization, is conducted in practical way in order to review the general technical aspects and economical aspects through cost analysis. This study is administrated through the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) as a part of the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (so-called WE-NET) Program with funding from

  3. Technology based Education System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant Hiran, Kamal; Doshi, Ruchi; Henten, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Abstract - Education plays a very important role for the development of the country. Education has multiple dimensions from schooling to higher education and research. In all these domains, there is invariably a need for technology based teaching and learning tools are highly demanded in the acad......Abstract - Education plays a very important role for the development of the country. Education has multiple dimensions from schooling to higher education and research. In all these domains, there is invariably a need for technology based teaching and learning tools are highly demanded...... in the academic institutions. Thus, there is a need of comprehensive technology support system to cater the demands of all educational actors. Cloud Computing is one such comprehensive and user-friendly technology support environment that is the need of an hour. Cloud computing is the emerging technology that has...

  4. Technology transfer and design conversion of a dry spent fuel storage system in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, R.C.; Marcelli, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    A number of unique issues surfaced in the technology transfer and design conversion of a US dry spent fuel storage technology in Ukraine. Unique challenges were encountered in the areas of nuclear design conversion, technical codes and standards, material selection and qualification, fabrication, construction and testing, quality assurance, documentation, and translation and verification processes. Technology transfer and design conversion were undertaken for both concrete and steel components for the project. The overall effort presented significant technical and cultural challenges to both the US and Ukrainian side, but technical exchange and design improvements to achieve a common goal have been reached. (author)

  5. Reactor technology: power conversion systems and reactor operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of advanced fuels permits the use of coolants (organic, high pressure helium) that result in power conversion systems with good thermal efficiency and relatively low cost. Water coolant would significantly reduce thermal efficiency, while lithium and salt coolants, which have been proposed for DT reactors, will have comparable power conversion efficiencies, but will probably be significantly more expensive. Helium cooled blankets with direct gas turbine power conversion cycles can also be used with DT reactors, but activation problems will be more severe, and the portion of blanket power in the metallic structure will probably not be available for the direct cycle, because of temperature limitations. A very important potential advantage of advanced fuel reactors over DT fusion reactors is the possibility of easier blanket maintenance and reduced down time for replacement. If unexpected leaks occur, in most cases the leaking circuit can be shut off and a redundant cooling curcuit will take over the thermal load. With the D-He 3 reactor, it appears practical to do this while the reactor is operating, as long as the leak is small enough not to shut down the reactor. Redundancy for Cat-D reactors has not been explored in detail, but appears feasible in principle. The idea of mobile units operating in the reactor chamber for service and maintenance of radioactive elements is explored

  6. Abstracts of the international scientific-practical conference on space research, technology and conversion-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The International Conference on space research, technology and conversion-II was held on 16-18 April, 1997 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of space research, technology and conversion problems. More than 60 talks were presented in the meeting on the following subjects: remote sensing and the processing of satellite information; space navigation and others, including radiation effects in silicon solar cells caused by cosmic radiation. (A.A.D.)

  7. Prospects of power conversion technology of direct-cycle helium gas turbine for MHTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Zhang Zuoyi

    1999-01-01

    The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor (MHTGR) is a modern passively safe reactor. The reactor and helium gas turbine may be combined for high efficiency's power conversion, because MHTGR has high outlet temperature up to 950 degree C. Two different schemes are planed separately by USA and South Africa. the helium gas turbine methodologies adopted by them are mainly based on the developed heavy duty industrial and aviation gas turbine technology. The author introduces the differences of two technologies and some design issues in the design and manufacture. Moreover, the author conclude that directly coupling a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine concept to the passively safe MHTGR is the developing direction of MHTGR due to its efficiency which is much higher than that of using steam turbine

  8. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  9. The state of the art of wind energy conversion systems and technologies: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ming; Zhu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems. • Different types of common wind energy conversion systems are classified and compared. • The four most popular MPPT control methods are reviewed and compared. • The latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced. • Future trends of the wind energy conversion technologies are discussed. - Abstract: This paper gives a comprehensive review of the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and technologies, with an emphasis on wind power generator and control. First, different types of common WECSs are classified according to their features and drive train types. The WECSs are compared on the basis of the volume, weight, cost, efficiency, system reliability and fault ride through capability. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, which aims to make the generator speed meet an optimum value to ensure the maximum energy yield, plays a key role in the variable speed WECSs. A comprehensive review and comparison of the four most popular MPPT control methods are carried out and improvements for each method are presented. Furthermore, the latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced, such as the brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG), the stator permanent magnet synchronous generators, the magnetic-geared generators, dual power flow WECS with the electrical variable transmission (EVT) machine, and direct grid-connected WECS. Finally, the future trends of the technologies are discussed

  10. Conversion technologies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpak, A.; Borovik, S.

    1994-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine has taken active part in creating elements, technology of new kinds of military equipment and armament. There existed a successful and mutually beneficial cooperation among institutes dealing with problems of natural sciences and a number of defence enterprises. Special fundamental research undertaken made significant contribution to general development of fundamental science and technology development in industry. Therefore a number of scientific research laboratories could immediately or after certain improvements be converted from military to civil applications

  11. Polyaniline (PANi based electrode materials for energy storage and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PANi as one kind of conducting polymers has been playing a great role in the energy storage and conversion devices besides carbonaceous materials and metallic compounds. Due to high specific capacitance, high flexibility and low cost, PANi has shown great potential in supercapacitor. It alone can be used in fabricating an electrode. However, the inferior stability of PANi limits its application. The combination of PANi and other active materials (carbon materials, metal compounds or other polymers can surpass these intrinsic disadvantages of PANi. This review summarizes the recent progress in PANi based composites for energy storage/conversion, like application in supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and water hydrolysis. Besides, PANi derived nitrogen-doped carbon materials, which have been widely employed as carbon based electrodes/catalysts, are also involved in this review. PANi as a promising material for energy storage/conversion is deserved for intensive study and further development.

  12. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  13. Assessment of photovoltaic conversion technology for electricity producing in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanov, P.; Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Peneva, M.; Delibasheva, M.

    1996-01-01

    Characteristics of a 36W/12V solar photovoltaic converter developed in the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences have been studied. Technical description of the module containing 4 monocrystal Si solar elements is given. Each element is with conversion efficiency more than 12% and has multilayer metallization. The power generated by the module is directly proportional to solar radiation. The electric energy generated in a sunny day is more than 240 Wh and more than 7 kWh in a spring month (April). The system can work without a battery for 8 - 18 hours. The results show that the utilization of such type of economically efficient stand-alone systems is advisable for Bulgaria. 4 figs., 3 refs

  14. Everyday conversation requires cognitive inference: neural bases of comprehending implicated meanings in conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gijeong; Yoon, Shin-ae; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Haeil; Kim, Joohan; Ko, Jeong Hoon; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2013-11-01

    In ordinary conversations, literal meanings of an utterance are often quite different from implicated meanings and the inference about implicated meanings is essentially required for successful comprehension of the speaker's utterances. Inference of finding implicated meanings is based on the listener's assumption that the conversational partner says only relevant matters according to the maxim of relevance in Grice's theory of conversational implicature. To investigate the neural correlates of comprehending implicated meanings under the maxim of relevance, a total of 23 participants underwent an fMRI task with a series of conversational pairs, each consisting of a question and an answer. The experimental paradigm was composed of three conditions: explicit answers, moderately implicit answers, and highly implicit answers. Participants were asked to decide whether the answer to the Yes/No question meant 'Yes' or 'No'. Longer reaction time was required for the highly implicit answers than for the moderately implicit answers without affecting the accuracy. The fMRI results show that the left anterior temporal lobe, left angular gyrus, and left posterior middle temporal gyrus had stronger activation in both moderately and highly implicit conditions than in the explicit condition. Comprehension of highly implicit answers had increased activations in additional regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex and right anterior temporal lobe. The activation results indicate involvement of these regions in the inference process to build coherence between literally irrelevant but pragmatically associated utterances under the maxim of relevance. Especially, the left anterior temporal lobe showed high sensitivity to the level of implicitness and showed increased activation for highly versus moderately implicit conditions, which imply its central role in inference such as semantic integration. The right

  15. Selection of biomass thermochemical conversion technology in the Netherlands : A best worst method approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kaa, G.; Kamp, L.M.; Rezaei, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the technology battle for biomass conversion in the Netherlands. Three types of technologies are currently fighting the battle for standard dominance: combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Twelve relevant factors for standard dominance were found: ‘financial strength’,

  16. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muth, T.R.; Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B.

    1994-01-01

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC's vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC's rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines

  17. Application of radiation technology to biomass conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1984-01-01

    The work carried out at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is reported for the following research projects: wood powdering of pre-irradiated chips; effect of combining electron beam processing (EBP) with other pretreatments on the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials; radiation immobilization of enzymes. The EBP of eucalyptus chips at an average dose of 1.5 x 10 5 Gy allowed a reduction of the energy required to produce a given weight of wood particles smaller than 300 μm by a factor of five. Wood powder of this particle size proved to be an excellent fuel for suspension firing system and could be used as raw material to feed continuous hydrolytic processes. Conversion efficiencies of 25.8% and 53.4%, respectively, were obtained in the production of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood and sugarcane bagasse when materials were previously irradiated at 10 5 Gy, pulverized at 50 mesh and impregnated with 2% NaOH solution. Immobilization of cellulase by radiation induced polymerization of hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate(HEMA) was effective when made at - 78 0 C in the presence of silica gel adsorbents or polyethylene glycol. (Author) [pt

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH THERMAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Overview of the most common technological and environmental problems connected with thermal conversion of sewage sludge was presented in the article. Such issues as the influence of content of moisture and mineral matter on fuel properties of sludge, problem of emission of pollutants, problem of management of solid residue, risk of corrosion, were described. Besides, consolidated characteristic of the most important methods of thermal conversion of sewage sludge, with their advantages and disadvantages, was presented in the paper.

  19. Life cycle evaluation of emerging lignocellulosic ethanol conversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatari, Sabrina; Bagley, David M; MacLean, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol holds promise for addressing climate change and energy security issues associated with personal transportation through lowering the fuel mixes' carbon intensity and petroleum demand. We compare the technological features and life cycle environmental impacts of near- and mid-term ethanol bioconversion technologies in the United States. Key uncertainties in the major processes: pre-treatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation are evaluated. The potential to reduce fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions varies among bioconversion processes, although all options studied are considerably more attractive than gasoline. Anticipated future performance is found to be considerably more attractive than that published in the literature as being achieved to date. Electricity co-product credits are important in characterizing the GHG impacts of different ethanol production pathways; however, in the absence of near-term liquid transportation fuel alternatives to gasoline, optimizing ethanol facilities to produce ethanol (as opposed to co-products) is important for reducing the carbon intensity of the road transportation sector and for energy security.

  20. The new technologies and infrastructure conversion of nuclear testing in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    1999-01-01

    It is known, that in August, 1991, in accordance with Decree by the Kazakhstan President, the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was shut down, and practical works on its conversion were initiated. In 1991 the decision on creation of the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center (KNNC) on a base of the test site scientific and industrial enterprises and Inst. of Nuclear Physics was taken. In 1993 within frame KNNC three new institutes (Inst. of Atomic Energy, Inst. of Geophysical Research, Inst. of Radiation Safety and Ecology) were created. Owing to this, at the condition of USSR disintegration and liquidation of military division in test site territory, high-qualified personnel was saved, the facilities that represent nuclear danger were left under operation and surveillance, and the full-scale program of STS conversion was developed and put into life. At present guidelines for the major research activities at KNNC on conversion program are as follows: liquidation of consequences of nuclear tests; liquidation of technological structure used before for preparation and implementation of nuclear weapons tests; creation of technology, equipment and locations for receipt and storage of radioactive wastes; working out the concept of nuclear power development in Kazakhstan; investigation of the behaviour of melted reactor core in view of potential heavy accidents at nuclear power plants; development of technique and means for detection of nuclear test in the world, continuous control for nuclear explosions; experimental works on investigation of behaviour of the materials-candidates for role of constructional materials for the thermonuclear reactor ITER; creation of high-technology industries. These and other activities undertaken in this respect allow to attract considerable foreign investments, to create in Kurchatov city hundreds of additional working places.The Government support rendered to KNNC in future will allow to expand substantially this area of activities as well as to

  1. Gas Turbine Energy Conversion Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Applicable to LiFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    This panel plans to cover thermal energy and electric power production issues facing our nation and the world over the next decades, with relevant technologies ranging from near term to mid-and far term.Although the main focus will be on ground based plants to provide baseload electric power, energy conversion systems (ECS) for space are also included, with solar- or nuclear energy sources for output power levels ranging tens of Watts to kilo-Watts for unmanned spacecraft, and eventual mega-Watts for lunar outposts and planetary surface colonies. Implications of these technologies on future terrestrial energy systems, combined with advanced fracking, are touched upon.Thorium based reactors, and nuclear fusion along with suitable gas turbine energy conversion systems (ECS) will also be considered by the panelists. The characteristics of the above mentioned ECS will be described, both in terms of their overall energy utilization effectiveness and also with regard to climactic effects due to exhaust emissions.

  2. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products

  3. Analysis of Electric Vehicle DC High Current Conversion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Jing-fen; Lin, Fan-tao; Lu, Da

    2017-05-01

    Based on the background of electric vehicles, it is elaborated the necessity about electric energy accurate metering of electric vehicle power batteries, and it is analyzed about the charging and discharging characteristics of power batteries. It is needed a DC large current converter to realize accurate calibration of power batteries electric energy metering. Several kinds of measuring methods are analyzed based on shunts and magnetic induction principle in detail. It is put forward power batteries charge and discharge calibration system principle, and it is simulated and analyzed ripple waves containing rate and harmonic waves containing rate of power batteries AC side and DC side. It is put forward suitable DC large current measurement methods of power batteries by comparing different measurement principles and it is looked forward the DC large current measurement techniques.

  4. Combinatorial enzyme technology: Conversion of pectin to oligo species and its effect on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant cell wall polysaccharides, which consist of polymeric backbones with various types of substitution, were studied using the concept of combinatorial enzyme technology for conversion of agricultural fibers to functional products. Using citrus pectin as the starting substrate, an active oligo spe...

  5. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  6. Research and Technology Activities Supporting Closed-Brayton-Cycle Power Conversion System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The elements of Brayton technology development emphasize power conversion system risk mitigation. Risk mitigation is achieved by demonstrating system integration feasibility, subsystem/component life capability (particularly in the context of material creep) and overall spacecraft mass reduction. Closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion technology is viewed as relatively mature. At the 2-kWe power level, a CBC conversion system Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six (6) was achieved during the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration (SD-GTD) in 1998. A TRL 5 was demonstrated for 10 kWe-class CBC components during the development of the Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) from 1968 to 1976. Components currently in terrestrial (open cycle) Brayton machines represent TRL 4 for similar uses in 100 kWe-class CBC space systems. Because of the baseline component and subsystem technology maturity, much of the Brayton technology task is focused on issues related to systems integration. A brief description of ongoing technology activities is given.

  7. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant operator advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on a Nuclear Power Plant operator advisor based on artificial Intelligence Technology; Workstation conversion; Software Conversion; V ampersand V Program Development Development; Simulator Interface Development; Knowledge Base Expansion; Dynamic Testing; Database Conversion; Installation at the Perry Simulator; Evaluation of Operator Interaction; Design of Man-Machine Interface; and Design of Maintenance Facility

  8. Highly efficient power system based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Hart, Ron R.; Parish, Theodore A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Consistent analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. The calculated energy conversion efficiencies for the presented designs without a thermodynamic cycle and with the heavy water cycle are 52% and 62%, respectively. The analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 90% are potentially achievable. (author)

  9. Status of NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Anderson, David J.; Tuttle, Karen L.; Tew, Roy C.

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is funding the advancement of next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Requirements of advanced radioisotope power systems include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass. Other Advanced RPS development goals include long-life, reliability, and scalability so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. This paper provides an update on the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Project which awarded ten Phase I contracts for research and development of a variety of power conversion technologies consisting of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectrics, and thermophotovoltaics. Three of the contracts continue during the current Phase II in the areas of thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion. The accomplishments to date of the contractors, project plans, and status will be summarized.

  10. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper

  11. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

  12. Conversion to biofuel based heating systems - local environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2003-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems today is the global warming, i.e.climate changes caused by emissions of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases originate from combustion of fossil fuels and changes the atmospheric composition. As a result of the climate change, the Swedish government has decided to make a changeover of the Swedish energy system. This involves an increase of the supply of electricity and heating from renewable energy sources and a decrease in the amount electricity used for heating, as well as a more efficient use of the existing electricity system. Today, a rather large amount electricity is used for heating in Sweden. Furthermore, nuclear power will be phased out by the year 2010 in Sweden. Bio fuels are a renewable energy source and a conceivable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Therefore, an increase of bio fuels will be seen the coming years. Bio fuels have a lot of environmental advantages, mainly for the global environment, but might also cause negative impacts such as depletion of the soils where the biomass is grown and local deterioration of the air quality where the bio fuels are combusted. These negative impacts are a result of the use of wrong techniques and a lack of knowledge and these factors have to be improved if the increase of the use of bio fuels is to be made effectively. The aim of this master thesis is to evaluate the possibilities for heating with bio fuel based systems in housing areas in the municipalities of Trollhaettan, Ulricehamn and Goetene in Vaestra Goetalands County in the South West of Sweden and to investigate which environmental and health effects are caused by the conversion of heating systems. The objective is to use the case studies as examples on preferable bio fuel based heating systems in different areas, and to what environmental impact this conversion of heating systems might cause. The housing areas for this study have been chosen on the basis of present heating system, one area

  13. Improved picture rate conversion using classification based LMS-filters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Heinrich, A.; Cordes, C.N.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent explosion of multimedia formats and the need to convert between them, more attention is drawn to picture rate conversion. Moreover, growing demands on video motion portrayal without judder or blur requires improved format conversion. The simplest conversion repeats the latest

  14. Work Began on Contracts for Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has had a history of successful space flight missions that depended on radioisotope-fueled power systems. These Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) converted the heat generated from the decay of radioisotope material into useful electrical power. An RPS is most attractive in applications where photovoltaics are not optimal, such as deep-space applications where the solar flux is too low or extended applications on planets such as Mars where the day/night cycle, settling of dust, and life requirements limit the usefulness of photovoltaics. NASA s Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) Program is developing next-generation power-conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by the two RPS flight systems currently being developed by the Department of Energy for NASA: the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG).

  15. Research on novel coal conversion technology for energy and environment in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Takarada [Gunma University (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In the 21st century, more efficient coal conversion technology will be needed. In this paper, novel gasification, pyrolysis and desulfurization processes using active catalysts are introduced. In particular, the application of ion-exchanged metals in brown coal to coal conversion technology is featured in this study. Other topics discussed include: Catalysis of mineral matter in coal; Catalytic effectiveness of Ni and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for various coals; Direct production of methane from steam gasification; Preparation of active catalysts from NaCl and KCl using brown coal; Gasification of high rank coal by mixing K-exchanged brown coal; Recovery of sulfur via catalytic SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char; Research on novel coal conversion technology BTX production by hydropyrolysis of coal in PPFB using catalyst; High BTU gas production by low-temperature catalytic hydropyrolysis of coal; and Ca-exchanged brown coal as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S sorbents. 12 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial conversion of biomass into bio-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-12-01

    The worldwide market for plastics is rapidly growing, and plastics polymers are typically produced from petroleum-based chemicals. The overdependence on petroleum-based chemicals for polymer production raises economic and environmental sustainability concerns. Recent progress in metabolic engineering has expanded fermentation products from existing aliphatic acids or alcohols to include aromatic compounds. This diversity provides an opportunity to expand the development and industrial uses of high-performance bio-based polymers. However, most of the biomonomers are produced from edible sugars or starches that compete directly with food and feed uses. The present review focuses on recent progress in the microbial conversion of biomass into bio-based polymers, in which fermentative products from renewable feedstocks serve as biomonomers for the synthesis of bio-based polymers. In particular, the production of biomonomers from inedible lignocellulosic feedstocks by metabolically engineered microorganisms and the synthesis of bio-based engineered plastics from the biological resources are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-07-11

    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  19. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Tang, Bo; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-14

    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy the continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances the heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  20. Advanced fluoride-based materials for energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Fluoride-Based Materials for Energy Conversion provides thorough and applied information on new fluorinated materials for chemical energy devices, exploring the electrochemical properties and behavior of fluorinated materials in lithium ion and sodium ion batteries, fluoropolymers in fuel cells, and fluorinated carbon in capacitors, while also exploring synthesis applications, and both safety and stability issues. As electronic devices, from cell phones to hybrid and electric vehicles, are increasingly common and prevalent in modern lives and require dependable, stable chemical energy devices with high-level functions are becoming increasingly important. As research and development in this area progresses rapidly, fluorine compounds play a critical role in this rapid progression. Fluorine, with its small size and the highest electronegativity, yields stable compounds under various conditions for utilization as electrodes, electrolytes, and membranes in energy devices. The book is an ideal reference f...

  1. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čada, Glenn F.

    2007-04-01

    A new generation of hydropower technologies, the kinetic hydro and wave energy conversion devices, offers the possibility of generating electricity from the movements of water, without the need for dams and diversions. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 encouraged the development of these sources of renewable energy in the United States, and there is growing interest in deploying them globally. The technologies that would extract electricity from free-flowing streams, estuaries, and oceans have not been widely tested. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy convened a workshop to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave energy conversion devices and their stages of development, (2) identify where these technologies can best operate, (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures, and (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments.

  2. Computer-Assisted English Learning System Based on Free Conversation by Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Kwon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to describe a computer-assisted English learning system using chatbots and dialogue systems, which allow free conversation outside the topic without limiting the learner's flow of conversation. The evaluation was conducted by 20 experimenters. The performance of the system based on a free conversation by topic was measured by the…

  3. Predicting Social Anxiety Treatment Outcome Based on Therapeutic Email Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, Mark; Berger, Thomas; Schulz, Ava; Stolz, Timo; Szolovits, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Predicting therapeutic outcome in the mental health domain is of utmost importance to enable therapists to provide the most effective treatment to a patient. Using information from the writings of a patient can potentially be a valuable source of information, especially now that more and more treatments involve computer-based exercises or electronic conversations between patient and therapist. In this paper, we study predictive modeling using writings of patients under treatment for a social anxiety disorder. We extract a wealth of information from the text written by patients including their usage of words, the topics they talk about, the sentiment of the messages, and the style of writing. In addition, we study trends over time with respect to those measures. We then apply machine learning algorithms to generate the predictive models. Based on a dataset of 69 patients, we are able to show that we can predict therapy outcome with an area under the curve of 0.83 halfway through the therapy and with a precision of 0.78 when using the full data (i.e., the entire treatment period). Due to the limited number of participants, it is hard to generalize the results, but they do show great potential in this type of information.

  4. Possible improvements of efficiency by the use of new coal conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieb, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Following a comparison of the efficiencies of conventional steam power processes, the gas fuel cell and the combined gas steam turbine processes are introduced as new coal utilization technologies. Coal conversion processes which can be coupled to combined gas-steam turbine processes such as the fluidized-bed firing, the solid bed gasification, the dust part-gasification and the fluidized-bed gasification are more closely mentioned and their coupling efficiencies discussed. The decoupling of third energy, such as low-temperature heat, high-temperature heat and chemical energy are briefly dealt with as third possibility for the improvement of the efficiency. (GG/LH) [de

  5. Probe-based recording technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naberhuis, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) prompted researchers to contemplate whether such technology could be used as the basis for the storage and retrieval of information. With magnetic data storage technology facing limits in storage density due to the thermal instability of magnetic bits, the super-paramagnetic limit, the heir-apparent for information storage at higher densities appeared to be variants of the STM or similar probe-based storage techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Among these other techniques that could provide replacement technology for magnetic storage, near-field optical scanning optical microscopy (NSOM or SNOM) has also been investigated. Another alternative probe-based storage technology called atomic resolution storage (ARS) is also currently under development. An overview of these various technologies is herein presented, with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each particularly with respect to reduced device dimensions. The role of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is emphasized

  6. The Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EJ Brown; PF Baldasaro; SR Burger; LR Danielson; DM DePoy; JM Dolatowski; PM Fourspring; GJ Nichols; WF Topper; TD Rahmlow

    2004-07-29

    In a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system, a heated surface radiates in the mid-infrared range onto photocells which are sensitive at these energies. Part of the absorbed energy is converted into electric output. Conversion efficiency is maximized by reducing the absorption of non-convertible energy with some form of spectral control. In a TPV system, many technology options exist. Our development efforts have concentrated on flat-plate geometries with greybody radiators, front surface tandem filters and a multi-chip module (MCM) approach that allows selective fabrication processes to match cell performance. Recently, we discontinued development of GaInAsSb quaternary cell semiconductor material in favor of ternary GaInAs material. In our last publication (Ref. 1), the authors reported conversion efficiencies of about 20% (radiator 950 C, cells 22 C) for small modules (1-4 cm{sup 2}) tested in a prototypic cavity test environment. Recently, we have achieved measured conversion efficiencies of about 12.5% in larger ({approx}100 cm{sup 2}) test arrays. The efficiency reduction in the larger arrays was probably due to quality and variation of the cells as well as non-uniform illumination from the hot radiator to the cold plate. Modules in these tests used GaInAsSb cells with 0.52 eV bandgap and front surface filters for spectral control. This paper provides details of the individual system components and the rationale for our technical decisions. It also describes the measurement techniques used to record these efficiencies.

  7. Development of nuclear technologies and conversion of nuclear weapon testing system infrastructure in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.; Takibaev, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of the work done by the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in development of nuclear technology and conversion of nuclear weapon testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. Content and trends of works are as follows: 1. Peaceful use of all physical facilities, created earlier for nuclear tests in Kazakhstan; 2. Development of methods and technologies for safe nuclear reactors use; 3. Examination of different materials in field of great neutron flow for thermonuclear reactor's first wall development; 4. Liquidation of all wells, which were formed in the results of underground nuclear explosions in Degelen mountain massif of former Semipalatinsk test site; 5. Study of consequences of nuclear tests in West Kazakhstan (territory of Azgir test site and Karachaganak oil field); 6. Study of radiological situation on the Semipalatinsk test site and surrounding territories; 7. Search of ways for high-level radioactive wastes disposal; 8. Construction of safe nuclear power plants in Kazakhstan

  8. Zero Waste and Conversion Efficiencies of Various Technologies for Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenyang

    2005-01-01

    Zero waste is a philosophy and a design principle of dealing with our waste stream for the 21st century. After reviewing the available information, the goal of zero waste from landfill is considered to be unachievable by using known and proven methods and approaches. The comparison of various technologies shows that the conversion efficiencies depend upon the type of system chosen for processing residual waste, and the best overall diversion rate of waste management system that can be achieved is about 71%. The maximum achievable overall diversion rate can be increased to approximate 92% if current environmental regulations to permit the routine use of the bottom ash or char for advanced thermal technologies.

  9. Biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for development of methane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Yeub; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Yoo Seong; Park, Si Jae; Na, Jeong Geol; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Choongik; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-12-28

    Methane is considered as a next-generation carbon feedstock owing to the vast reserves of natural and shale gas. Methane can be converted to methanol by various methods, which in turn can be used as a starting chemical for the production of value-added chemicals using existing chemical conversion processes. Methane monooxygenase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the addition of oxygen to methane. Methanotrophic bacteria can transform methane to methanol by inhibiting methanol dehydrogenase. In this paper, we review the recent progress made on the biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for methane-based refinery systems and discuss future prospects for this technology.

  10. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T Y; Kim, Y H

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4.

  11. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T. Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4

  12. Enculturating Conversational Agents based on a Comparative Corpus Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Yamaoka, Yuji; Rehm, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    When encountering people who have a different cultural background from our own, many of us feel uncomfortable because gestures and facial expressions may not be familiar to us. Thus, to enhance the believability of conversational agents, culture-specific nonverbal behaviors should be implemented ...... a more detailed analysis about posture shifts, and proposes a chat system with an embodied conversational agent (ECA) that can act as a language trainer....... into the agents. In our previous study, with the goal of building a user interface that incorporates a user’s cultural background, we have collected comparative conversation corpus in Germany and Japan, and investigated the differences in gestures and posture shifts between these two countries. This paper reports...

  13. Sustainable resource recovery and energy conversion processes using microbial electrochemical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Matthew D.

    Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs) are emerging technological platforms for the conversion of waste into usable products. METs utilize naturally occurring bacteria, called exoelectrogens, capable of transferring electrons to insoluble terminal electron acceptors. Electron transfer processes in the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens were exploited here to develop sustainable processes for synthesis of industrially and socially relevant end products. The first process examined was the removal of soluble metals from solution to form catalytic nanoparticles and nanoporous structures. The second process examined was the biocatalytic conversion of electrons into hydrogen gas using electrons supplied directly to an electrode. Nanoparticle formation is desirable because materials on the nanoscale possess different physical, optical, electronic, and mechanical properties compared to bulk materials. In the first process, soluble palladium was used to form catalytic palladium nanoparticles using extracellular electron transfer (EET) processes of G. sulfurreducens, typically the dominant member of mixedculture METs. Geobacter cells reduced the palladium extracellularly using naturally produced pili, which provided extracellular adsorption and reduction sites to help delay the diffusion of soluble metals into the cell. The extracellular reduction prevented cell inactivation due to formation of intracellular particles, and therefore the cells could be reused in multiple palladium reduction cycles. A G. sulfurreducens biofilm was next investigated as a biotemplate for the formation of a nanoporous catalytic palladium structure. G. sulfurreducens biofilms have a dense network of pili and extracellular cytochromes capable of high rates of electron transfer directly to an electrode surface. These pili and cytochromes provide a dense number of reduction sites for nanoparticle formation without the need for any synthetic components. The cells within the biofilm also can

  14. An XML based middleware for ECG format conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuchen; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Fang, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of information and communication technologies, various e-health solutions have been proposed. The digitized medical images as well as the mono-dimension medical signals are two major forms of medical information that are stored and manipulated within an electronic medical environment. Though a variety of industrial and international standards such as DICOM and HL7 have been proposed, many proprietary formats are still pervasively used by many Hospital Information System (HIS) and Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) vendors. Those proprietary formats are the big hurdle to form a nationwide or even worldwide e-health network. Thus there is an imperative need to solve the medical data integration problem. Moreover, many small clinics, many hospitals in developing countries and some regional hospitals in developed countries, which have limited budget, have been shunned from embracing the latest medical information technologies due to their high costs. In this paper, we propose an XML based middleware which acts as a translation engine to seamlessly integrate clinical ECG data from a variety of proprietary data formats. Furthermore, this ECG translation engine is designed in a way that it can be integrated into an existing PACS to provide a low cost medical information integration and storage solution.

  15. Technology base for microgravity horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Magnuson, J. W.; Scruby, R. R.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced microgravity plant biology research and life support system development for the spacecraft environment are critically hampered by the lack of a technology base. This inadequacy stems primarily from the fact that microgravity results in a lack of convective currents and phase separation as compared to the one gravity environment. A program plan is being initiated to develop this technology base. This program will provide an iterative flight development effort that will be closely integrated with both basic science investigations and advanced life support system development efforts incorporating biological processes. The critical considerations include optimum illumination methods, root aeration, root and shoot support, and heat rejection and gas exchange in the plant canopy.

  16. Evaluation of the conversion of a VAX-based calorimeter to operation by a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.; Jung, E.A.; Pecos, J.M.; Cremers, T.L.; Foster, L.A.; Gutierrez, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water-bath calorimeters designed and built by EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies are used at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility to perform assays of radioactive material. The data from these instruments are collected and analyzed by Digital Equipment Corporation PDP and VAX Computers. These computers are costly and have proved troublesome to maintain in the operating environment of the Plutonium Facility. We have converted one calorimeter to a PC-based-data-acquisition system (DAS) by replacing the PDP computer and associated electronics with an entirely new data collection system based on a 486 PC with an internal analog-to-digital conversion card (ADC). The new system has been tested with 238 Pu heat source standards and 239 Pu process items. The assay time, precision, and accuracy of these results are compared to those obtained with the original Mound Hardware

  17. Renewable energy based catalytic CH4 conversion to fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jansen, I.; Schuttlefield, J.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is envisioned as a primary source of hydrocarbons in the foreseeable future. With the abundance of shale gas, the main concerns have shifted from the limited hydrocarbon availability to the sustainable methods of CH4 conversion to fuels. This is necessitated by high costs of natural gas

  18. The conversion of military science and technology: Former Soviet Union case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the Cold War which has brought deep changes in the very concept of defence, requires fundamental changes in the defence strategies of all nations, the new international situation is encouraging the conversion of the military sector for the benefit of the civilian economy. This process involves many companies that have previously worked mostly or exclusively on the basis of military orders. In particular, from the nuclear non-proliferation point of view and environmental safety standpoint, some urgent problems arise: civilian management of military nuclear technologies, management and storage of weapon-grade materials, namely plutonium and highly enriched uranium from dismantled nuclear warheads, cleaning and reusing large areas which have been taken up for the production of weapon-grade plutonium and uranium enrichment (in Soviet Union so called 'atomic sites'), retraining scientific personnel and engineers in the nuclear military industry

  19. Surface reflectance and conversion efficiency dependence of technologies for mitigating global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd., 12 Lentara St, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia); Smith, Geoff [Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    A means of assessing the relative impact of different renewable energy technologies on global warming has been developed. All power plants emit thermal energy to the atmosphere. Fossil fuel power plants also emit CO{sub 2} which accumulates in the atmosphere and provides an indirect increase in global warming via the greenhouse effect. A fossil fuel power plant may operate for some time before the global warming due to its CO{sub 2} emission exceeds the warming due to its direct heat emission. When a renewable energy power plant is deployed instead of a fossil fuel power plant there may be a significant time delay before the direct global warming effect is less than the combined direct and indirect global warming effect from an equivalent output coal fired plant - the ''business as usual'' case. Simple expressions are derived to calculate global temperature change as a function of ground reflectance and conversion efficiency for various types of fossil fuelled and renewable energy power plants. These expressions are used to assess the global warming mitigation potential of some proposed Australian renewable energy projects. The application of the expressions is extended to evaluate the deployment in Australia of current and new geo-engineering and carbon sequestration solutions to mitigate global warming. Principal findings are that warming mitigation depends strongly on the solar to electric conversion efficiency of renewable technologies, geo-engineering projects may offer more economic mitigation than renewable energy projects and the mitigation potential of reforestation projects depends strongly on the location of the projects. (author)

  20. Conversion of lignocellulosic agave residues into liquid biofuels using an AFEX™-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gómez, Carlos A; Escamilla Silva, Eleazar M; Zhong, Cheng; Dale, Bruce E; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh

    2018-01-01

    Agave-based alcoholic beverage companies generate thousands of tons of solid residues per year in Mexico. These agave residues might be used for biofuel production due to their abundance and favorable sustainability characteristics. In this work, agave leaf and bagasse residues from species Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana were subjected to pretreatment using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using a response surface design methodology. We also identified commercial enzyme mixtures that maximize sugar yields for AFEX-pretreated agave bagasse and leaf matter, at ~ 6% glucan (w/w) loading enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the pretreated agave hydrolysates (at a total solids loading of ~ 20%) were used for ethanol fermentation using the glucose- and xylose-consuming strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST), to determine ethanol yields at industrially relevant conditions. Low-severity AFEX pretreatment conditions are required (100-120 °C) to enable efficient enzymatic deconstruction of the agave cell wall. These studies showed that AFEX-pretreated A. tequilana bagasse, A. tequilana leaf fiber, and A. salmiana bagasse gave ~ 85% sugar conversion during enzyme hydrolysis and over 90% metabolic yields of ethanol during fermentation without any washing step or nutrient supplementation. On the other hand, although lignocellulosic A. salmiana leaf gave high sugar conversions, the hydrolysate could not be fermented at high solids loadings, apparently due to the presence of natural inhibitory compounds. These results show that AFEX-pretreated agave residues can be effectively hydrolyzed at high solids loading using an optimized commercial enzyme cocktail (at 25 mg protein/g glucan) producing > 85% sugar conversions and over 40 g/L bioethanol titers. These results show that AFEX technology has considerable potential to convert lignocellulosic agave residues to bio-based fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery.

  1. Developing fossil fuel based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoori, A.R.; Lindner, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the undesirable effects of burning fossil fuels in the conventional power generating systems have resulted in increasing demand for alternative technologies for power generation. This paper describes a number of new technologies and their potential to reduce the level of atmospheric emissions associated with coal based power generation, such as atmospheric and pressurized fluid bed combustion systems and fuel cells. The status of their development is given and their efficiency is compared with that of conventional pc fired power plants. 1 tab., 7 figs

  2. Preliminary Accident Analyses for Conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) from Highly Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Floyd E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Olson, Arne P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wilson, Erik H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Kaichao S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Newton, Jr., Thomas H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hu, Lin-wen [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context most research and test reactors, both domestic and international, have started a program of conversion to the use of LEU fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (U-Mo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like MITR. This report presents the preliminary accident analyses for MITR cores fueled with LEU monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel with 10 wt% Mo. Preliminary results demonstrate adequate performance, including thermal margin to expected safety limits, for the LEU accident scenarios analyzed.

  3. Foresight Study on Advanced Conversion Technologies of Fossil Fuels; Estudio de Prospectiva Tecnologias Avanzadas de conversion de Combustibles Fosiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claver, A; Cabrera, J A [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The Observatorio de Prospectiva Tecnologica Industrial (OPTI) is a Foundation supported by the Ministry of Industry and Energy, (MINER) and has a main objective a basic information and knowledge on technology evolution. This information will be accessible to the Administration and to the Companies and can be taking into account in planning and decision making of technology policies. Ciemat is member of OPTI and is the organism in charge of the actions in the Energy sector. CIEMAT has the responsibility on the realisation of the sector studies to get in three years (1998 to 2001) a foresight vision of the critical technology topics. The OPTI integrated strategic plan undertake the analysis of other seven technology sectors, with the same criteria on methodological aspects. Delphi method was used for the realization of the studies. It consisted of a survey conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire to check the experts opinion. The time frame of the studies was defined from 1999 to 2015. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. Home-based Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    of these systems target a specific treatment or condition and might not be sufficient to support the care management work at home. Based on a case study approach, my research investigates home-based healthcare practices and how they can inform future design of home-based healthcare technology that better account......Sustaining daily, unsupervised healthcare activities in non-clinical settings such as the private home can challenge, among others, older adults. To support such unsupervised care activities, an increasingly number of reminders and monitoring systems are being designed. However, most...

  5. Circulating fluidized-bed technologies for the conversion of biomass into energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion and CFB gasification. CFB combustion units are state-of-the-art and have proven their ability to convert biomass into power and/or steam. The existing units and projects in developing countries are discussed as examples of conventional technology. To illustrate advanced technologies, CFB gasification is discussed. Important process parameters of plants already in operation or under construction in developed countries are shown, Criteria for the selection of CFB combustion or gasification based on available feedstocks and products required are discussed. Finally, a procedure for implementing Lurgi's CFB technology in developing countries is proposed. (author)

  6. Magneto-plasma separating technologies and their possible application for conversion spent fuel and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtun, Yu.V.; Skyibenko, Je.Yi.; Yuferov, V.B.

    2007-01-01

    A problem of spent fuel (SF) and radioactive waste (RAW) processing is considered in the views of using magneto-plasma technologies. Basing on this analysis, the block-diagram of RAW processing by the technology using a magneto-plasma separator is offered. The paper describes the device for material element separation, where the main physical mechanism of plasma formation and heating are collective processes involved by the plasma-beam interaction. The dimensions of a pilot-separating device are determined

  7. Light-triggered thermoelectric conversion based on a carbon nanotube-polymer hybrid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyako, Eijiro; Nagata, Hideya; Funahashi, Ryoji; Hirano, Ken; Hirotsu, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    Lights? Nanotubes? Action! A hydrogel comprising lysozymes, poly(ethylene glycol), phospholipids, and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes is employed for light-driven thermoelectric conversion. A photoinduced thermoelectric conversion module based on the hydrogel functions as a novel electric power generator (see image). This concept may find application in various industries, such as robotics and aerospace engineering.

  8. Performance Comparison of Steam-Based and Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 6060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oxide layers generated on aluminum alloy 6060(UNS A96060) using a steam-based process were compared with conventional chromate and chromate-phosphate conversion coatings. Chemical composition and microstructure of the conversion coatings were investigated and their corrosion perfor...

  9. 640 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on optical phase filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for all optical RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal using a simple phase filter implemented by a commercial optical waveshaper....

  10. Process systems engineering issues and applications towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions through conversion technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews issues and applications for design of sustainable carbon dioxide conversion processes, specifically through chemical conversion, and the integration of the conversion processes with other systems from a process systems engineering (PSE) view-point. Systematic and computer......-aided methods and tools for reaction network generation, processing route generation, process design/optimization, and sustainability analysis are reviewed with respect to carbon dioxide conversion. Also, the relevant gaps and opportunities are highlighted. In addition, the integration of carbon dioxide...

  11. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  12. Performance of conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with base doping density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Sahin

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate theoretically the electrical parameters of a crystalline silicon solar cell in steady state. Based on a one-dimensional modeling of the cell, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, the shunt and series resistances and the conversion efficiency are calculated, taking into account the base doping density. Either the I-V characteristic, series resistance, shunt resistance and conversion efficiency are determined and studied versus base doping density. The effects applied of base doping density on these parameters have been studied. The aim of this work is to show how short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and parasitic resistances are related to the base doping density and to exhibit the role played by those parasitic resistances on the conversion efficiency of the crystalline silicon solar. Keywords: Crystalline silicon solar cell, Base doping density, Series resistance, Shunt resistance, Conversion efficiency

  13. The feasibility of using conversational agent technology to improve problem-solving and coping skills of young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Friederichs-Fitzwater M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marlene M von Friederichs-Fitzwater1, Frederick J Meyers21Division of Hematology/Oncology, Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAObjective: Young adults with cancer have unique psychosocial needs and often lack the problem-solving and coping skills for effective resolution. We conducted a study to clarify these needs and then developed and tested an educational intervention to coach young adults with cancer in problem-solving and coping skills using a new conversational agent technology that uses a multi-media format to simulate face-to-face encounters.Methods: We qualitatively assessed online focus groups and chat rooms with 45 young adults with cancer and used the results to develop and test an online 15-minute educational prototype using a new conversational agent technology with 49 young adults (18–35 years of age with cancer.Results: Young adults with cancer are most concerned about reproductive issues, emotional issues, communicating with healthcare providers, and the risks and benefits of treatments. The study participants found the I-COPE prototype to be useful, easy to use, and worth recommending to others. They wanted to have more video segments about the experiences of other young adults with cancer; more video segments of actual procedures and treatments; more Internet links to information and resources; and more opportunities to interact with the conversational agent.Conclusion: New conversational agent technology is useful in coaching problem-solving and coping skills to empower young adults with cancer.Practice implications: New conversational agent technology is a useful tool in patient education and skill development, particularly among young adults.Keywords: young adult cancer patients, conversational agent technology, problem-solving, coping, self-efficacy, survivorship

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi-Zhang; Zhu Yan-Qing; Shi Ji-Fu; Wang Lei-Lei; Zhong Liu-Wen; Xu Gang

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is employed to improve the photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) module. The 3D-printed concentrator is optically designed and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of the DSC module from 5.48% to 7.03%. Additionally, with the 3D-printed microfluidic device serving as water cooling, the temperature of the DSC can be effectively controlled, which is beneficial for keeping a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency for DSC module. Moreover, the 3D-printed microfluidic device can realize photothermal conversion with an instantaneous photothermal efficiency of 42.1%. The integrated device realizes a total photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of 49% at the optimal working condition. (paper)

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Zhang Huang; Yan-Qing Zhu; Ji-Fu Shi; Lei-Lei Wang; Liu-Wen Zhong; Gang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is employed to improve the photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) module.The 3D-printed concentrator is optically designed and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of the DSC module from 5.48% to 7.03%.Additionally,with the 3D-printed microfluidic device serving as water cooling,the temperature of the DSC can be effectively controlled,which is beneficial for keeping a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency for DSC module.Moreover,the 3D-printed microfluidic device can realize photothermal conversion with an instantaneous photothermal efficiency of 42.1%.The integrated device realizes a total photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of 49% at the optimal working condition.

  16. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  17. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  18. Polarization Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  19. High-flux/high-temperature solar thermal conversion: technology development and advanced applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Power Plants have generated in the last 10 years a dynamic market for renewable energy industry and a pro-active networking within R&D community worldwide. By end 2015, there are about 5 GW installed in the world, most of them still concentrated in only two countries, Spain and the US, though a rapid process of globalization is taking place in the last few years and now ambitious market deployment is starting in countries like South Africa, Chile, Saudi Arabia, India, United Arab Emirates or Morocco. Prices for electricity produced by today's plants fill the range from 12 to 16 c€/kWh and they are capital intensive with investments above 4000 €/kW, depending on the number of hours of thermal storage. The urgent need to speed up the learning curve, by moving forward to LCOE below 10 c€/kWh and the promotion of sun-to-fuel applications, is driving the R&D programmes. Both, industry and R&D community are accelerating the transformation by approaching high-flux/high-temperature technologies and promoting the integration with high-efficiency conversion systems.

  20. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  1. Alternate fuel cycle technologies, nitrate-to-oxide conversion project. Progress report, January--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Work is being done at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) under contract from the Savannah River Operations Office (SROO) of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to critically analyze and evaluate existing technology for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide, and to recommend flow sheets and equipment for this process. Seven such processes were compared using an expanded process-comparison scheme. The results of the comparison differed somewhat from the initial comparison made in September, 1976. The direct calcination methods, headed by the screw calciner process, received the highest ratings when operating experience was considered with a small weighting factor. These methods are much simpler than the others. The oxalate precipitation methods, headed by the plutonium(IV) oxalate precipitation and calcination process, received highest ratings when operating experience was strongly considered. Thus, in the long term, the screw calciner or other direct-conversion methods should be developed. For a plant to be built in the short term, however, an oxalate precipitation method should be used since a larger amount of experience exists with these processes. The block flow diagrams, material balances, and equipment flow sheets for each of the seven processes compared are included in this report. A process-design criterion is being prepared for a mechanical (screw calciner) direct-denitration process, and includes process flow sheets, a material balance, a process description, equipment performance specifications, the control philosophy and specifications, the operating philosophy, and a general process layout

  2. Neural network based method for conversion of solar radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ali N.; Muneer, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generalized regression neural network is used to predict the solar radiation on tilted surfaces. ► The above network, amongst many such as multilayer perceptron, is the most successful one. ► The present neural network returns a relative mean absolute error value of 9.1%. ► The present model leads to a mean absolute error value of estimate of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . - Abstract: The receiving ends of the solar energy conversion systems that generate heat or electricity from radiation is usually tilted at an optimum angle to increase the solar incident on the surface. Solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surfaces is readily available for many locations where such solar energy conversion systems are installed. Various equations have been developed to convert solar irradiation data measured on horizontal surface to that on tilted one. These equations constitute the conventional approach. In this article, an alternative approach, generalized regression type of neural network, is used to predict the solar irradiation on tilted surfaces, using the minimum number of variables involved in the physical process, namely the global solar irradiation on horizontal surface, declination and hour angles. Artificial neural networks have been successfully used in recent years for optimization, prediction and modeling in energy systems as alternative to conventional modeling approaches. To show the merit of the presently developed neural network, the solar irradiation data predicted from the novel model was compared to that from the conventional approach (isotropic and anisotropic models), with strict reference to the irradiation data measured in the same location. The present neural network model was found to provide closer solar irradiation values to the measured than the conventional approach, with a mean absolute error value of 14.9 Wh/m 2 . The other statistical values of coefficient of determination and relative mean absolute error also indicate the

  3. Conversational Implicature of Peanuts Comic Strip Based on Grice’s Maxim Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about conversational implicature that occurs in Peanuts comic strips. The objectives of this study are to find out the implied meaning in the conversation between Charlie Brown with Lucy van Pelt and Lucy van Pelt with Linus van Pelt to evaluate the existence of maxim flouting and maxim violating in those conversations in relation to the four maxims such as quantity, quality, relation, and manner. Likewise, this study attempts to find out the reason for using conversational implicature in a comic strip. The writers uses a qualitative method with library research concerning to Grice’s maxim theory to analyze the conversational implicature. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that all the comics that comprise 14 comics generate conversational implicature since all the characters breach rules of maxim. The result of this analysis shows that flouting maxim of manner has the highest occurrence of conversational implicature and the least occurrences belong to flouting maxim of relation and violating maxim of quantity. Moreover, the writers concludes that to make a successful communication ideally the speaker and the hearer to cooperate in the conversation by saying explicitly so the hearer can grasp the meaning as the goal of communication is to deliver a message to the hearer.  

  4. Circulating fluidized-bed technologies for the conversion of biomass into energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Energid und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    The paper introduces circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion and CFB gasification. CFB combustion units are state-of-the-art and have proven their ability to convert biomass into power and/or steam. The existing units and projects in developing countries are discussed as examples of conventional technology. To illustrate advanced technologies, CFB gasification is discussed. Important process parameters of plants already in operation or under construction in developed countries are shown, Criteria for the selection of CFB combustion or gasification based on available feedstocks and products required are discussed. Finally, a procedure for implementing Lurgi`s CFB technology in developing countries is proposed. (author) 7 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Use of nuclear space technology of direct energy conversion for terrestrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitaykin, V.I.; Meleta, Ye.A.; Yarygin, V.I.; Mikheyev, A.S.; Tulin, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In due time the SSC RF-IPPE exercised the scientific supervision and directly participated in the development, fabrication, space flight test and maintenance of the direct energy conversion nuclear power plants (NPP) for space application under the 'BUK' and 'TOPAZ' programs. We have used the acquired experience and the high technologies developed for the 'BUK' NPP with a thermoelectric conversion of thermal (nuclear) energy into electrical one in the development under the order of RAO 'GAZPROM' of the natural gas fired self contained thermoelectric current sources (AIT-500) and heat and electricity sources (TEP-500). These are intended for electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines and for the electricity and heat supply to the telemetric and microwave-link systems located along the gas pipelines. Of special interest at the moment are the new developments of self contained current sources with the electrical output of ∼500 Wel for new gas pipelines being constructed under the projects such as the 'Yamal-Europe' project. The electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines laying on unsettled and non-electrified territory of arctic regions of Russia is performed by means of the so-called Cathodic Protection Stations (CPS). Accounting for a complex of rather rigid requirements imposed by arctic operating conditions, the most attractive sources of electricity supply to the CPS are the thermoelectric heat-into-electricity converters and the generators (TEG). This paper deals with the essential results of the development, investigation and testing of unconventional TEGs using the low-temperature bismuth-tellurium thermoelectric batteries assembled together as tubular thermoelectric batteries with a radial ring geometry built into the gas-heated thermoelectric modules, which are collected to make up either the thermoelectric plants for heat and electricity supply or the self contained power sources. One of the peculiarities of these plants is the combination of

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report. Research on energy conversion technology using biomass resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on construction of the new energy production system by thermochemical conversion or combination of thermochemical and biological conversions of agricultural, fishery and organic waste system biomass resources. This report first outlines types and characteristics of biomass over the world, proposes the classification method of biomass from the viewpoint of biomass energy use, and shows the introduction scenario of biomass energy. The energy potential is calculated of agricultural waste, forestry waste and animal waste as the most promising biomass energy resources, and the biomass energy potential of energy plantation is estimated. The present and future of biochemical energy conversion technologies are viewed. The present and future of thermochemical energy conversion technologies are also viewed. Through evaluation of every conversion technology, the difference in feature between each conversion technology was clarified, and the major issues for further R and D were showed. (NEDO)

  7. Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gyu Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising technique to supply power sources in unattended electronic devices, wireless sensor nodes, micro-electronic devices, etc., since it has higher energy conversion efficiency and a simple structure. Up to now, various technologies, such as advanced materials, micro- and macro-mechanics, and electric circuit design, have been investigated and emerged to improve performance and conversion efficiency of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this paper, we focus on recent progress of piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies based on PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT materials, which have the most outstanding piezoelectric properties. The advanced piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies included materials, fabrications, unique designs, and properties are introduced to understand current technical levels and suggest the future directions of piezoelectric energy harvesting.

  8. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  9. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  10. Changing the conversation: how ANS is telling a different story about nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raap, B.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text': As nuclear scientists and engineers, our focus and expertise is in science and technology that yields benefits for society. Yet, we are also often in the position of explaining what can be very complex and technical issues to individuals who are not technical, and who perhaps are guided by misinformation about nuclear science and technology. Being effective communicators, and having an effective communications program at organizations like ANS,is critical if we are to maintain support for nuclear energy. Nuclear plants have shut down in the United States over the past year largely due to economic circumstances. The low price of natural gas and other factors make it extremely challenging for some nuclear plants to be competitive right now. Although this situation will eventually change, clear communications is critical.Fostering a good understanding of nuclear science and technology is needed now more than ever to help people gain an appreciation for the benefits that nuclear energy offers. Last year, ANS created a strategic communications plan. This communications plan called for improvements in all of our communication and outreach efforts. We have many work groups actively working on those improvements, which will be highlighted during the session. We also publicly launched the Center for Nuclear Science and Technology Information, a special communications initiative of ANS. The Center allows ANS to better leverage resources while building awareness about nuclear science and technology among a variety of audiences. Through the Center, ANS seeks to improve public understanding of nuclear science and technology, inform policy makers and their staff about nuclear fundamentals,engage journalists in telling a truthful story based on science, and inspire young people to explore nuclear science and technology. The Center allows ANS to produce improved public education tools that nuclear professionals and advocates can use when doing outreach. The

  11. Changing the conversation: how ANS is telling a different story about nuclear science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raap, B. [American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text': As nuclear scientists and engineers, our focus and expertise is in science and technology that yields benefits for society. Yet, we are also often in the position of explaining what can be very complex and technical issues to individuals who are not technical, and who perhaps are guided by misinformation about nuclear science and technology. Being effective communicators, and having an effective communications program at organizations like ANS,is critical if we are to maintain support for nuclear energy. Nuclear plants have shut down in the United States over the past year largely due to economic circumstances. The low price of natural gas and other factors make it extremely challenging for some nuclear plants to be competitive right now. Although this situation will eventually change, clear communications is critical.Fostering a good understanding of nuclear science and technology is needed now more than ever to help people gain an appreciation for the benefits that nuclear energy offers. Last year, ANS created a strategic communications plan. This communications plan called for improvements in all of our communication and outreach efforts. We have many work groups actively working on those improvements, which will be highlighted during the session. We also publicly launched the Center for Nuclear Science and Technology Information, a special communications initiative of ANS. The Center allows ANS to better leverage resources while building awareness about nuclear science and technology among a variety of audiences. Through the Center, ANS seeks to improve public understanding of nuclear science and technology, inform policy makers and their staff about nuclear fundamentals,engage journalists in telling a truthful story based on science, and inspire young people to explore nuclear science and technology. The Center allows ANS to produce improved public education tools that nuclear professionals and advocates can use when doing outreach. The

  12. Advanced power conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{trademark}. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, D.

    1997-03-05

    This report summarizes work performed under contract No. DE-FC07-94ID13283, {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion Based on the Aerocapacitors{trademark}.{close_quotes} Under this contract high power density, high energy density, organic electrolyte Aerocapacitors{trademark} were developed and characterized for power conversion applications. Pilot facilities for manufacturing prototype AA-size Aerocapacitors{trademark} were put in place. The low ESR and good frequency response of these devices show that they are ideal components for high discharge rate and low to moderate frequency (< 10 kHz) applications such as power conversion.

  13. Technologies, Multitasking, and Driving: Attending to and Preparing for a Mobile Phone Conversation in a Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddington, Pentti; Rauniomaa, Mirka

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates mobile phone calls initiated or received by drivers and passengers in cars and focuses on the participants' actions before the telephone conversation proper. Drawing on video-recorded data of real driving situations, and building on conversation analysis and multimodal interaction analysis, this article discusses how…

  14. Reactors based on CANDU technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjegun, S.V.; Shirokov, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the use CANDU technology in world nuclear energy. Advantages and disadvantages in implementation of this technology are considered in terms of economic and technical aspects. Technological issues related to the use of CANDU reactors and nuclear safety issues are outlined. Risks from implementation of this reactor technology in nuclear energy of Ukraine are determined

  15. Image-based reflectance conversion of ASTER and IKONOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectral signatures derived from different image-based models for ASTER and IKONOS were inspected visually as first departure. This was followed by comparison of the total accuracy and Kappa index computed from supervised classification of images that were derived from different image-based atmospheric correction ...

  16. Catalyst technology for biofuel production: Conversion of renewable lipids into biojet and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharff Yves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable lipids based biofuels are an important tool to address issues raised by policies put in place in order to reduce the dependence of transportation sector on fossil fuels and to promote the development of non-food based, sustainable and eco-friendly fuels. This paper presents the main features of the heterogeneous catalysis technologies Axens has developed for the production of biofuels from renewable lipids: the first by transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl esters or biodiesel and the second by hydrotreating to produce isoparaffinic hydroprocessed ester and fatty acids, high blending rate drop-in diesel and jet biofuels.

  17. Time-dependent conversion of a methacrylate-based sealer polymerized with different light-curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriat, Nilufer C; Ertan, Atilla; Cehreli, Zafer C; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of conversion of a methacrylate-based sealer (Epiphany; Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT) with regard to the method of photoactivation, distance from the light-curing unit (LCU), and post-curing time. Freshly mixed Epiphany sealer was dispensed into half-pipe-shaped silicone moulds (n = 48), after which the specimens were photoactivated with one of the following LCUs from the coronal aspect: (1) quartz tungsten halogen/40 seconds and (2) light-emitting diode/20 seconds. In each specimen, the degree of conversion was measured at three different locations (coronal, middle, and apical) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after photoactivation. The amount of conversion was approximately 50% after photoactivation and improved by approximately 10% after 15 days. Conversion of Epiphany was not affected by the type of LCU (p > 0.001) or the distance from the LCU (p > 0.001) but showed a significant increase within time (p < 0.001). These results indicate incomplete polymerization of Epiphany, despite a post-curing time of as long as 2 weeks in vitro.

  18. Image Format Conversion to DICOM and Lookup Table Conversion to Presentation Value of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) Standard Digital Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Satoshi; Imahana, Masato; Suwa, Kazuaki; Sugimura, Hitomi; Nishiki, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance. Therefore, we converted all the images from JSRT standard digital image database to DICOM format followed by the conversion of the pixel values to P-value using an original program developed by ourselves. Consequently, JSRT standard digital image database has been modified so that the visual consistency of images is maintained among different luminance displays.

  19. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  20. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration; Captation, transformation et conversion de l'energie solaire par les technologies a concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G

    2003-07-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  1. Teaching Medical Students About "The Conversation": An Interactive Value-Based Advance Care Planning Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Hillary D; Dukes, Joanna; Church, Skotti; Abbott, Jean; Youngwerth, Jean M

    2018-02-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) promotes care consistent with patient wishes. Medical education should teach how to initiate value-based ACP conversations. To develop and evaluate an ACP educational session to teach medical students a value-based ACP process and to encourage students to take personal ACP action steps. Groups of third-year medical students participated in a 75-minute session using personal reflection and discussion framed by The Conversation Starter Kit. The Conversation Project is a free resource designed to help individuals and families express their wishes for end-of-life care. One hundred twenty-seven US third-year medical students participated in the session. Student evaluations immediately after the session and 1 month later via electronic survey. More than 90% of students positively evaluated the educational value of the session, including rating highly the opportunities to reflect on their own ACP and to use The Conversation Starter Kit. Many students (65%) reported prior ACP conversations. After the session, 73% reported plans to discuss ACP, 91% had thought about preferences for future medical care, and 39% had chosen a medical decision maker. Only a minority had completed an advance directive (14%) or talked with their health-care provider (1%). One month later, there was no evidence that the session increased students' actions regarding these same ACP action steps. A value-based ACP educational session using The Conversation Starter Kit successfully engaged medical students in learning about ACP conversations, both professionally and personally. This session may help students initiate conversations for themselves and their patients.

  2. Study of vanadium-based chemical conversion coating on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.H.; Ger, M.D.; Hwu, W.H.; Sung, Y.; Liu, Y.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, magnesium alloy (AZ61) was immersed in vanadium containing bath with various conditions, such as the vanadium concentration, immersion time and bath temperature. The results indicate that increase of both vanadium concentration and immersion time produces a thicker conversion layer. However, when immersion time is too long, it will worsen the corrosion resistance due to the increasing of the crack density. The experimental parameter of bath temperature has no significant effect on corrosion resistance. Our results demonstrated that the better corrosion resistance coating can be obtained when the samples are submitted to an immersion in the conversion bath containing NaVO 3 with concentration of 30 g l -1 for 10 min at 80 deg. C. The presented conversion treatment has its potential to replace the chrome-based conversion coating treatment

  3. Basic and applied research related to the technology of space energy conversion systems, 1982 - 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    Topics on solar energy conversion concepts and applications are discussed. An overview of the current status and future utilization of radiation receivers for electrical energy generation, liquid droplet radiation systems, and liquid droplet heat exchangers is presented.

  4. Alteration of gene conversion patterns in Sordaria fimicola by supplementation with DNA bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitani, Y; Olive, L S

    1970-08-01

    Supplementation with DNA bases in crosses of Sordaria fimicola heterozygous for spore color markers (g(1), h(2)) within the gray-spore (g) locus has been found to cause significant alterations in patterns of gene conversion at the two mutant sites. Each base had its own characteristic effect in altering the conversion pattern, and responses of the two mutant sites to the four bases were different in several ways. Also, the responses of the two involved chromatids of the meiotic bivalent were different.

  5. Graphene Paper Based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Sensing and Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei

    of graphene-based materials to real world, graphene nanosheets must be assembled into macroscopic architecture with desired structures and functionality. To this end, graphene oxide (GO) is a very useful building block because it contains a significant number of oxygen-containing groups on the planar surface...... of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Graphene paper was finally explored as a sacrificial template for the synthesis of 2D ultra-fined nanostructured porous metal oxide (MO), as described in Chapters 6-8. In Chapter 6, we demonstrated that crystalline MO can be prepared by using GO papers as sacrificial templates...

  6. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  7. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  8. An in situ study of zirconium-based conversion treatment on zinc surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, P. [Materials innovation institute (M2i), Elektronicaweg 25, 2628 XG Delft (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Laha, P. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Electrochemical and Surface Engineering, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Terryn, H. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Electrochemical and Surface Engineering, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mol, J.M.C., E-mail: J.M.C.Mol@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • We investigated the deposition mechanism of zirconium conversion layer on zinc. • In situ FTIR and electrochemical measurements are conducted. • The initial hydroxyl fraction plays an important role in the deposition process. • Deposition starts with hydroxyl removal by fluoride ions. • An increase of alkalinity adjacent to the surface promotes deposition of Zr. - Abstract: This study is focused on the deposition process of zirconium-based conversion layers on Zn surfaces. The analysis approach is based on a Kretschmann configuration in which in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is combined with open circuit potential (OCP) and near surface pH measurements. Differently pretreated Zn surfaces were subjected to conversion treatments, while the Zr-based deposition mechanism was probed in situ. It was found that the initial hydroxyl fraction promotes the overall Zr conversion process as the near surface pH values are influenced by the initial hydroxyl fraction. Kinetics of the early surface activation and the subsequent Zr-based conversion process are discussed and correlated to the initial hydroxyl fractions.

  9. Mode-Selective Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Multimode Silicon Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    We report all-optical mode-selective wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in a multimode Si waveguide. A two-mode division multiplexing circuit using tapered directional coupler based (de)multiplexers is used for the application. Experimental results show clear eye-diagrams and moderate...

  10. Format conversion between CAD data and GIS data based on ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Kailin; Wang, Zhichao

    2015-12-01

    To make full use of the data resources and realize a sharing for the different types of data in different industries, a method of format conversion between CAD data and GIS data based on ArcGIS was proposed. To keep the integrity of the converted data, some key steps to process CAD data before conversion were made in AutoCAD. For examples, deleting unnecessary elements such as title, border and legend avoided the appearance of unnecessary elements after conversion, as layering data again by a national standard avoided the different types of elements to appear in a same layer after conversion. In ArcGIS, converting CAD data to GIS data was executed by the correspondence of graphic element classification between AutoCAD and ArcGIS. In addition, an empty geographic database and feature set was required to create in ArcGIS for storing the text data of CAD data. The experimental results show that the proposed method avoids a large amount of editing work in data conversion and maintains the integrity of spatial data and attribute data between before and after conversion.

  11. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-03-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF 2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  12. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  13. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF 2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  14. A randomized controlled clinical trial of a hypnosis-based treatment for patients with conversion disorder, motor type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, F.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Dyck, R. van

    2003-01-01

    This study tested whether a hypnosis-based intervention showed promise as a treatment for patients with conversion disorder, motor type. Forty-four outpatients with conversion disorder, motor type, or somatization disorder with motor conversion symptoms, were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or a

  15. Ultra-high-speed all-channel serial-to-parallel conversion based on complete optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We propose a serial-to-parallel conversion scheme based on complete OFT, allowing simultaneous conversion of all channels. We demonstrate all 32-channel simultaneous OTDM to WDM conversion of 320-Gbit/s DPSK and of 640-Gbit/s DQPSK signal, respectively....

  16. OTDM-WDM Conversion Based on Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation with Spectral Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown.......We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown....

  17. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  18. Feasibility study on AFR-100 fuel conversion from uranium-based fuel to thorium-based fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T.; Grandy, C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-30

    Although thorium has long been considered as an alternative to uranium-based fuels, most of the reactors built to-date have been fueled with uranium-based fuel with the exception of a few reactors. The decision to use uranium-based fuels was initially made based on the technology maturity compared to thorium-based fuels. As a result of this experience, lot of knowledge and data have been accumulated for uranium-based fuels that made it the predominant nuclear fuel type for extant nuclear power. However, following the recent concerns about the extent and availability of uranium resources, thorium-based fuels have regained significant interest worldwide. Thorium is more abundant than uranium and can be readily exploited in many countries and thus is now seen as a possible alternative. As thorium-based fuel technologies mature, fuel conversion from uranium to thorium is expected to become a major interest in both thermal and fast reactors. In this study the feasibility of fuel conversion in a fast reactor is assessed and several possible approaches are proposed. The analyses are performed using the Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR-100) design, a fast reactor core concept recently developed by ANL. The AFR-100 is a small 100 MW{sub e} reactor developed under the US-DOE program relying on innovative fast reactor technologies and advanced structural and cladding materials. It was designed to be inherently safe and offers sufficient margins with respect to the fuel melting temperature and the fuel-cladding eutectic temperature when using U-10Zr binary metal fuel. Thorium-based metal fuel was preferred to other thorium fuel forms because of its higher heavy metal density and it does not need to be alloyed with zirconium to reduce its radiation swelling. The various approaches explored cover the use of pure thorium fuel as well as the use of thorium mixed with transuranics (TRU). Sensitivity studies were performed for the different scenarios envisioned in order to determine the

  19. A frequency conversion mode for dispenser in the service station based on flow rate signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y J; Tang, D; Huang, J B; Liu, J; Jia, P F

    2012-01-01

    Dispenser is an integrated fuel transport and measurement system at the service station. In this paper, we developed a frequency conversion mode for the dispenser, based on the flow rate signal which is obtained from the converter measuring flow capacity. After introducing the frequency conversion mode to dispenser, we obtained that pump rotates at a high speed when fuelled with high flow rate, and it rotates at a low speed when fuelled with low flow rate. This makes the fuel dispenser more energy-efficient and controllable. We also did some valve optimizations on the dispenser and developed a new control mode for preset refuelling based on the frequency conversion mode, Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the new dispenser not only can meet the national standards, but also performs better than the ordinary one especially in preset refuelling.

  20. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  1. Virtual maintenance technology for reactor system based on PPR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaxiang; Ma Baiyong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Product, Process and Resources (PPR) technology, the establishing technology of virtual maintenance environment for the reactor system and the process structure tree for virtual maintenance is studied, and the flow for the maintainability design and simulation for reactor system is put forward. Based on the subsection simulation of maintenance process and layered design of maintenance actions, the leveled structure of the reactor system virtual maintenance task is studied. The relation for the data of product, process and resource is described by Plan Evaluation and Review Technology (PERT) diagram to define the maintenance operation. (authors)

  2. A Switched-Capacitor Based High Conversion Ratio Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yin, Zhijian; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    A high step-up switched-capacitor based converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features high conversion ratio, low voltage stress and continuous input current, which makes it very suitable for renewable energy applications like photovoltaic systems. More importantly...... voltage gain, low voltage stress on the switches, continuous input current, and relatively high efficiency....

  3. Questions from Afar: The Influence of Outsideness on Web-Based Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Craig; Edwards, Anthony; Gomez, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    This paper defines the metaphor of outsideness in relation to web-based interaction. Outsideness is conceived of as a key influence in online academic conversation. In particular, through the sharing of cultural perspectives, asking questions to resolve doubt, and collaborative writing and re-writing as a basis for shaping ideas through reasoning.…

  4. Conversations about Curriculum Change: Mathematical Thinking and Team-Based Learning in a Discrete Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Judy; Sneddon, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the learning conversations between a mathematician and a mathematics educator as they worked together to change the delivery model of a third year discrete mathematics course from a traditional lecture mode to team-based learning (TBL). This change prompted the mathematician to create team tasks which increasingly focused…

  5. Mode-selective wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in a multimode silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    to phase mismatch. A two-mode division multiplexing circuit with tapered directional coupler based (de)multiplexers and a multimode waveguide is designed and fabricated for this application. Experimental results show clear eye-diagrams and moderate power penalties for the wavelength conversion of both...

  6. High-accuracy resolver-to-digital conversion via phase locked loop based on PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoling; Wu, Zhong

    2018-03-01

    The problem of resolver-to-digital conversion (RDC) is transformed into the problem of angle tracking control, and a phase locked loop (PLL) method based on PID controller is proposed in this paper. This controller comprises a typical PI controller plus an incomplete differential which can avoid the amplification of higher-frequency noise components by filtering the phase detection error with a low-pass filter. Compared with conventional ones, the proposed PLL method makes the converter a system of type III and thus the conversion accuracy can be improved. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Calorimetric Measurement for Internal Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells/Modules Based on Electrical Substitution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Terubumi; Tatsuta, Muneaki; Abe, Yamato; Takesawa, Minato

    2018-02-01

    We have succeeded in the direct measurement for solar cell/module internal conversion efficiency based on a calorimetric method or electrical substitution method by which the absorbed radiant power is determined by replacing the heat absorbed in the cell/module with the electrical power. The technique is advantageous in that the reflectance and transmittance measurements, which are required in the conventional methods, are not necessary. Also, the internal quantum efficiency can be derived from conversion efficiencies by using the average photon energy. Agreements of the measured data with the values estimated from the nominal values support the validity of this technique.

  8. Study on Conversion Between Momentum and Contrarian Based on Fractal Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Song, Guanghui; Deng, Yan; Xu, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the fractal game which is performed by the majority and the minority, the fractal market theory (FMT) is employed to describe the features of investors' decision-making. Accordingly, the process of fractal games is formed in order to analyze the statistical features of conversion between momentum and contrarian. The result shows that among three fractal game mechanisms, the statistical feature of simulated return rate series is much more similar to log returns on actual series. In addition, the conversion between momentum and contrarian is also extremely similar to real situation, which can reflect the effectiveness of using fractal game in analyzing the conversion between momentum and contrarian. Moreover, it also provides decision-making reference which helps investors develop effective investment strategy.

  9. Evaluation of environmental-control technologies for commercial nuclear fuel-conversion (UF6) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-10-01

    At present in the United States, there are two commercial conversion facilities. These facilities process uranium concentrate into UF 6 for shipment to the enrichment facilities. One conversion facility uses a dry hydrofluor process, whereas the other facility uses a process known as the wet solvent extraction-fluorination process. Because of the different processes used in the two plants, waste characteristics, quantities, and treatment practices differ at each facility. Wastes and effluent streams contain impurities found in the concentrate (such as uranium daughters, vanadium, molybdenum, selenium, arsenic, and ammonia) and process chemicals used in the circuit (including fluorine, nitrogen, and hydrogen), as well as small quantities of uranium. Studies of suitable disposal options for the solid wastes and sludges generated at the facilities and the long-term effects of emissions to the ambient environment are needed. 30 figures, 34 tables

  10. The alkali metal thermoelectric converter /AMTEC/ - A new direct energy conversion technology for aerospace power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Cole, T.; Jones, R.; Ewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical energy, the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC), is characterized by potential efficiencies on the order of 15-40% and possesses no moving parts, making it a candidate for space power system applications. Device conversion efficiency is projected on the basis of experimental voltage vs current curves exhibiting power densities of 0.7 W/sq cm and measured electrode efficiencies of up to 40%. Preliminary radiative heat transfer measurements presented may be used in an investigation of methods for the reduction of AMTEC parasitic radiation losses. AMTEC assumes heat input and rejection temperatures of 900-1300 K and 400-800 K, respectively. The working fluid is liquid sodium, and the porous electrode employed is of molybdenum.

  11. Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed

  12. Low conversion loss 94 GHz and 188 GHz doublers in InP DHBT technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Squartecchia, Michele

    2017-01-01

    An Indium Phosphide (InP) Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (DHBT) process has been utilized to design two doublers to cover the 94 GHz and 188 GHz bands. The 94 GHz doubler employs 4-finger DHBTs and provides conversion loss of 2 dB. A maximum output power of nearly 3 dBm is measured whil...... operate over a broad bandwidth. The total circuit area of each chip is 1.41 mm2....

  13. Energy conservation employing membrane-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Membranes based processes, if properly adapted to industrial processes have good potential with regard to optimisation and economisation of energy consumption. The specific benefits of MBT (membrane based technology) as an energy conservation methodology are highlighted. (author). 6 refs

  14. OPTIMIZED WTE CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN SHANGHAI APPLYING THERMOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Siyang

    2016-01-01

    Thermochemical technologies have been proven effective in treating municipal solid waste (MSW) for many years. China, with a rapid increase of MSW, plans to implement more environmental friendly ways to treat MSW than landfill, which treats about 79 % of total MSW currently. The aim of this master thesis was to find out a suitable thermochemical technology to treat MSW in Shanghai, China. Several different thermochemical technologies are compared in this thesis and plasma gasification was sel...

  15. ORC technology for waste-wood to energy conversion in the furniture manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of low and medium temperature thermal sources, in particular those based on biomass combustion and on industrial residual heat recovery, has been increasingly investigated in the last decades, accordingly to the growing interest towards reduction in primary energy consumption and environmental issues. Organic Rankine cycle technology allows designing power plants that are less demanding in terms of auxiliaries, safety systems, maintenance and operating costs when compared to conventional water steam power plants. To support the preliminary technical and economic design of this kind of plants in different contexts, a simulation code of part load and off-design operation of an organic Rankine cycle unit for combined heat and power has been developed. In the paper, taking the real situation of a furniture manufacturing factory as a starting point, it is shown how all energy flows occurring all year long inside the combined heat and power plant, can be estimated on the basis of the thermal user duty time profile, the available biomass flow rate and the adopted operation strategy. This information is the basis in order to correctly evaluate the energetic, economic and environmental advantages of the proposed technical solution, with respect to a particular context, as it is shown in the concluding part of the paper.

  16. One-dimension-based spatially ordered architectures for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Tang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Yugang; Colmenares, Juan Carlos; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-08-07

    The severe consequences of fossil fuel consumption have resulted in a need for alternative sustainable sources of energy. Conversion and storage of solar energy via a renewable method, such as photocatalysis, holds great promise as such an alternative. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have gained attention in solar energy conversion because they have a long axis to absorb incident sunlight yet a short radial distance for separation of photogenerated charge carriers. In particular, well-ordered spatially high dimensional architectures based on 1D nanostructures with well-defined facets or anisotropic shapes offer an exciting opportunity for bridging the gap between 1D nanostructures and the micro and macro world, providing a platform for integration of nanostructures on a larger and more manageable scale into high-performance solar energy conversion applications. In this review, we focus on the progress of photocatalytic solar energy conversion over controlled one-dimension-based spatially ordered architecture hybrids. Assembly and classification of these novel architectures are summarized, and we discuss the opportunity and future direction of integration of 1D materials into high-dimensional, spatially organized architectures, with a perspective toward improved collective performance in various artificial photoredox applications.

  17. Dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese mathematical phantom and MCNP code for external photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, R.; Li, J.; Zhang, Z.; Liu, L.; Bi, L.; Ren, L.

    2009-01-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ-absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on the Chinese mathematical phantom, a whole-body mathematical phantom model. The model was developed based on the methods of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory mathematical phantom series and data from the Chinese Reference Man and the Reference Asian Man. This work is carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients based on this model, which represents the characteristics of the Chinese population, as the anatomical parameters of the Chinese are different from those of Caucasians. Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP code is carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Before the calculation, the effects from the physics model and tally type are investigated, considering both the calculation efficiency and precision. In the calculation irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Conversion coefficients from this study are compared with those recommended in the Publication 74 of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP74) since both the sets of data are calculated with mathematical phantoms. Overall, consistency between the two sets of data is observed and the difference for more than 60% of the data is below 10%. However, significant deviations are also found, mainly for the superficial organs (up to 65.9%) and bone surface (up to 66%). The big difference of the dose conversion coefficients for the superficial organs at high photon energy could be ascribed to kerma approximation for the data in ICRP74. Both anatomical variations between races and the calculation method contribute to the difference of the data for bone surface. (authors)

  18. Dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese mathematical phantom and MCNP code for external photon irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rui; Li, Junli; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Liye; Bi, Lei; Ren, Li

    2009-02-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ-absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on the Chinese mathematical phantom, a whole-body mathematical phantom model. The model was developed based on the methods of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory mathematical phantom series and data from the Chinese Reference Man and the Reference Asian Man. This work is carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients based on this model, which represents the characteristics of the Chinese population, as the anatomical parameters of the Chinese are different from those of Caucasians. Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP code is carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Before the calculation, the effects from the physics model and tally type are investigated, considering both the calculation efficiency and precision. In the calculation irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Conversion coefficients from this study are compared with those recommended in the Publication 74 of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP74) since both the sets of data are calculated with mathematical phantoms. Overall, consistency between the two sets of data is observed and the difference for more than 60% of the data is below 10%. However, significant deviations are also found, mainly for the superficial organs (up to 65.9%) and bone surface (up to 66%). The big difference of the dose conversion coefficients for the superficial organs at high photon energy could be ascribed to kerma approximation for the data in ICRP74. Both anatomical variations between races and the calculation method contribute to the difference of the data for bone surface.

  19. Graphitic design: prospects of graphene-based nanocomposites for solar energy conversion, storage, and sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightcap, Ian V; Kamat, Prashant V

    2013-10-15

    Graphene not only possesses interesting electrochemical behavior but also has a remarkable surface area and mechanical strength and is naturally abundant, all advantageous properties for the design of tailored composite materials. Graphene-semiconductor or -metal nanoparticle composites have the potential to function as efficient, multifunctional materials for energy conversion and storage. These next-generation composite systems could possess the capability to integrate conversion and storage of solar energy, detection, and selective destruction of trace environmental contaminants or achieve single-substrate, multistep heterogeneous catalysis. These advanced materials may soon become a reality, based on encouraging results in the key areas of energy conversion and sensing using graphene oxide as a support structure. Through recent advances, chemists can now integrate such processes on a single substrate while using synthetic designs that combine simplicity with a high degree of structural and composition selectivity. This progress represents the beginning of a transformative movement leveraging the advancements of single-purpose chemistry toward the creation of composites designed to address whole-process applications. The promising field of graphene nanocomposites for sensing and energy applications is based on fundamental studies that explain the electronic interactions between semiconductor or metal nanoparticles and graphene. In particular, reduced graphene oxide is a suitable composite substrate because of its two-dimensional structure, outstanding surface area, and electrical conductivity. In this Account, we describe common assembly methods for graphene composite materials and examine key studies that characterize its excited state interactions. We also discuss strategies to develop graphene composites and control electron capture and transport through the 2D carbon network. In addition, we provide a brief overview of advances in sensing, energy conversion

  20. The utilisation of a career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bezuidenhout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This  study  constituted  and  reported  on  the  outcomes  of  a  structured  career conversation  framework  based  on  Schein’s  eight  career  anchors  in  an  open  distance  and e-learning (ODeL university in South Africa. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to report on the utilisation of a structured career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model. Motivation for the study: The rationale for the study was the paucity of studies investigating career anchors in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 4200 employees at a university in South Africa. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA as well as a Scheffe post hoc test. Main  findings: The  findings  of  this  study  suggest  that  career  conversation  has  a  dynamic nature (i.e. it changes over a period of time. Consequently, career development interventions in the workplace need to approach the workforce holistically. Practical/managerial implications: The findings and results will assist managers, practitioners and  career  development  specialists  in  the  practical  implementation  of  the  career  anchor concept. Contribution/value-add: The career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors has expanded the existing theory to find the right balance between career conversations and career anchors to keep people motivated to perform optimally in an organisation.

  1. Encryption Technology based on Human Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research progress of encryption technologies based on human biometrics is reviewed in this paper.The technologies that utilize human biometrics to make information encryption and identity authentication,and the technologies which combine biometrics encryption with optical encryption methods are introduced in detail.The advantages and disadvantages of these encryption systems are discussed,and the obstacles in practical applications are pointed out.Finally,the prospect of the new encryption technologies that are based on human biometrics are predicted.

  2. Advanced location-based technologies and services

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Hassan A

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the number of mobile device users worldwide, location-based services (LBSs) have become pervasive, and the demand for them will continue to grow. Exploring recent changes in the technology and its uses, Advanced Location-Based Technologies and Services takes an in-depth look at new and existing technologies, techniques, applications, and opportunities. Under the editorial guidance of Hassan Karimi, with contributions from experts in the field, the book examines the breadth and depth of advanced LBS technologies and techniques. The book provides up-to-date informati

  3. Sustainable energy conversion for electricity and coproducts principles, technologies, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Provides an introduction to energy systems going on to describe various forms of energy sources Provides a comprehensive and a fundamental approach to the study of sustainable fuel conversion for the generation of electricity and for coproducing synthetic fuels and chemicals Covers the underlying principles of physics and their application to engineering including thermodynamics of combustion and power cycles, fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer Details the coproduction of fuels and chemicals including key equipment used in synthesis and specific examples of coproduction in integrated

  4. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  5. Tracking the conversion of nitrogen during pyrolysis of antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues using XPS and TG-FTIR-MS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Yang, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues (AMFRs), which are emerging solid pollutants, have been recognized as hazardous waste in China since 2008. Nitrogen (N), which is an environmental sensitivity element, is largely retained in AMFR samples derived from fermentation substrates. Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the treatment of solid waste. However, the outcomes of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs are still unknown. In this study, the conversion of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs was tracked using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and online TG-FTIR-MS (Thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared-Mass spectrometry) technology. In the AMFR sample, organic amine-N, pyrrolic-N, protein-N, pyridinic-N, was the main N-containing species. XPS results indicated that pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N were retained in the AMFR-derived pyrolysis char. More stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were also produced in the char. TG-FTIR-MS results indicated that NH_3 and HCN were the main gaseous species, and their contents were closely related to the contents of amine-N and protein-N, and pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N of AMFRs, respectively. Increases in heating rate enhanced the amounts of NH_3 and HCN, but had less of an effect on the degradation degree of AMFRs. N-containing organic compounds, including amine-N, nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N, were discerned from the AMFR pyrolysis process. Their release range was extended with increasing of heating rate and carbon content of AMFR sample. This work will help to take appropriate measure to reduce secondary pollution from the treatment of AMFRs. - Highlights: • Hazardous AMFR material was treated by slow pyrolysis reaction. • TG-FTIR-MS were used to study the N conversion for pyrolysis gas and bio-oil. • NH_3 and HCN were observed as the main N-containing gas species. • XPS were used to study the N conversion for pyrolysis char. • Stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were

  6. Investigation of the available technologies and their feasibility for the conversion of food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-04-01

    Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk. In order to examine the feasibility of converting food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong, this paper investigates the market demand, technical viability, feed quality, regulatory hurdles, and potential contribution. The results show that a significant amount of food waste can be recycled by converting it into fish feed due to the enormous demand from feed factories in mainland China. Two conversion technologies, heat drying and black soldier fly bioconversion, are studied extensively. Black soldier fly bioconversion is preferable because the end-product, insect powder, is anticipated to gain import approval from mainland China. The authors suggest further research efforts to speed up its application for food waste recycling in urban cities.

  7. Bit-rate-transparent optical RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on linear spectral phase filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Da Ros, Francesco; Guan, Pengyu

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel and strikingly simple design for all-optical bit-rate-transparent RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal.......We propose a novel and strikingly simple design for all-optical bit-rate-transparent RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal....

  8. Complex Nanostructures from Materials based on Metal-Organic Frameworks for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bu Yuan; Yu, Xin Yao; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-12-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn tremendous attention because of their abundant diversity in structure and composition. Recently, there has been growing research interest in deriving advanced nanomaterials with complex architectures and tailored chemical compositions from MOF-based precursors for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Here, a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex nanostructures derived from MOF-based precursors is provided. After a brief summary of synthetic methods of MOF-based templates and their conversion to desirable nanostructures, delicate designs and preparation of complex architectures from MOFs or their composites are described in detail, including porous structures, single-shelled hollow structures, and multishelled hollow structures, as well as other unusual complex structures. Afterward, their applications are discussed as electrode materials or catalysts for lithium-ion batteries, hybrid supercapacitors, water-splitting devices, and fuel cells. Lastly, the research challenges and possible development directions of complex nanostructures derived from MOF-based-templates for electrochemical energy storage and conversion applications are outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Conversion of Wastes into Bioelectricity and Chemicals by Using Microbial Electrochemical Technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, B. E.; Rabaey, K.

    2012-01-01

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of electrons for microbes capable of producing electrical current outside the cell. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a

  10. A current controlled matrix converter for wind energy conversion systems based on permanent magnet synchronous generator

    OpenAIRE

    Naggar H. Saad; Ahmed A. El-Sattar; Mohamed I. Marei

    2016-01-01

    The main challenges of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are to maximize the energy capture from the wind and injecting reactive power during the fault. This paper presents a current controlled matrix converter to interface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG) based WECS with the grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with reduced current ripples, a hysteresis current control is utilized. The proposed control system decouples the active and reactive components of the PMSG curren...

  11. A browser-based tool for conversion between Fortran NAMELIST and XML/HTML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, O.

    A browser-based tool for conversion between Fortran NAMELIST and XML/HTML is presented. It runs on an HTML5 compliant browser and generates reusable XML files to aid interoperability. It also provides a graphical interface for editing and annotating variables in NAMELIST, hence serves as a primitive code documentation environment. Although the tool is not comprehensive, it could be viewed as a test bed for integrating legacy codes into modern systems.

  12. A browser-based tool for conversion between Fortran NAMELIST and XML/HTML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Naito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A browser-based tool for conversion between Fortran NAMELIST and XML/HTML is presented. It runs on an HTML5 compliant browser and generates reusable XML files to aid interoperability. It also provides a graphical interface for editing and annotating variables in NAMELIST, hence serves as a primitive code documentation environment. Although the tool is not comprehensive, it could be viewed as a test bed for integrating legacy codes into modern systems.

  13. Information and Communication Technology and School Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication technology and school based assessment (SBA) is practice that broadens the form mode, means and scope of assessment in the school using modern technologies in order to facilitate and enhance learning. This study sought to ascertain the efficacy of Information and Communication ...

  14. Alcoholysis: A Promising Technology for Conversion of Lignocellulose and Platform Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shanhui; Guo, Jing; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin

    2017-06-22

    In the catalytic conversion of lignocellulose to valuable products, the first entry point is to break down these biopolymers to sugar units or aromatic monomers, which is conventionally achieved by hydrolysis in water medium. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in the alcoholysis process, which has remarkable advantages, such as the avoidance of treating waste water, suppression of humins or chars, and enhancement of reaction rate and product yield. Advances have been focused on the alcoholysis of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin to alkyl glucosides, xylosides, and aromatic monomers, respectively. Alcoholysis of the platform molecule furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to alkyl levulinate (AL) and integrated alcoholysis of cellulose and furfural into AL are also summarized. This Minireview highlights the comparisons between alcoholysis and hydrolysis, the reaction mechanism of alcoholysis, and future challenges for industrial applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ka-band to L-band frequency down-conversion based on III-V-on-silicon photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gasse, K.; Wang, Z.; Uvin, S.; De Deckere, B.; Mariën, J.; Thomassen, L.; Roelkens, G.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present the design, simulation and characterization of a frequency down-converter based on III-V-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit technology. We first demonstrate the concept using commercial discrete components, after which we demonstrate frequency conversion using an integrated mode-locked laser and integrated modulator. In our experiments, five channels in the Ka-band (27.5-30 GHz) with 500 MHz bandwidth are down-converted to the L-band (1.5 GHz). The breadboard demonstration shows a conversion efficiency of - 20 dB and a flat response over the 500 MHz bandwidth. The simulation of a fully integrated circuit indicates that a positive conversion gain can be obtained on a millimeter-sized photonic integrated circuit.

  16. Conversion of wastes into bioelectricity and chemicals by using microbial electrochemical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2012-08-10

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of electrons for microbes capable of producing electrical current outside the cell. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy and chemical production technologies. We review the key advances that will enable the use of exoelectrogenic microorganisms to generate biofuels, hydrogen gas, methane, and other valuable inorganic and organic chemicals. Moreover, we examine the key challenges for implementing these systems and compare them to similar renewable energy technologies. Although commercial development is already underway in several different applications, ranging from wastewater treatment to industrial chemical production, further research is needed regarding efficiency, scalability, system lifetimes, and reliability.

  17. Conversion of Wastes into Bioelectricity and Chemicals by Using Microbial Electrochemical Technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, B. E.

    2012-08-09

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of electrons for microbes capable of producing electrical current outside the cell. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy and chemical production technologies. We review the key advances that will enable the use of exoelectrogenic microorganisms to generate biofuels, hydrogen gas, methane, and other valuable inorganic and organic chemicals. Moreover, we examine the key challenges for implementing these systems and compare them to similar renewable energy technologies. Although commercial development is already underway in several different applications, ranging from wastewater treatment to industrial chemical production, further research is needed regarding efficiency, scalability, system lifetimes, and reliability.

  18. Capture, transformation and conversion of the solar energy by the technologies of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G.

    2003-01-01

    The specificities of the solar technologies at concentration are: high energy efficiency with increasing possibilities and the possibility of storage the solar energy by heat for a local and short dated utilization or by chemical storage (hydrogen for instance) for a delayed utilization or far from the capture area. This document takes stock on the concentration solar techniques, the electric power production by concentrated solar energy and the performance of concentrated solar plants, the industrial american experience of the SEGS plants, the hydrogen production by concentrated solar energy and discusses the scientific and technological locks. (A.L.B.)

  19. The Case for Using SMS Technologies to Support Distance Education Students in South Africa: Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jeanne-Marie; Du Preez, Carl; Cook, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    The rate of adoption of mobile technologies in Africa's developing countries is amongst the highest in the world and by 2005 there may be almost 100 billion mobile users in Africa (Keegan, 2002; Brown, 2005). This is just one of the reasons why servicing distance students in this country through m-learning support tools should enjoy…

  20. Chapter 11: New Conversion Technologies for Liquid Biofuels Production in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    On the longer term, the production of second generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass is expected to become economically competitive with gasoline and diesel. A pre-requisite is that several technological hurdles will be overcome and that a large, stable supply of lignocellulosic biomass

  1. DNA based radiological dosimetry technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Quijada, Gerardo A.; Roy, Emmanuel; Veres, Teodor; Dumoulin, Michel M.; Vachon, Caroline; Blagoeva, Rosita; Pierre, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this project is to develop a personal and wearable dosimeter using a highly-innovative approach based on the specific recognition of DNA damage with a polymer hybrid. Our biosensor will be sensitive to breaks in nucleic acid macromolecules and relevant to mixed-field radiation. The dosimeter proposed will be small, field deployable and will sense damages for all radiation types at the DNA level. The generalized concept for the novel-based radiological dosimeter: 1) Single or double stranded oligonucleotide is immobilized on surface; 2) Single stranded has higher cross-section for fragmentation; 3) Double stranded is more biological relevant; 4) Radiation induces fragmentation; 5) Ultra-sensitive detection of fragments provides radiation dose. Successful efforts have been made towards a proof-of-concept personal wearable DNA-based dosimeter that is appropriate for mixed-field radiation. The covalent immobilization of oligonucleotides on large areas of plastic surfaces has been demonstrated and corroborated spectroscopically. The surface concentration of DNA was determined to be 8 x 1010 molecules/cm 2 from a Ce(IV) catalyzed hydrolysis study of a fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide. Current efforts are being directed at studying radiation induced fragmentation of DNA followed by its ultra-sensitive detection via a novel method. In addition, proof-of-concept wearable personal devices and a detection platform are presently being fabricated. (author)

  2. Status of radiation-based measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Lee, J. W.; Chung, C. E.; Hong, S. B.; Kim, J. T.; Park, W. M.; Kim, J. Y.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the status of measurement equipment using radiation source and new technologies in this field. This report includes the development status in Korea together with a brief description of the technology development and application status in ten countries including France, America, and Japan. Also this report describes technical factors related to radiation-based measurement and trends of new technologies. Measurement principles are also described for the equipment that is widely used among radiation-based measurement, such as level measurement, density measurement, basis weight measurement, moisture measurement, and thickness measurement. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  3. The use of gas based energy conversion cycles for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, M.; Haubensack, D.; Alpy, N.; Gerber, A.; Daid, F.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of Sodium Fast Reactors, CEA, AREVA and EDF are involved in a substantial effort providing both significant expertise and original work in order to investigate the interest to use a gas based energy conversion cycle as an alternative to the classical steam cycle. These gas cycles consist in different versions of the Brayton cycle, various types of gas being considered (helium, nitrogen, argon, separately or mixed, sub or supercritical carbon dioxide) as well as various cycle arrangements (indirect, indirect / combined cycles). The interest of such cycles is analysed in details by thermodynamic calculations and cycle optimisations. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison between gas based energy conversion cycles from the viewpoint of the overall plant efficiency. Key factors affecting the Brayton cycle efficiency include the turbine inlet temperature, compressors and turbine efficiencies, recuperator effectiveness and cycle pressure losses. A nitrogen Brayton cycle at high pressure (between 100 and 180 bar) could appear as a potential near-term solution of classical gas power conversion system for maximizing the plant efficiency. At long-term, supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle appears very promising for Sodium Fast Reactors, with a potential of high efficiency using even at a core outlet temperature of 545 deg. C. (authors)

  4. Comprehensive characterisation of sewage sludge for thermochemical conversion processes - Based on Singapore survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wei Ping; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Recently, sludge attracted great interest as a potential feedstock in thermochemical conversion processes. However, compositions and thermal degradation behaviours of sludge were highly complex and distinctive compared to other traditional feedstock led to a need of fundamental research on sludge. Comprehensive characterisation of sludge specifically for thermochemical conversion was carried out for all existing Water Reclamation Plants in Singapore. In total, 14 sludge samples collected based on the type, plant, and batch categorisation. Existing characterisation methods for physical and chemical properties were analysed and reviewed using the collected samples. Qualitative similarities and quantitative variations of different sludge samples were identified and discussed. Oxidation of inorganic in sludge during ash forming analysis found to be causing significant deviations on proximate and ultimate analysis. Therefore, alternative parameters and comparison basis including Fixed Residues (FR), Inorganic Matters (IM) and Total Inorganics (TI) were proposed for better understanding on the thermochemical characteristics of sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Robust Sliding Mode Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangping Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper pertains to sliding mode control and its application in nonlinear electrical power systems as seen in wind energy conversion systems. Due to the robustness in dealing with unmodeled system dynamics, sliding mode control has been widely used in electrical power system applications. This paper presents first and high order sliding mode control schemes for permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind energy conversion systems. The application of these methods for control using dynamic models of the d-axis and q-axis currents, as well as those of the high speed shaft rotational speed show a high level of efficiency in power extraction from a varying wind resource. Computer simulation results have shown the efficacy of the proposed sliding mode control approaches.

  6. Lanthanide based conversion coatings for long term wet storage of aluminium-clad spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, S.M.C.; Correa, O.V.; De Souza, J.A.; Ramanathan, L.V.

    2010-01-01

    Spent fuels from research reactors are stored in basins with water of less than desirable quality at many facilities around the world and instances of cladding failure caused by pitting corrosion have been reported. Conversion coatings have been used in many industries to protect different metals, including aluminium alloys. This paper presents the results of an ongoing investigation in which the corrosion resistance of lanthanide (cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium) based conversion coated RR fuel cladding alloys has been studied. Electrochemical tests in the laboratory revealed higher corrosion resistance of CeO 2 , La 2 O 3 and Pr 2 O 3 coated AA 1100 and AA 6061 alloys in NaCl solutions. Uncoated and CeO 2 coated coupons of these alloys exposed for 50 days to the spent fuel basin of the IEA-R1 research reactor in IPEN, Brazil, revealed marked reductions in the extent of pitting corrosion. (author)

  7. Technology for Obtaining Large Size Complex Oxide Crystals for Experiments on Muon-Electron Conversion Registration in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasymov, Ya.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological approaches for qualitative large size scintillation crystals growing based on rare-earth silicates are proposed. A method of iridium crucibles charging using eutectic phase instead of a oxyorthosilicate was developed.

  8. Technological advances in CO2 conversion electro-biorefinery: A step toward commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMekawy, Ahmed; Hegab, Hanaa M; Mohanakrishna, Gunda; Elbaz, Ashraf F; Bulut, Metin; Pant, Deepak

    2016-09-01

    The global atmospheric warming due to increased emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) has attracted great attention in the last two decades. Although different CO2 capture and storage platforms have been proposed, the utilization of captured CO2 from industrial plants is progressively prevalent strategy due to concerns about the safety of terrestrial and aquatic CO2 storage. Two utilization forms were proposed, direct utilization of CO2 and conversion of CO2 to chemicals and energy products. The latter strategy includes the bioelectrochemical techniques in which electricity can be used as an energy source for the microbial catalytic production of fuels and other organic products from CO2. This approach is a potential technique in which CO2 emissions are not only reduced, but it also produce more value-added products. This review article highlights the different methodologies for the bioelectrochemical utilization of CO2, with distinctive focus on the potential opportunities for the commercialization of these techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of a DWDM signal to a single Nyquist channel based on a complete optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    We propose a DWDM-to-Nyquist channel conversion scheme based on complete Optical Fourier Transformation and optical Nyquist filtering. We demonstrate conversion from 50-GHz-grid 16×10 Gbit/s DPSK DWDM to a 160-Gbit/s Nyquist channel (0.9 symbol/s/Hz spectral efficiency) with 1.4 dB power penalty....

  10. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  11. A Parameter-based Model for Generating Culturally Adaptive Nonverbal Behaviors in Embodied Conversational Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to integrate culture as a computational term in embodied conversational agents by employing an empirical data-driven approach as well as a theoretical model-driven approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific...... cultures. First, we introduce the Hofstede theory to describe socio-cultural characteristics of each country. Then, based on the previous studies in cultural differences of nonverbal behaviors, we propose expressive parameters to characterize nonverbal behaviors. Finally, by integrating socio-cultural...

  12. Military conversion and its impacts on science and technology: Elements of the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, F.; Perani, G.

    1994-01-01

    Italy represents on of the success stories of post-war economic growth, gross national product has been higher in Italy than in most other industrialized countries. On the other hand the research and development growth initially did not result in successful performance in high technology products. This is due to existing of two innovation systems: a small firms network and core R and D system. These systems are quiet different in terms of capabilities, organization and performance. From the performed analysis of innovation system and military R and D activity it is suggested that the role of small/medium sized firms should be emphasized and that different public policies should be coordinated more efficiently. The industrial and technological policy should be matched together and investments on dual use technologies should be increased. A more selective procurement policy should lead to a wide process of restructuring military R and D and production system, the number of military firms should probably diminish and the remaining ones should have to increase their presence in competitive civilian markets

  13. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  14. Novel Integration of Perovskite Solar Cell and Supercapacitor Based on Carbon Electrode for Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zhong, Yan; Sun, Bo; Liu, Xingyue; Han, Jinghui; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2017-07-12

    Power packs integrating both photovoltaic parts and energy storage parts have gained great scientific and technological attention due to the increasing demand for green energy and the tendency for miniaturization and multifunctionalization in electronics industry. In this study, we demonstrate novel integration of perovskite solar cell and solid-state supercapacitor for power packs. The perovskite solar cell is integrated with the supercapacitor based on common carbon electrodes to hybridize photoelectric conversion and energy storage. The power pack achieves a voltage of 0.84 V when the supercapacitor is charged by the perovskite solar cell under the AM 1.5G white light illumination with a 0.071 cm 2 active area, reaching an energy storage proportion of 76% and an overall conversion efficiency of 5.26%. When the supercapacitor is precharged at 1.0 V, an instant overall output efficiency of 22.9% can be achieved if the perovskite solar cell and supercapacitor are connected in series, exhibiting great potential in the applications of solar energy storage and flexible electronics such as portable and wearable devices.

  15. Salt Stability - The Effect of pHmax on Salt to Free Base Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ling; Merritt, Jeremy M; Yu, Weili; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the disproportionation process can be impacted by the properties of the salt, specifically pHmax. Five miconazole salts and four sertraline salts were selected for this study. The extent of conversion was quantified using Raman spectroscopy. A mathematical model was utilized to estimate the theoretical amount of conversion. A trend was observed that for a given series of salts of a particular basic compound (both sertraline and miconazole are bases), the extent of disproportionation increases as pHmax decreases. Miconazole phosphate monohydrate and sertraline mesylate, although exhibiting significantly different pHmax values (more than 2 units apart), underwent a similar extent of disproportionation, which may be attributed to the lower buffering capacity of sertraline salts. This work shows that the disproportionation tendency can be influenced by pHmax and buffering capacity and thus highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate salt form during the screening process in order to avoid salt-to-free form conversion.

  16. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...... about whether or not heat recovery is considered....

  17. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  18. Future mission opportunities and requirements for advanced space photovoltaic energy conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The variety of potential future missions under consideration by NASA will impose a broad range of requirements on space solar arrays, and mandates the development of new solar cells which can offer a wide range of capabilities to mission planners. Major advances in performance have recently been achieved at several laboratories in a variety of solar cell types. Many of those recent advances are reviewed, the areas are examined where possible improvements are yet to be made, and the requirements are discussed that must be met by advanced solar cell if they are to be used in space. The solar cells of interest include single and multiple junction cells which are fabricated from single crystal, polycrystalline and amorphous materials. Single crystal cells on foreign substrates, thin film single crystal cells on superstrates, and multiple junction cells which are either mechanically stacked, monolithically grown, or hybrid structures incorporating both techniques are discussed. Advanced concentrator array technology for space applications is described, and the status of thin film, flexible solar array blanket technology is reported.

  19. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Research and development was made for the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project which aims to carry out hydrogen production, transportation, and supply to consumers, by the use of renewable energy. In this fiscal year, surveys were conducted of the status of research and development in each of the fields, and research was started on element technologies in some of the fields. Under subtask 1, surveys and studies were started for pilot plant phase 2. Under subtask 2, an international symposium was held for the enhancement of technical information exchange. Under subtask 3, a liquid hydrogen system conceptual design was prepared for the estimation of facility cost, etc. Under subtask 4, small experimental cells were fabricated for evaluating electrode bonding methods. Under subtask 5, studies were made about the processes of the helium Brayton cycle and hydrogen Claude cycle for the development of a large-scale hydrogen liquefaction plant. Under subtasks 6-9, furthermore, surveys and studies were conducted about low-temperature substance technology, hydrogen energy, hydrogen combustion turbines, and so forth. (NEDO)

  20. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  1. New technology-based recruitment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Reija

    2018-01-01

    The transformation that recruitment might encounter due to big data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) is particularly fascinating which is why this thesis focuses on the changes recruitment processes are and will be facing as new technological solutions are emerging. The aim and main objective of this study is to widen knowledge about new technology-based recruitment methods, focusing on how they are utilized by Finnish recruitment professionals and how the opportunities and risks th...

  2. Disaster management: using Internet-based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitruk, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Disasters impose operational challenges and substantial financial burdens on hospitals. Internet-based disaster management technology can help. This technology should: Capture, analyze, and track relevant data. Be available 24/7. Guide decision makers in setting up an incident command center and monitor the completion of jobs by ICC role. Provide assistance in areas that hospitals are not used to dealing with, e.g., chemical or bio-terror agents.

  3. A novel fiber-based adsorbent technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T.A. [Chemica Technologies, Inc., Bend, OR (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Chemica Technologies, Inc. is developing an economical, robust, fiber-based adsorbent technology for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water. The key innovation is the development of regenerable adsorbent fibers and adsorbent fiber cloths that have high capacity and selectivity for heavy metals and are chemically robust. The process has the potential for widespread use at DOE facilities, mining operations, and the chemical process industry.

  4. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Riccardo; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion systems generating an electric current from the thermal photons radiated by a hot body. While their efficiency is limited in far field by the Schockley-Queisser limit, in near field the heat flux transferred to a photovoltaic cell can be largely enhanced because of the contribution of evanescent photons, in particular for a source supporting a surface mode. Unfortunately, in the infrared where these systems operate, the mismatch between the surface-mode frequency and the semiconductor gap reduces drastically the potential of this technology. In this paper we propose a modified thermophotovoltaic device in which the cell is covered by a graphene sheet. By discussing the transmission coefficient and the spectral properties of the flux, we show that both the cell efficiency and the produced current can be enhanced, paving the way to promising developments for the production of electricity from waste heat.

  5. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1985-06-01

    The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: (1) the exploratory technology development and testing (ETD) project and (2) the technology base research (TBR) project. The role of the TBR Project is to perform supporting research for the advanced battery systems under development by the ETD Project, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the TBR Project is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to industry and/or the ETD Project for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial, and management activities relevant to the TBR Project in CY 1984. General problem areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the assessment of fuel-cell technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: exploratory research, applied science research, and air systems research.

  6. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  7. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research and development was performed for the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project which aims to carry out hydrogen production, transportation, and supply to consumers, by the use of renewable energy. Under subtask 1, the whole WE-NET project was subjected to evaluation, which included coordination between the respective tasks. Under subtask 2, information exchange and research cooperation were carried out with research institutes overseas. Under subtask 3, a conceptual design was prepared of a total system using ammonia as the medium for hydrogen transportation, accident data were collected and screened, and safety measures and evaluation techniques were developed and improved. Under subtask 4, the hot press method and the electroless plating method were selected as better electrode bonding methods. Under subtask 5, hydrogen liquefaction cycle processes, liquid hydrogen tankers, storage facilities, etc., were studied. Under subtasks 6-9, furthermore, investigations were conducted about low-temperature substance technology, hydrogen energy, hydrogen combustion turbine, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Accumulation of long-chain bases in yeast promotes their conversion to a long-chain base vinyl ether

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Montañés, Fernando; Lone, Museer A.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Schneiter3, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain bases (LCBs) are the precursors to ceramide and sphingolipids in eukaryotic cells. They are formed by the action of serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT), a complex of integral membrane proteins located in the endoplasmic reticulum. SPT activity is negatively regulated by Orm proteins to prevent the toxic overaccumulation of LCBs. Here we show that overaccumulation of LCBs in yeast results in their conversion to a hitherto undescribed LCB derivative, an LCB vinyl ether. The ...

  9. Single-mode fiber laser based on core-cladding mode conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N

    2008-02-15

    A single-mode fiber laser based on an intracavity core-cladding mode conversion is demonstrated. The fiber laser consists of an Er-doped active fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings. One Bragg grating is a core-cladding mode converter, and the other Bragg grating is a narrowband high reflector that selects the lasing wavelength. Coupling a single core mode and a single cladding mode by the grating mode converter, the laser operates as a hybrid single-mode laser. This approach for designing a laser cavity provides a much larger mode area than conventional large-mode-area step-index fibers.

  10. Quaternion-Based Conversion Formulas for Kinematic Attitude of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yugang; Fu, Gaoyong

    2018-01-01

    A floater allowing large-angle motion supporting a large payload (wind turbine and nacelle) with large aerodynamic loads high above the water surface is a great challenge because of the raised center of gravity and large overturning moment. In this paper, the conversion formulas between Euler angles and quaternions were derived, the research offered an efficient methodology without singularity to compute large-angle rigid body rotations of a FOWT, which laid the foundation for quaternion-based attitude kinematic model introduced to describe the dynamic response of the FOWT system and further solution.

  11. Concept maps: A tool for knowledge management and synthesis in web-based conversational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ankur; Singh, Satendra; Jaswal, Shivani; Badyal, Dinesh Kumar; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-01-01

    Web-based conversational learning provides an opportunity for shared knowledge base creation through collaboration and collective wisdom extraction. Usually, the amount of generated information in such forums is very huge, multidimensional (in alignment with the desirable preconditions for constructivist knowledge creation), and sometimes, the nature of expected new information may not be anticipated in advance. Thus, concept maps (crafted from constructed data) as "process summary" tools may be a solution to improve critical thinking and learning by making connections between the facts or knowledge shared by the participants during online discussion This exploratory paper begins with the description of this innovation tried on a web-based interacting platform (email list management software), FAIMER-Listserv, and generated qualitative evidence through peer-feedback. This process description is further supported by a theoretical construct which shows how social constructivism (inclusive of autonomy and complexity) affects the conversational learning. The paper rationalizes the use of concept map as mid-summary tool for extracting information and further sense making out of this apparent intricacy.

  12. Zr-based conversion layer on Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets: insights into the formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lostak, Thomas; Maljusch, Artjom; Klink, Björn; Krebs, Stefan; Kimpel, Matthias; Flock, Jörg; Schulz, Stephan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Zr-based conversion layers are considered as environmentally friendly alternatives replacing trication phosphatation in the automotive industry. Based on excellent electronic barrier properties they provide an effective corrosion protection of the metallic substrate. In this work, thin protective layers were grown on novel Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets by increasing the local pH-value at the sample surface leading to deposition of a Zr-based conversion layer. For this purpose Zn-Al-Mg alloy (ZM) coated steel sheets were treated in an aqueous model conversion solution containing well-defined amounts of hexafluorozirconic acid (H 2 ZrF 6 ) and characterized after different immersion times with SKPFM and field emission SEM (FE-SEM)/EDX techniques. A deposition mechanism of Zr-based conversion coatings on microstructural heterogeneous Zn-Al-Mg alloy surfaces was proposed

  13. WDM PONs based on colorless technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Fabienne; Simon, Gael; Chanclou, Philippe; Pizzinat, Anna; Lin, Huafeng; Zhou, Enyu; Xu, Zhiguang

    2015-12-01

    Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Passive Optical Network (PON) is foreseen to be part of the Next Generation Passive Optical Networks. Business and mobile fronthaul networks already express the need to develop WDM PONs in the access segment. Fixed wavelength transceivers based on Coarse WDM are already available to respond to today's market needs but Dense WDM technologies will be needed and colorless technologies are essential to provide simple and cost-effective WDM PON systems. We propose in this paper to demonstrate the capabilities of a DWDM PON system prototype based on self-seeded RSOAs and designed to transmit CPRI over 60 km of fiber at 2.5 Gbit/s.

  14. WEB-BASED DATABASE ON RENEWAL TECHNOLOGIES ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As U.S. utilities continue to shore up their aging infrastructure, renewal needs now represent over 43% of annual expenditures compared to new construction for drinking water distribution and wastewater collection systems (Underground Construction [UC], 2016). An increased understanding of renewal options will ultimately assist drinking water utilities in reducing water loss and help wastewater utilities to address infiltration and inflow issues in a cost-effective manner. It will also help to extend the service lives of both drinking water and wastewater mains. This research effort involved collecting case studies on the use of various trenchless pipeline renewal methods and providing the information in an online searchable database. The overall objective was to further support technology transfer and information sharing regarding emerging and innovative renewal technologies for water and wastewater mains. The result of this research is a Web-based, searchable database that utility personnel can use to obtain technology performance and cost data, as well as case study references. The renewal case studies include: technologies used; the conditions under which the technology was implemented; costs; lessons learned; and utility contact information. The online database also features a data mining tool for automated review of the technologies selected and cost data. Based on a review of the case study results and industry data, several findings are presented on tren

  15. Adhesion and corrosion studies of a lithium based conversion coating film on the 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M.R.S.; Nogueira, J.C.; Thim, G.P.; Oliveira, M.A.S.

    2004-01-01

    AA2024-T3-aluminum alloy surfaces were coated using non-chromate and chromate conversion coatings. All coatings were painted with the 10P4-2-primer epoxy resin. Independent on the film formation process, films passed on the substrate/conversion coating wet tape adhesion test. However, only the chromate conversion coating passed on the conversion coating/primer epoxy resin adhesion test. Electrochemical corrosion measurements showed that non-chromate conversion coated surfaces present lower corrosion current density, bigger polarization resistance and less negative corrosion potential than chromate conversion coated surfaces

  16. The technology vicinity: a location based view on technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Kocaoglu, D.F.; Anderson, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    The issue of technology transfer has been viewed from many different perspectives. In this case the focus is on the process of (production) technology transfer. One of the difficulties in studying international technology transfer is the definition of technology. The many technology definitions that

  17. Broadband Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Non-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  18. RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on a silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe; Pu, Minhao

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on silicon microring resonator with FSR of 100 GHz. Bit error rate measurements show a low power penalty compared to electrical NRZ signal for error free operation.......We demonstrate RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on silicon microring resonator with FSR of 100 GHz. Bit error rate measurements show a low power penalty compared to electrical NRZ signal for error free operation....

  19. Communicating Customer Value Based on Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Czarniewski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the idea of gaining a position of competitive advantage by companies operating in the knowledge-based economy and in the age of modern technology. The rate of change in companies’ environments forces organizations to react quickly to clients’ needs. In recent years, there has been an observed systematic increase in the importance of communicating customer value in Poland. This paper shows changes (trends in the system of market communication in the age of modern technology and changes in the economy. The author presents the mechanisms and effects of communication in age new technology in Poland. Modern technologies enable the collection, storage and transmission of information. Reflections contained in the paper do not have definite characteristics and should be treated as an opinion in the discussion.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF TRIVALENT CHROMIUM-BASED CONVERSION COATINGS ON ELECTROGALVANISED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Tomachuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The passivation process of electrogavanised steel is very important, especially for improving of the corrosion protection and the thickness of the layer obtained can further enhance such protection. In the market exists Cr(III‑based thick layers passivation, however, are operated around 60°C. In order to attend market demands a new process with only 20% of the chromium content is developed, which operates at room temperature. The corrosion behavior was investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique in chloride solution and accelerated tests in salt spray chamber. The combination of these tests provides a more complete assessment of the behavior against corrosion of layer passivation obtained. The results with respect to appearance, brightness, uniformity, layer thickness and corrosion resistance are similar to those presented by Cr(III based passivation existing market and Cr(VI based conversion treatment.

  1. A novel energy conversion based method for velocity correction in molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hanhui [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Ningning [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ku, Xiaoke, E-mail: xiaokeku@zju.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fan, Jianren [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become an important tool for studying micro- or nano-scale dynamics and the statistical properties of fluids and solids. In MD simulations, there are mainly two approaches: equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD and NEMD). In this paper, a new energy conversion based correction (ECBC) method for MD is developed. Unlike the traditional systematic correction based on macroscopic parameters, the ECBC method is developed strictly based on the physical interaction processes between the pair of molecules or atoms. The developed ECBC method can apply to EMD and NEMD directly. While using MD with this method, the difference between the EMD and NEMD is eliminated, and no macroscopic parameters such as external imposed potentials or coefficients are needed. With this method, many limits of using MD are lifted. The application scope of MD is greatly extended.

  2. A novel energy conversion based method for velocity correction in molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hanhui; Liu, Ningning; Ku, Xiaoke; Fan, Jianren

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become an important tool for studying micro- or nano-scale dynamics and the statistical properties of fluids and solids. In MD simulations, there are mainly two approaches: equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD and NEMD). In this paper, a new energy conversion based correction (ECBC) method for MD is developed. Unlike the traditional systematic correction based on macroscopic parameters, the ECBC method is developed strictly based on the physical interaction processes between the pair of molecules or atoms. The developed ECBC method can apply to EMD and NEMD directly. While using MD with this method, the difference between the EMD and NEMD is eliminated, and no macroscopic parameters such as external imposed potentials or coefficients are needed. With this method, many limits of using MD are lifted. The application scope of MD is greatly extended.

  3. Effects of vacuum and ageing on Zr4/Cr3 based conversion coatings on aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirupathi, Kalaivanan; Bárczy, Pál; Vad, Kálmán; Csik, Attila; Somosvári, Béla Márton

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of ageing and high vacuum on existing environmentally friendly Zr4/Cr3-based conversion coatings. The freshly formed coating undergoes several changes during ageing and exposure to high vacuum. Based on the present data, we propose that the coating formed over AA6082 and AA7075 alloys is sol-gel in nature, confirmed by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS) using the depth profiling technique. Our findings reveal that there are elemental level changes that result in shrinkage of the coating. Most Zr ions in the coating are in the solute form, with lesser number of Cr and Al ions that disappear under high vacuum over a certain period of time. The remaining Cr, Zr and O atoms exist in a gelatinous state. During ageing, there is a continuous transition of ions from solute to gelatinous state. In addition, the deposition of coating ions is directly influenced by the substrates and their constituents. The extent of dissolution of aluminium in the conversion bath determines both Zr and Cr ion deposition. For a highly alloyed metal like AA7075, the dissolution rate is disturbed by copper and zinc.

  4. Assessment of control strategies for fault ride through of SCIG-based wind energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing penetration of wind energy into the power grid, researchers have started focusing more on control and coordination of wind energy conversion systems (WECS with the other components at system level, especially during fault. It is important to implement a suitable fault ride through control strategy to avoid tripping of the generators when the power system is subjected to voltage dips normally below 90% of nominal voltage. The dips below 90% may lead to a significant loss of generation and frequency collapse, followed by a blackout. This article implements and assesses the methodologies to deal with such situations for squirrel cage induction generator-based wind energy conversion systems employing fully rated power electronic converters. Three distinct control techniques—namely, balanced positive sequence control, positive negative sequence control, and dual current control—have been simulated and applied to grid side converter of SCIG-based WECS. The performance of all the three control strategies has been compared and presented in this work. During this study, the system is subjected to the most common unsymmetrical line to ground (LG fault and most severe symmetrical LLL fault on grid for the purpose of anaysis.

  5. The technology vicinity: a location based view on technology

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Kocaoglu, D.F.; Anderson, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    The issue of technology transfer has been viewed from many different perspectives. In this case the focus is on the process of (production) technology transfer. One of the difficulties in studying international technology transfer is the definition of technology. The many technology definitions that exist are either too ‘loosely’ formulated or they require thorough expert knowledge. This results in difficulties with measuring technology and comparing different studies meaningfully. This study...

  6. End-of-life conversations and care: an asset-based model for community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Mary; Froggatt, Katherine; Owen, Elaine; Ashton, John R

    2014-09-01

    Public awareness work regarding palliative and end-of-life care is increasingly promoted within national strategies for palliative care. Different approaches to undertaking this work are being used, often based upon broader educational principles, but little is known about how to undertake such initiatives in a way that equally engages both the health and social care sector and the local communities. An asset-based community engagement approach has been developed that facilitates community-led awareness initiatives concerning end-of-life conversations and care by identifying and connecting existing skills and expertise. (1) To describe the processes and features of an asset-based community engagement approach that facilitates community-led awareness initiatives with a focus on end-of-life conversations and care; and (2) to identify key community-identified priorities for sustainable community engagement processes. An asset-based model of community engagement specific to end-of-life issues using a four-step process is described (getting started, coming together, action planning and implementation). The use of this approach, in two regional community engagement programmes, based across rural and urban communities in the northwest of England, is described. The assets identified in the facilitated community engagement process encompassed people's talents and skills, community groups and networks, government and non-government agencies, physical and economic assets and community values and stories. Five priority areas were addressed to ensure active community engagement work: information, outreach, education, leadership and sustainability. A facilitated, asset-based approach of community engagement for end-of-life conversations and care can catalyse community-led awareness initiatives. This occurs through the involvement of community and local health and social care organisations as co-creators of this change across multiple sectors in a sustainable way. This approach

  7. Efficacy of melody-based aphasia therapy may strongly depend on rhythm and conversational speech formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Left-hemisphere stroke patients suffering from language and speech disorders are often able to sing entire pieces of text fluently. This finding has inspired a number of melody-based rehabilitation programs – most notable among them a treatment known as Melodic Intonation Therapy – as well as two fundamental research questions. When the experimental design focuses on one point in time (cross section, one may determine whether or not singing has an immediate effect on syllable production in patients with language and speech disorders. When the design focuses on changes over several points in time (longitudinal section, one may gain insight as to whether or not singing has a long-term effect on language and speech recovery. The current work addresses both of these questions with two separate experiments that investigate the interplay of melody, rhythm and lyric type in 32 patients with non-fluent aphasia and apraxia of speech (Stahl et al., 2011; Stahl et al., 2013. Taken together, the experiments deliver three main results. First, singing and rhythmic pacing proved to be equally effective in facilitating immediate syllable production and long-term language and speech recovery. Controlling for various influences such as prosody, syllable duration and phonetic complexity, the data did not reveal any advantage of singing over rhythmic speech. This result was independent of lesion size and lesion location in the patients. Second, patients with extensive left-sided basal ganglia lesions produced more correct syllables when their speech was paced by rhythmic drumbeats. This observation is consistent with the idea that regular auditory cues may partially compensate for corticostriatal damage and thereby improve speech-motor planning (Grahn & Watson, 2013. Third, conversational speech formulas and well-known song lyrics yielded higher rates of correct syllable production than novel word sequences – whether patients were singing or speaking

  8. Design of the steam generator in an energy conversion system based on the aluminum combustion with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercati, Stefano; Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Paltrinieri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development of a numerical approach for the analysis of a co-generation system based on the aluminum water reaction. ► Construction of system operating maps for estimating the system behavior. ► Comparison of two different designs of the steam generator for the system. ► Definition of the operating range where each configuration provides the best performance. -- Abstract: The paper shows the preliminary design of the superheated steam generator to be used in a novel hydrogen production and energy conversion system based on the combustion of aluminum particles with water. The system is aimed at producing hydrogen and pressurized superheated steam, using the heat released by the Al–H 2 O reaction. The interest on this type of technology arises because of the possibility of obtaining hydrogen with very low pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to the traditional hydrogen production systems, such as the steam reforming from methane. The analysis of the combustion chamber and the heat recovery system is carried out by means of a lumped and distributed parameter numerical approach. The multi phase and gas mixture theoretical principles are used both to characterize the mass flow rate and the heat release in the combustion chamber and within the heat exchangers in order to relate the steam generator performance to the system operating parameters. Finally, the influence of the steam generator performance on the whole energy conversion system behavior is addressed, with particular care to the evaluation of the total power and efficiency variation with the combustion parameters.

  9. Technology-based Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an updated review of what is known about the performance of technology-based mergers and acquisitions (TBM&As) and their determinants. This review brings together papers published from 1990 to 2012 in top-rated academic journals within nearly all fields...

  10. Designing Personalization in Technology-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Personalization technology has the potential to optimize service for each person's unique needs and characteristics. One way to optimize service is to allow people to customize the service themselves; another is to proactively tailor services based on information provided by people or inferred from their past behaviors. These approaches function…

  11. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 2. Survey on the biomass-derived energy conversion technology; 1999 nendo biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Biomass energy is positioned as a promising environment harmonizing energy in the 21st century because it does not break down the CO2 balance in the global scale. The present survey has investigated quantity of biomass resources utilizable as energy resources, investigated and analyzed the biomass-derived energy conversion technology, searched for a promising practically usable technology, and discussed the means to achieve the technological introduction. The foreword chapter describes that now is the good time to recognize importance of and introduce the biomass-derived technology. First and second chapters estimate energy potential and utilizable quantity of wastes-based biomass in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Brazil. Chapter 3 investigates feasibility of methane fermentation and ethanol fermentation as a promising bio-chemical conversion process. Chapter 4 has performed feasibility studies on biomass electric power generation, methanol synthesis by gasification, thermal decomposition and gasification as promising thermo-chemical conversion processes. Chapter 5 proposed a biomass electric power generation system, a biomass-gasified methanol synthesizing system, and a dimethyl ether production system. (NEDO)

  12. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  13. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  14. Chemical looping combustion: A new low-dioxin energy conversion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiuning; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Dioxin production is a worldwide concern because of its persistence and carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects. The pyrolysis-chemical looping combustion process of disposing solid waste is an alternative to traditional solid waste incineration developed to reduce the dioxin production. Based on the equilibrium composition of the Deacon reaction, pyrolysis gas oxidized by seven common oxygen carriers, namely, CuO, NiO, CaSO4, CoO, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, and FeTiO3, is studied and compared with the pyrolysis gas directly combusted by air. The result shows that the activity of the Deacon reaction for oxygen carriers is lower than that for air. For four typical oxygen carriers (CuO, NiO, Fe2O3, and FeTiO3), the influences of temperature, pressure, gas composition, and tar on the Deacon reaction are discussed in detail. According to these simulation results, the dioxin production in China, Europe, the United States, and Japan is predicted for solid waste disposal by the pyrolysis-chemical looping combustion process. Thermodynamic analysis results in this paper show that chemical looping combustion can reduce dioxin production in the disposal of solid waste. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models: pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of representing EHR content models from a regional EHR system as openEHR archetypes and inversely to convert archetypes to the proprietary format. Methods The openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM) and Archetype Model (AM) specifications were used. The template model of the Cambio COSMIC, a regional EHR product from Sweden, was analyzed and compared to the openEHR RM and AM. This study was focused on the convertibility of the EHR semantic models. A semantic mapping between the openEHR RM/AM and the COSMIC template model was produced and used as the basis for developing prototype software that performs automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetypes and COSMIC templates. Results Automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetype format and COSMIC template format has been achieved. Several archetypes from the openEHR Clinical Knowledge Repository have been imported into COSMIC, preserving most of the structural and terminology related constraints. COSMIC templates from a large regional installation were successfully converted into the openEHR archetype format. The conversion from the COSMIC templates into archetype format preserves nearly all structural and semantic definitions of the original content models. A strategy of gradually adding archetype support to legacy EHR systems was formulated in order to allow sharing of clinical content models defined using different formats. Conclusion The openEHR RM and AM are expressive enough to represent the existing clinical

  16. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models: pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of representing EHR content models from a regional EHR system as openEHR archetypes and inversely to convert archetypes to the proprietary format. Methods The openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM and Archetype Model (AM specifications were used. The template model of the Cambio COSMIC, a regional EHR product from Sweden, was analyzed and compared to the openEHR RM and AM. This study was focused on the convertibility of the EHR semantic models. A semantic mapping between the openEHR RM/AM and the COSMIC template model was produced and used as the basis for developing prototype software that performs automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetypes and COSMIC templates. Results Automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetype format and COSMIC template format has been achieved. Several archetypes from the openEHR Clinical Knowledge Repository have been imported into COSMIC, preserving most of the structural and terminology related constraints. COSMIC templates from a large regional installation were successfully converted into the openEHR archetype format. The conversion from the COSMIC templates into archetype format preserves nearly all structural and semantic definitions of the original content models. A strategy of gradually adding archetype support to legacy EHR systems was formulated in order to allow sharing of clinical content models defined using different formats. Conclusion The openEHR RM and AM are expressive enough to

  17. Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    efficiency by reducing energy consumption associated with electrical generation and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by increasing electrical generating...integrated system fuel economy test conditions This computation requires prediction of fuel consumption over baseline and integrated system load...EW-201251) Conversion of Low Quality Waste Heat to Electric Power with Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Engine/Generator Technology

  18. CO2 injection into submarine, CH4-hydrate bearing sediments: Parameter studies towards the development of a hydrate conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, Christian; Bigalke, Nikolaus; Kossel, Elke; Haeckel, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    the reservoir is minimized. Our results clearly indicate that the formation of mixed CH4-CO2-hydrates is an important aspect in the conversion process. The experimental studies have shown that the injection of heated CO2 into the hydrate reservoir induces a variety of spatial and temporal processes which result in substantial bulk heterogeneity. Current numerical simulators are not able to predict these process dynamics and it is important to improve available transport-reaction models (e.g. to include the effect of bulk sediment permeability on the conversion dynamics). Our results confirm that experimental studies are important to better understand the mechanisms of hydrate dissociation and conversion at CO2-injection conditions as a basis towards the development of a suitable hydrate conversion technology. The application of non-invasive analytical methods such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Raman microscopy are important tools, which were applied to resolve process dynamics on the pore scale. Additionally, the NESSI system is being modified to allow high-pressure flow-through experiments under triaxial loading to better simulate hydrate-sediment mechanics. This aspect is important for overall process development and evaluation of process safety issues.

  19. Hot-electron-based solar energy conversion with metal-semiconductor nanodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Changhwan; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-01

    Energy dissipation at metal surfaces or interfaces between a metal and a dielectric generally results from elementary excitations, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface/interface during exothermic chemical processes or an electromagnetic wave incident. In this paper, we outline recent research activities to develop energy conversion devices based on hot electrons. We found that photon energy can be directly converted to hot electrons and that hot electrons flow through the interface of metal-semiconductor nanodiodes where a Schottky barrier is formed and the energy barrier is much lower than the work function of the metal. The detection of hot electron flow can be successfully measured using the photocurrent; we measured the photoyield of photoemission with incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). We also show that surface plasmons (i.e. the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field) are excited on a rough metal surface and subsequently decay into secondary electrons, which gives rise to enhancement of the IPCE. Furthermore, the unique optical behavior of surface plasmons can be coupled with dye molecules, suggesting the possibility for producing additional channels for hot electron generation.

  20. Inorganic hole conductor-based lead halide perovskite solar cells with 12.4% conversion efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Peng

    2014-05-12

    Organo-lead halide perovskites have attracted much attention for solar cell applications due to their unique optical and electrical properties. With either low-temperature solution processing or vacuum evaporation, the overall conversion efficiencies of perovskite solar cells with organic hole-transporting material were quickly improved to over 15% during the last 2 years. However, the organic hole-transporting materials used are normally quite expensive due to complicated synthetic procedure or high-purity requirement. Here, we demonstrate the application of an effective and cheap inorganic p-type hole-transporting material, copper thiocyanate, on lead halide perovskite-based devices. With low-temperature solution-process deposition method, a power conversion efficiency of 12.4% was achieved under full sun illumination. This work represents a well-defined cell configuration with optimized perovskite morphology by two times of lead iodide deposition, and opens the door for integration of a class of abundant and inexpensive material for photovoltaic application. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  1. Terahertz-wave differential detection based on simultaneous dual-wavelength up-conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Takida

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a terahertz (THz-wave differential detection based on simultaneous dual-wavelength up-conversion in a nonlinear optical MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with optical and electronic THz-wave sources. The broadband parametric gain and noncollinear phase-matching of MgO:LiNbO3 provide efficient conversion from superposed THz waves to spatially distributed near-infrared (NIR beams to function as a dispersive THz-wave spectrometer without any additional dispersive element. We show that the μW-level THz waves from two independent sources, a 0.78-THz injection-seeded THz-wave parametric generator (is-TPG and a 1.14-THz resonant tunneling diode (RTD, are simultaneously up-converted to two NIR waves and then detected with two NIR photodetectors. By applying a balanced detection scheme to this dual-frequency detection, we demonstrate THz-wave differential imaging of maltose and polyethylene pellets in the transmission geometry. This dual-wavelength detection is applicable to more than three frequencies and broadband THz-wave radiation for real-time THz-wave spectroscopic detection and imaging.

  2. Inorganic hole conductor-based lead halide perovskite solar cells with 12.4% conversion efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Peng; Tanaka, Soichiro; Ito, Seigo; Tetreault, Nicolas; Manabe, Kyohei; Nishino, Hitoshi; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grä tzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Organo-lead halide perovskites have attracted much attention for solar cell applications due to their unique optical and electrical properties. With either low-temperature solution processing or vacuum evaporation, the overall conversion efficiencies of perovskite solar cells with organic hole-transporting material were quickly improved to over 15% during the last 2 years. However, the organic hole-transporting materials used are normally quite expensive due to complicated synthetic procedure or high-purity requirement. Here, we demonstrate the application of an effective and cheap inorganic p-type hole-transporting material, copper thiocyanate, on lead halide perovskite-based devices. With low-temperature solution-process deposition method, a power conversion efficiency of 12.4% was achieved under full sun illumination. This work represents a well-defined cell configuration with optimized perovskite morphology by two times of lead iodide deposition, and opens the door for integration of a class of abundant and inexpensive material for photovoltaic application. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  3. ForConX: A forcefield conversion tool based on XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Volker; Diddens, Diddo; Bernardes, Carlos E S; Golub, Benjamin; Dequidt, Alain; Zeindlhofer, Veronika; Sega, Marcello; Schröder, Christian

    2017-04-05

    The force field conversion from one MD program to another one is exhausting and error-prone. Although single conversion tools from one MD program to another exist not every combination and both directions of conversion are available for the favorite MD programs Amber, Charmm, Dl-Poly, Gromacs, and Lammps. We present here a general tool for the force field conversion on the basis of an XML document. The force field is converted to and from this XML structure facilitating the implementation of new MD programs for the conversion. Furthermore, the XML structure is human readable and can be manipulated before continuing the conversion. We report, as testcases, the conversions of topologies for acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate comprising also Urey-Bradley and Ryckaert-Bellemans potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An Overview of Natural Gas Conversion Technologies for Co-Production of Hydrogen and Value-Added Solid Carbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Vanessa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamelyn D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krause, Theodore R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahmed, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This report was prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Congressional Appropriation language to support research on carbon-free production of hydrogen using new chemical processes that utilize natural gas to produce solid carbon and hydrogen. The U.S. produces 9-10 million tons of hydrogen annually with more than 95% of the hydrogen produced by steam-methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas. SMR is attractive because of its high hydrogen yield; but it also converts the carbon to carbon dioxide. Non-oxidative thermal decomposition of methane to carbon and hydrogen is an alternative to SMR and produces CO2-free hydrogen. The produced carbon can be sold as a co-product, thus providing economic credit that reduces the delivered net cost of hydrogen. The combination of producing hydrogen with potentially valuable carbon byproducts has market value in that this allows greater flexibility to match the market prices of hydrogen and carbon. That is, the higher value product can subsidize the other in pricing decisions. In this report we highlight the relevant technologies reported in the literature—primarily thermochemical and plasma conversion processes—and recent research progress and commercial activities. Longstanding technical challenges include the high energetic requirements (e.g., high temperatures and/or electricity requirements) necessary for methane activation and, for some catalytic processes, the separation of solid carbon product from the spent catalyst. We assess current and new carbon product markets that could be served given technological advances, and we discuss technical barriers and potential areas of research to address these needs. We provide preliminary economic analysis for these processes and compare to other emerging (e.g., electrolysis) and conventional (e.g., SMR) processes for hydrogen production. The overarching conclusion of this study is that the cost of hydrogen can be potentially

  5. EnerGis: A geographical information based system for the evaluation of integrated energy conversion systems in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, Luc; Marechal, Francois; Dubuis, Matthias; Calame-Darbellay, Nicole; Favrat, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A geographical information system has been developed to model the energy requirements of an urban area. The purpose of the platform is to model with sufficient detail the energy services requirements of a given geographical area in order to allow the evaluation of the integration of advanced integrated energy conversion systems. This tool is used to study the emergence of more efficient cities that realize energy efficiency measures, integrate energy efficient conversion technologies and promote the use of endogenous renewable energy. The model is illustrated with case studies for the energetic planning of the Geneva district (Switzerland).

  6. Energy conservation technologies based on thermodynamic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaru [Shibaura Institute of Technology of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission to prevent global warming, the most promising way for electric generation in the Northeast Asia is to introduce cogeneration and {open_quotes}repowering{close_quotes} technologies based on high temperature gas turbines fueled by natural gas. Especially the old type coal burning boiler-steam turbine plants should be retrofit by introducing gas turbines to become highly efficient combined cycle. Same technologies should be applied to the old garbage incineration plants and/or even to the nuclear power plants. The exhaust heat or steam should become much increased and it should be utilized as the process heat for industries or heat supply as the distinct heating or cooling for residential area. This paper introduces a brief survey of these new technologies.

  7. Tracking the conversion of nitrogen during pyrolysis of antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues using XPS and TG-FTIR-MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Yang, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues (AMFRs), which are emerging solid pollutants, have been recognized as hazardous waste in China since 2008. Nitrogen (N), which is an environmental sensitivity element, is largely retained in AMFR samples derived from fermentation substrates. Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the treatment of solid waste. However, the outcomes of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs are still unknown. In this study, the conversion of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs was tracked using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and online TG-FTIR-MS (Thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared-Mass spectrometry) technology. In the AMFR sample, organic amine-N, pyrrolic-N, protein-N, pyridinic-N, was the main N-containing species. XPS results indicated that pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N were retained in the AMFR-derived pyrolysis char. More stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were also produced in the char. TG-FTIR-MS results indicated that NH3 and HCN were the main gaseous species, and their contents were closely related to the contents of amine-N and protein-N, and pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N of AMFRs, respectively. Increases in heating rate enhanced the amounts of NH3 and HCN, but had less of an effect on the degradation degree of AMFRs. N-containing organic compounds, including amine-N, nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N, were discerned from the AMFR pyrolysis process. Their release range was extended with increasing of heating rate and carbon content of AMFR sample. This work will help to take appropriate measure to reduce secondary pollution from the treatment of AMFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Space weather effects on ground based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  9. Bio-based C-3 Platform Chemical: Biotechnological Production and -Conversion of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Demands for efficient, greener, economical and sustainable production of chemicals, materials and energy have led to development of industrial biotechnology as a key technology area to provide such products from bio-based raw materials from agricultural-, forestry- and related industrial residues and by-products. For the bio-based industry, it is essential to develop a number of building blocks or platform chemicals for C2-C6 chemicals and even aromatic chemicals. 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3H...

  10. A current controlled matrix converter for wind energy conversion systems based on permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naggar H. Saad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges of wind energy conversion systems (WECS are to maximize the energy capture from the wind and injecting reactive power during the fault. This paper presents a current controlled matrix converter to interface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG based WECS with the grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with reduced current ripples, a hysteresis current control is utilized. The proposed control system decouples the active and reactive components of the PMSG current to extract the maximum power from the wind at a given wind velocity and to inject reactive power to the grid. Reactive power injection during the fault satisfying the grid-codes requirement. The proposed WECS has been modeled and simulated using PSCAD/EMTDC software package.

  11. Novel grid-based optical Braille conversion: from scanning to wording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefi Babadi, Majid; Jafari, Shahram

    2011-12-01

    Grid-based optical Braille conversion (GOBCO) is explained in this article. The grid-fitting technique involves processing scanned images taken from old hard-copy Braille manuscripts, recognising and converting them into English ASCII text documents inside a computer. The resulted words are verified using the relevant dictionary to provide the final output. The algorithms employed in this article can be easily modified to be implemented on other visual pattern recognition systems and text extraction applications. This technique has several advantages including: simplicity of the algorithm, high speed of execution, ability to help visually impaired persons and blind people to work with fax machines and the like, and the ability to help sighted people with no prior knowledge of Braille to understand hard-copy Braille manuscripts.

  12. Transfer and conversion of images based on EIT in atom vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingtao; Zhang, Liyun; Yu, Ya; Ye, Fengjuan; Wei, Dong; Guo, Wenge; Zhang, Shougang; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli

    2014-05-01

    Transfer and conversion of images between different wavelengths or polarization has significant applications in optical communication and quantum information processing. We demonstrated the transfer of images based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a rubidium vapor cell. In experiments, a 2D image generated by a spatial light modulator is used as a coupling field, and a plane wave served as a signal field. We found that the image carried by coupling field could be transferred to that carried by signal field, and the spatial patterns of transferred image are much better than that of the initial image. It also could be much smaller than that determined by the diffraction limit of the optical system. We also studied the subdiffraction propagation for the transferred image. Our results may have applications in quantum interference lithography and coherent Raman spectroscopy.

  13. From Carbon-Based Nanotubes to Nanocages for Advanced Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2017-02-21

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have been the focus of research interests in the past 30 years due to their abundant microstructures and morphologies, excellent properties, and wide potential applications, as landmarked by 0D fullerene, 1D nanotubes, and 2D graphene. With the availability of high specific surface area (SSA), well-balanced pore distribution, high conductivity, and tunable wettability, carbon-based nanomaterials are highly expected as advanced materials for energy conversion and storage to meet the increasing demands for clean and renewable energies. In this context, attention is usually attracted by the star material of graphene in recent years. In this Account, we overview our studies on carbon-based nanotubes to nanocages for energy conversion and storage, including their synthesis, performances, and related mechanisms. The two carbon nanostructures have the common features of interior cavity, high conductivity, and easy doping but much different SSAs and pore distributions, leading to different performances. We demonstrated a six-membered-ring-based growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with benzene precursor based on the structural similarity of the benzene ring to the building unit of CNTs. By this mechanism, nitrogen-doped CNTs (NCNTs) with homogeneous N distribution and predominant pyridinic N were obtained with pyridine precursor, providing a new kind of support for convenient surface functionalization via N-participation. Accordingly, various transition-metal nanoparticles were directly immobilized onto NCNTs without premodification. The so-constructed catalysts featured high dispersion, narrow size distribution and tunable composition, which presented superior catalytic performances for energy conversions, for example, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol oxidation in fuel cells. With the advent of the new field of carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts, we first extended ORR catalysts from the electron-rich N-doped to the

  14. Graphene devices based on laser scribing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan-Cong; Wei, Yu-Hong; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Wang, Dan-Yang; Li, Yu-Tao; Deng, Ning-Qin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Nan; Wang, Qian; Yang, Zhen; Tao, Lu-Qi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-04-01

    Graphene with excellent electronic, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties has great potential applications. The current devices based on graphene grown by micromechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and thermal decomposition of silicon carbide are still expensive and inefficient. Laser scribing technology, a low-cost and time-efficient method of fabricating graphene, is introduced in this review. The patterning of graphene can be directly performed on solid and flexible substrates. Therefore, many novel devices such as strain sensors, acoustic devices, memory devices based on laser scribing graphene are fabricated. The outlook and challenges of laser scribing technology have also been discussed. Laser scribing may be a potential way of fabricating wearable and integrated graphene systems in the future.

  15. NLCC controller for SEPIC-based micro-wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Nayagam, Brintha Jane; Sathi, Rama Reddy; Olimuthu, Divya

    2017-04-01

    The growth of the power industry is gaining greater momentum as the usage of the non-conventional energy sources that include fuel, solar, and wind energies, increases. Wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) are gaining more popularity and are expected to be able to control the power at the output. This paper describes the current control (CC), non-linear carrier charge control (NLCCC), and fuzzy logic control (FLC) applied to the single-ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC)-based WECS. The current controller has an inherent overcurrent protection with better line noise rejection. The pulses for the switch of the SEPIC are obtained by comparing the current flowing through it with the virtual current reference. FLC is also investigated for the micro-wind energy conversion system (μWECS), since it improves the damping characteristics of WECS over a wide range of operating points. This cannot attain the unity power factor rectification. In this paper, NLCCC is proposed for high-power factor rectifier-based SEPIC in continuous conduction mode (CCM) for μWECS. The proposed converter provides an output voltage with low input current ripple due to the presence of the inductor at the input side. By comparing the signal proportional to the integral of switch current with a periodic non-linear carrier wave, the duty ratio of the converter switch is determined for the NLCC controller. By selecting the shape of the periodic non-linear carrier wave the input-line current can be made to follow the input-line voltage. This work employs a parabolic carrier waveform generator. The output voltage is regulated for changes in the wind speed. The results obtained prove the effectiveness of the NLCC controller in improving the power factor.

  16. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J.; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en español que usan la tecnología para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender más sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnología entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversación encarnado (ECA) en esta población. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del interés de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opinión que tenían del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentación de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminación de información sobre la salud con tecnología de punta. PMID:26671558

  17. Theoretical Conversions of Different Hardness and Tensile Strength for Ductile Materials Based on Stress-Strain Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cai, Li-Xun

    2018-04-01

    Based on the power-law stress-strain relation and equivalent energy principle, theoretical equations for converting between Brinell hardness (HB), Rockwell hardness (HR), and Vickers hardness (HV) were established. Combining the pre-existing relation between the tensile strength ( σ b ) and Hollomon parameters ( K, N), theoretical conversions between hardness (HB/HR/HV) and tensile strength ( σ b ) were obtained as well. In addition, to confirm the pre-existing σ b -( K, N) relation, a large number of uniaxial tensile tests were conducted in various ductile materials. Finally, to verify the theoretical conversions, plenty of statistical data listed in ASTM and ISO standards were adopted to test the robustness of the converting equations with various hardness and tensile strength. The results show that both hardness conversions and hardness-strength conversions calculated from the theoretical equations accord well with the standard data.

  18. Proposed Performance-Based Metrics for the Future Funding of Graduate Medical Education: Starting the Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzagie, Kelly J; Lane, Susan W; Sharma, Niraj; Donnelly, John; Jaeger, Jeffrey R; Laird-Fick, Heather; Moriarty, John P; Moyer, Darilyn V; Wallach, Sara L; Wardrop, Richard M; Steinmann, Alwin F

    2017-12-12

    Graduate medical education (GME) in the United States is financed by contributions from both federal and state entities that total over $15 billion annually. Within institutions, these funds are distributed with limited transparency to achieve ill-defined outcomes. To address this, the Institute of Medicine convened a committee on the governance and financing of GME to recommend finance reform that would promote a physician training system that meets society's current and future needs. The resulting report provided several recommendations regarding the oversight and mechanisms of GME funding, including implementation of performance-based GME payments, but did not provide specific details about the content and development of metrics for these payments. To initiate a national conversation about performance-based GME funding, the authors asked: What should GME be held accountable for in exchange for public funding? In answer to this question, the authors propose 17 potential performance-based metrics for GME funding that could inform future funding decisions. Eight of the metrics are described as exemplars to add context and to help readers obtain a deeper understanding of the inherent complexities of performance-based GME funding. The authors also describe considerations and precautions for metric implementation.

  19. A critical analysis of the degree of conversion of resin-based luting cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORONHA FILHO, Jaime Dutra; BRANDÃO, Natasha Lamego; POSKUS, Laiza Tatiana; GUIMARÃES, José Guilherme Antunes; da SILVA, Eduardo Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study analyzed the degree of conversion (DC%) of four resin-based cements (All Ceram, Enforce, Rely X ARC and Variolink II) activated by two modes (chemical and dual), and evaluated the decrease of DC% in the dual mode promoted by the interposition of a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. Material and Methods In the chemical activation, the resin-based cements were prepared by mixing equal amounts of base and catalyst pastes. In the dual activation, after mixing, the cements were light-activated at 650 mW/cm2 for 40 s. In a third group, the cements were lightactivated through a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. The DC% was evaluated in a FT-IR spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance crystal (ATR). The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Results For all resin-based cements, the DC% was significantly higher with dual activation, followed by dual activation through IPS Empress 2, and chemical activation (pEmpress 2 disc (pEmpress 2. PMID:21085798

  20. Convincing Conversations : Using a Computer-Based Dialogue System to Promote a Plant-Based Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Emma; Mills, Gregory; Hagen, Afke; Huisman, Carlijn; Hoeks, Jacobus

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a computer-based persuasive dialogue system designed to promote a plant-based diet. The production and consumption of meat and dairy has been shown to be a major cause of climate change and a threat to public health, bio-diversity, animal rights and

  1. Technology data for energy plants. Generation of electricity and district heating, energy storage and energy carrier generation and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk, the Danish electricity transmission and system operator, have at regular intervals published a catalogue of energy producing technologies. The previous edition was published in June 2010. This report presents the results of the most recent update. The primary objective of publishing a technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses, e.g. on the framework conditions for the development and deployment of certain classes of technologies. With this scope in mind, it has not been the intention to establish a comprehensive catalogue, including all main gasification technologies or all types of electric batteries. Only selected, representative, technologies are included, to enable generic comparisons of e.g. thermal gasification versus combustion of biomass and electricity storage in batteries versus hydro-pumped storage. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiatives aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to rely primarily on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesstimates. The current update has been developed with an unbalanced focus, i.e. most attention to technologies which are most essential for current and short

  2. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs.

  3. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R ampersand D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ''strawman'' or ''point-of-departure'' plant layout that resulted from this study

  4. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of liquid fuel conversion technology (Development for practical application of a new production process); 1996 nendo ekitai nenryo tenkan gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinseizo process jitsuyoka kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The research and development aims to establish, through verification tests, practical application technologies for two methods, namely, a 'low-temperature liquid phase method' by which cost will be reduced thanks to simplified plant facilities and a 'vapor phase fluidized bed method' in which a composite reforming process may be combined for better economics of scale with a vapor phase fluidized methanol synthesizing method whose facilities may be built to be very large. For the former method, development efforts are made to enable catalyst performance characterization and low-temperature liquid phase methanol production using a small pyrolysis reactor. In the research on pyrolysis reaction, a Raney copper/KOMe/MeOH-based catalyst is used, and this attains a raw material gas conversion efficiency of 92.7%. In the construction of a low temperature liquid phase process, it is found that a single spun conversion efficiency of not less than 90% may be achieved using a heterogeneous catalyst. For the latter method, studies are conducted for the development of, and for the establishment of technologies for designing, synthetic gas production technologies in the development of a heat exchanger type composite reforming furnace and a fluidized bed methanol production process, the development of a catalyst manufacturing technology for fluidized bed practical application, the development of a fluidized bed methanol production technology, and the optimization of the process and its economic efficiency. (NEDO)

  5. 浮法玻璃品种改换的工艺技术研究%Technology study on Conversion to the Production of Other Float Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓青; 王自强; 陈江

    2011-01-01

    运用质量守恒定律和浮法玻璃成形理论,对影响浮法玻璃改换品种的工艺条件进行研究,提出在改换品种时拉引量、主传动、拉边机等关键参数的设计操作原则,通过科学设计改品种程序,实现不同品种间的平稳快速过渡。%Investigation on effect of technology parameters on product-conversion of float glass was carried out by means of the mass conservation law and float glass forming theory.Some design operating rules of daily output,main transmission and edge roller parameters during product conversion were presented.The smooth and rapid transition of production can be realized by scientifically programmed schedule of species conversion.

  6. Vehicle positioning based on UWB technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Siquan; Kang, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase of the number of urban cars, the vehicle internet is becoming a trend of smart transportion. In such vehicle network, accurate location is very crucial in many new applications such as autopilot, semi-autopilot and Car-to-x communications. UWB technology has been used for indoor closed range positioning and ranging widely, while UWB outdoor positioning and ranging research is relatively less. This paper proposed UWB as the vehicle positioning technology and developed a method based on two-way-ranging (TWR) to solve the ranging problem between vehicles. At the same time, the improved TOA method was used to locate vehicles, which has higher precision compared with traditional GPS or LBS. A hardware module is introduced and the simulation results show that the modules are capable of precise positioning for vehicles in vehicle network.

  7. Stability of Transition-metal Carbides in Liquid Phase Reactions Relevant for Biomass-Based Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Macêdo, L.; Stellwagen, D.R.; Teixeira da Silva, V.; Bitter, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Transition-metal carbides have been employed for biobased conversions aiming to replace the rare noble metals. However, when reactions are in liquid phase, many authors have observed catalyst deactivation. The main routes of deactivation in liquid phase biobased conversions are coke deposition,

  8. Polyoxometalate-based Catalysts for Toxic Compound Decontamination and Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been attracting interest from researchers in the fields of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Biomolecular Chemistry, etc. Their unique structures and properties render them versatile and facilitate applications in medicine, magnetism, electrochemistry, photochemistry and catalysis. In particular, toxic compound (chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial compounds (TICs)) decontamination and solar energy conversion by POM-based materials have becoming promising and important research areas that deserve much attention. The focus of this thesis is to explore the structural features of POMs, to develop POM-based materials and to investigate their applications in toxic compound decontamination and solar energy conversion. The first part of this thesis gives a general introduction on the history, structures, properties and applications of POMs. The second part reports the synthesis, structures, and reactivity of different types of POMs in the destruction of TICs and CWAs. Three tetra-n-butylammonium (TBA) salts of polyvanadotungstates, [n-Bu4N]6[ PW9V3], [n-Bu4N] 5H2PW8V4O40 (PW 8V4), [n-Bu4N]4H 5PW6V6O40· 20H2O (PW6V6) are discussed in detail. These vanadium-substituted Keggin type POMs show effective activity for the aerobic oxidation of formaldehyde (a major TIC and human-environment carcingen) to formic acid under ambient conditions. Moreover, two types of POMs have also been developed for the removal of CWAs and/or their simulants. Specifically, a layered manganese(IV)-containing heteropolyvanadate with a 1:14 Stoichiometry, K4Li2[MnV14O40]˙21H2 O has been prepared. Its catalytic activity for oxidative removal of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (a mustard simulant) is discussed. The second type of POM developed for decontamination of CWAs and their simulants is the new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12[Ti 2O2][GeNb12O40]˙19H2O (KGeNb). The complex has been applied to the decontamination of a wide range

  9. A critical analysis of the degree of conversion of resin-based luting cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Dutra Noronha Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the degree of conversion (DC% of four resin-based cements (All Ceram, Enforce, Rely X ARC and Variolink II activated by two modes (chemical and dual, and evaluated the decrease of DC% in the dual mode promoted by the interposition of a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the chemical activation, the resin-based cements were prepared by mixing equal amounts of base and catalyst pastes. In the dual activation, after mixing, the cements were light-activated at 650 mW/cm² for 40 s. In a third group, the cements were light-activated through a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc. The DC% was evaluated in a FT-IR spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance crystal (ATR. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS: For all resin-based cements, the DC% was significantly higher with dual activation, followed by dual activation through IPS Empress 2, and chemical activation (p<0.05. Irrespective of the activation mode, Rely X presented the highest DC% (p<0.05. Chemically activated Variolink and All Ceram showed the worst results (p<0.05. The DC% decreased significantly when activation was performed through a 2.0-mm-thick IPS Empress 2 disc (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that resin-based cements could present low DC% when the materials are dually activated through 2.0 mm of reinforced ceramic materials with translucency equal to or less than that of IPS-Empress 2.

  10. Development of sensor-less control strategies for grid connected PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system with improved power quality features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Interest in renewable energy sources has grown in recent years in response to concerns of increasing pollution levels and depleting fossil fuels. Among renewable energy sources, wind energy generation is the fastest growing technology and one of the most cost-effective and environmental friendly means to generate electricity from renewable sources. Modern wind turbines are ready to be deployed in large scale as a result of recent developments in wind power technology. Variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are becoming more popular. The use of a permanent magnet reduces size, cost and weight of overall WECS. In addition, the absence of field winding and its excitation system avoids heat dissipation in the rotor winding, thereby improving overall efficiency of the WECS. This type of configuration is more appropriate for remote locations, particularly for off-shore wind application, where the geared doubly fed induction generator usually requires regular maintenance due to tearing-wearing in brushes, windings and gear box. This presentation discussed the development of sensor-less control strategies for grid connected PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system with improved power quality features. A novel adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system was used to estimate the speed and position of variable speed PMSG under fluctuating wind conditions. A novel control strategy was developed for the grid interfacing inverter incorporating power quality improvement features at point of common coupling.

  11. A conversational case-based reasoning approach to assisting experts in solving professional problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Armaghan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations attempt to retrieve, collect, preserve and manage knowledge and experience of experts in order to reuse them later and to promote innovation. In this sense, Experience Management is one of the important organizational issues. This article is discussed the main ideas of a future Conversational Case-Based Reasoning (CCBR intended to assist the experts of after-sales service in a French industrial company. The aim of this research is to formalize the experience of experts in after-sales service in order to better reuse them for similar problems in future. The research opts for an action research method which consists of two main parts: description of failure and proposition of decision protocol. The data were complemented by questionnaires, documentary analysis (including technical reports and other technical documents, observation and many interviews with experts. The findings include several aspects: the formalization of Problem-solving Cards, proposing the structure of case base, as well as the framework of proposed system. These formalizations permit after-sales service experts to provide effective diagnosis and problem-solving.

  12. A Depth Map Generation Algorithm Based on Saliency Detection for 2D to 3D Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yizhong; Hu, Xionglou; Wu, Nengju; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Dong; Rong, Shen

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, 3D movies attract people's attention more and more because of their immersive stereoscopic experience. However, 3D movies is still insufficient, so estimating depth information for 2D to 3D conversion from a video is more and more important. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to estimate depth information from a video via scene classification algorithm. In order to obtain perceptually reliable depth information for viewers, the algorithm classifies them into three categories: landscape type, close-up type, linear perspective type firstly. Then we employ a specific algorithm to divide the landscape type image into many blocks, and assign depth value by similar relative height cue with the image. As to the close-up type image, a saliency-based method is adopted to enhance the foreground in the image and the method combine it with the global depth gradient to generate final depth map. By vanishing line detection, the calculated vanishing point which is regarded as the farthest point to the viewer is assigned with deepest depth value. According to the distance between the other points and the vanishing point, the entire image is assigned with corresponding depth value. Finally, depth image-based rendering is employed to generate stereoscopic virtual views after bilateral filter. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can achieve realistic 3D effects and yield satisfactory results, while the perception scores of anaglyph images lie between 6.8 and 7.8.

  13. Computer based training: Technology and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Computer Based Training (CBT) offers great potential for revolutionizing the training environment. Tremendous advances in computer cost performance, instructional design science, and authoring systems have combined to put CBT within the reach of all. The ability of today's CBT systems to implement powerful training strategies, simulate complex processes and systems, and individualize and control the training process make it certain that CBT will now, at long last, live up to its potential. This paper reviews the major technologies and trends involved and offers some suggestions for getting started in CBT

  14. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying

  15. Dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator-based reconfigurable and transparent spectral conversion for dense wavelength division multiplexing transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mingzhi; Qian, Chen; Cao, Bingyao; Zhang, Qianwu; Song, Yingxiong; Wang, Min

    2017-09-01

    A digital signal process enabled dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM)-based spectral converter is proposed and extensively investigated to realize dynamically reconfigurable and high transparent spectral conversion. As another important innovation point of the paper, to optimize the converter performance, the optimum operation conditions of the proposed converter are deduced, statistically simulated, and experimentally verified. The optimum conditions supported-converter performances are verified by detail numerical simulations and experiments in intensity-modulation and direct-detection-based network in terms of frequency detuning range-dependent conversion efficiency, strict operation transparency for user signal characteristics, impact of parasitic components on the conversion performance, as well as the converted component waveform are almost nondistortion. It is also found that the converter has the high robustness to the input signal power, optical signal-to-noise ratio variations, extinction ratio, and driving signal frequency.

  16. Current status on preparation of dose conversion factors based on 1990 ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Michio

    1996-01-01

    The current status of arrangement of dose conversion factors for operational quantities are explained on the basis of 1995 ICRP-ICRU recommendations. The dose conversion factors of photon, neutron and electron were recommended by ICRP Publ. 74. It's contents are described. The relation between new dose conversion factors and the laws in connection with protecting radiation are explained. The dose conversion factors of 1 cm-, 3 mm- and 70 μm - dose equivalent which were introduced into the laws connected therewith in Japan are accepted the same values of ICRP Publ. 51 for photon and neutron. I mentioned the points of discussing about new dose conversion factors which are expected to be recommended. The laws have to show the dose conversion factors to be used by calculation and estimation of radiation shield, etc. The limit of energy of ICRU individual dose equivalent for photon is now until 1 MeV, but the value is insufficient and necessary to 10 MeV as same as the ambient dose equivalent in due consideration of atomic energy facilities. JAERI is preparing these dose conversion factors now. (S.Y.)

  17. Flicker noise comparison of direct conversion mixers using Schottky and HBT dioderings in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present flicker noise measurements of two X-band direct conversion mixers implemented in a SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Both mixers use a ring structure with either Schottky diodes or diode-connected HBTs for double balanced operation. The mixers are packaged in a metal casing on a...... circuit demonstrates a 1/f noise corner frequency around 10 kHz....

  18. A Technology-based Model for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Math Emporium, opened in 1997, is an open 7000-squaremeter facility with 550+ workstations arranged in an array of widely spaced hexagonal "pods", designed to support group work at the same time maintaining an academic air. We operate it 24/7 with math support personnel in attendance 12 hours per day. Students have access to online course resources at all times, from anywhere. We have used this unique asset to transform traditional classroom-based courses into technology based learning programs that have no class meetings at all. The structure of the program is very different from the conventional one, having a new set of expectations and motivations. The results include: more effective students, substantial cost savings, economies of scale and scope and a stream-lined process for creating new on-line courses.

  19. A novel Carnot-based cycle for ocean thermal energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmari, Hamza; Stitou, Driss; Mauran, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic engine cycle can be implemented by exploiting the temperature difference existing between the warm surface seawater and cold deep seawater. It employs a working fluid that evaporates by warm seawater, produces work in an expander device, such as a gas turbine and finally condenses by cold deep seawater. A new Carnot-based cycle for OTEC applications, called CAPILI cycle is presented. In this new engine cycle, work is produced by the movement of an inert liquid through a hydraulic turbine. This inert liquid characterized by a very low saturation pressure and immiscibility with the working fluid, acts as a liquid piston that moves alternately between two insulated cylinders. The insulated cylinders are connected alternately to an evaporator and a condenser, each of them operates at different pressure and temperature levels. A performance study which consists in a steady state energy balance is realised first to select the most suitable working fluid for this specific application. It was found that the best fluid is the HFC refrigerant R134a. A dynamic modelling based on the concept of equivalent Gibbs system is carried out to appreciate the dynamic behaviour and the performances of this new thermal conversion process. -- Highlights: ► A novel Carnot-based cycle operating with a liquid piston is investigated for OTEC application. ► The most suitable working fluid giving the best performances is found to be the HFC R134a. ► The performances of this new thermal process are evaluated using a dynamic modelling. ► A thermal efficiency of 1.9% can be obtained by exploiting seawater temperature difference of 20 °C. ► A net cycle efficiency of 1.2% is achieved considering a net to gross power production ratio of 61%.

  20. A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Jooncheol; Herrault, Florian; Schafer, Richard; Allen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition is presented. The process comprises three main steps: (1) automated sequential electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) structural and copper sacrificial layers to form multilayer structures of significant total thickness; (2) fabrication of polymeric anchor structures through the thickness of the multilayer structures and (3) selective removal of copper. The resulting structure is a set of air-insulated permalloy laminations, the separation of which is sustained by insulating polymeric anchor structures. Individual laminations have precisely controllable thicknesses ranging from 500 nm to 5 µm, and each lamination layer is electrically isolated from adjacent layers by narrow air gaps of similar scale. In addition to air, interlamination insulators based on polymers are investigated. Interlamination air gaps with very high aspect ratio (>1:100) can be filled with polyvinylalcohol and polydimethylsiloxane. The laminated structures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to directly examine properties such as the roughness and the thickness uniformity of the layers. In addition, the quality of the electrical insulation between the laminations is evaluated by quantifying the eddy current within the sample as a function of frequency. Fabricated laminations are comprised of uniform, smooth (surface roughness <100 nm) layers with effective electrical insulation for all layer thicknesses and insulator approaches studied. Such highly laminated structures have potential uses ranging from energy conversion to applications where composite materials with highly anisotropic mechanical or thermal properties are required. (paper)

  1. Food waste conversion options in Singapore: environmental impacts based on an LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hsien H; Lim, Teik Z; Tan, Reginald B H

    2010-02-15

    Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste is one of the challenges faced by Singapore. Semakau island - the only offshore landfill of the nation - only accepts inert, inorganic solid waste and therefore a large bulk of food waste is directed to incinerators. A remaining small percent is sent for recycling via anaerobic digestion (AD), followed by composting of the digestate material. This article investigates the environmental performance of four food waste conversion scenarios - based on a life cycle assessment perspective - taking into account air emissions, useful energy from the incinerators and AD process, as well as carbon dioxide mitigation from the compost products derived from the digestate material and a proposed aerobic composting system. The life cycle impact results were generated for global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and energy use. The total normalized results showed that a small-scale proposed aerobic composting system is more environmentally favorable than incinerators, but less ideal compared to the AD process. By making full use of the AD's Recycling Phase II process alone, the Singapore Green Plan's 2012 aim to increase the recycling of food waste to 30% can easily be achieved, along with reduced global warming impacts.

  2. High-Efficiency, Nanowire Based Thermoelectric Devices for Radioisotope Power Conversion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal responds to topic S3.03 of the 2010 NASA SBIR solicitation, for Power Generation and Conversion. Thermoelectric devices offer a simple and...

  3. Too Much of a Good Thing ? Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology and `Waste' Heat in the Titan Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    Unlike most solar system surface environments, Titan has an atmosphere that is both cold and dense. This means heat transfer to and from a vehicle is determined by convection, rather than by radiation which dominates on Earth and Mars. With surface temperatures near 94K, batteries and systems require heating to operate. Solar power is impractical, so a spacecraft intended to operate for longer than a few hours on Titan must have a radioisotope power source (RPS). Such sources convert heat from Plutonium decay into electricity, with an efficiency that varies from about 5% for thermoelectric systems to 20% for engine cycles such as Stirling. For vehicles with 100-200W electrical power, the 500-4000 W ‘waste’ heat in the Titan environment can be valuable in that it can be exploited to maintain thermal conditions inside the vehicle. The generally benign Titan environment, and the outstanding scientific and popular interest in its exploration, has attracted a number of mission concepts including a lander for Titan’s equatorial dunefields, light gas and hot air (‘Montgolfière’) balloons, airplanes, and capsules that float on its polar seas (e.g. the proposed Titan Mare Explorer.) However, the choice of conversion technology is key to the success of these different platforms. Waste heat can perturb meteorological measurements in several ways. First by creating a warm air plume (an effect observed on Viking and Curiosity.) Second, rain or seaspray falling onto hot radiator surfaces can evaporate causing a local enhancement of methane humidity. Third, sufficiently strong heating could perturb local winds. Similar effects, and the potential generation of effervescence or even fog, may result for capsules floating in liquid hydrocarbons. For landers and drifting buoys, these perturbations may significantly degrade environmental measurements, or at least demand tall meteorology masts, for the higher waste heat output of thermoelectric systems, and a Stirling system

  4. Smartphone-Based Conversational Agents and Responses to Questions About Mental Health, Interpersonal Violence, and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Adam S; Milstein, Arnold; Schueller, Stephen; Hegde, Roshini; Mangurian, Christina; Linos, Eleni

    2016-05-01

    Conversational agents are smartphone-based computer programs designed to respond to users in natural language, thereby mimicking conversations between people. Many people use their smartphones to obtain health information. To describe the responses of 4 widely used conversational agents (Siri [Apple], Google Now, S Voice [Samsung], and Cortana [Microsoft]) to a standardized panel of questions related to mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health. A pilot study followed by a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 68 phones from 7 manufacturers conducted from December 2015 to January 2016. Investigators asked the smartphones 9 questions (3 each in mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health) in their natural language. We recorded information on features of the smartphones and their software, including manufacturer, phone model, operating system version, and conversational agent. The primary outcomes were the responses of conversational agents to 9 questions. The responses were characterized based on the ability to (1) recognize a crisis, (2) respond with respectful language, and (3) refer to an appropriate helpline, or other health resources for a physical health concern. Questions were asked repeatedly until there were no new answers. The phones ran 77 conversational agents: Siri (n = 27), Google Now (n = 31), S Voice (n = 9), and Cortana (n = 10). Siri, Google Now, and S Voice recognized the statement "I want to commit suicide" as concerning; Siri and Google Now referred the user to a suicide prevention helpline. In response to "I am depressed," Siri recognized the concern and responded with respectful language, the responses from S Voice and Cortana varied, and Google Now did not recognize the concern. None of the conversational agents referred users to a helpline for depression. In response to "I was raped," Cortana referred to a sexual assault hotline; Siri, Google Now, and S Voice did not recognize the

  5. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  6. Optimization of process factors for self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Junyao; Lei, Ting; Xiao, Tao

    2015-10-01

    A self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The optimum operating conditions including vanadia solution concentration, pH and treating temperature for obtaining the best corrosion protective vanadia coatings and improved localized corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate were determined by an orthogonal experiment design. Surface morphology and composition of the resultant conversion coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The self-healing behavior of the coating was investigated by cross-cut immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  7. All-optical 40Gbit/s format conversion from NRZ to RZ based on SFG in a PPLN waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang

    2006-01-01

    A novel all-optical 40Gbit/s NRZ-to-RZ data format conversion scheme based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) interaction in a periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) waveguide is presented for the first time, using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The conversion mechanism relies on the combination of attenuation and nonlinear phase shift Φ NL induced on the signal field. The performance of the conversion is numerically evaluated, with the result showing that it is more effective to yield Φ NL when appropriately phase mismatched for SFG process but Φ NL~0 when quasi-phase-matching (QPM). Compared with the cascaded second-order nonlinear interactions (SHG+DFG) with the influence of walk-off effect, a high conversion efficiency and good performance are achieved with peak power 500mw and width 2ps of the pump, which can be used in super high-speed situation (40Gbit/s and above). Finally, the inverse process of SFG and corresponding walk-off effect are analyzed and the optimum arrangement of power is proposed, showing that proper power, pump width, and waveguide length are necessary for achieving a satisfied conversion effect.

  8. All-Optical Ultra-High-Speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM Conversion Based on Complete Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical ultra-high-speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (Nyquist-WDM) conversion scheme, achieved by exchanging the temporal and spectral profiles using a complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT). This scheme...... enables high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion without complex optical/electrical/optical conversion. The all-optical OFDM transmitter is based on the generation of OFDM symbols with a low duty cycle by rectangular temporal gating, which in combination with optical time-division multiplexing yields...... a higher symbol-rate OFDM signal. In the receiver, the converted Nyquist-WDM super-channel is WDM demultiplexed into individual Nyquist-WDM channels using a rectangular optical bandpass filter, followed by optical sampling at the intersymbol-interference free point. In the experimental demonstration...

  9. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  10. Evidence of significant down-conversion in a Si-based solar cell using CuInS2/ZnS core shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardelis, Spiros; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the increase of up to 37.5% in conversion efficiency of a Si-based solar cell after deposition of light-emitting Cd-free, CuInS2/ZnS core shell quantum dots on the active area of the cell due to the combined effect of down-conversion and the anti- reflecting property of the dots. We clearly distinguished the effect of down-conversion from anti-reflection and estimated an enhancement of up to 10.5% in the conversion efficiency due to down-conversion.

  11. Evidence of significant down-conversion in a Si-based solar cell using CuInS2/ZnS core shell quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardelis, Spiros; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the increase of up to 37.5% in conversion efficiency of a Si-based solar cell after deposition of light-emitting Cd-free, CuInS 2 /ZnS core shell quantum dots on the active area of the cell due to the combined effect of down-conversion and the anti- reflecting property of the dots. We clearly distinguished the effect of down-conversion from anti-reflection and estimated an enhancement of up to 10.5% in the conversion efficiency due to down-conversion

  12. Towards 15% energy conversion efficiency: a systematic study of the solution-processed organic tandem solar cells based on commercially available materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ning; Baran, Derya; Forberich, Karen

    2013-01-01

    in organic tandem solar cells. All the devices are processed under environmental conditions using doctor-blading, which is highly compatible with mass-production coating technologies. Power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 6–7% are obtained for OPV devices based on different active layers. Optical...... simulations based on experimental data are performed for all realized tandem solar cells. An efficiency potential of ∼10% is estimated for these compounds in combination with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as an acceptor. In addition, we assume a hypothetical, optimized acceptor to understand...... the limitation of donors. It is suggested that a PCE of >14% is realistic for tandem solar cells based on these commercially available donor materials. Along with the demonstration of novel intermediate layers we believe that this systematic study provides valuable insight for those attempting to realize...

  13. Gas Sensors Based on Molecular Imprinting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-07-04

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT); often described as a method of designing a material to remember a target molecular structure (template); is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with custom-made binding sites complementary to the target molecules in shape; size and functional groups. MIT has been successfully applied to analyze; separate and detect macromolecular organic compounds. Furthermore; it has been increasingly applied in assays of biological macromolecules. Owing to its unique features of structure specificity; predictability; recognition and universal application; there has been exploration of the possible application of MIPs in the field of highly selective gas sensors. In this present study; we outline the recent advances in gas sensors based on MIT; classify and introduce the existing molecularly imprinted gas sensors; summarize their advantages and disadvantages; and analyze further research directions.

  14. WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES for LOCATION-BASED SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wirastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of wireless technologies that support location-based services (LBS. Satellite and cellular networks have exploited their communication infrastructure to offer LBS. The rapid deployment of mobile broadband wireless networks has offered another appealing application area. Key to the realisation of LBS is an efficient and accurate positioning technique with various methods and offering different performance levels. So far, Global Positioning System (GPS has offered the best accuracy at a low cost but it is challenged by poor indoor coverage. With the rapid deployment of broadband wireless access ubiquitously, Mobile WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is seen as a potential positioning option for LBS. Some key features of WiMAX, i.e., broadband benefit, high speed and large coverage area; it will be exploited to provide LBS.

  15. Effects of acid and alkaline based surface preparations on spray deposited cerium based conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinc, W. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)], E-mail: wrphw5@mst.edu; Geng, S.; O' Keefe, M.; Fahrenholtz, W.; O' Keefe, T. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Cerium based conversion coatings were spray deposited on Al 2024-T3 and characterized to determine the effect of surface preparation on the deposition rate and surface morphology. It was found that activation of the panel using a 1-wt.% sulfuric acid solution increased the coating deposition rate compared to alkaline cleaning alone. Analysis of the surface morphology of the coatings showed that the coatings deposited on the acid treated panels exhibited fewer visible cracks compared to coatings on alkaline cleaned panels. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling showed that the acid activation decreased the thickness of the aluminum oxide layer and the concentration of magnesium on the surface of the panels compared to the alkaline treatment. Additionally, acid activation increased the copper concentration at the surface of the aluminum substrate. Based on the results, the acid based surface treatment appeared to expose copper rich intermetallics, thus increasing the number of cathodic sites on the surface, which led to an overall increase in the deposition rate.

  16. The Heuristic Model Based on LPR in the Context of Material Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk-Kołodziejczyk D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High complexity of the physical and chemical processes occurring in liquid metal is the reason why it is so difficult, impossible even sometimes, to make analytical models of these phenomena. In this situation, the use of heuristic models based on the experimental data and experience of technicians is fully justified since, in an approximate manner at least, they allow predicting the mechanical properties of the metal manufactured under given process conditions. The study presents a methodology applicable in the design of a heuristic model based on the formalism of the logic of plausible reasoning (LPR. The problem under consideration consists in finding a technological variant of the process that will give the desired product parameters while minimizing the cost of production. The conducted tests have shown the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    fuels produced with coal-, gas- and biomass-to-liquid (xTL) technologies. However, a number of articles use the term beyond this definition. Results for the term electrofuel gave a similar outcome, as it was not clear which processes were used for the fuel production. In some cases, both synthetic...... of this article is to identify and review these terms to avoid any potential misuse. An integrative review of terminology has been made. This review did not differentiate the articles in terms of the methodologies applied, but had the main objective to identify the terminology used and its definition. The results...... confirm that the term synthetic fuel is used generically in the majority of articles, without providing information about the production process of the fuel or differentiating between fossil-based and renewable-based synthetic fuels. The majority of the articles use the term synthetic fuel to describe...

  18. Fault-tolerant conversion between adjacent Reed-Muller quantum codes based on gauge fixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dong-Xiao; Zhu, Li-Li; Pei, Chang-Xing; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-03-01

    We design forward and backward fault-tolerant conversion circuits, which convert between the Steane code and the 15-qubit Reed-Muller quantum code so as to provide a universal transversal gate set. In our method, only seven out of a total 14 code stabilizers need to be measured, and we further enhance the circuit by simplifying some stabilizers; thus, we need only to measure eight weight-4 stabilizers for one round of forward conversion and seven weight-4 stabilizers for one round of backward conversion. For conversion, we treat random single-qubit errors and their influence on syndromes of gauge operators, and our novel single-step process enables more efficient fault-tolerant conversion between these two codes. We make our method quite general by showing how to convert between any two adjacent Reed-Muller quantum codes \\overline{\\textsf{RM}}(1,m) and \\overline{\\textsf{RM}}≤ft(1,m+1\\right) , for which we need only measure stabilizers whose number scales linearly with m rather than exponentially with m obtained in previous work. We provide the explicit mathematical expression for the necessary stabilizers and the concomitant resources required.

  19. A new type of Ce-Mo based conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Di; Li Guoqiang; Guo Baolan; Peng Mingxia [Coll. of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-07-01

    A new type of process for forming Ce-Mo conversion coatings on Al-alloys has been developed. Conversion coatings about 3.6 {mu}m thickness were obtained by immersing Al-alloys for 20 minutes in boiling film forming solutions containing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 6} 2.5 g/l, NaKC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6}.4H{sub 2}O 2.5 g/l, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} 7.5 g/l and Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 5.0 g/l. In the case of LF4 Al-alloy, polarization curves and immersion tests in 5% NaCl indicated that the conversion coatings exhibited more excellent resistance to localized corrosion than the conventional chromate conversion coatings. However, its resistance to localized corrosion was not satisfactory on LC4 Al alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion analyzer of X-ray (EDAX) analysis revealed that the conversion coatings having complex surface microstructure on both LC4 and LF6 Al alloys consist mainly of O, Al and other alloying elements in addition to significant Ce and Mo. A mechanism of film formation was proposed to explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  20. Learning services-based technological ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.; Hernández-García, Ángel; Conde, Miguel Á; Fidalgo-Blanco, Ángel; Sein-Echaluce, María L.; Alier, Marc; Llorens Largo, Faraón; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The gap between technology and learning methods has two important implications: on the one hand, we should not expect the integration of technological advances into teaching to be an easy task; and there is a danger that mature educational technologies and methods might not give an adequate answer to the demands and needs of society, underusing their transforming potential to improve learning processes. This study discusses the need for a new technological environment supporting learning serv...

  1. Qualitative Education Management Based on Information Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Natal'ya M. Obolyaeva

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the qualitative education management through information technologies. Different approaches to defining the quality of education are considered. The interpretation for qualitative assessment of education is analyzed. The qualitative education management in details on the basis of information technologies is shown. The key advantages of appliance such technologies at the institutions of higher learning are analyzed.

  2. Qualitative Education Management Based on Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya M. Obolyaeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the qualitative education management through information technologies. Different approaches to defining the quality of education are considered. The interpretation for qualitative assessment of education is analyzed. The qualitative education management in details on the basis of information technologies is shown. The key advantages of appliance such technologies at the institutions of higher learning are analyzed.

  3. A Critical Review of Spinel Structured Iron Cobalt Oxides Based Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron cobalt oxides, such as typical FeCo2O4 and CoFe2O4, are two spinel structured transitional metal oxide materials with excellent electrochemical performance. As the electrodes, they have been widely applied in the current energy storage and conversion processes such as supercapacitors, Lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. Based on synthesis approaches and controlled conditions, these two materials exhibited broad morphologies and nanostructures and thus distinct electrochemical performance. Some of them have shown promising applications as electrodes in energy storage and conversion. The incorporation with other materials to form composites further improved their performance. This review briefly summarized the recent applications of FeCo2O4 and CoFe2O4 in energy storage and conversion, current understandings on mechanisms and especially the relevance of morphologies and structures and composites to electrochemical performance. Some recommendations were finally put forward addressing current issues and future prospects on electrodes of FeCo2O4 and CoFe2O4 based materials in energy storage and conversion, implying there was still space to further optimize their performance.

  4. Organ dose conversion coefficients based on a voxel mouse model and MCNP code for external photon irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Jing; Yuan, Yong; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan

    2012-01-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ absorbed dose for external photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV are presented based on a newly developed voxel mouse model, for the purpose of radiation effect evaluation. The voxel mouse model was developed from colour images of successive cryosections of a normal nude male mouse, in which 14 organs or tissues were segmented manually and filled with different colours, while each colour was tagged by a specific ID number for implementation of mouse model in Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP). Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP was carried out to obtain organ dose conversion coefficients for 22 external monoenergetic photon beams between 10 keV and 10 MeV under five different irradiation geometries conditions (left lateral, right lateral, dorsal-ventral, ventral-dorsal, and isotropic). Organ dose conversion coefficients were presented in tables and compared with the published data based on a rat model to investigate the effect of body size and weight on the organ dose. The calculated and comparison results show that the organ dose conversion coefficients varying the photon energy exhibits similar trend for most organs except for the bone and skin, and the organ dose is sensitive to body size and weight at a photon energy approximately <0.1 MeV.

  5. Widely tunable wavelength conversion with extinction ratio enhancement using PCF-based NOLM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, C.H.; Lee, S.H.; Chow, K.K.

    2005-01-01

    A widely tunable wavelength conversion scheme has been demonstrated using a 64-m-long dispersion-flattened high-nonlinearity photonic crystal fiber in a nonlinear optical loop mirror. Wavelength conversion range of over 60 nm with a 10-Gb/s return-to-zero signal was obtained with the output...... extinction ratio (ER) maintained above 13 dB. The proposed scheme can also improve the output ER and remove the bit-error-rate floor if a degraded signal is used....

  6. Magnetic-field-free thermoelectronic power conversion based on graphene and related two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, R.; Hassink, G. W. J.; Stephanos, C.; Rastegar, I.; Braun, W.; Mannhart, J.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile energy converters require, in addition to high conversion efficiency and low cost, a low mass. We propose to utilize thermoelectronic converters that use 2D-materials such as graphene for their gate electrodes. Deriving the ultimate limit for their specific energy output, we show that the positive energy output is likely close to the fundamental limit for any conversion of heat into electric power. These converters may be valuable as electric power sources of spacecraft, and with the addition of vacuum enclosures, for power generation in electric planes and cars.

  7. Solar power conversion system with directionally- and spectrally-selective properties based on a reflective cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana; Kraemer, Daniel; McEnaney, Kenneth; Weinstein, Lee A.; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-13

    Solar power conversion system. The system includes a cavity formed within an enclosure having highly specularly reflecting in the IR spectrum inside walls, the enclosure having an opening to receive solar radiation. An absorber is positioned within the cavity for receiving the solar radiation resulting in heating of the absorber structure. In a preferred embodiment, the system further contains an energy conversion and storage devices thermally-linked to the absorber by heat conduction, convection, far-field or near-field thermal radiation.

  8. Marine data security based on blockchain technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Xie, Weiwei; Huang, Lei; Wei, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    With the development of marine observation technology and network technology, the volume of marine data growing rapidly. This brings new challenges for data storage and transmission. How to protect data security of marine big data has become an urgent problem. The traditional information security methods’ characteristic is centralization. These technologies cannot provide whole process protection, e.g., data storage, data management and application of data. The blockchain technology is a novel technology, which can keep the data security and reliability by using decentralized methodology. It has aroused wide interest in the financial field. In this paper, we describe the concept, characteristics and key technologies of blockchain technology and introduce it into the field of marine data security.

  9. Development and Improvement of Devices for Hydrogen Generation and Oxidation in Water Detritiation Facility Based on CECE Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenkevich, M.; Andreev, B.; Magomedbekov, E.; Park, Yu.; Sakharovsky, Yu.; Perevezentsev, A.

    2005-01-01

    Water detritiation facility based on CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) technology needs an electrolyser for water conversion to hydrogen. Use of a conventional alkali electrolyser requires a very deep purification of hydrogen stream from alkali prior to injection to LPCE (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange) column. In some applications conversion of detritiated hydrogen back into water is required. This is usually performed via hydrogen catalytic oxidation in a recombiner. This paper presents results of study to improve hydrogen and oxygen purification for alkali electrolysers and develop a hydrogen recombiner based on use of hydrophobic catalyst

  10. SUSTAINABILITY LOGISTICS BASING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE DEMONSTRATION; SELECTED TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    BASING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; SELECTED TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT by Gregg J. Gildea Paul D. Carpenter Benjamin J...Campbell William F. Harris* Michael A. McCluskey** and José A. Miletti*** *General Dynamics Information Technology Fairfax, VA 22030 **Maneuver...SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; SELECTED TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  11. Classifying head movements in video-recorded conversations based on movement velocity, acceleration and jerk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongejan, Bart; Paggio, Patrizia; Navarretta, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    This paper is about the automatic annotation of head movements in videos of face-to-face conversations. Manual annotation of gestures is resource consuming, and modelling gesture behaviours in different types of communicative settings requires many types of annotated data. Therefore, developing...

  12. A BML Based Embodied Conversational Agent for a Personality Detection Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solano Méndez, Guillermo; Reidsma, Dennis; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Kopp, Stefan; Marsella, Stacy; Thórisson, Kristinn R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a project in which an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) attemtps to detect the personality of the user by asking him (or her) a series of questions. The project uses the Elckerlyc platform, a Behavior Markup Language (BML) compliant behavior realizer for ECAs [1]. BML allows

  13. Data on flow cell optimization for membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017 [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell. The latter parameter has been measured using four-point Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS for different flow rates and concentrations. The total cell resistance consists of contributions from different components: the membrane (Rmem, anode charge transfer (RA, cathode charge transfer (RC, and ion diffusion in the porous electrodes (RD.The intrinsic membrane properties of Nafion 117 has been investigated experimentally in LiI/I2 solutions with concentrations ranging between 0.06 and 0.96 M and used to identify the preferred LiI/I2 solution concentration. This was achieved by measuring the solution uptake, internal solution concentration and ion exchange capacity. The membrane properties were further used to calculate the transport coefficients and electrokinetic Figure of merit in terms of the Uniform potential and Space charge models. Special attention has been put on the streaming potential coefficient which is an intrinsic property. Keywords: Electrokinetic energy conversion, Electrochemical flow cell, Conversion efficiency

  14. Development of a fermentation-based process for biomass conversion to hydrogen gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.; Urbaniec, K.; Grabarczyk, R.

    2010-01-01

    The production of hydrogen gas from biomass to meet the foreseen demand arising from the expected introduction of fuel cells is envisaged. Apart from the well-known gasification method, fermentative conversion can also be applied for this purpose. Two options of the latter method, that is,

  15. Modeling Plasma-based CO2 and CH4 Conversion in Mixtures with N2, O2 and H2O: the Bigger Plasma Chemistry Picture

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weizong

    2018-01-18

    Due to the unique properties of plasma technology, its use in gas conversion applications is gaining significant interest around the globe. Plasma-based CO2 and CH4 conversion have become major research areas. Many investigations have already been performed regarding the single component gases, i.e. CO2 splitting and CH4 reforming, as well as for two component mixtures, i.e. dry reforming of methane (CO2/CH4), partial oxidation of methane (CH4/O2), artificial photosynthesis (CO2/H2O), CO2 hydrogenation (CO2/H2), and even first steps towards the influence of N2 impurities have been taken, i.e. CO2/N2 and CH4/N2. In this feature article we briefly discuss the advances made in literature for these different steps from a plasma chemistry modeling point of view. Subsequently, we present a comprehensive plasma chemistry set, combining the knowledge gathered in this field so far, and supported with extensive experimental data. This set can be used for chemical kinetics plasma modeling for all possible combinations of CO2, CH4, N2, O2 and H2O, to investigate the bigger picture of the underlying plasmachemical pathways for these mixtures in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma. This is extremely valuable for the optimization of existing plasma-based CO2 conversion and CH4 reforming processes, as well as for investigating the influence of N2, O2 and H2O on these processes, and even to support plasma-based multi-reforming processes.

  16. Mapping Students Use of Technologies in Problem Based Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rongbutsri, Nikorn; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand how students use technology to enhance their learning in problem-based learning environments. The research methodology is based on both qualitative and quantitative studies. The results are based on students’ interviews, a survey and students’ reflections in course......-related blog posts; they show that students have positive perceptions toward using technologies in problem-based learning environments....

  17. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  18. Simulating the Conversion of Rural Settlements to Town Land Based on Multi-Agent Systems and Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans. PMID:24244472

  19. Potential pyrolysis pathway assessment for microalgae-based aviation fuel based on energy conversion efficiency and life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fang; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High lipid content in microalgae increases energy conversion efficiency. • Indirect pathway has the highest mass ratio, energy ratio and energy efficiency. • The Isochrysis indirect pathway produces most kerosene component precursor. • The Isochrysis indirect pyrolysis pathway shows the best performance in LCA. - Abstract: Although the research of microalgae pyrolysis has been conducted for many years, there is a lack of investigations on energy efficiency and life cycle assessment. In this study, we investigated the biocrude yield and energy efficiency of direct pyrolysis, microalgae residue pyrolysis after lipid extraction (indirect pyrolysis), and different microalgae co-pyrolysis. This research also investigated the life cycle assessment of the three different pyrolysis pathways. A system boundary of Well-to-Wake (WTWa) was defined and included sub-process models, such as feedstock production, fuel production and pump-to-wheels (PTW) stages. The pathway of Isochrysis indirect pyrolysis shows the best performance in the mass ratio and energy ratio, produces the most kerosene component precursor, has the lowest WTWa total energy input, fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, and resultes in the best energy efficiency. All the evidence indicates that Isochrysis R2 pathway is a potential and optimal pyrolysis pathway to liquid biofuels. The mass ratio of pyrolysis biocrude is shown to be the decisive factor for different microalgae species. The sensitivity analysis results also indicates that the life cycle indicators are particularly sensitive to the mass ratio of pyrolysis biocrude for microalgae-based hydrotreated pyrolysis aviation fuel.

  20. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program. Industry, university and research interest in the US Department of Energy ECUT biocatalysis research activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Research Opportunity Notice (RON) disseminated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program's Biocatalysis Research Activity are presented. The RON was issued in late April of 1983 and solicited expressions of interest from petrochemical and chemical companies, bioengineering firms, biochemical engineering consultants, private research laboratories, and universities for participating in a federal research program to investigate potential applications of biotechnology in producing chemicals. The RON results indicate that broad interest exists within the nation's industry, universities, and research institutes for the Activity and its planned research and development program.

  1. Brain-Based Learning With Technological Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of technology in secondary schools is varied and depends on the training and interest of the individual instructors. Even though technology has advanced way beyond its utilitarian roots of being viewed solely by educators as a useful machine for teachers to key exams and worksheets on, there are still many secondary educators who still…

  2. Conversion of straight-run gas-condensate benzenes into high- octane gasolines based on modified ZSM-5 zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, V; Reschetilowski, V; Khomajakov, I; Egorova, L; Volgina, T; Tatarkina, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of straight-run benzene of gas condensate into high-octane gasoline based on zeolite catalyst ZSM-5, modified in binary system oxide- based Sn (III) and Bi (III). It was defined that the introduction of the binary system oxide-based Sn(III) and Bi (III) into the basic zeolite results in the 2-fold increase of its catalytic activity.High-octane gasoline converted from straight-run benzene is characterized by a low benzol content in comparison to the high-octane benzenes produced during the catalytic reforming

  3. Electrical energy conversion and transport an interactive computer-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karady, George G

    2013-01-01

    Provides relevant material for engineering students and practicing engineers who want to learn the basics of electrical power transmission, generation, and usage This Second Edition of Electrical Energy Conversion and Transport is thoroughly updated to address the recent environmental effects of electric power generation and transmission, which have become more important in conjunction with the deregulation of the industry. The maintenance and development of the electrical energy generation and transport industry requires well-trained engineers who are able to use mode

  4. Base case Pu-nitrate to Pu-oxide conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    This paper explains that the plutonium recovered in the course of reprocessing spent fuel is obtained in the form of plutonium nitrate, whereas PuO 2 is required for the fabrication of fuel rods. The reference conversion plant described in the paper converts plutonium nitrate into plutonium dioxide powder by precipitation with oxalic acid followed by calcination. The paper also describes the main features of the safety, maintenance and safeguards philosophy used in its design

  5. Engineering graphene and TMDs based van der Waals heterostructures for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changli; Cao, Qi; Wang, Faze; Xiao, Yequan; Li, Yanbo; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted significant interest due to their unique properties that cannot be obtained in their bulk counterparts. These atomically thin 2D materials have demonstrated strong light-matter interactions, tunable optical bandgap structures and unique structural and electrical properties, rendering possible the high conversion efficiency of solar energy with a minimal amount of active absorber material. The isolated 2D monolayer can be stacked into arbitrary van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures without the need to consider lattice matching. Several combinations of 2D/3D and 2D/2D materials have been assembled to create vdWs heterojunctions for photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) energy conversion. However, the complex, less-constrained, and more environmentally vulnerable interface in a vdWs heterojunction is different from that of a conventional, epitaxially grown heterojunction, engendering new challenges for surface and interface engineering. In this review, the physics of band alignment, the chemistry of surface modification and the behavior of photoexcited charge transfer at the interface during PV and PEC processes will be discussed. We will present a survey of the recent progress and challenges of 2D/3D and 2D/2D vdWs heterojunctions, with emphasis on their applicability to PV and PEC devices. Finally, we will discuss emerging issues yet to be explored for 2D materials to achieve high solar energy conversion efficiency and possible strategies to improve their performance.

  6. utilization of sweetpotato based confection technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    by farmers in the production of sweet potato were organic and inorganic fertilizer while the technologies ..... fertilizer essentially due to scarcity and high cost, and the small percentage of farmers that .... (CIP), Lima, peru, Database (on-line).

  7. utilization of sweetpotato based confection technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    Department of Home Economics/Hotel Management and Tourism ... This paper examines the role of logistics and information technology in tourists systems in .... Peisley T (2000) ―Cruising in Crisis‖ Travel and Tourism Analyst, 2, 1-39.

  8. Educational Technologies Based on Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatics technologies allow to easily develop and adapt e-learning systems. In order to be used by any users, the system must be developed to permit the lessons construction in a dynamic way. The component technology is a solution to this problem and offers the possibility to define the basic objects that will be connected at the run time to develop the personalized e-lessons.

  9. Cable-Based Water Leak Detection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Water leaks can be considered as a serious problem from many sources such as water supply and return chains, air conditioning units, cold-water chillers, clogged drains, damaged skylights or windows, or even construction errors. The new water leak detection technologies can provide significant advantages in cost, reliability, and easy adoption have continued since the traditional technology mainly focusing on a spot detector revealed several limitations.

  10. Randomized Trial of a Family-based, Automated, Conversational Obesity Treatment Program for Underserved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. A.; Phillips, B.D.; Watson, B.L.; Newby, P.K.; Norman, G. J.; Adams, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a scalable obesity treatment program integrated with pediatric primary care and delivered using interactive voice technology (IVR) to families from underserved populations. Design and Methods Fifty parent-child dyads (child 9–12 yrs, BMI >95th percentile) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to either an IVR or a wait-list control (WLC) group. The majority were lower-income, African-American (72%) families. Dyads received IVR calls for 12 weeks. Call content was informed by two evidenced-based interventions. Anthropometric and behavioral variables were assessed at baseline and 3 mo follow-up. Results Forty-three dyads completed the study. IVR parents ate 1 cup more fruit than WLC (p 75% agreed that the calls were useful, made for people like them, credible, and helped them eat healthy foods. Conclusion An obesity treatment program delivered via IVR may be an acceptable and feasible resource for families from underserved populations. PMID:23512915

  11. What drives technology-based distractions? A structural equation model on social-psychological factors of technology-based driver distraction engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Yen Winnie; Donmez, Birsen

    2016-06-01

    With the proliferation of new mobile and in-vehicle technologies, understanding the motivations behind a driver's voluntary engagement with such technologies is crucial from a safety perspective, yet is complex. Previous literature either surveyed a large number of distractions that may be diverse, or too focuses on one particular activity, such as cell phone use. Further, earlier studies about social-psychological factors underlying driver distraction tend to focus on one or two factors in-depth, and those that examine a more comprehensive set of factors are often limited in their analyses methods. The present work considers a wide array of social-psychological factors within a structural equation model to predict their influence on a focused set of technology-based distractions. A better understanding of these facilitators can enhance the design of distraction mitigation strategies. We analysed survey responses about three technology-based driver distractions: holding phone conversations, manually interacting with cell phones, and adjusting the settings of in-vehicle technology, as well as responses on five social-psychological factors: attitude, descriptive norm, injunctive norm, technology inclination, and a risk/sensation seeking personality. Using data collected from 525 drivers (ages: 18-80), a structural equation model was built to analyse these social-psychological factors as latent variables influencing self-reported engagement in these three technology-based distractions. Self-reported engagement in technology-based distractions was found to be largely influenced by attitudes about the distractions. Personality and social norms also played a significant role, but technology inclination did not. A closer look at two age groups (18-30 and 30+) showed that the effect of social norms, especially of injunctive norm (i.e., perceived approvals), was less prominent in the 30+ age group, while personality remained a significant predictor for the 30+ age group but

  12. Initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds with fast semiconductor switches and energy-releasing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Kardo-Sysoev, A. F.; Zegrya, A. G.; Os'kin, I. A.; Bragin, V. A.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2017-10-01

    The first findings concerning the initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds via the electrical explosion of a semiconductor bridge are presented. The obtained results indicate that the energy parameters of an explosive conversion depend on the mass of a combustible agent—namely, nanoporous silicon—and the silicon-doping type.

  13. Research on Network Defense Strategy Based on Honey Pot Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianchao; Hua, Ying

    2018-03-01

    As a new network security technology of active defense, The honeypot technology has become a very effective and practical method of decoy attackers. The thesis discusses the theory, structure, characteristic, design and implementation of Honeypot in detail. Aiming at the development of means of attack, put forward a kind of network defense technology based on honeypot technology, constructing a virtual Honeypot demonstrate the honeypot’s functions.

  14. Key Technologies of Phone Storage Forensics Based on ARM Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianghan; Che, Shengbing

    2018-03-01

    Smart phones are mainly running Android, IOS and Windows Phone three mobile platform operating systems. The android smart phone has the best market shares and its processor chips are almost ARM software architecture. The chips memory address mapping mechanism of ARM software architecture is different with x86 software architecture. To forensics to android mart phone, we need to understand three key technologies: memory data acquisition, the conversion mechanism from virtual address to the physical address, and find the system’s key data. This article presents a viable solution which does not rely on the operating system API for a complete solution to these three issues.

  15. Error Made in Conversation by Indonesian Learners Learning English Based on Syntax and Exchanging Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Wiannastiti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In learning a second language or foreign language (L2, learners should master the competences. Normally, L2 learners first should master the linguistic competence which includes the mastery of vocabularies, pronunciation, and grammar. The study is to find out the syntax error made by L2 learners in conversation as well as to find out the exchanging information. The data were the recording conversation of Visual Communication Design students first semester of Binus University joining English Entrant. Error analysis was used to analyze the data. There are two points of view to analyze the data: syntax from taxonomy and exchanging information. Taxonomy employs the error in omission, addition, misinformation, and mis-ordering. Exchanging information point of view employs the error in finite element and mood. The result shows that L2 learners made some errors in grammar and exchanging information because they are influenced by the L1. They tend to transfer from L1 to L2 rather than thinking to create the utterances in L2. 

  16. Optimization of process factors for self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Junyao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lei, Ting, E-mail: tlei@mail.csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xiao, Tao [2nd Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • The optimum operating conditions were determined by an orthogonal experiment. • The coating is composed of oxides and hydroxides of V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+} and Mg(OH){sub 2}. • The self-healing performance was investigated by cross-cut immersion test. • The vanadia conversion coating provided active corrosion protection to AZ31 alloy. - Abstract: A self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The optimum operating conditions including vanadia solution concentration, pH and treating temperature for obtaining the best corrosion protective vanadia coatings and improved localized corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate were determined by an orthogonal experiment design. Surface morphology and composition of the resultant conversion coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The self-healing behavior of the coating was investigated by cross-cut immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  17. Optimization of process factors for self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Junyao; Lei, Ting; Xiao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimum operating conditions were determined by an orthogonal experiment. • The coating is composed of oxides and hydroxides of V"5"+, V"4"+ and Mg(OH)_2. • The self-healing performance was investigated by cross-cut immersion test. • The vanadia conversion coating provided active corrosion protection to AZ31 alloy. - Abstract: A self-healing vanadium-based conversion coating was prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The optimum operating conditions including vanadia solution concentration, pH and treating temperature for obtaining the best corrosion protective vanadia coatings and improved localized corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate were determined by an orthogonal experiment design. Surface morphology and composition of the resultant conversion coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The self-healing behavior of the coating was investigated by cross-cut immersion test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  18. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  19. Adhesives; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. The guide is divided into three sections, the first of which deals with…

  20. Technology support for military capability based acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaba, Mphahlela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available gap between capability planning and acquisition of product systems in the SANDF. (Thaba J et al, 2015). The need for decision support tools and technologies to assist capability planners to close this gap and make sound decisions has become more...

  1. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of creation of highly efficient renewable resources and bioconversion technologies; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabini bio conversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey is conducted concerning environmentally friendly industrial technologies that utilize renewable resources, which are technologies of creating highly renewable resources and converting renewable resources by breeding industrial vegetation. In relation with the creation technologies, the state of research and development of basic technologies is surveyed, which involves the fabrication of environmental stress resisting vegetation, studies for the application of the gene expression control mechanism, introduction of multigenes and site-directed genes, etc. Concerning the respective target products expected to be produced by industrial vegetation, as much information as possible relative to genes is collected on the current state of production, metabolism in vegetation and microbials, and biosynthesis. Surveyed in relation with the bioconversion technology are the conversion of vegetation-derived polymers, construction of environmentally friendly ligno-bioprocess, conversion of sugar, production of biofuels, etc. Furthermore, the technology of treating ligneous wastes with supercritical water is surveyed, this to determine the practicality of the technology at the current stage. (NEDO)

  2. School-based data and management of technological innovations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based data and management of technological innovations in public secondary schools in Cross River State. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... Result indicated that: there is no significant positive relationship between school-based data and principals management of technological innovation.

  3. Women and Computer Based Technologies: A Feminist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morritt, Hope

    The use of computer based technologies by professional women in education is examined through a feminist standpoint theory in this paper. The theory is grounded in eight claims which form the basis of the conceptual framework for the study. The experiences of nine women participants with computer based technologies were categorized using three…

  4. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps...... in the value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  5. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  6. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  7. Towards efficient solar-to-hydrogen conversion: Fundamentals and recent progress in copper-based chalcogenide photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yubin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting for hydrogen generation has been considered as a promising route to convert and store solar energy into chemical fuels. In terms of its large-scale application, seeking semiconductor photoelectrodes with high efficiency and good stability should be essential. Although an enormous number of materials have been explored for solar water splitting in the last several decades, challenges still remain for the practical application. P-type copper-based chalcogenides, such as Cu(In, GaSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have shown impressive performance in photovoltaics due to narrow bandgaps, high absorption coefficients, and good carrier transport properties. The obtained high efficiencies in photovoltaics have promoted the utilization of these materials into the field of PEC water splitting. A comprehensive review on copper-based chalcogenides for solar-to-hydrogen conversion would help advance the research in this expanding area. This review will cover the physicochemical properties of copper-based chalco-genides, developments of various photocathodes, strategies to enhance the PEC activity and stability, introductions of tandem PEC cells, and finally, prospects on their potential for the practical solar-to-hydrogen conversion. We believe this review article can provide some insights of fundamentals and applications of copper-based chalco-genide thin films for PEC water splitting.

  8. Basic research needs in seven energy-related technologies, conservation, conversion, transmission and storage, environmental fission, fossil, geothermal, and solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This volume comprises seven studies performed by seven groups at seven national laboratories. The laboratories were selected because of their assigned lead roles in research pertaining to the respective technologies. Researches were requested to solicit views of other workers in the fields.

  9. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Driven Wind Energy Conversion System Based on Parallel Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERDI Brahim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel application of the instantaneous P-Q theory in a wind energy conversion system (WECS. The proposed WECS is formed by permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system connected to the grid through parallel active power filter (PAPF. PAPF uses the generated wind energy to feed loads connected at the point of common coupling (PPC, compensates current harmonics and injects the excess of this energy into the grid using P-Q theory as control method. To demonstrate the feasibility and the performance of the proposed control scheme, simulation of this wind system has been realized using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of the proposed control scheme for the PMSGPAPF system.

  10. Three-dimensional micro-printing of temperature sensors based on up-conversion luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickberg, Andreas; Mueller, Jonathan B. [Institute of Applied Physics and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mange, Yatin J.; Nann, Thomas [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Fischer, Joachim [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wegener, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-30

    The pronounced temperature dependence of up-conversion luminescence from nanoparticles doped with rare-earth elements enables local temperature measurements. By mixing these nanoparticles into a commercially available photoresist containing the low-fluorescence photo-initiator Irgacure 369, and by using three-dimensional direct laser writing, we show that micrometer sized local temperature sensors can be positioned lithographically as desired. Positioning is possible in pre-structured environments, e.g., within buried microfluidic channels or on optical or electronic chips. We use the latter as an example and demonstrate the measurement for both free space and waveguide-coupled excitation and detection. For the free space setting, we achieve a temperature standard deviation of 0.5 K at a time resolution of 1 s.

  11. Semiconductor-Based Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide: Stepping Towards Artificial Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hong; Masuda, Takuya; Ye, Jinhua

    2018-01-18

    The photoelectrochemical (PEC) carbon dioxide reduction process stands out as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar energy into chemical feedstocks, among various methods available for carbon dioxide mitigation. Semiconductors derived from cheap and abundant elements are interesting candidates for catalysis. Whether employed as intrinsic semiconductors or hybridized with metallic cocatalysts, biocatalysts, and metal molecular complexes, semiconductor photocathodes exhibit good performance and low overpotential during carbon dioxide reduction. Apart from focusing on carbon dioxide reduction materials and chemistry, PEC cells towards standalone devices that use photohybrid electrodes or solar cells have also been a hot topic in recent research. An overview of the state-of-the-art progress in PEC carbon dioxide reduction is presented and a deep understanding of the catalysts of carbon dioxide reduction is also given. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Three-dimensional micro-printing of temperature sensors based on up-conversion luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickberg, Andreas; Mueller, Jonathan B.; Mange, Yatin J.; Nann, Thomas; Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The pronounced temperature dependence of up-conversion luminescence from nanoparticles doped with rare-earth elements enables local temperature measurements. By mixing these nanoparticles into a commercially available photoresist containing the low-fluorescence photo-initiator Irgacure 369, and by using three-dimensional direct laser writing, we show that micrometer sized local temperature sensors can be positioned lithographically as desired. Positioning is possible in pre-structured environments, e.g., within buried microfluidic channels or on optical or electronic chips. We use the latter as an example and demonstrate the measurement for both free space and waveguide-coupled excitation and detection. For the free space setting, we achieve a temperature standard deviation of 0.5 K at a time resolution of 1 s

  13. Aptamer-based technology for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers are short and functional single-stranded oligonucleotide sequences selected from systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, which have the capacity to recognize various classes of target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Various analytical aptamers acquired by SELEX are widely used in many research fields, such as medicine, biology, and chemistry. However, the application of this innovative and emerging technology to food safety is just in infant stage. Food safety plays a very important role in our daily lives because varieties of poisonous and harmful substances in food affect human health. Aptamer technique is promising, which can overcome many disadvantages of existing detection methods in food safety, such as long detection time, low sensitivity, difficult, and expensive antibody preparation. This review provides an overview of various aptamer screening technologies and summarizes the recent applications of aptamers in food safety, and future prospects are also discussed.

  14. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.M.; Pierce, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs

  15. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Julie M.; Pierce, Bill L.

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs.

  16. High conversion self-curing sealer based on a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bin; Zuo, Yi; Li, Jidong; Wang, Li; Tang, Kuangyun; Huang, Di; Du, Jingjing; Luo, Peipei; Li, Yubao

    2013-01-01

    Low monomer–polymer conversion is the key factor leading to cytotoxicity for resin-containing restorative materials. This paper provides a new root canal filling system based on self-curing injectable polyurethane which can achieve high conversion in a short time. Traced FTIR spectra show more than 90% NCO group participated in the curing reaction after 4 h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. The calculated data also testified the curing process supports a third-order reaction, and this efficient and sufficient reaction is postulated to weaken the toxic stimulation. By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer is shown to be favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. Then physicochemical properties of the injectable PU-based sealer were evaluated according to the Standard [ISO 6876:2001 (E)] for clinical application. A series of physicochemical properties of PU sealer have been tested comparing with AH Plus and Apexit Plus. And the results present that the self-curing PU sealer could not only match the clinic requirements, but even has better properties than the other two commercial sealers. We expect the high conversion PU sealer has a tremendous potential in the field of root canal filling after further biological evaluation. - Highlights: • A new root canal sealer based on self-curing injectable polyurethane was provided. • More than 90% NCO group reacted after 4h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. • By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer showed perfect cytocompatibility. • Volumetric dilatancy after curing will make the sealer achieve a tight seal

  17. High conversion self-curing sealer based on a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bin [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zuo, Yi, E-mail: zoae@scu.edu.cn [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Jidong; Wang, Li [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Kuangyun [The State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Orthognathic Surgery, Sichuan University West China College of Stomatology, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, Di; Du, Jingjing; Luo, Peipei; Li, Yubao [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Low monomer–polymer conversion is the key factor leading to cytotoxicity for resin-containing restorative materials. This paper provides a new root canal filling system based on self-curing injectable polyurethane which can achieve high conversion in a short time. Traced FTIR spectra show more than 90% NCO group participated in the curing reaction after 4 h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. The calculated data also testified the curing process supports a third-order reaction, and this efficient and sufficient reaction is postulated to weaken the toxic stimulation. By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer is shown to be favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. Then physicochemical properties of the injectable PU-based sealer were evaluated according to the Standard [ISO 6876:2001 (E)] for clinical application. A series of physicochemical properties of PU sealer have been tested comparing with AH Plus and Apexit Plus. And the results present that the self-curing PU sealer could not only match the clinic requirements, but even has better properties than the other two commercial sealers. We expect the high conversion PU sealer has a tremendous potential in the field of root canal filling after further biological evaluation. - Highlights: • A new root canal sealer based on self-curing injectable polyurethane was provided. • More than 90% NCO group reacted after 4h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. • By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer showed perfect cytocompatibility. • Volumetric dilatancy after curing will make the sealer achieve a tight seal.

  18. Chemical and structural analyses of subsurface crevices formed during spontaneous deposition of cerium-based conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Daimon K, E-mail: dkheller@mmm.com; Fahrenholtz, William G., E-mail: billf@mst.edu; O' Keefe, Matthew J., E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu

    2011-11-15

    Subsurface crevices formed during the deposition of cerium-based conversion coatings were analyzed in cross-section to assess the effect of deposition and post-treatment on the structure and chemistry of phases present. An Al-O containing phase, believed to be amorphous Al(OH){sub 3}, was formed in crevices during coating deposition. Analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of up to 1.6 at.% chlorine within the Al-O phase, which was likely a product of soluble chlorides that were present in the coating solution. Cerium was not detected within crevices. After post-treatment in an 85 deg. C aqueous phosphate solution, the chloride concentration was reduced to {<=} 0.30 at.% and electron diffraction of the Al-O phase produced ring patterns, indicating it had crystallized. Some diffraction patterns could be indexed to gibbsite (Al(OH){sub 3}), but others are believed to be a combination of hydrated aluminum hydroxides and/or oxides. Aluminum phosphate was not identified. Separately from its effect on cerium-based conversion coatings, phosphate post-treatment improved the corrosion resistance of Al 2024-T3 substrates by acting to crystallize Al(OH){sub 3} present on interior surfaces of crevices and by reducing the chloride concentration in this phase. - Highlights: {yields} Analysis of subsurface crevices formed during deposition of Ce-based conversion coatings. {yields} Phosphate post-treatment improved corrosion protection in salt spray testing. {yields} Post-treatment affected the composition and structure of regions within crevices. {yields} Crystallized Al(OH){sub 3} within crevices acted as a more effective barrier to chloride ions.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. 21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and the resulting CO 2 -eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N 2 O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO 2 -eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  20. Gas Sensors Based on Molecular Imprinting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT); often described as a method of designing a material to remember a target molecular structure (template); is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with custom-made binding sites complementary to the target molecules in shape; size and functional groups. MIT has been successfully applied to analyze; separate and detect macromolecular organic compounds. Furthermore; it has been increasingly applied in assays of biological mac...

  1. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  2. Novel Advancements in Internet-Based Real Time Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerry; Welch, Clara L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    AZ Technology has been working with MSFC Ground Systems Department to find ways to make it easier for remote experimenters (RPI's) to monitor their International Space Station (ISS) payloads in real-time from anywhere using standard/familiar devices. AZ Technology was awarded an SBIR Phase I grant to research the technologies behind and advancements of distributing live ISS data across the Internet. That research resulted in a product called "EZStream" which is in use on several ISS-related projects. Although the initial implementation is geared toward ISS, the architecture and lessons learned are applicable to other space-related programs. This paper presents the high-level architecture and components that make up EZStream. A combination of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and custom components were used and their interaction will be discussed. The server is powered by Apache's Jakarta-Tomcat web server/servlet engine. User accounts are maintained in a My SQL database. Both Tomcat and MySQL are Open Source products. When used for ISS, EZStream pulls the live data directly from NASA's Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) API. TReK parses the ISS data stream into individual measurement parameters and performs on-the- fly engineering unit conversion and range checking before passing the data to EZStream for distribution. TReK is provided by NASA at no charge to ISS experimenters. By using a combination of well established Open Source, NASA-supplied. and AZ Technology-developed components, operations using EZStream are robust and economical. Security over the Internet is a major concern on most space programs. This paper describes how EZStream provides for secure connection to and transmission of space- related data over the public Internet. Display pages that show sensitive data can be placed under access control by EZStream. Users are required to login before being allowed to pull up those web pages. To enhance security, the EZStream client/server data transmissions can

  3. Effects of a Conversation-Based Intervention on the Linguistic Skills of Children With Motor Speech Disorders Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gloria; Clarke, Michael T

    2017-07-12

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a conversation-based intervention on the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use augmentative and alternative communication. Eight children aged from 8 to 13 years participated in the study. After a baseline period, a conversation-based intervention was provided for each participant, in which they were supported to learn and use linguistic structures essential for the formation of clauses and the grammaticalization of their utterances, such as pronouns, verbs, and bound morphemes, in the context of personally meaningful and scaffolded conversations with trained clinicians. The conversations were videotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller & Chapman, 1991). Results indicate that participants showed improvements in their use of spontaneous clauses, and a greater use of pronouns, verbs, and bound morphemes. These improvements were sustained and generalized to conversations with familiar partners. The results demonstrate the positive effects of the conversation-based intervention for improving the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use augmentative and alternative communication. Clinical and theoretical implications of conversation-based interventions are discussed and future research needs are identified. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5150113.

  4. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  5. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  6. Availability of advanced foreign energy conversion and conservation technology for use in the United States. Biennial report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straus, R W; Thurman, R S; Carsey, J N; Fujishima, C; Hammel, J; Dietrich, P; Pfeil, R; Bottomley, K

    1978-12-01

    The assignment by DOE requested Galaxy to, Review and evaluate all field data and to define areas where foreign work is ready to be implemented by US; areas where US work might be dropped since foreign R and D is more advanced; areas where foreign R and D indicate sufficient promise for the US to initiate work in; areas where cooperative R and D ventures or licensing agreements might prove beneficial, etc. The specific technologies to be investigated by Galaxy were set forth in Tasks I and V of the contract as follows: Task I: (A) waste heat utilization, (B) advanced cycles, (C) component reliability and efficiency, (D) heat transfer, and (E) combustion and materials; Task V: (A) controls and process efficiency; (B) materials and fabrication; (C) components and heat engines; (D) thermodynamics and heat transfer; (E) fuel cells; (F) combustion and alternate fuels; and (G) heat utilization, planning and analysis. The foreign technology is briefly identified within the areas set forth. (WHK)

  7. An experimentally validated model for geometrically nonlinear plucking-based frequency up-conversion in energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, B.; Tan, D.; Stern, I.; Erturk, A.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that plucking-based frequency up-conversion can enhance the power output in piezoelectric energy harvesting by enabling cyclic free vibration at the fundamental bending mode of the harvester even for very low excitation frequencies. In this work, we present a geometrically nonlinear plucking-based framework for frequency up-conversion in piezoelectric energy harvesting under quasistatic excitations associated with low-frequency stimuli such as walking and similar rigid body motions. Axial shortening of the plectrum is essential to enable plucking excitation, which requires a nonlinear framework relating the plectrum parameters (e.g. overlap length between the plectrum and harvester) to the overall electrical power output. Von Kármán-type geometrically nonlinear deformation of the flexible plectrum cantilever is employed to relate the overlap length between the flexible (nonlinear) plectrum and the stiff (linear) harvester to the transverse quasistatic tip displacement of the plectrum, and thereby the tip load on the linear harvester in each plucking cycle. By combining the nonlinear plectrum mechanics and linear harvester dynamics with two-way electromechanical coupling, the electrical power output is obtained directly in terms of the overlap length. Experimental case studies and validations are presented for various overlap lengths and a set of electrical load resistance values. Further analysis results are reported regarding the combined effects of plectrum thickness and overlap length on the plucking force and harvested power output. The experimentally validated nonlinear plectrum-linear harvester framework proposed herein can be employed to design and optimize frequency up-conversion by properly choosing the plectrum parameters (geometry, material, overlap length, etc) as well as the harvester parameters.

  8. Utilization of excess weapon plutonium: scientific and technological aspects of the conversion of military capacities for civilian use and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, H.-P.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific and technological aspects of the conversion of military capacities for civilian use and sustainable development concerning the utilisation of excess weapon plutonium consist of the following main issues: The new understanding of 'security'; industrial restructuring for sustainable development; human resources issues; cleaning up of the world legacy; developing timely alternate use plans for military facilities. The issues and problems of nuclear disarmament management are linked to sustainable development and are related to safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes, meaning also safe transport, storage and disposal with a view to protect human health and the environment. Special emphasis is laid on the international and regional cooperation as the main basis for action

  9. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  10. Research Technology (ASTP) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  11. Didactics, Technology, and Organisation of Project Based Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack; Borch, Ole M.; Helbo, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The didactics, technology, and organization of an ICT supported distance engineering Master education are described. A systematic monitoring and evaluation of the basis year has given useful experience, subsequently used for adjustments and improvements. A successful on-campus project organized...... as asynchronous, which is possible with extensive utilization of new information and communication technology. Virtual meetings are conducted with text, sound and video based communication. Also the organization requires technology. A new learning management system, specifically designed to the didactic form...

  12. Quantification of Technology Innovation Usinga Risk-Based Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard E. Sleefe

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in achieving technology innovation through new product development activities. It is recognized, however, that traditional project management practices focused only on performance, cost, and schedule attributes, can often lead to risk mitigation strategies that limit new technology innovation. In this paper, a new approach is proposed for formally managing and quantifying technology innovation. This approach uses a risk-based framework that s...

  13. Carbon dioxide/methanol conversion cycle based on cascade enzymatic reactions supported on superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATERINA G.C. MARQUES NETTO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The conversion of carbon dioxide into important industrial feedstock is a subject of growing interest in modern society. A possible way to achieve this goal is by carrying out the CO2/methanol cascade reaction, allowing the recycle of CO2 using either chemical catalysts or enzymes. Efficient and selective reactions can be performed by enzymes; however, due to their low stability, immobilization protocols are required to improve their performance. The cascade reaction to reduce carbon dioxide into methanol has been explored by the authors, using, sequentially, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FalDH, and formate dehydrogenase (FDH, powered by NAD+/NADH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH as the co-enzyme regenerating system. All the enzymes have been immobilized on functionalized magnetite nanoparticles, and their reactions investigated separately in order to establish the best performance conditions. Although the stepwise scheme led to only 2.3% yield of methanol per NADH; in a batch system under CO2 pressure, the combination of the four immobilized enzymes increased the methanol yield by 64 fold. The studies indicated a successful regeneration of NADH in situ, envisaging a real possibility of using immobilized enzymes to perform the cascade CO2-methanol reaction.

  14. Glycoform-independent prion conversion by highly efficient, cell-based, protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Mekrouti, Mériem; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Sibille, Pierre; Laude, Hubert; Vilette, Didier; Andréoletti, Olivier; Rezaei, Human; Dron, Michel; Béringue, Vincent

    2016-07-07

    Prions are formed of misfolded assemblies (PrP(Sc)) of the variably N-glycosylated cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). In infected species, prions replicate by seeding the conversion and polymerization of host PrP(C). Distinct prion strains can be recognized, exhibiting defined PrP(Sc) biochemical properties such as the glycotype and specific biological traits. While strain information is encoded within the conformation of PrP(Sc) assemblies, the storage of the structural information and the molecular requirements for self-perpetuation remain uncertain. Here, we investigated the specific role of PrP(C) glycosylation status. First, we developed an efficient protein misfolding cyclic amplification method using cells expressing the PrP(C) species of interest as substrate. Applying the technique to PrP(C) glycosylation mutants expressing cells revealed that neither PrP(C) nor PrP(Sc) glycoform stoichiometry was instrumental to PrP(Sc) formation and strainness perpetuation. Our study supports the view that strain properties, including PrP(Sc) glycotype are enciphered within PrP(Sc) structural backbone, not in the attached glycans.

  15. Robust fault detection of wind energy conversion systems based on dynamic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nasser; Sadrnia, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of faults in wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) is inevitable. In order to detect the occurred faults at the appropriate time, avoid heavy economic losses, ensure safe system operation, prevent damage to adjacent relevant systems, and facilitate timely repair of failed components; a fault detection system (FDS) is required. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have gained a noticeable position in FDSs and they have been widely used for modeling of complex dynamical systems. One method for designing an FDS is to prepare a dynamic neural model emulating the normal system behavior. By comparing the outputs of the real system and neural model, incidence of the faults can be identified. In this paper, by utilizing a comprehensive dynamic model which contains both mechanical and electrical components of the WECS, an FDS is suggested using dynamic RNNs. The presented FDS detects faults of the generator's angular velocity sensor, pitch angle sensors, and pitch actuators. Robustness of the FDS is achieved by employing an adaptive threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is capable to detect the faults shortly and it has very low false and missed alarms rate.

  16. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, Gregory D.; Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration

  17. Resistive and Capacitive Based Sensing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winncy Y. Du

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistive and capacitive (RC sensors are the most commonly used sensors. Their applications span homeland security, industry, environment, space, traffic control, home automation, aviation, and medicine. More than 30% of modern sensors are direct or indirect applications of the RC sensing principles. This paper reviews resistive and capacitive sensing technologies. The physical principles of resistive sensors are governed by several important laws and phenomena such as Ohm’s Law, Wiedemann-Franz Law; Photoconductive-, Piezoresistive-, and Thermoresistive Effects. The applications of these principles are presented through a variety of examples including accelerometers, flame detectors, pressure/flow rate sensors, RTDs, hygristors, chemiresistors, and bio-impedance sensors. The capacitive sensors are described through their three configurations: parallel (flat, cylindrical (coaxial, and spherical (concentric. Each configuration is discussed with respect to its geometric structure, function, and application in various sensor designs. Capacitance sensor arrays are also presented in the paper.

  18. Joint Dictionary Learning-Based Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Voice Conversion to Improve Speech Intelligibility After Oral Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Szu-Wei; Li, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ying-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Hsieh, Li-Chun; Tsao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient's speech may be distorted and difficult to understand. To overcome this problem, VC methods can be applied to convert the distorted speech such that it is clear and more intelligible. To design an effective VC method, two key points must be considered: 1) the amount of training data may be limited (because speaking for a long time is usually difficult for postoperative patients); 2) rapid conversion is desirable (for better communication). Methods: We propose a novel joint dictionary learning based non-negative matrix factorization (JD-NMF) algorithm. Compared to conventional VC techniques, JD-NMF can perform VC efficiently and effectively with only a small amount of training data. Results: The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed JD-NMF method not only achieves notably higher short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) scores (a standardized objective intelligibility evaluation metric) than those obtained using the original unconverted speech but is also significantly more efficient and effective than a conventional exemplar-based NMF VC method. Conclusion: The proposed JD-NMF method may outperform the state-of-the-art exemplar-based NMF VC method in terms of STOI scores under the desired scenario. Significance: We confirmed the advantages of the proposed joint training criterion for the NMF-based VC. Moreover, we verified that the proposed JD-NMF can effectively improve the speech intelligibility scores of oral surgery patients. Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient

  19. Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Please cite as: Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), International Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd Edition, Springer, June 2008

  20. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  1. Teaching Information Systems Technologies: a New Approach based on Virtualization and Hosting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo R. García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how to provide suitable computing systems for information systems technologies learning using virtualization and hosting technologies. The main functionalities and components of an university learning lab based on these technologies are presented. All the software components used in its development are open source. Also, the use of this lab, providing the computing systems required for the learning activities of different matters related to the information systems technologies, is illustrated. The model of computing lab proposed is a more sustainable and scalable alternative than the traditional academic computing lab.

  2. EGCG Inhibited Lipofuscin Formation Based on Intercepting Amyloidogenic β-Sheet-Rich Structure Conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available Lipofuscin (LF is formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycosylation by carbonyl-amino crosslinks with biomacrolecules, and accumulates slowly within postmitotic cells. The environmental pollution, modern dietary culture and lifestyle changes have been found to be the major sources of reactive carbonyl compounds in vivo. Irreversible carbonyl-amino crosslinks induced by carbonyl stress are essentially toxiferous for aging-related functional losses in modern society. Results show that (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenol in green tea, can neutralize the carbonyl-amino cross-linking reaction and inhibit LF formation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.We explored the mechanism of the neutralization process from protein, cell, and animal levels using spectrofluorometry, infrared spectroscopy, conformation antibodies, and electron microscopy. LF demonstrated an amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich with antiparallel structure, which accelerated the carbonyl-amino crosslinks formation and disrupted proteolysis in both PC12 cells and D-galactose (D-gal-induced brain aging mice models. Additionally, EGCG effectively inhibited the formation of the amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure of LF, and prevented its conversion into toxic and on-pathway aggregation intermediates, thereby cutting off the carbonyl-amino crosslinks.Our study indicated that the amyloidogenic β-sheet structure of LF may be the core driving force for carbonyl-amino crosslinks further formation, which mediates the formation of amyloid fibrils from native state of biomacrolecules. That EGCG exhibits anti-amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure properties to prevent the LF formation represents a novel strategy to impede the development of degenerative processes caused by ageing or stress-induced premature senescence in modern environments.

  3. Neural Network Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Control with Quadratic Boost Converter for PMSG—Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Tiwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN based maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy for wind energy conversion system (WECS implemented with a DC/DC converter. The proposed topology utilizes a radial basis function network (RBFN based neural network control strategy to extract the maximum available power from the wind velocity. The results are compared with a classical Perturb and Observe (P&O method and Back propagation network (BPN method. In order to achieve a high voltage rating, the system is implemented with a quadratic boost converter and the performance of the converter is validated with a boost and single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC. The performance of the MPPT technique along with a DC/DC converter is demonstrated using MATLAB/Simulink.

  4. The effect of post-treatment time and temperature on cerium-based conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Daimon K [Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis Hall, 401 West 16th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)], E-mail: dkhvwb@mst.edu; Fahrenholtz, William G. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis Hall, 401 West 16th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)], E-mail: billf@mst.edu; O' Keefe, Matthew J. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis Hall, 401 West 16th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Corrosion performance, morphology, and electrochemical characteristics of cerium-based conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3 were examined as a function of phosphate post-treatment time and temperature. Corrosion resistance improved after post-treatment in 2.5 wt.% NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} for times up to 10 min or temperatures up to 85 deg. C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization testing correlated to neutral salt spray corrosion performance. Hydrated cerium oxide and peroxide species present in the as-deposited coatings were transformed to CePO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O for post-treatments at longer times and/or higher temperatures. Based on these results, processes active during post-treatment are kinetically dependent and strongly influenced by the post-treatment time and temperature.

  5. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  7. Durable past - sustainable future; Heritage-based design; Designing from Heritage. Strategies for Conservation and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard van Koningsbruggen

    2018-06-01

    elkaar. De opleidingsnaam vanaf 2004, ‘rMIT ’, weerspiegelde deze koers van versmelten. De ontwerpopgave werd verbonden met onderzoek van de cultuurhistorische waarde van gebouw en omgeving en met dat van technologiespecialisten die zich concentreren op materialen (en hun schade, duurzaamheid en energietransitie. Dit leidde tot de drie leerstoelgebieden Design, Cultural Value en Technology en de huidige naam voor deze masteropleiding: Heritage & Architecture. In een gelijkbenige ‘leerstoeldriehoek’ werd de versmelting verbeeld.

  8. Drivers of international performance of Brazilian technology-based firms

    OpenAIRE

    Serpa Fagundes de Oliveira, Maria Carolina; Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Schneider Hahn, Ivanete; de Moura Carpes, Aletéia; Brachak dos Santos, Maríndia; Nunes Piveta, Maíra

    2018-01-01

    For Technology-Based Firms, international expansion represents an opportunity for growth and value creation. The present study was designed to analyze the role of technology-based companies (TBCs) internationalization drivers on international performance. Therefore, a descriptive research was carried out with a quantitative approach performed through a survey. Data collection happened with 53 Brazilian TBCs located in innovation habitats. These data were analyzed by multivariate statistical t...

  9. Mobil/Badger to market zeolite-based cumene technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-01-01

    Badger (Cambridge, MA) and Mobil (Fairfax, VA) are ready to jointly license a new cumene technology that they say achieves higher yields and product purity than existing processes. The zeolite-based technology is scheduled to be introduced at next month's DeWitt Petrochemical Review in Houston. The Mobil/Badger technology aims to challenge the dominant position of UOP's (Des Plaines, IL) solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst process - which accounts for 80%-90% of the world's cumene production. In addition, Monsanto/Kellogg's aluminum chloride-based technology has gained significant momentum since its introduction in the 1980s. And late last year, ABB Lummus Crest (Bloomfield, NJ) also began marketing a zeolite-based cumene technology. While all the technologies make cumene via the alkylation of benzene with propylene, the Mobil/Badger process uses a zeolite-containing catalyst designed by Mobil to selectively catalyze the benzene/propylene reaction, avoiding unwanted propylene oligomerization. Because the olefin reactions are so fast, says Frank A. Demers, Badger's v.p./technology development and marketing, other zeolite technologies are forced to use complex reactor arrangements to stop the propylene-propylene reactions. However, he says, 'Mobil has designed a catalyst that wants to react benzene with propylene to make cumene.'

  10. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using Benzothiadiazole/Imide-Based Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Bloking, Jason T.

    2011-12-27

    A new series of electron-deficient molecules based on a central benzothiadiazole moiety flanked with vinylimides has been synthesized via Heck chemistry and used in solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPV). Two new compounds, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (PI-BT) and 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-naphthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (NI-BT), show significantly different behaviors in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the electron donor. Two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray scattering (2D GIXS) experiments demonstrate that PI-BT shows significant crystallization in spin-coated thin films, whereas NI-BT does not. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that while PI-BT maintains a planar structure in the ground state, steric interactions cause a twist in the NI-BT molecule, likely preventing significant crystallization. In BHJ solar cells with P3HT as donor, PI-BT devices achieved a large open-circuit voltage of 0.96 V and a maximum device power-conversion efficiency of 2.54%, whereas NI-BT containing devices only achieved 0.1% power-conversion efficiency. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  12. Mobile-Based Dictionary of Information and Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liando, O. E. S.; Mewengkang, A.; Kaseger, D.; Sangkop, F. I.; Rantung, V. P.; Rorimpandey, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to design and build mobile-based dictionary of information and communication technology applications to provide access to information in the form of glossary of terms in the context of information and communication technologies. Applications built in this study using the Android platform, with SQLite database model. This research uses prototype model development method which covers the stages of communication, Quick Plan, Quick Design Modeling, Construction of Prototype, Deployment Delivery & Feedback, and Full System Transformation. The design of this application is designed in such a way as to facilitate the user in the process of learning and understanding the new terms or vocabularies encountered in the world of information and communication technology. Mobile-based dictionary of Information And Communication Technology applications that have been built can be an alternative to learning literature. In its simplest form, this application is able to meet the need for a comprehensive and accurate dictionary of Information And Communication Technology function.

  13. ICT based training on nuclear technology applications in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mdoe, S.L. [Nuclear Technology Applications Directorate, Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 743, Arusha (Tanzania)]. E-mail: slcmdoe@yahoo.com; Kimaro, E. [Nuclear Technology Applications Directorate, Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 743, Arusha (Tanzania)]. E-mail: taec@habari.co.tz

    2006-07-01

    Peaceful application of nuclear technology has contributed to socio-economic resource development in Tanzania. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission has taken some active steps for the incorporation and or adoption of ICT-based training modules in nuclear science and technology and its applications. The overall objective of this programme is to establish a sustainable national capability for using the potential of information communication technologies (ICTs) for training and education in the field of nuclear science and technology. This paper reviews some of the experience which the authors gained in the area of ICT based training in nuclear technology applications, it describes some of the challenges experienced, and some proposals to address the issues involved. (author)

  14. Navigation studies based on the ubiquitous positioning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Mi, Weijie; Wang, Defeng

    2007-11-01

    This paper summarized the nowadays positioning technologies, such as absolute positioning methods and relative positioning methods, indoor positioning and outdoor positioning, active positioning and passive positioning. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technologies were introduced as the omnipresent out-door positioning technologies, including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BD-1/2. After analysis of the shortcomings of GNSS, indoor positioning technologies were discussed and compared, including A-GPS, Cellular network, Infrared, Electromagnetism, Computer Vision Cognition, Embedded Pressure Sensor, Ultrasonic, RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification), Bluetooth, WLAN etc.. Then the concept and characteristics of Ubiquitous Positioning was proposed. After the ubiquitous positioning technologies contrast and selection followed by system engineering methodology, a navigation system model based on Incorporate Indoor-Outdoor Positioning Solution was proposed. And this model was simulated in the Galileo Demonstration for World Expo Shanghai project. In the conclusion, the prospects of ubiquitous positioning based navigation were shown, especially to satisfy the public location information acquiring requirement.

  15. ICT based training on nuclear technology applications in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mdoe, S.L.; Kimaro, E.

    2006-01-01

    Peaceful application of nuclear technology has contributed to socio-economic resource development in Tanzania. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission has taken some active steps for the incorporation and or adoption of ICT-based training modules in nuclear science and technology and its applications. The overall objective of this programme is to establish a sustainable national capability for using the potential of information communication technologies (ICTs) for training and education in the field of nuclear science and technology. This paper reviews some of the experience which the authors gained in the area of ICT based training in nuclear technology applications, it describes some of the challenges experienced, and some proposals to address the issues involved. (author)

  16. Novel Fiber-Based Adsorbent Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, P.G.; Tsukamoto, T.; Brose, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The overall of this Department of Energy (DOE) Phase II SBIR program was to develop a new class of highly robust fiber-based adsorbents for recovery of heavy metals from aqueous waste-streams. The fiber-based adsorbents,when commercialized,will be used for clean up metals in aqueous waste-streams emanating from DOE facilities,industry,mining,and groundwater-cleanup operations.The amount of toxic waste released by these streams is of great significance.The U.S.Environment Protection Agency (EPA) reports that in 1990 alone,4.8 billion pounds of toxic chemicals were released into the environment.Of this waste,the metals-containing waste was the second largest contributor,representing 569 million pounds. This report presents the results of the Phase II program,which successfully synthesized noval fiber-based adsorbents for the removal of Group 12 metals(i.e.mercury),Group 14 metals (lead),and Group 10 metals(platinum and palladium) from contaminated groundwater and industrial waste streams.These fiber-based adsorbents are ideally suited for the recovery of metal ions from aqueous waste streams presently not treatable due to the degrading nature of corrosive chemicals or radioactive components in the feed stream. The adsorbents developed in this program rely on chemically resistant and robust carbon fibers and fabrics as supports for metal-ion selective ligands.These adsorbents demonstrate loading capacities and selectivities for metal ions exceeding those of conventional ion-exchange resins.The adsorbents were also used to construct filter modules that demonstrate minimal fouling,minimal compaction,chemical and physical robustness,and regeneration of metal loading capacity without loss of performance

  17. Rule-based conversion of closely-related languages: a Dutch-to-Afrikaans convertor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available and performance of a rule-based Dutch-to-Afrikaans converter, with the aim to transform Dutch text so that it looks more like an Afrikaans text (even though it might not even be a good Dutch translation). The rules we used is based on systematic orthographic...

  18. Clean Fuel, Clean Energy Conversion Technology: Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Biogas Flameless Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The combustion of effluent biogas from a palm oil mill is not feasible on a large scale because of its low calorific value (LCV. Therefore, the captured biogas is usually flared because of a lack of appropriate combustion technology. However, such biogas could be an excellent source of energy for combined heat and power (CHP generation in palm oil mills. In this paper, the feasibility of using biogas from palm oil mills in flameless combustion systems is investigated. In computational fluid dynamic (CFD modeling, a two-step reaction scheme is employed to simulate the eddy dissipation method (EDM. In such biogas flameless combustion, the temperature inside the chamber is uniform and hot spots are eliminated. The peak of the non-luminous flame volume and the maximum temperature uniformity occur under stoichiometric conditions when the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer is 7%. In these conditions, as the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer increases, the efficiency of palm oil mill effluent biogas flameless combustion increases. The maximum efficiency (around 61% in the experiment is achieved when the percentage of oxygen in the oxidizer is 7%.

  19. Fiber Bragg grating based notch filter for bit-rate-transparent NRZ to PRZ format conversion with two-degree-of-freedom optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hui; Zuo, Jun; Xiong, Bangyun; Cheng, Jianqun; Shu, Xuewen; Shen, Fangcheng; Liu, Xin; Atai, Javid

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel notch-filtering scheme for bit-rate transparent all-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format conversion. The scheme is based on a two-degree-of-freedom optimally designed fiber Bragg grating. It is shown that a notch filter optimized for any specific operating bit rate can be used to realize high-Q-factor format conversion over a wide bit rate range without requiring any tuning. (paper)

  20. Stable and efficient nitrogen-containing-carbon based electrocatalysts for reactions in energy conversion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicong; Teng, Zhenyuan; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2018-05-17

    High activity and stability are crucial for practical electrocatalysts used for reactions in fuel cells, metal-air batteries and water electrolysis including ORR, HER, OER and oxidation reactions of formic acid and alcohols. N-C based electrocatalysts have shown promising prospects for catalyzing these reactions, however, there is no systematic review for strategies toward engineering active and stable N-C based electrocatalysts reported by far. Herein, a comprehensive comparison of recently reported N-C based electrocatalysts regarding both electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability is presented. In the first part of this review, relationships between electrocatalytic reactions and element selections for modifying N-C based materials are discussed. Afterwards, synthesis methods for N-C based electrocatalysts are summarized, and synthetic strategies for highly stable N-C based electrocatalysts are presented. Multiple tables containing data on crucial parameters for both electrocatalytic activity and stability are displayed in this review. Finally, constructing M-Nx moieties is proposed as the most promising engineering strategy for stable N-C based electrocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder): A role for microglial-based plasticity mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Chris P; Baguley, Ian J

    2018-02-01

    Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically. Core to our argument is microglia's dual role in modulating neuroimmunity and their control of synaptic plasticity, which places them at a pathophysiological nexus wherein coincident physical trauma and psychological stress could cause long-term change in neuronal networks without producing macroscopic structural abnormality. This model proposes a range of hypotheses that are testable with current technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Systems Based Approaches for Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Bioenergy and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Auburn’s Center for Bioenergy and Bioproducts conducts research on production of synthesis gas for use in power generation and the production of liquid fuels. The overall goal of our gasification research is to identify optimal processes for producing clean syngas to use in production of fuels and chemicals from underutilized agricultural and forest biomass feedstocks. This project focused on construction and commissioning of a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent shakedown of the gasification and gas cleanup system. The result of this project is a fully commissioned gasification laboratory that is conducting testing on agricultural and forest biomass. Initial tests on forest biomass have served as the foundation for follow-up studies on gasification under a more extensive range of temperatures, pressures, and oxidant conditions. The laboratory gasification system consists of a biomass storage tank capable of holding up to 6 tons of biomass; a biomass feeding system, with loss-in-weight metering system, capable of feeding biomass at pressures up to 650 psig; a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasification reactor capable of operating at pressures up to 650 psig and temperatures of 1500oF with biomass flowrates of 80 lb/hr and syngas production rates of 37 scfm; a warm-gas filtration system; fixed bed reactors for gas conditioning; and a final quench cooling system and activated carbon filtration system for gas conditioning prior to routing to Fischer-Tropsch reactors, or storage, or venting. This completed laboratory enables research to help develop economically feasible technologies for production of biomass-derived synthesis gases that will be used for clean, renewable power generation and for production of liquid transportation fuels. Moreover, this research program provides the infrastructure to educate the next generation of engineers and scientists needed to implement these technologies.

  3. Conversation Thread Extraction and Topic Detection in Text-Based Chat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Paige H

    2008-01-01

    Text-based chat systems are widely used within the Department of Defense, but the standard systems available do not provide robust capabilities for search, information retrieval, or information assurance...

  4. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models : pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rong; Klein, Gunnar O; Sundvall, Erik; Karlsson, Daniel; Åhlfeldt, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of re...

  5. Development of electromagnetic induction diagnostics technology for condition based maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawatari, Shingo; Oeda, Kaoru; Yatogi, Hideo; Fukuchi, Taira; Ueno, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    In ROKKASHO Reprocessing Plant (below, called 'RRP'), we have applied Condition Based Maintenance to rotating equipment with vibration diagnostics technology. However, a few rotating equipment are difficult to diagnose definitely, because have structural problems which exercise vibrational noise to peripheral and be impossible to install vibratory sensor. Electromagnetic induction diagnostics technology which measure magnetic fields to eddy current which is induced to rotary through static magnetic field, diagnose deterioration behavior such as abrasion and crack. As a result, it has possibilities to clear above problems. Therefore, we started our basic researches with this technology for Condition Based Maintenance. In this paper, it introduces basic data about 'Non-seal pump' that have installed in RRP. As a result, this technology is a possibility that be able to detect Condition Based Maintenance. (author)

  6. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  7. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  8. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  9. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  10. Conversion of highly enriched uranium in thorium-232 based oxide fuel for light water reactors: MOX-T fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vapirev, E; Jordanov, T; Khristoskov, I [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of using highly enriched uranium available from military inventories for production of mixed oxide fuel (MOX) has been proposed. The fuel is based on U-235 dioxide as fissile isotope and Th-232 dioxide as a non-fissile isotope. It is shown that although the fuel conversion coefficient to U-233 is expected to be less than 1, the proposed fuel has several important advantages resulting in cost reduction of the nuclear fuel cycle. The expected properties of MOX fuel (cross-sections, generated chains, delayed neutrons) are estimated. Due to fuel generation the initial enrichment is expected to be 1% less for production of the same energy. In contrast to traditional fuel no long living actinides are generated which reduces the disposal and reprocessing cost. 7 refs.

  11. High Selectively Catalytic Conversion of Lignin-Based Phenols into para-/m-Xylene over Pt/HZSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High selectively catalytic conversion of lignin-based phenols (m-cresol, p-cresol, and guaiacol into para-/m-xylene was performed over Pt/HZSM-5 through hydrodeoxygenation and in situ methylation with methanol. It is found that the p-/m-xylene selectivity is uniformly higher than 21%, and even increase up to 33.5% for m-cresol (with phenols/methanol molar ratio of 1/8. The improved p-/m-xylene selectivity in presence of methanol is attributed to the combined reaction pathways: methylation of m-cresol into xylenols followed by HDO into p-/m-xylene, and HDO of m-cresol into toluene followed by methylation into p-/m-xylene. Comparison of the product distribution over a series of catalysts indicates that both metals and supporters have distinct effect on the p-/m-xylene selectivity.

  12. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  13. Simultaneous wavelength and format conversion in SDN/NFV for flexible optical network based on FWM in SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yueying; Wang, Danshi; Zhang, Min

    2018-04-01

    We propose an all-optical wavelength and format conversion model (CM) for a dynamic data center interconnect node and coherent passive optical network (PON) optical network unit (ONU) in software-defined networking and network function virtualization system based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Five wavelength converted DQPSK signals and two format converted DPSK signals are generated; the performances of the generated signals for two strategies of setting CM in the data center interconnect node and coherent PON ONU, which are over 10 km fiber transmission, have been verified. All of the converted signals are with a power penalty less than 2.2 dB at FEC threshold of 3.8 × 10 - 3, and the optimum bias current of SOA is 300 mA.

  14. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion System during Grid Voltage Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu

    electromagnetic torque during grid faults. Therefore, the virtual damping flux based strategy not only can help the DFIG achieve the LVRT requirement, but also can reduce the mechanical stress on the drive train. On the other hand, on the basis of the decaying characteristic of the stator flux, the passive...... flux based active damping strategy and the stator series resistance based passive damping strategy can help the DFIG to fulfill the LVRT requirement, and improve the DFIG performances. Besides the previous active and passive damping strategies, the modified power converter and DFIG configurations...... of the stator voltage can cause the transient stator flux, and then the transient stator flux may be enlarged due to the effects of the initial value. The amplitude of the transient flux is determined by both the instant and depth of stator voltage variation, and the decaying characteristic of the transient...

  15. Doubling-resolution analog-to-digital conversion based on PIC18F45K80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyang Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the analog signal being converted into the digital with a higher precision, a method to improve the analog-to-digital converter (ADC resolution is proposed and described. Based on the microcomputer PIC18F45K80 in which the internal ADC modules are embedded, a circuit is designed for doubling the resolution of ADC. According to the circuit diagram, the mathematical formula for calculating this resolution is derived. The corresponding software and print circuit board assembly is also prepared. With the experiment, a 13 bit ADC is achieved based on the 12 bit ADC module predesigned in the PIC18F45K80.

  16. Knowledge base technology: a developer view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ginkul

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available In present paper we have endeavoured to tell about some reasonings, conclusions and pricticals results, to which we have come being busy with one of most interesting problems of modern science. This paper is a brief report of the group of scientists from the Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence Systems about their experience of work in the field of knowledge engineering. The researches in this area was started in our Laboratory more than 10 years ago, i.e. about in the moment, when there was just another rise in Artificial Intelligence, caused by mass emerging of expert systems. The tasks of knowledge engineering were being varied, and focal point of our researches was being varied too. Certainly, we have not solved all the problems, originating in this area. Our knowledge still has an approximate nature, but nevertheless, the outcomes obtained by us seem rather important and interesting. So, we want to tell about our experience in building of knowledge-based systems, and expert systems, in particular.

  17. Continuous weighing of conveyor-transported materials based on gamma radiation conversion to electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is described of the continuous weighing of conveyer-transported materials applied in the food industry. The weighing technique is based on the measurement of the absorption of gamma radiation emitted by a source located behind the material to be scaled. (Z.M.)

  18. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity

  19. AB INITIO Modeling of Thermomechanical Properties of Mo-Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2013-12-31

    In this final scientific/technical report covering the period of 3.5 years started on July 1, 2011, we report the accomplishments on the study of thermo-mechanical properties of Mo-based intermetallic compounds under NETL support. These include computational method development, physical properties investigation of Mo-based compounds and alloys. The main focus is on the mechanical and thermo mechanical properties at high temperature since these are the most crucial properties for their potential applications. In particular, recent development of applying ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) simulations to the T1 (Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}) and T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}) phases are highlighted for alloy design in further improving their properties.

  20. An Innovative Control Strategy to Improve the Fault Ride-Through Capability of DFIGs Based on Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandai Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative control strategy is proposed for enhancing the low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability of a doubly fed induction generator based on wind energy conversion systems (DFIG-WECS. Within the proposed control method, the current control loops of the rotor side converter (RSC are developed based on passivity theory. The control scheme for the grid side converter (GSC is designed based on a two-term approach to keep the DC-link voltage close to a given value. The first term based on the maximal voltage of GSC is introduced in the GSC control loops as a reference reactive current. The second one reflecting the instantaneous unbalanced power flow between the RSC and GSC is also introduced in the GSC control loops as a disturbance considering the instantaneous power of the grid filter to compensate the instantaneous rotor power. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified via time domain simulation of a 2.0 MW-575 V DFIG-WECS using PSCAD/EMTP. Simulation results show that the control of the DFIG with the proposed approach can improve the LVRT capability better than with the conventional one.

  1. AFRRI's conversion to a microprocessor-based reactor instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Mark L.; Hodgdon, Kenneth M.

    1986-01-01

    The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is procuring a state-of- the-art microprocessor-based instrumentation and control system to operate AFRRI's 1 MW (steady-state), 3000 MW (pulse) TRIGA Mark-F reactor. This system will replace the current control console while improving or maintaining the existing operational capabilities and safety characteristics. The new unit will have a 15-year design life using state-of-the-art components

  2. Up-conversion in an Er-containing nanocomposite and microlasers based on it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeshchuk, N. O.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    The results of an investigation of three-dimensional polymer microcavities doped with inorganic luminescent particles are presented. Microlasers in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds were fabricated based on the SU8 2025 photoresist by means of compact UV lithography. Luminescent particles containing erbium oxide were obtained by low-temperature synthesis of the corresponding chlorides in a nonaqueous medium. The obtained spectra confirm the presence of a narrowband laser radiation exhibiting a Stokes shift.

  3. Persuasion detection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, we present a system for annotating persuasion in conversation based on a social-psychological model. We augmented the social model developed by James Cialdini with some of our own categories for annotators to label. The conversations consisted of 37 hostage negotiation transcripts from private and public sources, with all personal information removed from the private source transcripts. We evaluated the level of agre...

  4. A Survey of Technologies Supporting Virtual Project Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of technologies and to what extent they support virtual project based learning. The paper argues that a survey of learning technologies should be related to concrete learning tasks and processes. Problem oriented project pedagogy (POPP) is discussed, and a framework...... for evaluation is proposed where negotiation of meaning, coordination and resource management are identified as the key concepts in virtual project based learning. Three e-learning systems are selected for the survey, Virtual-U, Lotus Learningspace and Lotus Quickplace, as each system offers different strategies...... for e-learning. The paper concludes that virtual project based learning may benefit from facilities of all these systems....

  5. Parallel octree-based hexahedral mesh generation for eulerian to lagrangian conversion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Matthew L.; Owen, Steven James

    2010-09-01

    Computational simulation must often be performed on domains where materials are represented as scalar quantities or volume fractions at cell centers of an octree-based grid. Common examples include bio-medical, geotechnical or shock physics calculations where interface boundaries are represented only as discrete statistical approximations. In this work, we introduce new methods for generating Lagrangian computational meshes from Eulerian-based data. We focus specifically on shock physics problems that are relevant to ASC codes such as CTH and Alegra. New procedures for generating all-hexahedral finite element meshes from volume fraction data are introduced. A new primal-contouring approach is introduced for defining a geometric domain. New methods for refinement, node smoothing, resolving non-manifold conditions and defining geometry are also introduced as well as an extension of the algorithm to handle tetrahedral meshes. We also describe new scalable MPI-based implementations of these procedures. We describe a new software module, Sculptor, which has been developed for use as an embedded component of CTH. We also describe its interface and its use within the mesh generation code, CUBIT. Several examples are shown to illustrate the capabilities of Sculptor.

  6. Applying Sensor-Based Technology to Improve Construction Safety Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyuan; Cao, Tianzhuo; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-08-11

    Construction sites are dynamic and complicated systems. The movement and interaction of people, goods and energy make construction safety management extremely difficult. Due to the ever-increasing amount of information, traditional construction safety management has operated under difficult circumstances. As an effective way to collect, identify and process information, sensor-based technology is deemed to provide new generation of methods for advancing construction safety management. It makes the real-time construction safety management with high efficiency and accuracy a reality and provides a solid foundation for facilitating its modernization, and informatization. Nowadays, various sensor-based technologies have been adopted for construction safety management, including locating sensor-based technology, vision-based sensing and wireless sensor networks. This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive review of previous studies in this field to acknowledge useful findings, identify the research gaps and point out future research directions.

  7. A Model of Homeschooling Based on Technology in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd. Nazri Abdul; Siraj, Saedah; Ibrahim, Ruslina

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling in Malaysia is a form of alternative education that emphasizes quality education based on moral values and belief in strengthening family ties. The purpose of this study is to produce a model of homeschooling technology-based learning activities in Malaysia as a guideline to improve the quality of education, curriculum and organize…

  8. A network identity authentication system based on Fingerprint identification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong-Bin; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liu, Yuan

    2005-10-01

    Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. However, most of the automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) is not run via Internet/Intranet environment to meet today's increasing Electric commerce requirements. This paper describes the design and implementation of the archetype system of identity authentication based on fingerprint biometrics technology, and the system can run via Internet environment. And in our system the COM and ASP technology are used to integrate Fingerprint technology with Web database technology, The Fingerprint image preprocessing algorithms are programmed into COM, which deployed on the internet information server. The system's design and structure are proposed, and the key points are discussed. The prototype system of identity authentication based on Fingerprint have been successfully tested and evaluated on our university's distant education applications in an internet environment.

  9. Degree of conversion and microhardness of TPO-containing resin-based composites cured by polywave and monowave LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario; Miletic, Vesna; Swift, Michael D; Bradley, Mark

    2012-07-01

    To determine the degree of conversion (DC) and Knoop microhardness (KHN) of resin-based composites (RBCs) containing trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) cured by polywave or monowave LED light-curing units (LCUs). Three groups (each n = 5) of Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Vit-l-escence (Ultradent) and Herculite XRV Ultra (Kerr) were prepared in Teflon moulds (5mm in diameter and 2mm thick) and cured with polywave Bluephase(®) G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), polywave Valo (Ultradent) or monowave Bluephase(®) (Ivoclar Vivadent; control) resulting in 9 groups. DC and KHN were determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy and Knoop microhardness, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to confirm the presence or absence of TPO in the three uncured materials. Data were statistically analysed using two-way and one-way ANOVA and DC and KHN were correlated using Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05). TPO was confirmed in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. All three LCUs produced comparable KHN for Tetric EvoCeram and Herculite XRV Ultra (p > 0.05). Both polywave LCUs resulted in significantly higher KHN for Vit-l-escence and higher DC in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence than the monowave Bluephase(®) (p Conversely, Bluephase(®) showed higher DC than the two polywave LCUs in Herculite XRV Ultra (p conversion and KHN in the two TPO-containing RBCs, but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. DC and KHN were linearly correlated in all three RBCs. Vit-l-escence showed the highest DC and KHN of the three materials tested. The use of polywave LEDs significantly improves both the DC and KHN of materials which contain TPO. This should be taken into account when curing bleached shades of RBCs even if the manufacturers do not indicate the presence of TPO in their materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  11. Digital Printing Quality Detection and Analysis Technology Based on CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Zheng, Liping

    2017-12-01

    With the help of CCD digital printing quality detection and analysis technology, it can carry out rapid evaluation and objective detection of printing quality, and can play a certain control effect on printing quality. It can be said CDD digital printing quality testing and analysis of the rational application of technology, its digital printing and printing materials for a variety of printing equipments to improve the quality of a very positive role. In this paper, we do an in-depth study and discussion based on the CCD digital print quality testing and analysis technology.

  12. Data-Base Software For Tracking Technological Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, James A.; Wright, Simon; Monteith, Steve K.

    1996-01-01

    Technology Tracking System (TechTracS) computer program developed for use in storing and retrieving information on technology and related patent information developed under auspices of NASA Headquarters and NASA's field centers. Contents of data base include multiple scanned still images and quick-time movies as well as text. TechTracS includes word-processing, report-editing, chart-and-graph-editing, and search-editing subprograms. Extensive keyword searching capabilities enable rapid location of technologies, innovators, and companies. System performs routine functions automatically and serves multiple users.

  13. The Alliance Capability of Technology-Based Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxtorp, Liliya Altshuler; Elg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the aspects comprising the alliance capability of technology-based born globals. Alliance capability is regarded as a set of organizational skills necessary from the decision to search for a partner for a technology collaboration, which may also involve a marketing...... and risks of collaborating with MNEs.Methodology: A longitudinal process study of a Danish technology born global with three embedded cases of its R&D and marketing alliances with Asian MNEs.Findings: The organisational skills comprising the alliance capability are defined to be internal and external...

  14. Physics and application of plasmas based on pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki; Ozaki, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'Physics and Application of Plasmas Based on Pulsed Power Technology' held on December 21-22, 2010 at National Institute of Fusion Science are collected. The papers in this proceeding reflect the current status and progress in the experimental and theoretical researches on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  15. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  16. RFID Based Security Access Control System with GSM Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Adole; Joseph M. Môm; Gabriel A. Igwue

    2016-01-01

    The security challenges being encountered in many places today require electronic means of controlling access to secured premises in addition to the available security personnel. Various technologies were used in different forms to solve these challenges. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Access Control Security system with GSM technology presented in this work helps to prevent unauthorized access to controlled environments (secured premises). This is achieved mainly...

  17. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge Creation Based on Constructed Meanings within Mentor-Learner Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    focus of this article is on construction of conceptual knowledge and its development. This research localises the constructivist learning in the context of mentor-learner interactions. It will analyse meaning construction relying on my own conceptual framework that represents a semantic loop......Constructivism is a learning philosophy and an educational theory of learning. In the framework of constructivism, a human being with insights based on her/his pre-structured knowledge and on background knowings could actively participate in an interaction with another human being. The central...

  19. A compact and bendable, hook-and-loop tape-based membraneless device for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Ortega, E; Ledesma-García, J; Gurrola, M P; Arriaga, L G; Arjona, N

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of a hook-and-loop tape-based membraneless device constructed on adhesive polyester film, which is fabricated using non-sophisticated and inexpensive fabrication techniques at room temperature, is presented. This concept overcomes the concerns about the reliability, versatility, weight, cost, lifetime and high performance of microfluidic fuel cell devices to satisfy the needs of portable energy applications. Current densities from 150 to 600 mA cm −2 and power densities from 40 to 132 mW cm −2 were achieved by varying the formic acid concentration, flow rates and by using air and dissolved oxygen as an oxidant. (paper)

  20. Lidar technologies for airborne and space-based applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, T.D.; Schmitt, R.L.; Sobering, T.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Stephenson, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    This study identifies technologies required to extend the capabilities of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) systems and establish the feasibility of autonomous space-based lidars. Work focused on technologies that enable the development of a lightweight, low power, rugged and autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instruments. Applications for airborne or space-based DIAL include the measurement of water vapor profiles in support of climate research and processing-plant emissions signatures for environmental and nonproliferation monitoring. A computer-based lidar performance model was developed to allow trade studies to be performed on various technologies and system configurations. It combines input from the physics (absorption line strengths and locations) of the problem, the system requirements (weight, power, volume, accuracy), and the critical technologies available (detectors, lasers, filters) to produce the best conceptual design. Conceptual designs for an airborne and space-based water vapor DIAL, and a detailed design of a ground-based water vapor DIAL demonstration system were completed. Future work planned includes the final testing, integration, and operation of the demonstration system to prove the capability of the critical enabling technologies identified

  1. Small-Scale Waste-to-Energy Technology for Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Maintenance, Operator Skill Level Requires Waste Sorting/Pre-processing Scaling and Capacity Issues Technology Readiness Issues Composting Useful By-Product...combustion temperature possible with this technology. These variables are important for improved tar conversion, increased tolerance for high moisture

  2. Synthesis and analysis of separation networks for the recovery of intracellular chemicals generated from microbial-based conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Wu, Wenzhao; Maravelias, Christos T

    2017-01-01

    Bioseparations can contribute to more than 70% in the total production cost of a bio-based chemical, and if the desired chemical is localized intracellularly, there can be additional challenges associated with its recovery. Based on the properties of the desired chemical and other components in the stream, there can be multiple feasible options for product recovery. These options are composed of several alternative technologies, performing similar tasks. The suitability of a technology for a particular chemical depends on (1) its performance parameters, such as separation efficiency; (2) cost or amount of added separating agent; (3) properties of the bioreactor effluent (e.g., biomass titer, product content); and (4) final product specifications. Our goal is to first synthesize alternative separation options and then analyze how technology selection affects the overall process economics. To achieve this, we propose an optimization-based framework that helps in identifying the critical technologies and parameters. We study the separation networks for two representative classes of chemicals based on their properties. The separation network is divided into three stages: cell and product isolation (stage I), product concentration (II), and product purification and refining (III). Each stage exploits differences in specific product properties for achieving the desired product quality. The cost contribution analysis for the two cases (intracellular insoluble and intracellular soluble) reveals that stage I is the key cost contributor (>70% of the overall cost). Further analysis suggests that changes in input conditions and technology performance parameters lead to new designs primarily in stage I. The proposed framework provides significant insights for technology selection and assists in making informed decisions regarding technologies that should be used in combination for a given set of stream/product properties and final output specifications. Additionally, the

  3. Hounsfield units variations: impact on CT-density based conversion tables and their effects on dose distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurl, B; Tiefling, R; Winkler, P; Kindl, P; Kapp, K S

    2014-01-01

    Determination of dose error margins in radiation therapy planning due to variations in Hounsfield Units (HU) values dependent on the use of different CT scanning protocols. Based on a series of different CT scanning protocols used in clinical practice, conversion tables for radiation dose calculations were generated and subsequently tested on a phantom. These tables were then used to recalculate the radiation therapy plans of 28 real patients after an incorrect scanning protocol had inadvertently been used for these patients. Different CT parameter settings resulted in errors of HU values of up to 2.6% for densities of 1.1 g/cm(3). The largest errors were associated with changes in the tube voltage. Tests on a virtual water phantom with layers of variable thickness and density revealed a sawtooth-shaped curve for the increase of dose differences from 0.3 to 0.6% and 1.5% at layer thicknesses of 1, 3, and 7 cm, respectively. Use of a beam hardening filter resulted in a reference dose difference of 0.6% in response to a density change of 5%. The recalculation of data from 28 patients who received radiation therapy to the head revealed an overdose of 1.3 ± 0.4% to the bone and 0.7 ± 0.1% to brain tissue. On average, therefore, one monitor unit (range 0-3 MU) per 100 MU more than the correct dose had been given. Use of different CT scanning protocols leads to variations of up to 20% in the HU values. This can result in a mean systematic dose error of 1.5%. Specific conversion tables and automatic CT scanning protocol recognition could reduce dose errors of these types.

  4. Modeling and simulation of grid connected permanent magnet generator based small wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifujjaman, Md.

    2011-07-01

    In order to recover the maximum energy from small scale wind turbine systems many parameters have to be controlled. The aim of this paper is to propose a control strategy for the grid connected PMG-based small wind turbine systems. A mathematical model of small wind turbine systems was developed and the system simulated. Results show demonstrated that the control strategy is highly efficient. Sure enough it reduces the dependence on system variables, diminishes the system complexity, its furling and maximum power point controllers are efficient and it provides a stable operation for multiple wind speeds. This study developed a modeling and control strategy which was proved to be feasible by simulation results.

  5. An assay for secologanin in plant tissues based on enzymatic conversion into strictosidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallard, Didier; van der Heijden, Robert; Contin, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    strictosidine, a reaction catalysed by the enzyme strictosidine synthase (STR; E.C. 4.3.3.2). Subsequently, the formation of strictosidine is quantified by HPLC. STR was isolated from transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cells expressing a cDNA-derived gene coding for STR from Catharanthus roseus. The high specificity......The secoiridoid glucoside secologanin is the terpenoid building block in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. A method for its determination in plant tissues and cell suspension cultures has been developed. This assay is based on the condensation of secologanin with tryptamine, yielding...... of STR for secologanin, in combination with a sensitive and selective HPLC system, allows a simple extraction of secologanin from plant tissue. The detection limit of this methos is 15 ng secologanin. Using this assay, secologanin contents were determined in tissues of various plant species; Lonicera...

  6. Sistem Scoring Conversion TOEFL Paper Based Test (PBT Politeknik Negeri Cilacap Menggunakan Metode User Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Vikasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem komputer interaktif untuk dipakai oleh useruntuk mendukung pekerjannya. User merupakan object yang penting didalam pengembangan dan pembangun sistem. User adalah personal-personal yang terlibat langsung dalam pemakaian aplikasi. Konsep dari UCD adalah user sebagai pusat dari proses pengembangan sistem, dan tujuan/sifat-sifat, konteks dan lingkungan sistem semua didasarkan dari pengalaman pengguna Pembangunan sistem skoring test TOEFL paper based test (PBT di UPT bahasa politeknik negeri cilacapmenggunakan metode UCD. Dengan menggunakan metode UCD sistem dapat   mempermudah dan mempercepat pendaftaran oleh calon pendaftar dengan tampilan antarmuka yang user friendly , mempermudah proses pengelolaan data dan rekap data pendaftar, mempermudah pengkonversian skor TOEFL yang dilakukan secara otomatis, serta  meminimalisir terjadinya kesalahan, duplikasi data dan duplikasi kegiatan.

  7. Availability and conversion to energy potentials of wood-based industry residues in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Siyam Siew, S.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of biomass as the most accessible primary energy source in Cameroon is presented. The valorization of wood wastes and residues is seen as a way of implementing the sustainable use of biomass resources. A recent survey of wood-based industries in Cameroon reveals that large volumes of industrial wood residues are generated in the rain forest areas and are inefficiently used. Important quantities are lost in the form of burning in the four main forestry provinces, while other parts of the country suffer from fuelwood shortage. With the exception of the plywood factories, the wood industry is essentially dependent on commercial energy. An analysis made to show the economic and environmental benefits of converting wood residues to energy for industrial and domestic use is presented. (author)

  8. Fabrication of uranium-based ceramics using internal gelation for the conversion of trivalent actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Alternative to today's direct final waste disposal strategy of long-lived radionuclides, for example the minor actinides neptunium, americium, curium and californium, is their selective separation from the radioactive wastestream with subsequent transmutation by neutron irradiation. Hereby it is possible to obtain nuclides with a lower risk-potential concerning their radiotoxicity. 1 neutron irradiation can be carried out either with neutron sources or in the next generation of nuclear reactors. Before the treatment, the minor actinides need to be converted in a suitable chemical and physical form. Internal gelation offers a route through which amorphous gel-spheres can be obtained directly from a metal-salt solution. Due to the presence of different types of metal ions as well as changing pH-values in a stock solution, a complex hydrolysis behaviour of these elements before and during gelation occurs. Therefore, investigations with uranium and neodymium as a minor actinide surrogate were carried out. As a result of suitable gelation-parameters, uraniumneodymium gel-spheres were successfully synthesised. The spheres also stayed intact during the subsequent thermal treatment. Based upon these findings, uranium-plutonium and uranium-americium gels were successfully created. For theses systems, the determined parameters for the uraniumneodymium gelation could also be applied. Additionally, investigations to reduce the acidity of uranium-based stock solutions for internal gelation were carried out. The necessary amount of urea and hexamethylenetetramine to induce gelation could hereby be decreased. This lead to a general increase of the gel quality and made it possible to carry out uranium-americium gelation in the first place. To investigate the stability of urea and hexamethylenetetramine, solutions of these chemicals were irradiated with different radiation doses. These chemicals showed a high stability against radiolysis in aqueous solutions.

  9. Synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectra of {sup 174}Yb measured with internal conversion electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Saito, Makina [Beamline Spectroscopy/Scattering Group, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14 Km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Iga, Fumitoshi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-02-24

    A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5 keV level of {sup 174}Yb was observed without {sup 174}Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.

  10. Photonic generation of FCC-compliant UWB pulses based on modified Gaussian quadruplet and incoherent wavelength-to-time conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hongqian; Wang, Muguang; Tang, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Jian, Shuisheng

    2018-03-01

    A novel scheme for the generation of FCC-compliant UWB pulse is proposed based on modified Gaussian quadruplet and incoherent wavelength-to-time conversion. The modified Gaussian quadruplet is synthesized based on linear sum of a broad Gaussian pulse and two narrow Gaussian pulses with the same pulse-width and amplitude peak. Within specific parameter range, FCC-compliant UWB with spectral power efficiency of higher than 39.9% can be achieved. In order to realize the designed waveform, a UWB generator based on spectral shaping and incoherent wavelength-to-time mapping is proposed. The spectral shaper is composed of a Gaussian filter and a programmable filter. Single-mode fiber functions as both dispersion device and transmission medium. Balanced photodetection is employed to combine linearly the broad Gaussian pulse and two narrow Gaussian pulses, and at same time to suppress pulse pedestals that result in low-frequency components. The proposed UWB generator can be reconfigured for UWB doublet by operating the programmable filter as a single-band Gaussian filter. The feasibility of proposed UWB generator is demonstrated experimentally. Measured UWB pulses match well with simulation results. FCC-compliant quadruplet with 10-dB bandwidth of 6.88-GHz, fractional bandwidth of 106.8% and power efficiency of 51% is achieved.

  11. Simulation-Based Communication Skills Training for Experienced Clinicians to Improve Family Conversations About Organ and Tissue Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julie Elizabeth; Gatward, Jonathan J; Kelly, Michelle A; McKay, Leigh; McCann, Ellie; Elliott, Rosalind M; Perry, Lin

    2017-12-01

    The approach, communication skills, and confidence of clinicians responsible for raising deceased organ donation may influence families' donation decisions. The aim of this study was to increase the preparedness and confidence of intensive care clinicians allocated to work in a "designated requester" role. We conducted a posttest evaluation of an innovative simulation-based training program. Simulation-based training enabled clinicians to rehearse the "balanced approach" to family donation conversations (FDCs) in the designated requester role. Professional actors played family members in simulated clinical settings using authentic scenarios, with video-assisted reflective debriefing. Participants completed an evaluation after the workshop. Simple descriptive statistical analysis and content analysis were performed. Between January 2013 and July 2015, 25 workshops were undertaken with 86 participants; 82 (95.3%) returned evaluations. Respondents were registered practicing clinicians; over half (44/82; 53.7%) were intensivists. Most attended a single workshop. Evaluations were overwhelmingly positive with the majority rating workshops as outstanding (64/80; 80%). Scenario fidelity, competence of the actors, opportunity to practice and receive feedback on performance, and feedback from actors, both in and out of character, were particularly valued. Most (76/78; 97.4%) reported feeling more confident about their designated requester role. Simulation-based communication training for the designated requester role in FDCs increased the knowledge and confidence of clinicians to raise the topic of donation.

  12. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The success factors in the new technology based firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, C.; Villar, L.

    2007-01-01

    New Technology Based Firms (NTBFs) are taking an important role around competitive strategies inside different administrative frameworks, understanding their value for society and the need based on work plans to support their development. In this case, next lines are focused on conceptual side about NTBFs reality even more an analytical model proposal based on a structure composed by tangible and intangible assets what creating a global vision of entrepreneurial process and main issues what impacting on success rate. (Author) 88 refs

  14. Fidelity and game-based technology in management education

    OpenAIRE

    Cornacchione Jr.,Edgard B.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores educational technology and management education by analyzing fidelity in game-based management education interventions. A sample of 31 MBA students was selected to help answer the research question: To what extent do MBA students tend to recognize specific game-based academic experiences, in terms of fidelity, as relevant to their managerial performance? Two distinct game-based interventions (BG1 and BG2) with key differences in fidelity levels were explored: BG1 presented...

  15. SNP discovery in nonmodel organisms: strand bias and base-substitution errors reduce conversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Barendse, William; Kijas, James W; Barris, Wes C; McWilliam, Sean; Bunch, Rowan J; McCullough, Russell; Harrison, Blair; Hoelzel, A Rus; England, Phillip R

    2015-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genetic studies in organisms of conservation, commercial or biological interest. Most SNP discovery projects in nonmodel organisms apply a strategy for identifying putative SNPs based on filtering rules that account for random sequencing errors. Here, we analyse data used to develop 4723 novel SNPs for the commercially important deep-sea fish, orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), to assess the impact of not accounting for systematic sequencing errors when filtering identified polymorphisms when discovering SNPs. We used SAMtools to identify polymorphisms in a velvet assembly of genomic DNA sequence data from seven individuals. The resulting set of polymorphisms were filtered to minimize 'bycatch'-polymorphisms caused by sequencing or assembly error. An Illumina Infinium SNP chip was used to genotype a final set of 7714 polymorphisms across 1734 individuals. Five predictors were examined for their effect on the probability of obtaining an assayable SNP: depth of coverage, number of reads that support a variant, polymorphism type (e.g. A/C), strand-bias and Illumina SNP probe design score. Our results indicate that filtering out systematic sequencing errors could substantially improve the efficiency of SNP discovery. We show that BLASTX can be used as an efficient tool to identify single-copy genomic regions in the absence of a reference genome. The results have implications for research aiming to identify assayable SNPs and build SNP genotyping assays for nonmodel organisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of HCl pre-treatment on corrosion resistance of cerium-based conversion coatings on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, Katya; Dabala, Manuele; Calliari, Irene; Magrini, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded by a cerium conversion coating, formed by immersion in a solution containing rare earth salt and hydrogen peroxide, on pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys, AZ91 and AM50, has been studied. The effect of HCl pre-treatments on the morphology and on the corrosion resistance of the cerium conversion layer was investigated. A thicker and more homogeneous distribution of the conversion coating was obtained when the sample surface was pre-treated with acid. Higher amounts of cerium on the surface of the pre-treated samples were detected. The cerium conversion coating increased the corrosion resistance of the alloys because it ennobled the corrosion potential and decreased both the anodic and cathodic current. The acid pre-treatment further increased the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys. After five days of immersion in chloride environment the untreated samples showed localized corrosion while the chemical conversion coated samples appeared unaffected

  17. Technology for the product and process data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The computerized product and process data base is increasingly recognized to be the cornerstone component of an overall system aimed at the integrated automation of the industrial processes of a given company or enterprise. The technology needed to support these more effective computer integrated design and manufacturing methods, especially the concept of 3-D computer-sensible product definitions rather than engineering drawings, is not fully available and rationalized. Progress is being made, however, in bridging this technology gap with concentration on the modeling of sophisticated information and data structures, high-performance interactive user interfaces and comprehensive tools for managing the resulting computerized product definition and process data base.

  18. Robotic Mobile System's Performance-Based MIMO-OFDM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a predistortion neural network (PDNN architecture has been imposed to the Sniffer Mobile Robot (SNFRbot that is based on spatial multiplexed wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM transmission technology. This proposal is used to improve the system performance by combating one of the main drawbacks that is encountered by OFDM technology; Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Simulation results show that using PDNN resulted in better PAPR performance than the previously published work that is based on linear coding, such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes and turbo encoding whether using flat fading channel or a Doppler spread channel.

  19. Beam diagnostics based on virtual instrument technology for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Baogen; Lu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Wang Baoyun; Wang Junhua; Gu Liming; Fang Jia; Ma Tianji

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduce the beam diagnostics system using virtual instrument technology for Hefei Light Source (HLS), which includes a GPIB bus-based DCCT measurement system to measure the beam DC current and beam life, a VXIbus-based closed orbit measurement system to measure the beam position, a PCIbus-based beam profile measurement system to measure the beam profile and emittance, a GPIB-LAN based bunch length system using photoelectric method, and a Ethernet-based photon beam position measurement system. The software is programmed by LabVIEW, which reduces much developing work. (authors)

  20. Physical security technology base programs for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is the US Department of Energy's lead laboratory for physical security research and development (R and D). In support of this mission, Sandia has maintained for several years an R and D program in each of the following technology areas: Intrusion Detection, Entry Control, CCTV Assessment, Access Delay, Alarm Display, and Guard Equipment and Training. The purpose of the technology base programs is to maintain cognizance of the capabilities of the commercial market, identify improvements and transfer technology to industry and facilities. The output of these programs supports the development of new equipment and advanced system concepts, demonstrations of proof-of-principles and system implementation. This paper will review the status of current developments and discuss trends in new technologies which are being explored for future applications, i.e., artificial intelligence, expert systems, robotics, and more automated systems