WorldWideScience

Sample records for conversion electron measurements

  1. Measurement of internal conversion electrons from Gd neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlakunta, P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cao, L.R., E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Mulligan, P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-21

    Gadolinium (Gd) is a suitable material for neutron conversion because of its superior neutron absorption cross-section. However, the principal secondary particles that generate electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor detector after Gd neutron capture are low-energy internal conversion (IC) electrons. We measured the IC electron spectrum due to Gd neutron capture by using a thermal neutron beam and a digitizer-based multidetector spectroscopy. We also discussed the effective use of the IC electrons in the context of a twin-detector design and the associated gamma-ray rejection issues. Extensive simulations of the spectra of IC electrons and gamma rays agreed well with the experimental results; both types of results support the feasibility of the proposed n–γ separation method.

  2. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopics of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by measuring the coincidence of the alpha particle during radioactive decay with the conversion electron (or Auger) emitted during the relaxation of the daughter isotope. This presents a unique signature to allow the deconvolution of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector. A passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector provided measurements of alpha spectroscopy. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information to aid in the coincident measurement approach.

  3. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20-55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for 241Am.

  4. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  5. The Internal Conversion Electron and Gamma Spectroscopy in the 14N + 197Au Reaction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrXf3l, A.; Andrzejewski, J.; Perkowski, J.; Sobczak, K.; Kisielinski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kownacki, J.; Korman, A.

    2008-02-01

    The first ``in-beam'' spectra of the internal conversion electrons were collected in the 197Au(14N,5n)206Rn fusion evaporation reaction by new constructed electron spectrometer. The measurements were carried out in electron-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence mode with use of electron spectrometer coupled to OSIRIS II gamma array at Heavy Ion Laboratory (HIL) of the Warsaw University. The analysis of the data for gamma -gamma coincidence measurement disclosed new transitions in 206Rn excited nucleus. Experimentally obtained internal conversion coefficient allowed to determine multipolarity of the new observed transition in 206Rn nucleus.

  6. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of {sup 238,239}Pu and {sup 241}Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P., E-mail: michael.dion@pnnl.gov; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-11

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm{sup 2} silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for {sup 241}Am.

  7. Measurement of γ and conversion electron spectra following the decay of 125Sb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, M.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Sood, P. C.

    1998-12-01

    Relative intensities of γ rays and conversion electron lines in the decay of 125Sb are measured precisely using an HPGe detector and a miniorange electron spectrometer. These data are used to derive the K- and L-shell internal conversion coefficients and to deduce the multipolarities of the respective transitions. A revised level scheme is presented for 125Te incorporating 37 transitions between 13 energy levels up to an excitation energy of 675 keV. The newly established levels at 538 and 653 keV complete the hextuplet corresponding to the (s1/2⊗2+) and (d3/2⊗2+) phonon-coupled configurations.

  8. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, James; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchant, Kristin; McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl; Seuntjens, Jan

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9-20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%-0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%-0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, kecal, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM's TG-51 protocol. General agreement between the relative

  9. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, James, E-mail: james.renaud@mail.mcgill.ca; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Sarfehnia, Arman [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Marchant, Kristin [Allan Blair Cancer Centre, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, Saskatchewan S4T 7T1, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A1 (Canada); McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. Methods: A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Results: The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9–20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%–0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%–0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, k{sub ecal}, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM’s TG-51 protocol

  10. A crystal detector for measuring beta and internal conversion electrons in flowing air containing fission gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-02-01

    Low levels of radioactive gases are released from nuclear electric power generation, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear weapons tests and from diagnostic medical uses of radioactive gas tracers. A prototype model of an inorganic scintillator - Crystal Gas Electron Detector (CGED) - was built for measurements of xenon isotopes in-line by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electrons present in atmospheric samples. The detection and quantification of the radionuclide spectra are accomplished, during air flow, without complete purification of the fission gases. Initial operational tests and calibrations made permit the integration of the CGED into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification (GASP) system [1-3]. The CGED detector, Pulse Shaping and Timing (PSA) electronics, and mathematical treatment of the accumulated spectra are used to resolve the K and LMNO-IC electrons and beta continuum. These data are used, in-line, for dating the age of an air parcel containing fission gases released from nuclear reactors and/or from nuclear weapons tests, as part of the monitoring equipment required to enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT. This report is one of a series of papers providing the design features, operational methods, calibration, and applications of radioactive gas analysis system to the International CTBT.

  11. Measurements of conversion electrons in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, A.; Tan, W.; Avetisyan, R.; Casarella, C.; Gyurijinyan, A.; Manukyan, K.V.; Marley, S.T.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Smith, K.; Smith, M.K.; Strauss, S.Y.; Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Conversion coefficients, gamma-gamma and gamma-electron coincidences were measured in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu. Our goal was to determine the multipolarities of the γ-ray transitions that connect the high and low K states of {sup 176}Lu. This {sup 176}Lu nucleus has a long-lived ground state (K=7{sup -}) of 37.6 Gy, a short-lived isomeric state (K=0{sup -}) at 122.8 keV with half-life of 3.6 h, as well as a 58 μs isomer at 1588 keV (K=14{sup +}). The excitation structure of this nucleus contains bands of intermediate spins of both positive and negative parities. The intermediate states can under certain stellar temperatures completely change the equilibrium between the isomer and ground state of {sup 176}Lu and change the abundance of this nucleus. We populated 37 previously known levels in this nucleus via the {sup 176}Yb(p,n) reaction and measured 42 conversion coefficients for γ-ray transitions including 17 of them for the first time. (orig.)

  12. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  13. Conversion electron measurements of 195Au using ICEBall for Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics at the University of Notre Dame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Anthony; Tan, Wanpeng; Aprahamian, Ani; Bauder, William; Casarella, Clark; Gurdal, Gulhan; Long, Alexander; Nystrom, Andrew; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Karl; Smith, Mallory

    2013-10-01

    The Internal Conversion Electron Ball Array (ICEBall) consists of six Si(Li) detectors and it was recently re-comissioned at the University of Notre Dame Nuclear Science Laboratory for spectroscopic studies of heavy nuclei. For the commissioning experiment, a 16 MeV bunched proton beam was used from the FN Tandem for a (p,2n) reaction to populate low spin states of 195Au. Both conversion electrons and gamma-rays were detected in coincidence between ICEBall and a single high-purity germanium detector. A total of 14 conversion coeffcients were measured. The results will be presented and compared to previous results. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under contract number NSF PHY-1068192. M.P. Metlay, J.X. Saladin, I.Y. Lee, and O. Dietzsch, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A, 336, 162 (1993).

  14. Bremsstrahlung and K(alpha) fluorescence measurements for inferring conversion efficiencies into fast ignition relevant hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C D; Patel, P K; Hey, D S; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Akli, K U; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Chawla, S; Chen, H; Freeman, R R; Higginson, D P; Link, A; Ma, T Y; MacPhee, A G; Stephens, R B; Van Woerkom, L D; Westover, B; Porkolab, M

    2009-07-24

    The Bremsstrahlung and K-shell emission from 1 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm planar targets irradiated by a short-pulse 3 x 10{sup 18}-8 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} laser were measured. The Bremsstrahlung was measured using a filter stack spectrometer with spectral discrimination up to 500 keV. K-shell emission was measured using a single photon counting charge coupled device (CCD). From Monte Carlo modeling of the target emission, conversion efficiencies into 1-3 MeV electrons of 3-12%, representing 20-40% total conversion efficiencies were inferred for intensities up to 8 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Comparisons to scaling laws using synthetic energy spectra generated from the intensity distribution of the focal spot imply slope temperatures less than the ponderomotive potential of the laser. Resistive transport effects may result in potentials of a few hundred kV in the first few tens of microns in the target. This would lead to higher total conversion efficiencies than inferred from Monte Carlo modeling but lower conversion efficiencies into 1-3 MeV electrons.

  15. Synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectra of {sup 174}Yb measured with internal conversion electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Ryo, E-mail: masudar@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Saito, Makina [Beamline Spectroscopy/Scattering Group, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14 Km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Iga, Fumitoshi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Condensed Matter Science Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-02-24

    A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5 keV level of {sup 174}Yb was observed without {sup 174}Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.

  16. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, L. E-mail: weissman@nscl.msu.edu; Ames, F.; Aeysto, J.; Forstner, O.; Reisinger, K.; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-10-21

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  17. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Äystö, J; Forstner, O; Reisinger, K; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-01-01

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line and tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  18. Electron Bernstein wave heating and emission measurement through the very narrow O-X-B mode conversion window in the LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nishiura, M.; Seki, T.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan and Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Ogasawara, S.; Makino, R. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Idei, H. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyusyu Univ., Kasuga (Japan); Nagasaki, K. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan)

    2014-02-12

    In the large helical device (LHD), the theoretically predicted width of the ordinary-extraordinary-electron Bernstein wave (O-X-B) mode conversion (MC) window is comparable to the beam width and the power deposition is located in the off-axis region if the 77GHz fundamental electron cyclotron (EC) wave of is launched from an existing horizontal port antenna. In the experiment, the actual MC window location was looked for with changing the aiming. The effective aiming with that the increase of the stored energy was observed was two degrees apart from the location of the theoretical MC window at a maximum. Measurement of the waves originated from the thermally emitted EBW and radiated via the B-X-O mode conversion process is effective to improve the accuracy of the theoretical prediction with comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results. The theoretical prediction suggests that the width of the MC window of the fundamental 77GHz EC wave can be expanded if the lower port antenna is used. On the other hand, the MC window of the second harmonic 154GHz EC wave is blocked by horizontal port wall if another horizontal port antenna is used. It is required to move the final mirror of the quasi-optical antenna toward the plasma surface. Focusing of the beam at the plasma cutoff is (PC) also necessary for the effective mode conversion.

  19. Thermo electronic laser energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermo electronic laser energy converter (TELEC) is described and compared to the Waymouth converter and the conventional thermionic converter. The electrical output characteristics and efficiency of TELEC operation are calculated for a variety of design variables. Calculations and results are briefly outlined. It is shown that the TELEC concept can potentially convert 25 to 50 percent of incident laser radiation into electric power at high power densities and high waste heat rejection temperatures.

  20. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  1. Weight Estimation of Electronic Power Conversion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Electronic power conversion systems with large number of power converters have a variety of applications, such as data center, electric vehicles and future smart â nanogridâ in residential home. Those systems could have very different architectures. For example, one system could be based on ac, dc or hybrid power distribution bus, and the bus voltage could be different. Also those systems have great need to develop low-cost architectures which reduce weight, increase efficiency and improve...

  2. SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE) at TRIUMF-ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallcombe, J.; Moukaddam, M.; Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hallam, S.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bolton, C.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Constable, M.; Cross, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Kruecken, R.; Kurchaninov, L.; Park, J.; Pore, J. L.; Rand, E. T.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Smith, J. K.; Svensson, C. E.; Williams, M.

    2016-09-01

    A new ancillary detector, SPICE (SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons) has been constructed and recently commissioned for use with radioactive ion beams at the TRIUMF-ISAC II facility. SPICE is designed to be operated in conjunction with the TIGRESS High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) spectrometer to perform combined in-beam γ-ray and internal-conversion-electron spectroscopy. The main feature of SPICE is high effciency over a wide range of electron energies from 100 to 3500 keV, with an effective reduction of beam-induced backgrounds. SPICE will be a powerful tool to measure conversion coeffcients and E0 transitions in atomic nuclei. A recent in-beam commissioning experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of the basic design concept of SPICE in background suppression.

  3. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia;

    2016-01-01

    interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design......-taking, sequencing of conversation, repair strategies and procedures. Originality/value: This is the first study proposing a systematic measurement of the dialogue orientation of online conversations that takes into consideration the role of language and communicative actions. The proposed measurement offers...

  4. Education and solar conversion. Demonstrating electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smestad, Greg P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, ICP-2, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1998-07-23

    A simplified solar cell fabrication procedure is presented that uses natural anthocyanin or chlorophyll dyes extracted from plants. This procedure illustrates how interdisciplinary science can be taught at lower division university and upper division high school levels for an understanding of renewable energy as well as basic science concepts. Electron transfer occurs on the Earth in the mitochondrial membranes found in living cells, and in the thylakoid membranes found in the photosynthetic cells of green plants. Since we depend on the results of this electron and energy transfer, e.g. in our use of petroleum and agricultural products, it is desirable to understand and communicate how the electron transfer works. The simplified solar cell fabrication procedure, based on nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells, has therefore been developed so that it can be inexpensively reproduced and utilized in the teaching of basic principles in biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science. A water-based solution of commercial nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) powder is used to deposit a highly porous semiconductor electron acceptor. This acceptor couples the light-driven processes occurring at an organic dye to the macroscopic world and an external electrical circuit. Materials science and semiconductor physics are emphasized during the deposition of the sintered TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline ceramic film. Chelation, complexation and molecular self-assembly are demonstrated during the attachment of the dye molecule to the surface of the TiO{sub 2} semiconductor particles. Environmental chemistry and energy conversion can be linked to these concepts via the regenerative oxidation and reduction cycle found in the cell. The resulting device, made in under 3 h, can be used as a light detector or power generator that produces 0.4-0.5 V at open circuit, and 1-2 mA per square cm under solar illumination

  5. High-Resolution Conversion Electron Spectroscopy of Valence Electron Configurations (CESVEC) in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    First measurements with the Zurich $\\beta$-spectrometer on sources from ISOLDE have demonstrated that high resolution spectroscopy of conversion electrons from valence shells is feasible.\\\\ \\\\ This makes possible a novel type of electron spectroscopy (CESVEC) on valence-electron configurations of tracer elements in solids. Thus the density of occupied electron states of impurities in solids has been measured for the first time. Such data constitute a stringent test of state-of-the-art calculations of impurity properties. Based on these results, we are conducting a systematic investigation of impurities in group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  6. Conversion electron spectroscopy of isobarically purified trapped radioactive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, J.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O.B. 35 (Finland)

    2007-11-15

    The feasibility of the JYFLTRAP for in-trap spectroscopy has been studied. Several internally converted transitions have been measured for isomers of fission products with good accuracy. High-resolution spectroscopic data free of source effects have been obtained proving that trapped radioactive ions can provide excellent conversion electron sources. The shortest-lived isomer studied in this work was {sup 117m} Pd with a half-life of 19.1 ms, for which a superior peak-to-total ratio and an excellent line shape at the 9.9 keV conversion electron line have been observed. Detection efficiencies and related phenomena of the present setup are analyzed. (orig.)

  7. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...... corporate communication managers a concrete tool for evaluating the quality of their online communications and for identifying those areas of their online communication that need improvement....

  8. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  9. Photoelectrochemical solar conversion systems molecular and electronic aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz, Andres G

    2012-01-01

    Providing new insights into the molecular and electronic processes involved in the conversion of sunlight into chemical products, Photoelectrochemical Solar Conversion Systems: Molecular and Electronic Aspects begins with an historical overview and a survey of recent developments in the electrochemistry of semiconductors and spectroscopic techniques. It then provides a comprehensive introduction to the science of conversion cells, reviews current issues and potential directions, and covers a wide range of materials from organic to inorganic cells.Employing a tutorial organization with balanced

  10. The Spectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons at TRIUMF-ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallcombe, James; Evitts, Lee; Garnsworthy, Adam; Moukaddam, Mohamad; Spice Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    SPICE (SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons) is a powerful tool to measure conversion coefficients and E 0 transitions in nuclei. E 0 transition strengths, which are not accessible by gamma-ray spectroscopy, are a sparsely measured observable. Such transition strengths are particularly sensitive to nuclear shape and state mixing effects and as such are a key item of data in studying the evolution of shape coexistence. SPICE is an ancillary detector that has been commissioned for use with Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at the ISAC-II facility of TRIUMF. The main feature of SPICE is high efficiency over a range of electron energies from 100 to 3500 keV, crucial for work with RIBs, and an effective reduction of beam-induced backgrounds. This is achieved with an upstream magnetic lens, a high- Z photon shield and a large-area lithium-drifted silicon detector. A major theme of the physics program will be the investigation of shape coexistence and state mixing in exotic nuclei. An overview of the main features of SPICE will be presented alongside details of the commissioning and preliminary data from the first experiment studying excited structures in 110Pd. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation (MRI).

  11. Laser X-ray Conversion and Electron Thermal Conductivity*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The influence of electron thermal conductivity on the laser x-ray conversion in the coupling of 3ωo laser with Au plane target has been investigated by using a non-LTE radiation hydrodynamic code. The non-local electron thermal conductivity is introduced and compared with the other two kinds of the flux-limited Spitzer-Harm description. The results show that the non-local thermal conductivity causes the increase of the laser x-ray conversion efficiency andimportant changes of the plasma state and coupling feature

  12. Muon-Electron Conversion in a Family Gauge Boson Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koide, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    We study the $\\mu$-$e$ conversion in muonic atoms via an exchange of family gauge boson (FGB) $A_{2}^{\\ 1}$ in a $U(3)$ FGB model. Within the class of FGB model, we consider three types of family-number assignments for quarks. We evaluate the $\\mu$-$e$ conversion rate for various target nuclei, and find that next generation $\\mu$-$e$ conversion search experiments can cover entire energy scale of the model for all of types of the quark family-number assignments. We show that the conversion rate in the model is so sensitive to up- and down-quark mixing matrices, $U^{u}$ and $U^{d}$, where the CKM matrix is given by $V_\\text{CKM} = U^{u\\dagger} U^d$. Precise measurements of conversion rates for various target nuclei can identify not only the types of quark family-number assignments, but also each quark mixing matrix individually.

  13. Muon-electron conversion in a family gauge boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Yoshio; Yamanaka, Masato

    2016-11-01

    We study the μ-e conversion in muonic atoms via an exchange of family gauge boson (FGB) A21 in a U (3) FGB model. Within the class of FGB model, we consider three types of family-number assignments for quarks. We evaluate the μ-e conversion rate for various target nuclei, and find that next generation μ-e conversion search experiments can cover entire energy scale of the model for all of types of the quark family-number assignments. We show that the conversion rate in the model is so sensitive to up- and down-quark mixing matrices, Uu and Ud, where the CKM matrix is given by VCKM =Uu†Ud. Precise measurements of conversion rates for various target nuclei can identify not only the types of quark family-number assignments, but also each quark mixing matrix individually.

  14. On the merits of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy in geosciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Bertelsen, P.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl;

    2006-01-01

    Described are some applications of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in geosciences. It is shown how easily this technique can be applied in existing Mossbauer laboratories to investigate natural samples. Some examples demonstrate the kind of information CEMS can give...... on the weathering history or mechanical properties of samples. The possible application of CEMS on Mars is discussed....

  15. Electron Bernstein Wave Emission and Mode Conversion Physics on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diem, S J; Caughman, J B; Efthimion, P; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B P; Preinhaelter, J; Sabbagh, S A; Urban, J

    2008-05-21

    NSTX is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with ne up to 1020 m-3 and BT less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) emission widely used for Te measurements on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is emitted at EC harmonics. These properties suggest thermal EBW emission (EBE) may be used for local Te measurements in the ST. Practically, a robust Te(R,t) EBE diagnostic requires EBW transmission efficiencies of > 90% for a wide range of plasma conditions. EBW emission and coupling physics were studied on NSTX with an obliquely viewing EBW to O-mode (B-X-O) diagnostic with two remotely steered antennas, coupled to absolutely calibrated radiometers. While Te(R,t) measurements with EBW emission on NSTX were possible, they were challenged by several issues. Rapid fluctuations in edge ne scale length resulted in > 20% changes in the low harmonic B-X-O transmission efficiency. Also, B-X-O transmission efficiency 2 during H-modes was observed to decay by a factor of 5-10 to less than a few percent. The B-X-O transmission behavior during H-modes was reproduced by EBE simulations that predict that EBW collisional damping can significantly reduce emission when Te < 30 eV inside the B-X-O mode conversion (MC) layer. Initial edge lithium conditioning experiments during H-modes have shown that evaporated lithium can increase Te inside the B-X-O MC layer, significantly increasing B-X-O transmission.

  16. Mode characterization, autocorrelation measurements, and harmonic conversion with pico- and femtosecond pulses delivered by the Mark III free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutolo, A.; Hooper, B.; Benson, S.V.; Schultz, J.F.; Madeys, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    After briefly reporting on the present status of the infrared free-electron laser now operating at the Stanford Photon Research Laboratory and powered by the linear accelerator Mark III, we discuss the results of using nonlinear optical techniques for both the characterization of its output radiation and the enhancment of its tunability range. In particular, to show the evidence of possible self-guiding effects, a new and reliable technique has been devised and successfully tested for real-time monitoring of the micropulse evolution during the buildup of radiation. Finally, we discuss the main problems connected with the damage threshold of optical materials.

  17. Conversion electron spectrometry of Pu isotopes with a silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommé, S; Paepen, J; Peräjärvi, K; Turunen, J; Pöllänen, R

    2016-03-01

    An electron spectrometry set-up was built at IRMM consisting of a vacuum chamber with a moveable source holder and windowless Peltier-cooled silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD is well suited for measuring low-energy x rays and electrons emitted from thin radioactive sources with low self-absorption. The attainable energy resolution is better than 0.5keV for electrons of 30keV. It has been used to measure the conversion electron spectra of three plutonium isotopes, i.e. (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, as well as (241)Am (being a decay product of (241)Pu). The obtained mixed x-ray and electron spectra are compared with spectra obtained with a close-geometry set-up using another SDD in STUK and spectra measured with a Si(Li) detector at IRMM. The potential of conversion electron spectrometry for isotopic analysis of mixed plutonium samples is investigated. With respect to the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio, the conversion electron peaks of both isotopes are more clearly separated than their largely overlapping peaks in alpha spectra.

  18. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  19. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  20. Modeling power electronics and interfacing energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the application of mathematical and engineering tools for modeling, simulation and control oriented for energy systems, power electronics and renewable energy. This book builds on the background knowledge of electrical circuits, control of dc/dc converters and inverters, energy conversion and power electronics. The book shows readers how to apply computational methods for multi-domain simulation of energy systems and power electronics engineering problems. Each chapter has a brief introduction on the theoretical background, a description of the problems to be solved, and objectives to be achieved. Block diagrams, electrical circuits, mathematical analysis or computer code are covered. Each chapter concludes with discussions on what should be learned, suggestions for further studies and even some experimental work.

  1. Conversion coefficient measurements of 176Lu using ICEBall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Anthony A.

    We have studied the multipolarites of several transitions in the nucleus 176Lu. The synthesis of 176Lu in stellar environments is through the slow (s-) neutron capture process. The s-process is responsible for the creation of 50% of the heavy elements and 15-20 nuclei in the s-process are s-process branching points. Branching points determine if the synthesis path will beta-decay or neutron capture. The branching point 176 Lu is only produced via the s-process only and has both a long-lived ground state (K = 7--) of 37.6 Gy and a short-lived isomeric state (K = 0--) at 3.6 h. There is no direct decay to both the isomer and ground state due to selection rules. However, an intermediate state was found at 839 keV in the K = 4-- band and another intermediate state in the K = 4+ band at 709 keV which communicate to both the isomer and ground state. The communication to both the isomer and ground state through the intermediate states affects the final abundances of 176Lu in stellar environments which is sensitive to temperature. The experiment was performed at the University of Notre Dame Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL) using a 176Yb(p,n) reaction at 7.75 MeV. Gamma-gamma and gamma-electron coincidences were measured for conversion coefficients using the Internal Conversion Electron Ball (ICEBall) array and two HPGe detectors (109% relative efficiency of a 3"x 3" NaI detector at 1332 keV). ICEBall was upgraded at the NSL for an improved efficiency from 6%-15% over 4. A total of 40 conversion cofficcients were measured and 35 multipolarities wer assigned. 17 new conversion coefficients were measured and the corresponding multipolarities were assigned. Levels and spin assignments in both the K = 4+ band and K = 4-- band were verified in the intermediate states that are important for establishing a thermal equilibrium in the s-process.

  2. The {nu}MSM and muon to electron conversion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canetti, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.canetti@epfl.ch; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail, E-mail: mikhail.shaposhnikov@epfl.ch [EPFL, ITP (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    We review briefly the different constraints on the three right-handed neutrinos of the {nu}MSM, an extension of the Standard Model that can explain baryon asymmetry, dark matter and neutrino masses. We include in the discussion the proposed experiments on muon to electron conversion Mu2e (Carey et al., Mu2e Collaboration, 2012), COMET and PRISM (Hungerford, COMET Collaboration, AIP Conf Proc 1182:694, 2009; Cui et al., COMET Collaboration, 2012). We find that the expected sensitivity of these experiments is weaker by about two orders of magnitude than the constraints coming from successful baryogenesis.

  3. Thermo-electronic solar power conversion with a parabolic concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukunle, Olawole C.; De, Dilip K.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the energy dynamics of the power generation from the sun when the solar energy is concentrated on to the emitter of a thermo-electronic converter with the help of a parabolic mirror. We use the modified Richardson-Dushman equation. The emitter cross section is assumed to be exactly equal to the focused area at a height h from the base of the mirror to prevent loss of efficiency. We report the variation of output power with solar insolation, height h, reflectivity of the mirror, and anode temperature, initially assuming that there is no space charge effect. Our methodology allows us to predict the temperature at which the anode must be cooled in order to prevent loss of efficiency of power conversion. Novel ways of tackling the space charge problem have been discussed. The space charge effect is modeled through the introduction of a parameter f (0 solar insolation, height h, apart from radii R of the concentrator aperture and emitter, and the collector material properties. We have also considered solar thermos electronic power conversion by using single atom-layer graphene as an emitter.

  4. Hot-electron-based solar energy conversion with metal-semiconductor nanodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Changhwan; Hwang, Euyheon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-06-29

    Energy dissipation at metal surfaces or interfaces between a metal and a dielectric generally results from elementary excitations, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface/interface during exothermic chemical processes or an electromagnetic wave incident. In this paper, we outline recent research activities to develop energy conversion devices based on hot electrons. We found that photon energy can be directly converted to hot electrons and that hot electrons flow through the interface of metal-semiconductor nanodiodes where a Schottky barrier is formed and the energy barrier is much lower than the work function of the metal. The detection of hot electron flow can be successfully measured using the photocurrent; we measured the photoyield of photoemission with incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). We also show that surface plasmons (i.e. the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons induced by interaction with an electromagnetic field) are excited on a rough metal surface and subsequently decay into secondary electrons, which gives rise to enhancement of the IPCE. Furthermore, the unique optical behavior of surface plasmons can be coupled with dye molecules, suggesting the possibility for producing additional channels for hot electron generation.

  5. Simulation and experimental results for the detection of conversion electrons with gas proportional scintillation counters

    CERN Document Server

    Rachinhas, P J B M; Lopes, J A M; Dias, T; Morgado, R E; Santos, J M; Stauffer, A D; Conde, C A N

    2000-01-01

    The application of gas proportional scintillation counters (GPSC) to the detection and identification of conversion electrons in the medium energy range is investigated. Experimental and Monte Carlo results are presented for the response of a xenon GPSC, filled at atmospheric pressure, to the decay of a sup 1 sup 0 sup 9 Cd source. This source emits 88.0 keV gamma-rays, e sub L =84.6 keV and e sub K =62.5 keV conversion electrons, as well as fluorescence X-rays and Auger electrons. Good agreement is found between the measured and the calculated energy spectra. The response to higher-energy electrons is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, by considering a hypothetical GPSC filled with xenon at 10 atm and doped with the sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 sup m Xe metastable isotope. The calculated energy spectra for the absorption of the sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 sup m Xe 233.2 keV gamma-rays, e sub K =198.6 keV and e sub L =228.4 keV conversion electrons, as well as fluorescence X-rays and Auger electrons, are presented and discus...

  6. Analog to Digital Conversion in Physical Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitaniak, T; Feudel, U; Grebogi, C

    1999-01-01

    There exist measuring devices where an analog input is converted into a digital output. Such converters can have a nonlinear internal dynamics. We show how measurements with such converting devices can be understood using concepts from symbolic dynamics. Our approach is based on a nonlinear one-to-one mapping between the analog input and the digital output of the device. We analyze the Bernoulli shift and the tent map which are realized in specific analog/digital converters. Furthermore, we discuss the sources of errors that are inevitable in physical realizations of such systems and suggest methods for error reduction.

  7. Electron to Muon Conversion in Low-Energy Electron-Nucleus Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Diener, Kai-Peer O

    2004-01-01

    We present an estimate of the electron to muon conversion cross section in fixed-target elastic electron scattering. The matrix element $$ is calculated analytically in two scenarios introducing suitable approximations. We consider on the one hand side the case of three light Dirac neutrinos with CKM-type leptonic mixing and on the other hand a typical see-saw scenario. We evaluate the coulombic contribution to the scattering cross section in the limit of vanishing energy transfer to the nucleus and, thus, obtain a realistic estimate for the total conversion cross section. Although we find that in the see-saw scenario the cross section can be enhanced by as much as twenty orders of magnitude in comparison to the Dirac case, it is still not experimentally accessible.

  8. Conversion electrons used to monitor the energy scale of electron spectrometer near tritium endpoint - a simulation study

    CERN Document Server

    Rysavy, M

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum provides good possibility to determine neutrino mass. This, however, needs a perfect monitoring of the spectrometer energy scale. A parallel measurement of electron line of known energy - in particular the 83mKr conversion K-line - may serve well to this purpose. The 83Rb decaying to 83mKr seems to be a very suitable radioactive source due to its halflife of 86.2 day. In this work, we determine the amount of 83Rb which is necessary for a successful monitoring.

  9. Measurement of Hot Electron Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYe-jun; SHANYu-sheng; ZHANGHai-feng; ZHANGJi; WANGLei-jian; TANGXiu-zhang

    2003-01-01

    The hot electron spectrum was measured using 180°electron magnetic spectrometer through the irradiation of solid Cu target by an intense, near infrared(744 nm), P-polarized light, femtosecond (120 fs) laser pulse with free pre-pulse, and the intensity of laser is 1016 W/cm2 with 45° incidence. And the spectrometer was located in the direction of laser right reflection.

  10. Atmospheric methanol measurement using selective catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Solomon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel atmospheric methanol measurement technique, employing selective gas-phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde followed by detection of the formaldehyde product, has been developed and tested. The effects of temperature, gas flow rate, gas composition, reactor-bed length, and reactor-bed composition on the methanol conversion efficiency of a molybdenum-rich, iron-molybdate catalyst [Mo-Fe-O] were studied. Best results were achieved using a 1:4 mixture (w/w of the catalyst in quartz sand. Optimal methanol to formaldehyde conversion (>95% efficiency occurred at a catalyst housing temperature of 345°C and an estimated sample-air/catalyst contact time of <0.2 seconds. Potential interferences arising from conversion of methane and a number of common volatile organic compounds (VOC to formaldehyde were found to be negligible under most atmospheric conditions and catalyst housing temperatures. Using the new technique, atmospheric measurements of methanol were made at the University of Bremen campus from 1 to 15 July 2004. Methanol mixing ratios ranged from 1 to 5 ppb with distinct maxima at night. Formaldehyde mixing ratios, obtained in conjunction with methanol by periodically bypassing the catalytic converter, ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 ppb with maxima during midday. These results suggest that selective, catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion, coupled with existing formaldehyde measurement instrumentation, is an inexpensive and effective means for monitoring atmospheric methanol.

  11. Atmospheric methanol measurement using selective catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Solomon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel atmospheric methanol measurement technique, employing selective gas-phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde followed by detection of the formaldehyde product, has been developed and tested. The effects of temperature, gas flow rate, gas composition, reactor-bed length, and reactor-bed composition on the methanol conversion efficiency of a molybdenum-rich, iron-molybdate catalyst [Mo-Fe-O] were studied. Best results were achieved using a 1:4 mixture (w/w of the catalyst in quartz sand. Optimal methanol to formaldehyde conversion (>95% efficiency occurred at a catalyst housing temperature of 345°C and an estimated sample-air/catalyst contact time of <0.2 s. Potential interferences arising from conversion of methane and a number of common volatile organic compounds (VOC to formaldehyde were found to be negligible under most atmospheric conditions and catalyst housing temperatures. Using the new technique, atmospheric measurements of methanol were made at the University of Bremen campus from 1 to 15 July 2004. Methanol mixing ratios ranged from 1 to 5 ppb with distinct maxima at night. Formaldehyde mixing ratios, obtained in conjunction with methanol by periodically bypassing the catalytic converter, ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 ppb with maxima during midday. These results suggest that selective, catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion, coupled with existing formaldehyde measurement instrumentation, is an inexpensive and effective means for monitoring atmospheric methanol.

  12. 'Shake-off' account of effects from a Beta-decay at determination of internal conversion coefficients due to secondary electron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokhovich, N F

    2002-01-01

    By means of selection coincidence of gamma-quantum with the secondary electrons (e sub o -electrons) and beta-particles (gamma beta e sub 0 -coincidences) and special geometry of measurements the formation of e sub o -electrons from electrons of 'shake-off' accompanying beta-decay is chosen and its output is determined. Influence of this additional source of e sub o -electrons formation on the accuracy of the internal conversion coefficient determination is estimated, when the output of e sub o -electrons from electrons of conversion is defined on the output of e sub o -electrons from beta-particles.

  13. Tunable Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductivity and Permittivity of Graphene Oxide Paper for Electrochemical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Thomas; Bishop, Sean R; Perry, Nicola H; Sasaki, Kazunari; Lyth, Stephen M

    2016-05-11

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional graphitic carbon material functionalized with oxygen-containing surface functional groups. The material is of interest in energy conversion, sensing, chemical processing, gas barrier, and electronics applications. Multilayer GO paper has recently been applied as a new proton conducting membrane in low temperature fuel cells. However, a detailed understanding of the electrical/dielectric properties, including separation of the ionic vs electronic contributions under relevant operating conditions, has so far been lacking. Here, the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of GO paper are investigated in situ from 30 to 120 °C, and from 0 to 100% relative humidity (RH) using impedance spectroscopy. These are related to the water content, measured by thermogravimetric analysis. With the aid of electron blocking measurements, GO is demonstrated to be a mixed electronic-protonic conductor, and the ion transference number is derived for the first time. For RH > 40%, conductivity is dominated by proton transport (with a maximum of 0.5 mS/cm at 90 °C and 100% RH). For RH proton conducting electrolyte but also as a mixed conducting electrode material under appropriate conditions. Such materials are highly applicable in electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and electrolyzers.

  14. Measuring prosodic alignment in cooperative task-based conversations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet P.; Heylen, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate prosodic alignment in task-based conversations. We use the HCRC Map Task Corpus and investigate how familiarity affects prosodic alignment and how task success is related to prosodic alignment. A variety of existing alignment measures is used and applied to our data. In

  15. Angular dependence, blackness and polarization effects in integral conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajti, Sz., E-mail: sajti.szilard@wigner.mta.hu; Tanczikó, F.; Deák, L.; Nagy, D.L.; Bottyán, L.

    2015-01-01

    General expressions of the electron yield in {sup 57}Fe integral conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy were derived depending on the glancing angle of the γ photons, on the source polarization and on the isotopic abundance of the source and the absorber (blackness effects) using an exponential escape function of the electrons originating from all Mössbauer-resonance-related processes. The present approach provides a firm theoretical basis to determine the alignment and direction of magnetization in the absorber. The intensity formulae were justified by least squares fits of α-{sup 57}Fe spectral intensities measured in linearly and elliptically polarized source and absorber geometries. The fits reproduce the experimentally set angles with high accuracy. Limits of the current approach and its relation to other, less complete treatments in the literature are discussed.

  16. Low-energy internal conversion electrons spectrometry with a silicon diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thiago R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Camargo, Fabio de; Goncalves, Josemary A.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fcamargo@ipen.br; josemary@ipen.br; ccbueno@ipen.br; Bueno, Carmen C. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Fraga, Margarida R.F. [Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas]. E-mail: margarida@lipc.fis.uc.pt

    2007-07-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained with a PIN photodiode (SFH00206) for the detection and spectrometry of internal results from {sup 57}Co, {sup 109}Cd and {sup 133}Ba radioactive sources are described. The effect of the reverse bias on the energy resolution was studied and has shown a value of 2.8 keV (FHWM) for the {sup 57}Co 129.36 keV electron emission, when the diode was biased with 20 V at a temperature of 22 degree C. The obtained energy resolution can be attributed to both the energy loss in the diode dead layer and in the Makrofol covering of the sources, besides the contribution of the preamplifier electronic noise. Nevertheless, the energy resolutions measured are sufficiently good to justify the use of the diode for detection and spectrometry of internal conversion electrons. (author)

  17. Laser-driven micro-Coulomb charge movement and energy conversion to relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, J. A.; Palaniyappan, S.; Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Huang, C.; Gautier, D. C.; Clark, D. D.; Falk, K.; Jung, D.

    2016-09-01

    Development of robust instrumentation has shown evidence for a multi-μC expulsion of relativistic electrons from a sub-μm-thick foil, laser illuminated with 60-70 J on target at 2 × 1020 W/cm2. From previous work and with electron spectroscopy, it is seen that an exponential electron energy distribution is accurate enough to calculate the emitted electron charge and energy content. The 5-10-μC charge for the >100-TW Trident Laser represents the first active measurement of the >50% laser-light-to-electron conversion efficiency. By shorting out the TV/m electric field usually associated with accelerating multi-MeV ions from such targets, one finds that this charge is representative of a multi-MA current of relativistic electrons for diverse applications from electron fast ignition to advanced radiography concepts. Included with the details of the discoveries of this research, shortcomings of the diagnostics and means of improving their fidelity are discussed.

  18. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Zankl, M [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.de

    2009-07-07

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. Two questions arise from this situation: first, which dose quantity is related to the risk of developing a cataract, and second, which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring this dose quantity. While the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) has often been seen as being sufficiently accurate for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, this would be questionable in the case when the dose limits were reduced and, thus, it may be necessary to generally use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. The basis for a decision, however, must be the knowledge of accurate conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens. This is especially important for low-penetrating radiation, for example, electrons. Formerly published values of conversion coefficients are based on quite simple models of the eye. In this paper, quite a sophisticated model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was used for the calculations and precise conversion coefficients for electrons with energies between 0.2 MeV and 12 MeV, and for angles of radiation incidence between 0 deg. and 45 deg. are presented. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are up to 1000 times smaller for electron energies below 1 MeV, nearly equal at 1 MeV and above 4 MeV, and by a factor of 1.5 larger at about 1.5 MeV electron energy.

  19. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.; Zankl, M.

    2009-07-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. Two questions arise from this situation: first, which dose quantity is related to the risk of developing a cataract, and second, which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring this dose quantity. While the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) has often been seen as being sufficiently accurate for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, this would be questionable in the case when the dose limits were reduced and, thus, it may be necessary to generally use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. The basis for a decision, however, must be the knowledge of accurate conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens. This is especially important for low-penetrating radiation, for example, electrons. Formerly published values of conversion coefficients are based on quite simple models of the eye. In this paper, quite a sophisticated model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was used for the calculations and precise conversion coefficients for electrons with energies between 0.2 MeV and 12 MeV, and for angles of radiation incidence between 0° and 45° are presented. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are up to 1000 times smaller for electron energies below 1 MeV, nearly equal at 1 MeV and above 4 MeV, and by a factor of 1.5 larger at about 1.5 MeV electron energy.

  20. Feasibility of In-Trap Conversion Electron Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, L.; Ames, F.; Aysto, J.; Forstner, O. [CERN, EP-Division (Switzerland); Rinta-Antila, S. [University of Jyvaeskyla, Department of Physics (Finland); Schmidt, P. [J. Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    We have used REXTRAP at ISOLDE to test the feasibility of in-trap electron spectroscopy. The results of calculations, experiments with various electron sources as well as a first test with trapped radioactive ions are presented.

  1. Measuring the performance of visual to auditory information conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shern Shiou Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly. METHODOLOGY: Performance is measured by both the interpretability and also the information preservation of visual to auditory conversions. Interpretability is measured by computing the correlation of inter image distance (IID and inter sound distance (ISD whereas the information preservation is computed by applying Information Theory to measure the entropy of both visual and corresponding auditory signals. These measurements provide a basis and some insights on how the systems work. CONCLUSIONS: With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives.

  2. The future of electronic power processing and conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Consoli, A.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    . - A large penetration of power electronics into power systems will happen within the next 25-30 years. The main transmission grid will not be affected. The power electronics development will be in distributed generation and in the loads. - The success of the integrated starter/generator, hybrid or electric...... cars depends on political decisions more than on technological advances. However, the success of a recent Japanese hybrid car and the cost of oil could trigger the critical momentum for large-scale use of power electronics in automotive applications. - We are moving toward standardized power supply...

  3. The future of electronic power processing and conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Consoli, A.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    building blocks for computers and other applications. The main push is for lower cost, and production technology becomes the important issue. - Demands for improved performance in a diversity of applications will stimulate R&D in power electronics in future. Intelligent control and energy management......At a workshop held on the Aeolian Islands in Sicily during May 2004 a group of academic and industry engineers from all over the world discussed the medium-and long-term future of power electronics and its applications in specific areas. The following main issues were identified and discussed....... - The demand is not for power electronic solutions but for system integration of electronic power processing. A more multidisciplinary approach is needed. - We will witness a proliferation of energy storage in systems. The technology is in place and the improvement in system performance makes it worthwhile...

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (USA)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Calibration of the isomer shift of {sup 133}Cs from internal conversion measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiroko; Tanaka, Eiji; Muramatsu, Hisakazu [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    In this study, for 81 KeV transition of 133-Cs which is one of Moessbauer nuclides belonged to alkaline element and can be useful probe on study of binding state in a compound with high ionic boundability specific to alkaline element, an experiment to obtain {Delta}R/R was conducted by measurement of Moessbauer isomer shift and of internal conversion intensity of outer shell electron, using an internal conversion method, one of obtaining methods of {Delta} at the most accuracy. 133-Xe was buried at shallow surface of a host metal, reduced energy loss of internal conversion electron to realize high resolution and aimed to separate O-shell from P-shell to reduce injected ionic spaced and prepare a source. In range measurement of various energy to confirm actual speed reduction of ion, transmittance of 133-Xe on Cu layer vapor-deposited 2 to 10 micro g/sq cm thick on an Ni-foil was conducted. As a result, mean ranges of each energy were 5:2.2, 10:3.7, 15:4.8, and 20:5.6 micro g/sq cm, respectively. It was thought to be proved that speed reduction was certainly conducted by facts that the range increased with increase of the incident energy which showed good agreement with calculation results due to TRIM-95 code. (G.K.)

  6. The principles of electronic and electromechanic power conversion a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Braham

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the principles of power electronics and electromechanical power conversion through a unique top down systems approach, The Principles of Electromechanical Power Conversion takes the role and system context of power conversion functions as the starting point. Following this approach, the text defines the building blocks of the system and describes the theory of how they exchange power with each other. The authors introduce a modern, simple approach to machines, which makes the principles of field oriented control and space vector theory approachable to undergraduate students as well as

  7. Nonlinear modeling of low-to-high-frequency noise up-conversion in microwave electron devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filicori, Fabio; Traverso, Pier A.; Florian, Corrado

    2003-05-01

    Measurement-based, circuit-oriented non-linear noise modeling of microwave electron devices is still an open field of research, since existing approaches are not always suitable for the accurate prediction of low-frequency noise up-conversion to RF, which represents an essential information for the non-linear circuit analyses performed in the CAD of low phase-noise oscillators. In this paper a technology-independent, empirical approach to the modeling of noise contributions at the ports of electron devices, operating under strongly non-linear conditions, is proposed. Details concerning the analytical formulation of the model, which is derived by considering randomly time-varying perturbations in the basic equations of an otherwise conventional charge-controlled non-linear model, are presented, along with a discussion about the measurement techniques devoted to its experimental characterization. An example of application of the proposed Charge-Controlled Non-linear Noise (CCNN) model is considered in the case of a HBT transistor. Techniques devoted to the implementation of the obtained model in the framework of commercial CAD tools for circuit analysis and design are provided as well.

  8. Measurement of the electron affinity of lanthanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covington, A.M.; Calabrese, D.; Thompson, J.S. [Department of Physics and Chemical Physics Programme, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0058 (United States); Kvale, T.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States)

    1998-10-28

    The electron affinity of lanthanum has been measured using laser photoelectron energy spectroscopy. This is the first electron affinity measurement for lanthanum and one of the first measurements of an electron affinity of a rare-earth series element. The electron affinity of lanthanum was measured to be 0.47{+-}0.02 eV. At least one bound excited state of La{sup -} was also observed in the photoelectron spectra, and the binding energy relative to the ground state of lanthanum was measured as 0.17{+-}0.02 eV. The present experimental measurements are compared to a recent calculation. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  9. Muon to electron conversion: The COMET and Mu2e experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Litchfield, R P

    2014-01-01

    I describe the new generation of muon-to-electron conversion experiments, COMET and Mu2e, being constructed to make use of new high power pulsed muon beams a J-PARC and Fermilab respectively. A brief overview of the physics explored by the muon to electron conversion is given, followed by a description of the experimental challenges and resulting features common to the new experiments. The differences in approach between Mu2e and COMET are then highlighted, and the current schedules given.

  10. Identification of a millisecond isomeric state in Cd81129 via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taprogge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The decay of an isomeric state in the neutron-rich nucleus 129Cd has been observed via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons providing first experimental information on excited states in this nucleus. The isomer was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. From the measured yields of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, a multipolarity of E3 was tentatively assigned to the isomeric transition. A half-life of T1/2=3.6(2 ms was determined for the new state which was assigned a spin of (21/2+, based on a comparison to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions.

  11. Identification of a millisecond isomeric state in 129Cd81via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taprogge, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Xu, Z. Y.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Nacher, E.; Simpson, G. S.; Soderstrom, P. A.; Sumikama, T.; Kondev, F. G.

    2014-11-10

    The decay of an isomeric state in the neutron-rich nucleus 129Cd has been observed via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons providing first experimental information on excited states in this nucleus. The isomer was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. From the measured yields of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, a multipolarity of E 3 was tentatively assigned to the isomeric transition. A half-life of T1/2=3.6(2) msT1/2=3.6(2) ms was determined for the new state which was assigned a spin of (21/2+)(21/2+), based on a comparison to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions.

  12. Frame-differencing methods for measuring bodily synchrony in conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick

    2013-06-01

    The study of interpersonal synchrony examines how interacting individuals grow to have similar behavior, cognition, and emotion in time. Many of the established methods of analyzing interpersonal synchrony are costly and time-consuming; the study of bodily synchrony has been especially laborious, traditionally requiring researchers to hand-code movement frame by frame. Because of this, researchers have been searching for more efficient alternatives for decades. Recently, some researchers (e.g., Nagaoka & Komori (IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, 91(6), 1634-1640, 2008); Ramseyer & Tschacher, 2008) have applied computer science and computer vision techniques to create frame-differencing methods (FDMs) to simplify analyses. In this article, we provide a detailed presentation of one such FDM, created by modifying and adding to existing FDMs. The FDM that we present requires little programming experience or specialized equipment: Only a few lines of MATLAB code are required to execute an automated analysis of interpersonal synchrony. We provide sample code and demonstrate its use with an analysis of brief, friendly conversations; using linear mixed-effects models, the measure of interpersonal synchrony was found to be significantly predicted by time lag (p < .001) and by the interaction between time lag and measures of interpersonal liking (p < .001). This pattern of results fits with existing literature on synchrony. We discuss the current limitations and future directions for FDMs, including their use as part of a larger methodology for capturing and analyzing multimodal interaction.

  13. Resonant Spin-Flavor Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: Dependence on Electron Mole Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, T; Kimura, K; Yokomakura, H; Kawagoe, S; Kajino, T

    2009-01-01

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Ye is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Ye. At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of bar{nu}_e -> nu_{mu,tau} occurs in Ye 0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Ye values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of nu_e -> bar{nu}_{mu,tau} occurs. The final bar{nu}_e spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Ye 0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low bar{nu}_e energy to high bar{nu}_e energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron frac...

  14. Strategic Conversation Quality and Engagement: Assessment of a New Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Louis; Chermack, Thomas J.; Kulikowich, Jonna; Yang, Baiyin

    2007-01-01

    When considering organization strategy-making and execution from a learning perspective, the role of conversation and engagement is of critical importance, yet little research has been conducted in this area. Recent publications have suggested an increasing role for conversation and dialogue in strategic planning processes. The present study…

  15. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y; Sato, O; Tanaka, S I; Tsuda, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    2003-01-01

    In the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 Recommendations, radiation weighting factors were introduced in the place of quality factors, the tissue weighting factors were revised, and effective doses and equivalent doses of each tissues and organs were defined as the protection quantities. Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of theses data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality fact...

  16. Localized bulk electron heating with ICRF mode conversion in the JET tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantsinen, M.J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Eester, D. Van

    2004-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance frequencies (ICRF) mode conversion has been developed for localized on-axis and off-axis bulk electron heating on the JET tokamak. The fast magnetosonic waves launched from the low-field side ICRF antennas are mode-converted to short-wavelength waves on the high-field side...

  17. Theoretical research on time-space conversion method for measuring ultra-short electron pulse width%超短电子脉冲的时空转换测量方法理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建军; 袁锡明; 赵宝升; 田进寿; 李军科

    2013-01-01

    分析了超快电子枪处于扫描状态下电子束的传输特性,对飞秒量级的超短电子束脉冲通过偏转扫描系统时的偏转距离等物理量进行了数值计算.计算结果显示:为确保电子束能够顺利通过偏转扫描系统并最后轰击直径为30 mm的荧光屏,必须加一个700~1400 V的初始电压,以便抵消负斜坡扫描电压的作用;700~1400 V的初始电压和负斜坡扫描电压的共同作用,是扫描实验成功的一个前提.扫描实验成功的另一个前提是激发光电阴极的光路和控制扫描的电路之间的同步.讨论了前提一带给同步实验的巨大困难,并设计了一个可以在扫描实验中以较高效率调节光路延时的实验系统,该系统可解决脉宽测量实验中扫描斜坡电压信号和超快电子脉冲的同步难题.%The transmission characteristics of ultra-short electron beams of the ultra-fast electron guns in scanning state were analysed,and the deflection distance of the ultra-short electron beams passing the deflection-scan system was calculated.The results indicate that the initial voltage must be within the range of 700-1400 V to counterbalance the effect of the negative scan slope voltage,ensuring that the electron beams will pass the deflection-scan system and finally hit the phosphor screen of 30 mm in diameter,and the cooperative function of the initial voltage and the negative scan slope voltage is one of the two premises of the scan experiment.The other premise is the synchronization of the electrical and the optical signals.Following the discussion of the great difficulty caused by the first promise,an experimental system that can adjust the optical delay more effectively in the scan experiment was designed,which can facilitate the synchronization of the negative scan slope voltage and the ultra-fast electron pulse.

  18. Efficient spin-to-charge conversion in the 2D electron liquid at the LAO/STO interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauleau, J.-Y.; Boselli, M.; Gariglio, S.; Weil, R.; de Loubens, G.; Triscone, J.-M.; Viret, M.

    2016-10-01

    Spin-to-charge conversion using the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect is measured in the 2D electron liquid existing at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The effect is found to be larger than in the highly Rashba split Bi/Ag interface which we attribute to an amplifying effect due to a long carrier's momentum lifetime. The explanation is supported by temperature measurements and the Rashba field is also shown to be anisotropic in the interface plane.

  19. Doubly stochastic Poisson processes in EMARG with detection of. beta. particles and internal-conversion electrons emitted from a surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusov, V.D.; Zelentsova, T.N.; Grechan, V.I.; Semenov, M.Y.; Kravchenko, S.N.

    1985-12-01

    The form of the counting statistics is determined for detection of ..beta.. particles and internal-conversion electrons by a nuclear emulsion. It is shown experimentally for the first time that photographic detection of ..beta.. particles and internal-conversion electrons obeys a Neyman type-A distribution, and not a Poisson distribution as was previously assumed.

  20. Electronic measurements of ionization currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutyra, F.; Knapp, K.; Gregor, J. (Tesla, Premysleni (Czechoslovakia). Vyzkumny Ustav Pristroju Jaderne Techniky)

    1982-02-01

    Measurements are discussed of very low currents from ionization chambers. The currents range between 10/sup -15/ and 10/sup -9/ A. Two methods are discussed. A description is given of a dynamic and a semiconductor electrometers. Both meters are parts of dosimetric instruments for monitoring the dose rate (NB 9201) and the neutron-gamma mixed radiation dose rate (NDK 601).

  1. Carbon Nanotube Electron Sources: From Electron Beams to Energy Conversion and Optophononics

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Nojeh

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a host of properties that make them excellent candidates for electron emitters. A significant amount of research has been conducted on nanotube-based field-emitters over the past two decades, and they have been investigated for devices ranging from flat-panel displays to vacuum tubes and electron microscopes. Other electron emission mechanisms from carbon nanotubes, such as photoemission, secondary emission, and thermionic emission, have also been studied, although to a ...

  2. Electrochemical and conversion electron Moessbauer study of corrosion induced by acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertes, C.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Vertes, A. (Dept. of Physical Chemistry and of Nuclear Chemistry, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Meisel, W.; Guetlich, P. (Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Univ. Mainz (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    The passivation of low carbon steel was studied in aqueous solution of 0.5M Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]+0.001M NaHSO[sub 3] (pH 3.5, 6.5 and 8.5) which can be considered as a model of acid rain. The used conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) with the complementary electrochemical investigations proved that the sulfite ions induce pitting corrosion at pH 3.5 and 6.5, while the measurements showed much weaker pitting at pH 8.5. The compositions and thicknesses of the passive films formed during the electrochemical treatments are determined from the CEM spectra. Only [gamma]-FeOOH was found on the surface of the samples at pH 6.5 and 8.5. Nevertheless, at pH 3.5 the sextet belonging to Fe[sub 3]C appears in the spectra, and also FeSO[sub 4].H[sub 2]O could be detected in low concentration. (orig.).

  3. Medical electronics and physiological measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T.

    1989-07-01

    This article describes some recent developments in physiological measurement since the last `special issue' in 1978. Nine examples are given covering mature applications, new techniques and some `ideas for the future'. The need for good scientists in this interesting and challenging area is stressed. Physiological measurement is challenging because human physiology is complex. The examples described in this article illustrate some areas where cooperation between basic scientists, engineers, clinicians and, not least, patients has led to remarkable advances in our understanding of man and his physiology. Many challenges still lie ahead. There is no doubt that good quality graduates, with fresh minds and fresh enthusiasm, are needed to build on the foundation that has already been laid.

  4. Conversion electron study of {sup 110}Cd: Evidence of new E0 branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jigmeddorj, B.; Garrett, P.E.; Diaz Varela, A.; Bangay, J.C.; Demand, G.A.; Green, K.L.; Rand, E.T.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Svensson, C.E.; Wong, J. [University of Guelph, Department of Physics, Guelph, ON (Canada); Ball, G.C.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Hackman, G. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Cross, D.S. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Chemistry, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Kulp, W.D.; Wood, J.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leach, K.G. [University of Guelph, Department of Physics, Guelph, ON (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Orce, J.N. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of the Western Cape, Department of Physics, Bellville (South Africa); Triambak, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of the Western Cape, Department of Physics, Bellville (South Africa); iThemba LABS, Somerset West (South Africa); Yates, S.W. [University of Kentucky, Departments of Chemistry and Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Excited states of {sup 110}Cd were studied with conversion electron spectroscopy following the β{sup +}/EC decay of {sup 110}In. Internal conversion coefficients from K-shell electrons are extracted from γ - e{sup -} coincidences and compared with expected values for E1, M1, and E2 transitions, allowing the assignment of the transition multipolarities. The α{sub K} values for transitions connecting the 4{sup +} and 6{sup +} members of the deformed intruder band and the ground-state band show evidence for E0 components. The extracted ρ{sup 2}(E0).10{sup 3} value for the 4{sup +}{sub 3}→4{sup +}{sub 1} 708 keV transition is determined to be 106{sup +98}{sub -91}. (orig.)

  5. A Direct Power Electronic Conversion Topology for Multi-Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a two-stage converter topology consisting of a three-phase to two-phase matrix converter directly linked to a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) that provides Direct Power Electronic Conversion (DPEC) is analysed. A new topology for multi-drive applications is proposed where several VSI...... stages are directly linked to a rectification stage without using DC-link capacitors, providing similar performance as a matrix converter: sinusoidal input currents and bi-directional power flow....

  6. A Palladium-Binding Deltarhodopsin for Light-Activated Conversion of Protonic to Electronic Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Jessica; Hemmatian, Zahra; Josberger, Erik E; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of a palladium-binding peptide to an archaeal rhodopsin promotes intimate integration of the lipid-embedded membrane protein with a palladium hydride protonic contact. Devices fabricated with the palladium-binding deltarhodopsin enable light-activated conversion of protonic currents to electronic currents with on/off responses complete in seconds and a nearly tenfold increase in electrical signal relative to those made with the wild-type protein.

  7. Precise test of internal-conversion theory: transitions measured in five nuclei spanning 50≤Z≤78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J C; Nica, N; Iacob, V E; Miller, S; Maguire, M; Trzhaskovskaya, M B

    2014-05-01

    In a research program aimed at testing calculated internal-conversion coefficients (ICCs), we have made precise measurements of αK values for transitions in five nuclei, (197)Pt, (193)Ir, (137)Ba, (134)Cs and (119)Sn, which span a wide range of A and Z values. In all cases, the results strongly favor calculations in which the final-state electron wave function has been computed using a potential that includes the atomic vacancy created by the internal-conversion process.

  8. Preparation of {sup 114m}In low energy conversion electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, C., E-mail: wrede@uw.ed [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Filippone, B.W. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Garcia, A.; Harper, G.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lassell, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Liu, J. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Mendenhall, M.P. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Palmer, A.S.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pattie, R.W. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Will, D.I. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Young, A.R. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} Controlled ion implantation of In-113 into thin Al substrate. {yields} Production of In-114m (half life = 50 days) by neutron irradiation. {yields} Use of In-114m as a source of electron lines and continuum for calibrations. {yields} Source reactivation by short neutron irradiation. -- Abstract: The preparation of {sup 114m}In sources of conversion electrons in the energy range 162-190 keV and {beta} continuum with a 1989 keV endpoint via ion implantation of {sup 113}In into Al substrates and subsequent irradiation by thermal and epi-thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor is described.

  9. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  10. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  11. Energy Conversion Mechanism for Electron Perpendicular Energy in High Guide-Field Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuehan; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Cheng, Frank; Ono, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    The energy conversion mechanism for electron perpendicular energy, both the thermal and the kinetic energy, is investigated by means of two-dimensional, full-particle simulations in an open system. It is shown that electron perpendicular heating is mainly due to the breaking of magnetic moment conservation in separatrix region because the charge separation generates intense variation of electric field within the electron Larmor radius. Meanwhile, electron perpendicular acceleration takes place manly due to the polarization drift term as well as the curvature drift term of E . u⊥ in the downstream near the X-point. The enhanced electric field due to the charge separation there results in a significant effect of the polarization drift term on the dissipation of magnetic energy within the ion inertia length in the downstream. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows 15J03758.

  12. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  13. Applying a non-parametric efficiency analysis to measure conversion efficiency in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, M.; Broekel, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on Sen's capability approach, studies focusing on the empirical measurement of conversion factors are comparatively rare. We add to this field by adopting a measure of 'conversion efficiency' that captures the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved

  14. 40 CFR Table A-2 to Subpart A of... - Units of Measure Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units of Measure Conversions A Table A-2 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-2 to Subpart A of Part 98—Units of Measure Conversions To convert from To Multiply by Kilograms...

  15. Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J L; Torbert, R B; Phan, T D; Chen, L-J; Moore, T E; Ergun, R E; Eastwood, J P; Gershman, D J; Cassak, P A; Argall, M R; Wang, S; Hesse, M; Pollock, C J; Giles, B L; Nakamura, R; Mauk, B H; Fuselier, S A; Russell, C T; Strangeway, R J; Drake, J F; Shay, M A; Khotyaintsev, Yu V; Lindqvist, P-A; Marklund, G; Wilder, F D; Young, D T; Torkar, K; Goldstein, J; Dorelli, J C; Avanov, L A; Oka, M; Baker, D N; Jaynes, A N; Goodrich, K A; Cohen, I J; Turner, D L; Fennell, J F; Blake, J B; Clemmons, J; Goldman, M; Newman, D; Petrinec, S M; Trattner, K J; Lavraud, B; Reiff, P H; Baumjohann, W; Magnes, W; Steller, M; Lewis, W; Saito, Y; Coffey, V; Chandler, M

    2016-06-03

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.

  16. Electron exchanges in nuclear spin conversion of hydrogen physisorbed on diamagnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilisca, Ernest; Ghiglieno, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    Models are provided and discussed to interpret new experiments on the ortho-para conversion of hydrogen "physisorbed" on dielectric and diamagnetic surfaces. Electro-static and dynamical molecule-surface interactions complemented by hyperfine contacts are shown to be generally more effective than the magnetic ones. Coulomb repulsion induces exchanges of molecular and surface electrons and excites triplet spin states which are effective in the angular momenta transfers to the catalyst. The conversion time is obtained as the square of a ratio of two energies: the exchange and excitation ones. The main channel is found composed of triplet excitations of the order of the eV, induced by molecule-surface exchanges of about a hundred of meV. It explains the zinc and oxygen rates of about one minute observed on the MOF samples as well as the about ten times slower ones on the ASW. The same mechanism is also shown to occur in the transient regime, but faster. Finally it explains also the conversion of a few hours observed for interstitial hydrogen in silicium by transitions to the conduction band induced by about 10 meV electron exchanges. The molecule-surface orbital geometries of the MOF and ASW configurations are displayed and the quantum path when unfolded exhibits the successive broken symmetries.

  17. Muon conversion to electron in nuclei in type-I seesaw models

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Gavela, M B; Hambye, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We compute the muon to electron conversion in the type-I seesaw model, as a function of the right-handed neutrino mixings and masses. The results are compared with previous computations in the literature. We determine the definite predictions resulting for the ratios between the muon to electron conversion rate for a given nucleus and the rate of two other processes which also involve a mu-e flavour transition: mu -> e gamma and mu -> eee. For a quasi-degenerate mass spectrum of right-handed neutrino masses -which is the most natural scenario leading to observable rates- those ratios depend only on the seesaw mass scale, offering a quite interesting testing ground. In the case of sterile neutrinos heavier than the electroweak scale, these ratios vanish typically for a mass scale of order a few TeV. Furthermore, the analysis performed here is also valid down to very light masses. It turns out that planned mu -> e conversion experiments would be sensitive to masses as low as 2 MeV. Taking into account other exp...

  18. Influences of Uncaptured Electron on Energy Conversion of Photon Compton Scattering in High Power Laser-plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing-hua; HAO Xiao-fei; HAO Dong-shan

    2004-01-01

    Using the single particle theory and the non-flexibility collision model of electron and photon, the influence of the uncaptured electrons on the energy conversion efficiency of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering in the extra stationary laser-plasma is investigated. It shows that in extra stationary laser-plasma,the uncaptured electrons make the Δω of the scattering frequency of the multi-photon Compton fall down with the increases of the incident radiation electron speed,the materials of the incident collision of electron and photon, and the number of the photons which work with the electrons at the same time. Under the modulation of the uncaptured electrons to the laser field, the energy conversion efficiency between electrons and photons will fall down with the increase of the electron incident radiation speed, using the low-power electrons for incident source, the loss can be efficiently reduced.

  19. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses.

  20. Conversion from Single Photon to Single Electron Spin Using Electrically Controllable Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiwa, Akira; Fujita, Takafumi; Kiyama, Haruki; Allison, Giles; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    Polarization is a fundamental property of light and could provide various solutions to the development of secure optical communications with high capacity and high speed. In particular, the coherent quantum state conversion between single photons and single electron spins is a prerequisite for long-distance quantum communications and distributed quantum computation. Electrically defined quantum dots have already been proven to be suitable for scalable solid state qubits by demonstrations of single-spin coherent manipulations and two-qubit gate operations. Thus, their capacity for quantum information technologies would be considerably extended by the achievement of entanglement between an electron spin in the quantum dots and a photon. In this review paper, we show the basic technologies for trapping single electrons generated by single photons in quantum dots and for detecting their spins using the Pauli effect with sensitive charge sensors.

  1. $\\gamma$-ray polarimetry with conversions to $e^+e^-$ pairs: polarization asymmetry and the way to measure it

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the measurement of the polarization fraction, $P$, and the measurement of the polarization angle of partially linearly-polarized gamma rays using their conversion to $e^+e^-$ pairs in the field of a nucleus. We show that an inappropriate definition of the azimuthal angle, $\\varphi$, used to reference the orientation of the final state degrades the precision of the measurement of $P$, by comparison to the optimal case where the bisector angle of the electron and of the positron momenta is used. We then focus on the lowest part of the energy spectrum, below $\\approx 10\\,$MeV, where a large part of the statistics lie for a cosmic source. We obtain the value of the polarization asymmetry, $A$, of pair conversion at threshold and we show that in the case where the correct expression is used for $\\varphi$, the measured value of $A$ tends to the limit.

  2. Importance and Challenges of Electrochemical in Situ Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy for Energy Conversion Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnik, Nejc; Dehm, Gerhard; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2016-09-20

    The foreseeable worldwide energy and environmental challenges demand renewable alternative sources, energy conversion, and storage technologies. Therefore, electrochemical energy conversion devices like fuel cells, electrolyzes, and supercapacitors along with photoelectrochemical devices and batteries have high potential to become increasingly important in the near future. Catalytic performance in electrochemical energy conversion results from the tailored properties of complex nanometer-sized metal and metal oxide particles, as well as support nanostructures. Exposed facets, surface defects, and other structural and compositional features of the catalyst nanoparticles affect the electrocatalytic performance to varying degrees. The characterization of the nanometer-size and atomic regime of electrocatalysts and its evolution over time are therefore paramount for an improved understanding and significant optimization of such important technologies like electrolyzers or fuel cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) are to a great extent nondestructive characterization tools that provide structural, morphological, and compositional information with nanoscale or even atomic resolution. Due to recent marked advancement in electron microscopy equipment such as aberration corrections and monochromators, such insightful information is now accessible in many institutions around the world and provides huge benefit to everyone using electron microscopy characterization in general. Classical ex situ TEM characterization of random catalyst locations however suffers from two limitations regarding catalysis. First, the necessary low operation pressures in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-9) mbar for TEM are not in line with typical reaction conditions, especially considering electrocatalytic solid-liquid interfaces, so that the active state cannot be assessed. Second, and somewhat related, is the lack of time resolution for the

  3. Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William T.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

  4. γ-Ray polarimetry with conversions to e+e- pairs: Polarization asymmetry and the way to measure it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, P.; Bernard, D.

    2017-02-01

    We revisit the measurement of the polarization fraction, P, and of the polarization angle of partially linearly-polarized gamma rays using their conversion to e+e- pairs in the field of a nucleus. We show that an inappropriate definition of the azimuthal angle, φ, used to reference the orientation of the final state degrades the precision of the measurement of P, by comparison to the optimal case where the bisector angle of the electron and of the positron momenta is used. We then focus on the lowest part of the energy spectrum, below ≈ 10 MeV, where a large part of the statistics lie for a cosmic source. We obtain the value of the polarization asymmetry, A, of pair conversion at threshold and we show that in the case where the correct expression is used for φ, the measured value of A tends to the limit.

  5. Mode conversion and electron heating near the upper hybrid resonance frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.L.; Okuda, H.; Abe, H.

    1983-11-01

    Mode conversion near the upper hybrid resonance frequency and electron heating are studied using a one-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic particle code. It is found that for a sufficiently small pump field E/sub 0/, E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.01, electron heating is localized in a region near the electron cyclotron layer where the pump frequency is equal to the local electron gyrofrequency. For stronger pump fields, electron heating takes place more or less uniformly across a region between the upper hybrid resonance layer and the cyclotron layer. In addition, a significant fraction of electromagnetic energy associated with the pump is found to be reflected back into the vacuum from a region in the plasma near the upper hybrid resonance layer for both strong (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ approx. = 1) and weak pumps (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ << 1).

  6. Watching the dynamics of electrons and atoms at work in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton, S. E.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Pápai, M.; Corani, A.; Smeigh, A. L.; Smolentsev, G.; Attenkofer, K.; Jennings, G.; Kurtz, C. A.; Li, F.; Harlang, T.; Vithanage, D.; Chabera, P.; Bordage, A.; Sun, L.; Ott, S.; Wärnmark, K.; Sundström, V.

    2015-07-06

    The photochemical reactions performed by transition metal complexes have been proposed as viable routes towards solar energy conversion and storage into other forms that can be conveniently used in our everyday applications. In order to develop efficient materials, it is necessary to identify, characterize and optimize the elementary steps of the entire process on the atomic scale. To this end, we have studied the photoinduced electronic and structural dynamics in two heterobimetallic ruthenium–cobalt dyads, which belong to the large family of donor–bridge–acceptor systems. Using a combination of ultrafast optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, we can clock the light-driven electron transfer processes with element and spin sensitivity. In addition, the changes in local structure around the two metal centers are monitored. These experiments show that the nature of the connecting bridge is decisive for controlling the forward and the backward electron transfer rates, a result supported by quantum chemistry calculations. More generally, this work illustrates how ultrafast optical and X-ray techniques can disentangle the influence of spin, electronic and nuclear factors on the intramolecular electron transfer process. Finally, some implications for further improving the design of bridged sensitizer-catalysts utilizing the presented methodology are outlined.

  7. Watching the dynamics of electrons and atoms at work in solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, S E; Zhang, X; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Pápai, M; Corani, A; Smeigh, A L; Smolentsev, G; Attenkofer, K; Jennings, G; Kurtz, C A; Li, F; Harlang, T; Vithanage, D; Chabera, P; Bordage, A; Sun, L; Ott, S; Wärnmark, K; Sundström, V

    2015-01-01

    The photochemical reactions performed by transition metal complexes have been proposed as viable routes towards solar energy conversion and storage into other forms that can be conveniently used in our everyday applications. In order to develop efficient materials, it is necessary to identify, characterize and optimize the elementary steps of the entire process on the atomic scale. To this end, we have studied the photoinduced electronic and structural dynamics in two heterobimetallic ruthenium-cobalt dyads, which belong to the large family of donor-bridge-acceptor systems. Using a combination of ultrafast optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, we can clock the light-driven electron transfer processes with element and spin sensitivity. In addition, the changes in local structure around the two metal centers are monitored. These experiments show that the nature of the connecting bridge is decisive for controlling the forward and the backward electron transfer rates, a result supported by quantum chemistry calculations. More generally, this work illustrates how ultrafast optical and X-ray techniques can disentangle the influence of spin, electronic and nuclear factors on the intramolecular electron transfer process. Finally, some implications for further improving the design of bridged sensitizer-catalysts utilizing the presented methodology are outlined.

  8. Conversion of stacking fault tetrahedra to voids in electron irradiated Fe-Cr-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, S.; Sano, Y.; Yoshiie, T.; Yoshida, N.; Kiritani, M.

    1986-11-01

    Electron irradiations of the austenitic Fe-13Cr-14Ni alloy were performed with a high voltage electron microscope at temperatures between room temperature and 650 K. Formation of stacking fault tetrahedra, voids and dislocation loops was observed as vacancy clusters. At the lower temperatures, the dominant vacancy clusters were tetrahedra and at the higher temperatures, voids were dominant. In the temperature range at which both tetrahedra and voids were coexistent, conversion of tetrahedra to voids were observed. These results are interpreted as the preferable nucleation of voids at the site of tetrahedra. Local effects of dilatation field at the corner of tetrahedra and the segregation of solute atoms are considered to enhance the nucleation. Clustered defects which are considered to be stacking fault tetrahedra that are formed with D-T fusion neutrons in SUS 316 stainless steel are suggested as the preferable site for void nucleation.

  9. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, A., E-mail: armand.beche@fei.com [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rouviere, J.L. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.P.; Cooper, D. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-15

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Step by step explanation of the dark field electron holography technique. {yields} Presentation of the theoretical equations to obtain quantitative strain map. {yields} Description of experimental parameters influencing dark field holography results. {yields} Quantitative strain measurement on a SiGe layer embedded in a silicon matrix.

  10. 600-GHz Electronically Tunable Vector Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Robert; Maiwald, Frank; Siegel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A compact, high-dynamic-range, electronically tunable vector measurement system that operates in the frequency range from approximately 560 to approximately 635 GHz has been developed as a prototype of vector measurement systems that would be suitable for use in nearly-real-time active submillimeter-wave imaging. As used here, 'vector measurement system" signifies an instrumentation system that applies a radio-frequency (RF) excitation to an object of interest and measures the resulting amplitude and phase response, relative to either the applied excitatory signal or another reference signal related in a known way to applied excitatory signal.

  11. Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

  12. Third harmonic measurement in printed electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Samano, A; Xu, Y.; Harrison, D.; Hunt, C; Wickham, M; Thomas, O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the defects detecting technique in printed electronics by the third harmonic measurements. Various types of defects were introduced on the samples and the third harmonic signal was measured using a component linearity tester (Radiometer CLT1). The relationship between the defects in the printed samples and the third harmonic signal and the third harmonic ratio was identified.

  13. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  14. Electronic implementations of interaction-free measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirolli, L.; Strambini, E.; Giovannetti, V.; Taddei, F.; Piazza, V.; Fazio, R.; Beltram, F.; Burkard, G.

    2010-07-01

    Three different implementations of interaction-free measurements (IFMs) in solid-state nanodevices are discussed. The first one is based on a series of concatenated Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in analogy to optical-IFM setups. The second one consists of a single interferometer and concatenation is achieved in the time domain making use of a quantized electron emitter. The third implementation consists of an asymmetric Aharonov-Bohm ring. For all three cases we show that the presence of a dephasing source acting on one arm of the interferometer can be detected without degrading the coherence of the measured current. Electronic implementations of IFMs in nanoelectronics may play a fundamental role as very accurate and noninvasive measuring schemes for quantum devices.

  15. Deep genome-wide measurement of meiotic gene conversion using tetrad analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Sun

    Full Text Available Gene conversion, the non-reciprocal exchange of genetic information, is one of the potential products of meiotic recombination. It can shape genome structure by acting on repetitive DNA elements, influence allele frequencies at the population level, and is known to be implicated in human disease. But gene conversion is hard to detect directly except in organisms, like fungi, that group their gametes following meiosis. We have developed a novel visual assay that enables us to detect gene conversion events directly in the gametes of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this assay we measured gene conversion events across the genome of more than one million meioses and determined that the genome-wide average frequency is 3.5×10(-4 conversions per locus per meiosis. We also detected significant locus-to-locus variation in conversion frequency but no intra-locus variation. Significantly, we found one locus on the short arm of chromosome 4 that experienced 3-fold to 6-fold more gene conversions than the other loci tested. Finally, we demonstrated that we could modulate conversion frequency by varying experimental conditions.

  16. Conversion electron spectroscopy at the FMA focal plane: Decay studies of proton-rich N {approximately} 82 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The FMA has proven to be an ideal instrument for the detailed study of the decay of microsecond isomers behind the focal plane following mass selection. In reactions leading to the population of nuclei with isomeric lifetimes longer than their flight time through the device, decay gamma rays and conversion electrons can be detected in an environment free from the backgrounds of prompt radiation and delta electrons. This was a very successful technique to study proton (h{sub 11/2}){sup n} seniority isomers in nuclei with Z > 64 and N {approximately} 82. Since isomeric decay gamma rays are emitted isotropically, conversion electrons are essential for the assignment of multipolarities in these nuclei. Furthermore, the low-energy transitions that depopulate isomeric states are typically highly converted and can escape gamma-ray detection, but they can be identified by their conversion electrons.

  17. Measurement of Electron Cloud Effects in SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2004-01-01

    The electron cloud is not a new phenomenon, indeed, it was observed already in other machines like the proton storage rings in BINP Novosibirsk or in the Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR) at CERN. Inside an accelerator beam pipe, the electrons can collectively and coherently interact with the beam potential and degrade the performance of the accelerators operating with intense positively charged bunched beams. In the LHC, electron multipacting is expected to take place in the cold and warm beam pipe due to the presence of the high intensities bunched beams, creating an electron cloud. The additional heat load induced by the electron cloud onto the LHC beam screens of the cold magnets of the LHC bending sections (the arcs represent ~21 km in length) was, and is still, considered as one of the main possible limitation of LHC performances. Since 1997 and in parallel with the SPS studies with LHC-type beams, measurements in other machines or in the laboratory have been made to provide the input parameters required ...

  18. Relaxation time measurements by an electronic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, R.; Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a simple electronic system that permits the direct measurement of time constants of decaying signals. The system was used in connection with relaxation experiments on hydrogen and rubidium masers and was found to operate well. The use of a computing counter in the systems gives the possibility of making averages on several experiments and obtaining the standard deviation of the results from the mean. The program for the computing counter is given.

  19. Nanoscale triboelectric-effect-enabled energy conversion for sustainably powering portable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-12-12

    Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based on triboelectric effect has been proven to be simple, cost-effective, and robust. However, its output is still insufficient for sustainably driving electronic devices/systems. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) by utilizing the contact electrification between a polymer thin film and a metal thin foil. The working mechanism of the TENG was studied by finite element simulation. The output voltage, current density, and energy volume density reached 230 V, 15.5 μA/cm(2), and 128 mW/cm(3), respectively, and an energy conversion efficiency as high as 10-39% has been demonstrated. The TENG was systematically studied and demonstrated as a sustainable power source that can not only drive instantaneous operation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) but also charge a lithium ion battery as a regulated power module for powering a wireless sensor system and a commercial cell phone, which is the first demonstration of the nanogenerator for driving personal mobile electronics, opening the chapter of impacting general people's life by nanogenerators.

  20. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-08-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons have been calculated for approximately 500 radionuclides of potential importance in environmental radiological assessments. The dose-rate factors were obtained using the DOSFACTER computer code. The results given in this report incorporate calculation of electron dose-rate factors for radiosensitive tissues of the skin, improved estimates of organ dose-rate factors for photons, based on organ doses for monoenergetic sources at the body surface of an exposed individual, and the spectra of scattered photons in air from monoenergetic sources in an infinite, uniformly contaminated atmospheric cloud, calculation of dose-rate factors for other radionuclides in addition to those of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle, and incorporation of updated radioactive decay data for all radionuclides. Dose-rate factors are calculated for three exposure modes - immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface. The report presents the equations used to calculate the external dose-rate factors for photons and electrons, documentation of the revised DOSFACTER computer code, and a complete tabulation of the calculated dose-rate factors. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Neutron Flux Measurements in an ICRF Mode Conversion Regime Heating Plasmas on HT-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Ling; WAN Bao-Nian; ZHONG Guo-Qiang; HU Li-Qun; LIN Shi-Yao; ZHANG Xin-Jun; ZANG Qing

    2011-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating experiments using antenna, in the high Reid side (HFS) have been carried out on HT-7 in different target plasmas. Unlike a standard-mode conversion heating scheme with dominant electron heating, anomalous ion heating and DD neutron fluxes higher than those estimated from thermal ions were observed in the present experiments with the ion-ion hybrid resonant layer near the center of plasma. The features of ion cyclotron range frequency (ICRF) antenna in HFS and experiments suggest that this is most probably due to the nonlinear 3/2 harmonic deuterium heating by the mode-converted ion Bernstein wave, which could produce a high energy tail on ion energy distribution.%Ion cyclotron resonance heating experiments using antenna in the high field side (HFS) have been carried out on HT-7 in different target plasmas.Unlike a standard-mode conversion heating scheme with dominant electron heating,anomalous ion heating and DD neutron fluxes higher than those estimated from thermal ions were observed in the present experiments with the ion-ion hybrid resonant layer near the center of plasma.The features of ion cyclotron range frequency (ICRF) antenna in HFS and experiments suggest that this is most probably due to the nonlinear 3/2 harmonic deuterium heating by the mode-converted ion Bernstein wave,which could produce a high energy tail on ion energy distribution.Neutron diagnostics have been applied in ion cyclotron range frequency (ICRF) plasmas on HT-7 for measurements of the fusion reaction product,which give a direct measure of the ICRF heating.The neutron emission is recorded by a 3He proportional counter,whose sensitive size is φ30 mm × 300 mm,gas pressure is 49.34 kPa and the responsibility to thermal neutrons is 133 cps/n.cm-2.s-1.It exploits large reaction cross sections and is therefore embedded in polythene moderators to thermalize the incident neutrons.

  2. Measurement of conversion coefficients in normal and triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 167}Lu.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurdal, G.; Beausang, C. W.; Brenner, D. S.; Ai, H.; Casten, R. F.; Crider, B.; Heinz, A.; Williams, E.; Hartley, D. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Raabe, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Saladin, J. X.; Physics; Yale Univ.; Clark Univ.; Univ. of Richmond; United States Naval Academy; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Pittsburgh

    2008-01-01

    Internal conversion coefficients have been measured for transitions in both normal deformed and triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 167}Lu using the Gammasphere and ICE Ball spectrometers. The results for all in-band transitions are consistent with E2 multipolarity. Upper limits are determined for the internal conversion coefficients for linking transitions between TSD Band 2 and TSD Band 1, the n{sub w} = 1 and n{sub w} = 0 wobbling bands, respectively.

  3. Electronic communication in tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)/C60 systems: toward molecular solar energy conversion materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nazario; Sánchez, Luis; Herranz, María Angeles; Illescas, Beatriz; Guldi, Dirk M

    2007-10-01

    The covalent connection of the electron acceptor C 60 to p-quinonoid pi-extended tetrathiafulvalenes (exTTFs) has allowed for the preparation of new photo- and electroactive conjugates able to act as artificial photosynthetic systems and active molecular materials in organic photovoltaics. The gain of aromaticity undergone by the pi-extended TTF unit in the oxidation process results in highly stabilized radical ion pairs, namely, C 60 (*-)/exTTF (*+). Lifetimes for such charge-separated states, ranging from a few nanoseconds to hundreds of microseconds, have been achieved by rationally modifying the nature of the chemical spacers. These long-lived radical pairs are called to play an important role for the conversion of sunlight into chemical or electrical power.

  4. Using the Fermilab proton source for a muon to electron conversion experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Bogert, D.; DeJongh, F.; Geer, S.; McGinnis, D.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    The Fermilab proton source is capable of providing 8 GeV protons for both the future long-baseline neutrino program (NuMI), and for a new program of low energy muon experiments. In particular, if the 8 GeV protons are rebunched and then slowly extracted into an external beamline, the resulting proton beam would be suitable for a muon-to-electron conversion experiment designed to improve on the existing sensitivity by three orders of magnitude. We describe a scheme for the required beam manipulations. The scheme uses the Accumulator for momentum stacking, and the Debuncher for bunching and slow extraction. This would permit simultaneous operation of the muon program with the future NuMI program, delivering 10{sup 20} protons per year at 8 GeV for the muon program at the cost of a modest ({approx}10%) reduction in the protons available to the neutrino program.

  5. One-dimensional ordinary-slow extraordinary-Bernstein mode conversion in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingyu; Gao, Zhe; Jia, Guozhang

    2017-08-01

    The ordinary-slow extraordinary-Bernstein (O-SX-B) mode conversion in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies (ECRF) is revisited in slab geometry. The analytical formula of the O-SX conversion efficiency by Mjølhus is upgraded to include the magnetic field gradient, and the analytical expression of the SX-B conversion efficiency by Ram and Schultz is generalized for the case of oblique injection. Therefore, the conversion efficiency and optimal parallel refractive index for the whole O-SX-B conversion are obtained analytically and a shift of optimal parallel refractive index due to SX-FX loss is found. Full wave calculations are also presented to be compared with the analytical results.

  6. MOSSBAUER-SPECTROSCOPY OF YB-170 THROUGH INTERNAL-CONVERSION OF ELECTRONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAWICKI, JA; NIESEN, L

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the first observation of the Mossbauer scattering for the 84.3 keV gamma-ray transition in ytterbium Yb-170, made by detecting the low-energy electrons emitted after resonant absorption of gamma-rays. The measurements were performed in sideways scattering geometry using a 50 mCi

  7. Migration to Intermediate XML for Electronic Data (MIXED: Repository of Durable File Format Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Horik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS, the Dutch scientific data archive for the social sciences and humanities, is engaged in the Migration to Intermediate XML for Electronic Data (MIXED project to develop open source software that implements the smart migration strategy concerning the long-term archiving of file formats. Smart migration concerns the conversion upon ingest of specific kinds of data formats, such as spreadsheets and databases, to an intermediate XML formatted file. It is assumed that the long-term curation of the XML files is much less problematic than the migration of binary source files and that the intermediate XML file can be converted in an efficient way to file formats that are common in the future. The features of the intermediate XML files are stored in the so-called Standard Data Formats for Preservation (SDFP specification. This XML schema can be considered an umbrella as it contains existing formal descriptions of file formats developed by others. SDFP also contain schemata developed by DANS, for example, a schema for file-oriented databases. It can be used, for example, for the binary DataPerfect format, that was used on a large scale about twenty years ago, and for which no existing XML schema could be found. The software developed in the MIXED project has been set up as a generic framework, together with a number of plug-ins. It can be considered as a repository of durable file format conversions. This paper contains an overview of the results of the MIXED project.

  8. Identification of a millisecond isomeric state in {sup 129}Cd{sub 81} via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taprogge, J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Jungclaus, A., E-mail: andrea.jungclaus@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Grawe, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nishimura, S.; Xu, Z.Y.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nácher, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Simpson, G.S. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sumikama, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Baba, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Browne, F. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4JG (United Kingdom); RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukuda, N. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Gernhäuser, R. [Physik Department E12, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-11-10

    The decay of an isomeric state in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 129}Cd has been observed via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons providing first experimental information on excited states in this nucleus. The isomer was populated in the projectile fission of a {sup 238}U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. From the measured yields of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, a multipolarity of E3 was tentatively assigned to the isomeric transition. A half-life of T{sub 1/2}=3.6(2) ms was determined for the new state which was assigned a spin of (21/2{sup +}), based on a comparison to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions.

  9. Fast and accurate conversion of atomic models into electron density maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O.S. Sorzano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available New image processing methodologies and algorithms have greatly contributed to the signi cant progress in three-dimensional electron microscopy (3DEM of biological complexes we have seen over the last decades. Naturally, the availability of accurate procedures for the objective testing of new algorithms is a crucial requirement for the further advancement of the eld. A good and accepted testing work ow involves the generation of realistic 3DEM-like maps of biological macromolecules from which some measure of ground truth can be derived, ideally because their 3D atomic structure is already known. In this work we propose a very accurate generation of maps using atomic form factors for electron scattering. We thoroughly review current approaches in the eld, quantitatively demonstrating the bene ts of the new methodology. Additionally, we study a concrete example of the use of this approach for hypothesis testing in 3D Electron Microscopy.

  10. A New Cost-Effective Multi-Drive Solution based on a Two-Stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    of a protection circuit involving twelve diodes with full voltage/current ratings used only during faulty situations, makes this topology not so attractive. Lately, two stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion (DPEC) topologies have been proposed, providing similar functionality as a matrix converter but allowing...

  11. Measurements on power-conversion gain and noise ratio of the 1N26 crystal rectifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dymanus, A.; Bouwknegt, A.

    1960-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on power conversion gain G and noise ratio n of a number of 1N26 silicon rectifiers (Sylvania Co., U.S.A.) using well-known techniques. The noise ratio has been investigated both with microwave excitation (10−6-10−3 W at 24 GHz) and with DC-excitation by currents up

  12. The Conversion and operation of the Cornell electron storage ring as a test accelerator (cesrta) for damping rings research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, M.A.; Alexander, J.; Byrd, J.; Celata, C.M.; Corlett, J.; De Santis, S.; Furman, M.; Jackson, A.; Kraft, R.; Munson, D.; Penn, G.; Plate, D.; Rawlins, A.; Venturini, M.; Zisman, M.; Billing, M.; Calvey, J.; Chapman, S.; Codner, G.; Conolly, C.; Crittenden, J.; Dobbins, J.; Dugan, G.; Fontes, E.; Forster, M.; Gallagher, R.; Gray, S.; Greenwald, S.; Hartill, D.; Hopkins, W.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Livezey, J.; Lyndaker, A.; Medjidzade, V.; Meller, R.; Peck, S.; Peterson, D.; Rendina, M.; Revesz, P.; Rice, D.; Rider, N.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Savino, J.; Seeley, R.; Sexton, J.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J.; Smolenski, K.; Strohman, C.; Temnykh, A.; tigner, M.; Whitney, W.; Williams, H.; Vishniakou, S.; Wilkens, T.; Harkay, K.; Holtzapple, R.; Smith, E.; Jones, J.; Wolski, A.; He, Y.; Ross, M.; Tan, C.Y.; Zwaska, R.; Flanagan, J.; Jain, P.; Kanazawa, K.; Ohmi, K.; Sakai, H.; Shibata, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Kharakh, D.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

    2009-05-01

    In March of 2008, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) concluded twenty eight years of colliding beam operations for the CLEO high energy physics experiment. We have reconfigured CESR as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D. The primary goals of the CesrTA program are to achieve a beam emittance approaching that of the ILC Damping Rings with a positron beam, to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with both low emittance positron and electron beams, to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, and to develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies (in particular a fast x-ray beam size monitor capable of single pass measurements of individual bunches). We report on progress with the CESR conversion activities, the status and schedule for the experimental program, and the first experimental results that have been obtained.

  13. Academic discourse: Dissociating standardized and conversational measures of language proficiency in bilingual kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Kathleen F; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between performance on standardized measures of language proficiency and conversational measures of the same features used in academic discourse among 24 monolingual and 25 bilingual kindergarteners. Academic discourse performance was considered for both its linguistic and its genre features in two discourse forms: narrative and explanation. Bilinguals performed more poorly than monolinguals on standardized measures of language proficiency, yet they performed similarly to monolinguals in the discourse-based linguistic and genre features. Moreover, genre features were more strongly related to linguistic features assessed through discourse than to standardized tests of these same features. These findings indicate that standardized measures of language proficiency underrepresent the abilities of bilingual children and that children's second language proficiency may be more accurately reflected in conversation.

  14. A novel method to quantify the emission and conversion of VOCs in the smoking of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    An analytical technique was developed for the quantitation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in three different forms of electronic cigarette (EC): solution, vapor, and aerosol. Through the application of the mass change tracking (MCT) approach, the consumed amount of the solution was measured to track the conversion of targets between the different phases. The concentration of aerosol plus vapor (A&V) decreased exponentially (559 to 129 g m-3) with increasing puff velocity (0.05 to 1 L min-1). A strong correlation existed between sampling volume and consumed solution mass (R2 = 0.9972 ± 0.0021 (n = 4)). In the EC solution, acetic acid was considerably high (25.8 μg mL-1), along with trace quantities of some VOCs (methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, propionic acid, and i-butyric acid: 0.24 ± 0.15 μg mL-1 (n = 4)). In the aerosol samples, many VOCs (n-butyraldehyde, n-butyl acetate, benzene, xylene, styrene, n-valeric acid, and n-hexanoic acid) were newly produced (138 ± 250 μg m-3). In general, the solution-to-aerosol (S/A) conversion was significant: e.g., 1,540% for i-butyric acid. The emission rates of all targets computed based on their mass in aerosol/ consumed solution (ng mL-1) were from 30.1 (p-xylene) to 398 (methyl ethyl ketone), while those of carboxyls were much higher from 166 (acetic acid) to 5,850 (i-butyric acid).

  15. Integration of [(Co(bpy)₃]²⁺ electron mediator with heterogeneous photocatalysts for CO₂ conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinliang; Hou, Yidong; Zheng, Yun; Wang, Xinchen

    2014-09-01

    An efficient chemical system for electron generation and transfer is constructed by the integration of an electron mediator ([Co(bpy)3](2+); bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) with semiconductor photocatalysts. The introduction of [Co(bpy)3](2+) remarkably enhances the photocatalytic activity of pristine semiconductor photocatalysts for heterogeneous CO2 conversion; this is attributable to the acceleration of charge separation. Of particular interest is that the excellent photocatalytic activity of heterogeneous catalysts can be developed as a universal photocatalytic CO2 reduction system. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the integration of an electron mediator with semiconductors is a feasible process for the design and development of efficient photochemical systems for CO2 conversion.

  16. Structural conversion and intramolecular electron transfer in ferrocenylanthraquinones triggered by Keggin type of heteropoly acid serving as proton source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuxia; LI Dehui; SU Zhongmin; WANG Enbo

    2004-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer triggered by proton and the mechanism of structural conversion in a ethynylene-bridged ferrocene-anthraquinone organic electron donor(D)-acceptor(A) g-conjugated system (1-FcAq) in the presence of a Keggin type heteropoly acid as proton source are discussed. Heteropoly acids can stabilize the protonated ethynylene-bridged ferrocene-anthraquinone conjugated complex, and the stable protonated complex has been isolated in air and characterized by elemental analyses, IR,1H NMR, and CV. Upon the inducement of proton, electron transfer from ferrocene moiety (Fc) to anthraquinone moiety (Aq) causes the rearrangement of the conjugated system to create a fulvene-cumulene structuere.

  17. Development of a highly efficient conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) detector for low temperature (<20 K) measurements and tests on Fe / (Eu{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x})Te bilayers; Desenvolvimento de um detector de alta eficiencia para espectroscopia Moessbauer de eletrons de conversao (CEMS) a baixas temperaturas (<20K) e testes em bicamadas Fe / (Eu{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x})Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, Carlos Jose da Silva Matos

    2006-07-01

    The {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is a nuclear, non-destructive technique used for the investigation of structural, magnetic and hyperfine properties of several materials. It is a powerful tool in characterizing materials in physics, metallurgy, geology and biology field areas, especially magnetic materials, alloys and minerals containing Fe. Lately, the Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) is widely used in making studies on ultra-thin magnetic films, as well as other nanostructured materials. In case of magnetic nanostructures, low temperature (LT) studies are especially important due to the possibility of dealing with superparamagnetic effects. In this work it was developed a CEMS measurement system for low temperatures (<20 K) based on a solid-state electron multiplier (Channeltron{sup R}) and an optical cryostat (Model SVT-400, Janis Research Co, USA), from which the project was originally conceived at the Applied Physics / Moessbauer spectroscopy Department from University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany. The LT-CEMS system was fully built, tested and successfully applied in a preliminary characterization of Fe/(Eu{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x})Te(111) bilayers with use of a 15 angstrom, {sup 57} Fe probe layer, with reasonable results at sample temperatures as low as 8 K. (author)

  18. Electron localization functions and local measures of the covariance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul W Ayers

    2005-09-01

    The electron localization measure proposed by Becke and Edgecombe is shown to be related to the covariance of the electron pair distribution. Just as with the electron localization function, the local covariance does not seem to be, in and of itself, a useful quantity for elucidating shell structure. A function of the local covariance, however, is useful for this purpose. A different function, based on the hyperbolic tangent, is proposed to elucidate the shell structure encapsulated by the local covariance; this function also seems to work better for the electron localization measure of Becke and Edgecombe. In addition, we propose a different measure for the electron localization that incorporates both the electron localization measure of Becke and Edgecombe and the Laplacian of the electron density; preliminary indications are that this measure is especially good at elucidating the shell structure in valence regions. Methods for evaluating electron localization functions directly from the electron density, without recourse to the Kohn-Sham orbitals, are discussed.

  19. Dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic electrons incident on a realistic human eye model with different lens cell populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, P; Vaz, P [Technological and Nuclear Institute, Estrada Nacional No 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Zankl, M; Schlattl, H, E-mail: pedro.nogueira@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2011-11-07

    The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation-the germinative cells-absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV.

  20. Land Surface Albedos Computed from BRF Measurements with a Study of Conversion Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aku Riihelä

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Land surface hemispherical albedos of several targets have been resolved using the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF library of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI. The library contains BRF data measured by FGI during the years 2003–2009. Surface albedos are calculated using selected BRF datasets from the library. Polynomial interpolation and extrapolation have been used in computations. Several broadband conversion formulae generally used for satellite based surface albedo retrieval have been tested. The albedos were typically found to monotonically increase with increasing zenith angle of the Sun. The surface albedo variance was significant even within each target category / surface type. In general, the albedo estimates derived using diverse broadband conversion formulas and estimates obtained by direct integration of the measured spectra were in line.

  1. Recognition and measurement of potential share value of conversion for convertible bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To recognize and measure the potential share value of conversion for convertible bonds more accurately, different approaches such as the straight method, the separating method, the expected value approach and the improved approach are comparatively analyzed by taking China Merchants Bank's convertible bonds as an example. There is also a focus on the improved approach that views that convertible bond issue proceeds can be separated into accrual debt value, accrual equity value and accrual option value accor...

  2. Real-time single-shot electron bunch length measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wilke, I; Gillespie, W A; Berden, G; Knippels, G M H; Meer, A F G

    2002-01-01

    Linear accelerators employed as drivers for X-ray free electron lasers (FELs) require relativistic electron bunch with sub-picosecond bunch length. Precise bunch length measurements are important for the tuning and operation of the FELs. Previously, we have demonstrated that electro-optic detection is a powerful technique for sub-picosecond electron bunch length measurements. In those experiments, the measured bunch length was the average of all electron bunches within a macropulse. Here, for the first time, we present the measurement of the length of individual electron bunches using a development of our previous technique. In this experiment, the longitudinal electron bunch shape is encoded electro-optically on to the frequency spectrum of a chirped laser pulse. Subsequently, the laser pulse is dispersed by a grating and the spectrum is imaged with a CCD camera. Single bunch measurements are achieved by using a nanosecond gated camera, and synchronizing the gate with both the electron bunch and the laser pu...

  3. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  4. Electronic and vibrational spectroscopy of intermediates in methane-to-methanol conversion by CoO+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinay, Gokhan; Kocak, Abdulkadir; Silva Daluz, Jennifer; Metz, Ricardo B.

    2011-08-01

    At room temperature, cobalt oxide cations directly convert methane to methanol with high selectivity but very low efficiency. Two potential intermediates of this reaction, the [HO-Co-CH3]+ insertion intermediate and [H2O-Co=CH2]+ aquo-carbene complex are produced in a laser ablation source and characterized by electronic and vibrational spectroscopy. Reaction of laser-ablated cobalt cations with different organic precursors seeded in a carrier gas produces the intermediates, which subsequently expand into vacuum and cool. Ions are extracted into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and spectra are measured via photofragment spectroscopy. Photodissociation of [HO-Co-CH3]+ in the visible and via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) makes only Co+ + CH3OH, while photodissociation of [H2O-Co=CH2]+ produces CoCH2+ + H2O. The electronic spectrum of [HO-Co-CH3]+ shows progressions in the excited state Co-C stretch (335 cm-1) and O-Co-C bend (90 cm-1); the IRMPD spectrum gives νOH = 3630 cm-1. The [HO-Co-CH3]+(Ar) complex has been synthesized and its vibrational spectrum measured in the O-H stretching region. The resulting spectrum is sharper than that obtained via IRMPD and gives νOH = 3642 cm-1. Also, an improved potential energy surface for the reaction of CoO+ with methane has been developed using single point energies calculated by the CBS-QB3 method for reactants, intermediates, transition states and products.

  5. An experimental study on the conversion between IFPUG and UCP functional size measurement units#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J.CUADRADO-GALLEGO; Alain ABRAN; Pablo RODRGUEZ-SORIA; Miguel A.LARA

    2014-01-01

    The use of functional size measurement (FSM) methods in software development organizations is growing during the years. Also, object oriented (OO) techniques have become quite a standard to design the software and, in particular, Use Cases is one of the most used techniques to specify functional requirements. Main FSM methods do not include specific rules to measure the software functionality from its Use Cases analysis. To deal with this issue some other methods like Kramer’s functional measurement method have been developed. Therefore, one of the main issues for those organizations willing to use OO functional measurement method in order to facilitate the use cases count procedure is how to convert their portfolio functional size from the previously adopted FSM method towards the new method. The objective of this research is to find a statistical relationship for converting the software functional size units measured by the International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG) function point analysis (FPA) method into Kramer-Smith’s use cases points (UCP) method and vice versa. Methodologies for a correct data gathering are proposed and results obtained are analyzed to draw the linear and non-linear equations for this correlation. Finally, a conversion factor and corresponding conversion intervals are given to establish the statistical relationship.

  6. Nondestructive Measurement of Orbital Angular Momentum for an Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Bouchard, Frédéric; Grillo, Vincenzo; Sit, Alicia; Frabboni, Stefano; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-10-01

    Free electrons with a helical phase front, referred to as "twisted" electrons, possess an orbital angular momentum (OAM) and, hence, a quantized magnetic dipole moment along their propagation direction. This intrinsic magnetic moment can be used to probe material properties. Twisted electrons thus have numerous potential applications in materials science. Measuring this quantity often relies on a series of projective measurements that subsequently change the OAM carried by the electrons. In this Letter, we propose a nondestructive way of measuring an electron beam's OAM through the interaction of this associated magnetic dipole with a conductive loop. Such an interaction results in the generation of induced currents within the loop, which are found to be directly proportional to the electron's OAM value. Moreover, the electron experiences no OAM variations and only minimal energy losses upon the measurement, and, hence, the nondestructive nature of the proposed technique.

  7. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  8. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  9. Rocket-borne measurements of electron temperature and density with the Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I. J.; Widholm, M.; Lessard, M. R.; Riley, P.; Heavisides, J.; Moen, J. I.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Bekkeng, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Determining electron temperature in the ionosphere is a fundamentally important measurement for space science. Obtaining measurements of electron temperatures at high altitudes (>700 km) is difficult because of limitations on ground-based radar and classic spacecraft instrumentation. In light of these limitations, the rocket-borne Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer (ERPA) was developed to allow for accurate in situ measurement of ionospheric electron temperature with a simple and low-resource instrument. The compact ERPA, a traditional retarding potential analyzer with multiple baffle collimators, allows for a straightforward calculation of electron temperature. Since its first mission in 2004, it has amassed significant flight heritage and obtained data used in multiple studies investigating a myriad of phenomena related to magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. In addition to highlighting the scientific contributions of the ERPA instrument, this paper outlines its theory and operation, the methodology used to obtain electron temperature measurements, and a comparative study suggesting that the ERPA can also provide electron density measurements.

  10. Understanding Power Electronics and Electrical Machines in Multidisciplinary Wind Energy Conversion System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, M. J.; Barrero, F.; Pozo-Ruz, A.; Guzman, F.; Fernandez, J.; Guzman, H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy conversion systems (WECS) nowadays offer an extremely wide range of topologies, including various different types of electrical generators and power converters. Wind energy is also an application of great interest to students and with a huge potential for engineering employment. Making WECS the main center of interest when teaching…

  11. Understanding Power Electronics and Electrical Machines in Multidisciplinary Wind Energy Conversion System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, M. J.; Barrero, F.; Pozo-Ruz, A.; Guzman, F.; Fernandez, J.; Guzman, H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy conversion systems (WECS) nowadays offer an extremely wide range of topologies, including various different types of electrical generators and power converters. Wind energy is also an application of great interest to students and with a huge potential for engineering employment. Making WECS the main center of interest when teaching…

  12. Recent Progress in Piezoelectric Conversion and Energy Harvesting Using Nonlinear Electronic Interfaces and Issues in Small Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guyomar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an up-to-date review of nonlinear electronic interfaces for energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations using piezoelectric coupling. The basic principles and the direct application to energy harvesting of nonlinear treatment of the output voltage of the transducers for conversion enhancement will be recalled, and extensions of this approach presented. Latest advances in this field will be exposed, such as the use of intermediate energy tanks for decoupling or initial energy injection for conversion magnification. A comparative analysis of each of these techniques will be performed, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of the methods, in terms of efficiency, performance under several excitation conditions, complexity of implementation and so on. Finally, a special focus of their implementation in the case of low voltage output transducers (as in the case of microsystems will be presented.

  13. Measuring the Electron Temperature in the Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joseph; SaintCyr, Orville C.; Reginald, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    We report on an experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of a new method to obtain the electron temperature and flow speed in the solar corona by observing the visible Kcoronal spectrum during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Libya. Results show that this new method is indeed feasible, giving electron temperatures and speeds of 1.10 $\\pm$ 0.05 MK, 103.0 $\\pm$ 92.0 $kmsA{-l}$; 0.98 $\\pm$ 0.12 MK, 0.0 + 10.0 $kmsA{-1)s; 0.70 $\\pm$ 0.08 MK, 0.0 + 10.0 $kmsA{-l)$ at l.l{\\it R)$ {\\odot}$ in the solar north, east and west, respectively, and 0.93 $\\pm$ 0.12 MK, 0.0 + 10.0 $kmsA{-l}$ at 1.2{\\it R}$ {\\odot}$ in the solar east. This new technique could be easily used from a space-based platform in a coronagraph to produce two dimensional maps of the electron temperature and bulk flow speed at the base of the solar wind useful for the study of heliospheric structure and space weather.

  14. New Measurements Using External Photon Conversion at a High Luminosity B Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Ishino, H; Nakao, M; Yoshikawa, T

    2007-01-01

    We propose two novel methods for testing the standard model using external photon conversion at a high-luminosity e^+e^- B factory proposed recently. The first method is to measure the mixing-induced CP-violation parameter S_{pi^0pi^0} in B^0 --> pi^0 pi^0 decays. The precision of S_{pi^0pi^0} is estimated to be 0.23 from a Monte Carlo study for a data sample containing 50 x 10^9 BBbar pairs. We demonstrate that this measurement is crucial for reducing the discrete ambiguity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle phi_2 determined from the isospin analysis with B --> pi pi decays. The second method is to measure photon polarization in B^0 --> K^{*0}(--> K^+ pi^-) gamma decays using the external photon conversion, and combine it with S_{K^{*}gamma} from B^0 --> K^{*0}(--> K^0_S pi^0) gamma decays. This offers a promising way of determining the hypothetical right-handed current amplitude and phase beyond the standard model.

  15. Measurement Of The Isolated Direct Photon Cross Section With Conversions In Proton-antiproton Collisions At Center-of-mass Energy = 1.8 Tev

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, C R

    2002-01-01

    We present a measurement of the isolated direct photon cross section in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV using data collected between 1994 and 1995 by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The measurement is based on events where the photon converts into an electron-positron pair in the material of the inner detector, resulting in a two track event signature. To remove π0 → γγ and η → γγ events from the data we have developed a novel background subtraction technique based in electron E/p. The new measurement improves upon the statistical and systematic errors of conventional measurements at pT < 20 GeV. We find that the cross section is larger than next- to-leading order QCD predictions over the p T range studied. In addition, the conversion method results in a cross section 30–40% larger than previous CDF measurements.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of electro-optical and converse-piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pingping; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Jingjing; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Xianfeng; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2012-06-18

    A new scheme is proposed to measure the electro-optical (EO) and converse-piezoelectric (CPE) coefficients of the PMN-PT ceramics simultaneously, in which the PMN-PT ceramics acts as the guiding layer of a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. As the applied electric field exerts on the waveguide, the effective refractive index (RI) (or synchronous angle) can be effectively tuned from a selected mode to another adjacent mode owing to the high sensitivity and the small spacing of the ultra-high order modes. Subsequently, a correlation between EO and CPE coefficients is established. With this correlation and the measurement of the effective RI change to the applied voltage, the quadratic EO and CPE coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics are obtained simultaneously. The obtained results are further checked by fitting the variations of effective RI to a quadratic function. Our measurement method can be extended to a wide range of other materials.

  17. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  18. Nature of Electronically Excited States of Organic Compounds and Processes of Nonradiative Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, G. V.; Plotnikov, V. G.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.

    2016-08-01

    Models of quantum-chemical calculation of rate constants for internal processes and intersystem crossing in polyatomic molecules are considered. The influence of the nature of electronically excited states in organic compounds is investigated. It is shown that the explicit allowance for the nature of wave functions of electronic states for estimation of electronic matrix elements of nonadiabaticity operators and spin-orbit interaction allows photophysical processes in organic compounds to be considered in detail.

  19. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens: calculations including a whole body phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, R

    2013-07-01

    In this work, conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the eye lens were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed stylised eye model and a very simple but whole body phantom. These data supersede and complement data published earlier based on the simulation of only a single stylised eye. The new data differ from the old ones by not more than 3, 4, 7 and 16 % for angles of radiation incidence of α=0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, respectively, due to the inclusion of the whole body phantom. The data presented in the present work also complement those of a recent report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP Publication 116), where conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the lens of the eye are shown for solely 0°, 180° and isotropic radiation incidence (but for a much broader range of energies). In this article, values are provided for angles of incidence of 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° and for rotational geometry; no systematic deviation was observed from the values given in ICRP Publication 116 for 0° (based on the application of a bare eye) and 180° (based on the application of a voxel whole body phantom). Data are given for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 up to 10 MeV and for a broad parallel beam geometry in vacuum.

  20. Measuring the Cosmic Particle Radiation from electrons to actinides - CALET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Calet Collaboration; Hnx/Tigeriss Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope) was installed on the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) on for 24 August 2015. CALET measures the high-energy spectra of electrons, nuclei, and gamma-rays. CALET will extend direct measurements of the total electron spectrum into the trans-TeV energy range for the first time. In this paper, we well present the science and current status of CALET and initial observations from its first 1.5 years in orbit.

  1. Measuring Electronic Services in Public Libraries: Issues and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    Public library services are being modified or changed by the Internet. Questions about how to evaluate and measure electronic services have become increasingly important. This article presents an analysis of some ways to create, define, and institute electronic network measures. (Author/AEF)

  2. Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion and Spin-Polarization Filtering in Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Grillo, Vincenzo; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.044801

    2012-01-01

    We propose the design of a space-variant Wien filter for electron beams that induces a spin half-turn and converts the corresponding spin angular momentum variation into orbital angular momentum of the beam itself by exploiting a geometrical phase arising in the spin manipulation. When applied to a spatially coherent input spin-polarized electron beam, such a device can generate an electron vortex beam, carrying orbital angular momentum. When applied to an unpolarized input beam, the proposed device, in combination with a suitable diffraction element, can act as a very effective spin-polarization filter. The same approach can also be applied to neutron or atom beams.

  3. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  4. Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, M.; Finken, K. H.; Lehnen, M.; Willi, O.; Xu, Y.; the TEXTOR Team

    2012-05-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the total runaway electron energy are carried out using a reciprocating probe during induced TEXTOR disruptions. A comparison with the energy inferred from runaway energy spectra, which are measured with a scintillator probe, is used as an independent check of the results. A typical runaway current of 100 kA at TEXTOR contains 30 to 35 kJ of runaway energy. The dependencies of the runaway energy on the runaway current, the radial probe position, the toroidal magnetic field and the predisruptive plasma current are studied. The conversion efficiency of the magnetic plasma energy into runaway energy is calculated to be up to 26%.

  5. Precision electronics for ionization chamber measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santry, D.C.; Bowes, G.C.; Munzenmayer, K.

    1987-01-01

    By using commercially available units, an electrometer and an IBM personal computer, it was relatively inexpensive and simple to assemble a system which permits ..gamma..-ray-emitting radionuclide activities to be measured in an ionization chamber with an uncertainty of + - 0.5% and a reproducibility of + - 0.05%.

  6. Electron drift velocity measurements in liquid krypton-methane mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Folegani, M; Magri, M; Piemontese, L

    1999-01-01

    Electron drift velocities have been measured in liquid krypton, pure and mixed with methane at different concentrations (1-10% in volume) versus electric field strength, and a possible effect of methane on electron lifetime has been investigated. While no effect on lifetime could be detected, since lifetimes were in all cases longer than what measurable, a very large increase in drift velocity (up to a factor 6) has been measured.

  7. Emittance measurements of the CLIO electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, R.; Devanz, G.; Joly, P.; Kergosien, B.; Lesrel, J.

    1997-02-01

    We have designed a setup to measure the transverse emittance at the CLIO accelerator exit, based on the "3 gradients" method. The beam transverse size is measured simply by scanning it with a steering coil across a fixed jaw and recording the transmitted current, at various quadrupole strengths. A code then performs a complete calculation of the emittance using the transfer matrix of the quadrupole instead of the usual classical lens approximation. We have studied the influence of various parameters on the emittance: Magnetic field on the e-gun and the peak current. We have also improved a little the emittance by replacing a mismatched pipe between the buncher and accelerating section to avoid wake-field effects; The resulting improvements of the emittance have led to an increase in the FEL emitted power.

  8. Recent Stirling Conversion Technology Developments and Operational Measurements at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) project and other potential applications, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated convertor technology development efforts in the areas of acoustic emission, electromagnetic field mitigation, thermoacoustic Stirling conversion, and multiple-cylinder alpha arrangements of Stirling machines. The acoustic emission measurement effort was developed as a health monitoring metric for several Stirling convertors undergoing life testing. While accelerometers have been used in the past to monitor dynamic signature, the acoustic sensors were chosen to monitor cycle events, such gas bearing operation. Several electromagnetic interference (EMI) experiments were performed on a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). These tests demonstrated that a simple bucking coil was capable of reducing the alternating current (ac) magnetic field below the ASRG system specification. The thermoacoustic Stirling concept eliminates the displacer typically found in Stirling machines by making use of the pressure oscillations of a traveling acoustic wave. A 100 W-class thermoacoustic Stirling prototype manufactured by Northrop Grumman Space and Technology was received and tested. Another thermoacoustic prototype designed and fabricated by Sunpower, Inc., will be tested in the near future. A four cylinder free piston alpha prototype convertor was received from Sunpower, Inc. and has been tested at GRC. This hardware was used as a proof of concept to validate thermodynamic models and demonstrate stable operation of multiple-cylinder free-piston Stirling conversion. This paper will discuss each of these activities and the results they produced.

  9. P.U.R.E. (purposeful, unambiguous, respectful, and effective) Conversations and electronic fetal monitoring: gaining consensus and collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Larry; Larison, Kristine

    2010-11-01

    A revised nomenclature regarding electronic fetal heart rate monitoring was accepted at a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development consensus conference in 2008. At the heart of patient safety are communication strategies that enhance teamwork and collaboration between health care professionals. Communications is a complex 2-way process that involves more than transfer of factual information. P.U.R.E. (purposeful, unambiguous, respectful, and effective) Conversations in Obstetrics is an acronym that helps facilitate this communication process in perinatal care. P.U.R.E. stands for purposeful, unambiguous, respectful, and effective. The P.U.R.E. Conversations approach involves refinement of the mental processes associated with delivering the message, delivery of the message with data, accuracy, and direct requests for action, attention to relationships and behaviors between the communicating parties, and real-time assessment of the effectiveness of the communication. When the new electronic monitoring nomenclature is combined with an effective communication tool, one could expect to see a reduction in communication failures that could lead to adverse perinatal outcomes.

  10. Water-soluble phosphine-protected Au9 clusters: Electronic structures and nuclearity conversion via phase transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Shuhei

    2017-08-01

    In this article, isolation, exploration of electronic structures, and nuclearity conversion of water-soluble triphenylphosphine monosulfonate (TPPS)-protected nonagold (Au9) clusters are outlined. The Au9 clusters are obtained by the reduction of solutions containing TPPS and HAuCl4 and subsequent electrophoretic fractionation. Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis reveal the formation of [Au9(TPPS)8]5- nonagold cluster. UV-vis absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of aqueous [Au9(TPPS)8]5- are quite similar to those of [Au9(PPh3)8]3+ in organic solvent, so the solution-phase structures are likely similar for both systems. Simultaneous deconvolution analysis of absorption and MCD spectra demonstrates the presence of some weak electronic transitions that are essentially unresolved in the UV-vis absorption. Quantum chemical calculations for a model compound [Au9(pH3)8]3+ show that the possible (solution-phase) skeletal structure of the nonagold cluster has D2h core symmetry rather than C4-symmetrical centered crown conformation, which is known as the crystal form of the Au9 compound. Moreover, we find a new nuclearity conversion route from Au9 to Au8; that is, phase transfer of aqueous [Au9(TPPS)8]5- into chloroform using tetraoctylammonium bromide yields [Au8(TPPS)8]6- clusters in the absence of excess phosphine.

  11. The Conversion of CESR to Operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA, Part 3: Electron Cloud Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Billing, M G; Crittendan, J A; Greenwald, S; Li, Y; Meller, R E; Strohman, C R; Sikora, J P; Calvey, J R; Palmer, M A

    2015-01-01

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper is the third in a series of four describing the the conversion of CESR to the test accelerator, CesrTA. The first two papers discuss the overall plan for the conversion of the storage ring to an instrument capable of studying advanced accelerator physics issues and the details of the vacuum system upgrades. This paper focusses on the necessary development of new instrumentation, situated in four dedicated experimental regions, capable of studying such phe...

  12. A New Cost-Effective Multi-Drive Solution based on a Two-Stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    The matrix converter is a single stage AC/AC converter, which is able to provide sinusoidal PWM output voltages and input currents, inherent bi-directional power flow with no need of bulky DC-capacitors and large line inductors. However, the increased number of active switches (18) and the need o...... shared by many loads, making this topology more cost effective. The functionality of the proposed two-stage multi-drive direct power electronic conversion topology is validated by experiments on a realistic laboratory prototype.......The matrix converter is a single stage AC/AC converter, which is able to provide sinusoidal PWM output voltages and input currents, inherent bi-directional power flow with no need of bulky DC-capacitors and large line inductors. However, the increased number of active switches (18) and the need...... of a protection circuit involving twelve diodes with full voltage/current ratings used only during faulty situations, makes this topology not so attractive. Lately, two stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion (DPEC) topologies have been proposed, providing similar functionality as a matrix converter but allowing...

  13. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosaki, M.; Kawano, T.; Isozumi, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive 55Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH4 admixed dry air or N2. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 104) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O2 has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N2.

  14. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawano, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isozumi, Y. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive {sup 55}Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH{sub 4} admixed dry air or N{sub 2}. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 10{sup 4}) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O{sub 2} has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N{sub 2}.

  15. Measuring an electron beam's orbital angular momentum spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Grillo, incenzo; Venturi, Federico; Larocque, Hugo; Balboni, Roberto; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Lu, Peng-Han; Mafakheri, Erfan; Bouchard, Frédéric; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Boyd, Robert W; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Quantum complementarity states that particles, e.g. electrons, can exhibit wave-like properties such as diffraction and interference upon propagation. \\textit{Electron waves} defined by a helical wavefront are referred to as twisted electrons~\\cite{uchida:10,verbeeck:10,mcmorran:11}. These electrons are also characterised by a quantized and unbounded magnetic dipole moment parallel to their propagation direction, as they possess a net charge of $-|e|$~\\cite{bliokh:07}. When interacting with magnetic materials, the wavefunctions of twisted electrons are inherently modified~\\cite{lloyd:12b,schattschneider:14a,asenjo:14}. Such variations therefore motivate the need to analyze electron wavefunctions, especially their wavefronts, in order to obtain information regarding the material's structure~\\cite{harris:15}. Here, we propose, design, and demonstrate the performance of a device for measuring an electron's azimuthal wavefunction, i.e. its orbital angular momentum (OAM) content. Our device consists of nanoscale h...

  16. Cavity Control of a Single-Electron Quantum Cyclotron:\\\\Measuring the Electron Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneke, D; Gabrielse, G

    2010-01-01

    Measurements with a one-electron quantum cyclotron determine the electron magnetic moment, given by $g/2 = 1.001\\,159\\,652\\,180\\,73\\,(28)\\,[0.28~\\textrm{ppt}]$, and the fine structure constant, $\\alpha^{-1}=137.035\\,999\\,084\\,(51)\\,[0.37~\\textrm{ppb}]$. Brief announcements of these measurements are supplemented here with a more complete description of the one-electron quantum cyclotron and the new measurement methods, a discussion of the cavity control of the radiation field, a summary of the analysis of the measurements, and a fuller discussion of the uncertainties.

  17. Thermionic and Photo-excited Electron Emission for Energy Conversion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. McCarthy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes advances in thermionic and photoemission materials and applications dating back to the work on thermionic emission by Guthrie in 1873 and the photoelectric effect by Hertz in 1887. Thermionic emission has been employed for electron beam generation from Edison’s work with the light bulb to modern day technologies such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The photoelectric effect has been utilized in common devices such as cameras and photocopiers while photovoltaic cells continue to be widely successful and further researched. Limitations in device efficiency and materials have thus far restricted large-scale energy generation sources based on thermionic and photoemission. However, recent advances in the fabrication of nanoscale emitters suggest promising routes for improving both thermionic and photo-enhanced electron emission along with newly developed research concepts, e.g., photonically enhanced thermionic emission. However, the abundance of new emitter materials and reduced dimensions of some nanoscale emitters increases the complexity of electron emission theory and engender new questions related to the dimensionality of the emitter. This work presents derivations of basic two and three-dimensional thermionic and photoemission theory along with comparisons to experimentally acquired data. The resulting theory can be applied to many different material types regardless of composition, bulk and surface structure.

  18. The Content of Beginning Special Educators' Conversations with Their Electronic Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the frequency and content of text-based interactions between special education mentors (n = 22) and mentees (n = 50) within the Electronic Mentoring for Student Success Program (eMSS). Perceived outcomes of participants, based on an open ended survey question, were also analyzed. The Interstate Teacher Assessment…

  19. Effect of Electron Seeding on Experimentally Measured Multipactor Discharge Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Jonathan; Graves, Timothy; Lemon, Colby; Looper, Mark; Farkas, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Multipactor is a vacuum phenomenon in which electrons, moving in resonance with an externally applied electric field, impact material surfaces. If the number of secondary electrons created per primary electron impact averages more than unity, the resonant interaction can lead to an electron avalanche. Multipactor is a generally undesirable phenomenon, as it can cause local heating, absorb power, or cause detuning of RF circuits. In order to increase the probability of multipactor initiation, test facilities often employ various seeding sources such as radioactive sources (Cesium 137, Strontium 90), electron guns, or photon sources. Even with these sources, the voltage for multipactor initiation is not certain as parameters such as material type, RF pulse length, and device wall thickness can all affect seed electron flux and energy in critical gap regions, and hence the measured voltage threshold. This study investigates the effects of seed electron source type (e.g., photons versus beta particles), material type, gap size, and RF pulse length variation on multipactor threshold. In addition to the experimental work, GEANT4 simulations will be used to estimate the production rate of low energy electrons (< 5 keV) by high energy electrons and photons. A comparison of the experimental fluxes to the typical energetic photon and particle fluxes experienced by spacecraft in various orbits will also be made. Initial results indicate that for a simple, parallel plate device made of aluminum, there is no threshold variation (with seed electrons versus with no seed electrons) under continuous-wave RF exposure.

  20. Measuring Traces Of Oxygen By Resonant Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kin Fung; Boumsellek, Said; Chutjian, Ara

    1995-01-01

    Method of detecting trace amounts of oxygen based on dissociative attachment of electrons to oxygen molecules followed by measurement of resulting flux of negative oxygen ions in mass spectrometer. High sensitivity achieved in method by exploiting resonance in dissociative attachment of electrons to oxygen molecules: electron-attachment cross section rises to high peak at incident electron kinetic energy of 6.2 eV. Relative concentrations below 1 ppb detected. Devised to increase sensitivity of detection of oxygen in processing chambers in which oxygen regarded as contaminant; for example, chambers used in making semiconductor devices and in growing high-purity crystals.

  1. Measuring the Orbital Angular Momentum of Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzinati, Giulio; Béché, Armand; Verbeeck, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The recent demonstration of electron vortex beams has opened up the new possibility of studying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the interaction between electron beams and matter. To this aim, methods to analyze the OAM of an electron beam are fundamentally important and a necessary next step. We demonstrate the measurement of electron beam OAM through a variety of techniques. The use of forked holographic masks, diffraction from geometric apertures, diffraction from a knife-edge and the application of an astigmatic lens are all experimentally demonstrated. The viability and limitations of each are discussed with supporting numerical simulations.

  2. Research on Brightness Measurement of Intense Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Huang; Yang, GuoJun; Li, YiDing; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The mostly research fasten on high emission density of injector to study electron beam's brightness in LIA. Using the injector(2MeV) was built to research brightness of multi-pulsed high current(KA) electron beam, and researchs three measurement method (the pepper-pot method, beam collimator without magnetic field, beam collimator with magnetic field method) to detect beam's brightness with time-resolved measurement system.

  3. Measurement of Specimen Thickness by Using Electron Holography and Electron Dynamic Calculation with a Transmission Electron Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩国; 刘红荣; 杨奇斌; 张泽

    2003-01-01

    A method of transmission-electron microscopy for accurate measurement of specimen thickness has been proposed based on off-axis electron holography along with the dynamic electron diffraction simulation. The phase shift of the exit object wave with respect to the reference wave in vacuum, resulting from the scattering within the specimen, has been simulated versus the specimen thickness by the dynamic electron diffraction formula. Offaxis electron holography in a field emission gun transmission-electron microscope has been used to determine the phase shift of the exit wave. The specimen thickness can be obtained by match of the experimental and simulated phase shift. Based on the measured phase shift of the [110] oriented copper foil, the thickness can be determined at a good level of accuracy with an error less than ~10%.

  4. Superresolving Phase Measurement with Short-Wavelength NOON States by Quantum Frequency Up-Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Shi-Long; Liu, Shi-Kai; Li, Yin-Hai; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2017-06-01

    Precise measurements are the key to advances in all fields of science. Quantum entanglement shows higher sensitivity than that which is achievable by classical methods. Most physical quantities including position, displacement, distance, angle, and optical path length can be obtained by optical phase measurements. Reducing the photon wavelength of the interferometry can further enhance the optical-path-length sensitivity and imaging resolution. By quantum frequency up-conversion, we realize a short-wavelength two-photon number entangled state. Nearly perfect Hong-Ou-Mandel interference is achieved after both 1547-nm photons are up-converted to 525 nm. Optical phase measurement of the two-photon entanglement state yields a visibility greater than the threshold to surpass the standard quantum limit. A spectra change of the photon pair after being up-converted is observed and well explained. These results offer alternative ways for high-precision quantum metrology using a short-wavelength quantum entanglement number state and offer a potential all-optical spectra engineering technique for the photon pair source.

  5. 3 dimensional ionospheric electron density reconstruction based on GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, C.; Schlüter, S.; Jacobi, C.; Jakowski, N.

    When radio waves as sended by the naviagtion system GPS are passing through the ionosphere they are subject to delays in phase, travel time and polarisation which is an effect of the free electrons. The measured integrated value of Total Electron Content can be utilised for three-dimensional reconstruction of electron density patterns in the ionosphere. Here a tomographic approach is represented. Scince the distribution of data is very sparse and patchy we decided for an algebraic iterative algorithm. The ground based GPS data collected by IGS receivers can be combined by space based GPS of radio limb sounding, incoherent scatter radar and ionosondes data. Hereby, radio occultation data improve beside the amount of available data especially the vertical resolution of electron density distribution. Ionosonde peack electron densities are taken as stop criteria determination for iteration. Reconstructed ionospheric scenarios and validations of the system by independent measurements are presented.

  6. Emittance measurements for the Illinois/CEBAF polarized electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, B.M.; Cardman, L.S. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Sinclair, C.K. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The transverse thermal properties of the electrons photoemitted from GaAs determine the intrinsic beam emittance, an important quantity in applications such as polarized electron sources and high-brightness sources. In this paper, emittance measurements using the Illinois/CEBAF polarized electron source are described. The emittance was measured as a function of both the laser beam spot size and laser wavelength at low currents. The data was used to infer the transverse thermal energy of the electrons photoemitted from GaAs for wavelengths between 514 and 840 nm. Near the bandgap the transverse energy is {approximately}34 meV, a factor of 3 lower than that of the beam from a typical thermionic electron gun. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. High resolution measurements of the electron scattering for applications in electron microscopy and Monte-Carlo simulations of electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, D

    2000-01-01

    scanning electron microscope is examined. By means of the scattering at mono-crystalline samples the influence of channeling (anomalous absorption and transmission) on backscattered electron spectra is shown. Captions are given in English language. This work presents high resolution measurements of the energy and complete angular distribution of the scattering of 20 keV electrons (energy resolution 0.55%). The examinations include take-off angles close to the target surface and non-perpendicular incidences of electrons partly for the first time. The results are of interest for the understanding of fundamental scattering processes, the interpretation of signals and new detector systems in electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy. Furthermore, they are used for the verification of electron scattering models and simulations. The applied compact electrostatic spectrometers with spherical and toroidal geometries are characterized and compared. High resolution spectra are obtained by deconvolution of the measu...

  8. Measurement of ion and electron drift velocity and electronic attachment in air for ionization chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Boissonnat, Guillaume; Colin, Jean; Remadi, Aurelien; Salvador, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Air-ionization chambers have been used in radiotherapy and particle therapy for decades. However, fundamental parameters in action in the detector responses are sparsely studied. In this work we aimed to measure the electronic attachment, electrons and ions mobilities of an ionization chamber (IC) in air. The main idea is to extract these from the actual response of the IC to a single ionizing particle in order to insure that they were measured in the same condition they are to be used while neglecting undesired phenomena: recombination and space charge effect. The non-standard signal shape analysis performed here were also confronted to a more standard drift chamber measurements using time-of-flight. It was found that both detectors displayed compatible results concerning positive and negative ions drift velocities where literature data is well spread out. In the same time, electron attachment measurements sit in the middle of known measurements while electron drift velocities seemed to show an offset compar...

  9. L-SHELL IONIZATION MEASUREMENT OF TUNGSTEN BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG XIU-FENG; HE FU-QING; LONG XIAN-GUAN

    2000-01-01

    L-shell partial production cross sections of Lα- , Lβ-, Lγ- rays by electron impact were measured by observing the counts of X-ray from impacted thin tungsten target. Total production cross sections and mean ionization cross sections were deduced from these measured results. The electron beam energy range was from 11 to 36 keV. Tungsten was sputtered onto a carbon backing to reduce bremsstrahlung of the backing. The effect of electrons reflected by the backing has been corrected. Comparison with two theoretical calculations has performed. The experimental results agree rather well with the theoretical predications.

  10. Measurement of Electron Clouds in Large Accelerators by Microwave Dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, S.; Byrd, J.M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Caspers, F.; /CERN; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC; Kroyer, T.; /CERN; Pivi, M.T.F.; /SLAC; Sonnad, K.G.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2008-03-19

    Clouds of low energy electrons in the vacuum beam pipes of accelerators of positively charged particle beams present a serious limitation for operation at high currents. Furthermore, it is difficult to probe their density over substantial lengths of the beam pipe. We have developed a novel technique to directly measure the electron cloud density via the phase shift induced in a TE wave transmitted over a section of the accelerator and used it to measure the average electron cloud density over a 50 m section in the positron ring of the PEP-II collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  11. CESR Conversion Damping Ring Studies of Electron Cloud Instabilities (CESR-TA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, David L.; Palmer, Mark A.

    2011-08-02

    In the International Linear Collider, two linear accelerators will accelerate bunches of positrons and electrons to over a hundred billion electron volts and collide them in a central detector. In order to obtain useful collision rates, the bunches, each containing twenty billion particles, must be compressed to a cross section of a few nanometers by a few hundred nanometers. In order to prepare these ultra high density bunches, damping rings (DRs) are employed before the linear accelerators. The DRs take the high emittance bunches that are provided by the electron and positron sources and, through the process of radiation damping, squeeze them into ultra low emittance beams that are ready for the main linear accelerators. In the damping rings, a number of effects can prevent the successful preparation of the beams. In the electron ring, an effect known as the fast ion instability can lead to beam growth and, in the positron ring, the build-up of an electron cloud (EC), which interacts with the circulating bunches, can produce the same effect. EC build-up and the subsequent interaction of the cloud with the positron beam in the DR have been identified as major risks for the successful construction of a linear collider. The CESRTA research program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in order to study the build-up of the EC, the details of its impact on ultra low emittance beams, as well as methods to mitigate the impact of the cloud. In the DR, the EC forms when synchrotron photons radiated from the circulating beam strike the walls of the vacuum chamber, resulting in the emission of photoelectrons. These low energy electrons can be accelerated across the vacuum chamber by the electric field of the beam, and strike the walls, causing the emission of secondary electrons. The secondary electrons are subsequently accelerated into the walls yet again via the same mechanism. The result is that the EC can rapidly begin to fill the vacuum chamber. In

  12. Light-Induced Conversion of Chemical Permeability to Enhance Electron and Molecular Transfer in Nanoscale Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balgley, Renata; de Ruiter, Graham; Evmenenko, Guennadi; Bendikov, Tatyana; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E.

    2016-12-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate how photochemically enhancing the permeability of metal–organic assemblies results in a significant enhancement of the electrochemical activity of metal complexes located within the assembly. The molecular assemblies consist of different layers of redox-active metal complexes ([M(mbpy-py)3][PF6]2; M = Ru or Os) that are separated by redox-inactive spacers consisting of 1,4-bis[2-(4-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene (BPEB) and PdCl2 of variable thicknesses (0–13.4 nm). UV-irradiation (λ = 254 nm) of our assemblies induces a photochemical reaction in the redox-inactive spacer increasing the permeability of the assembly. The observed increase was evident by trapping organic (nBu4NBF4) and inorganic (NiCl2) salts inside the assemblies, and by evaluating the electrochemical response of quinones absorbed inside the molecular assemblies before and after UV irradiation. The increase in permeability is reflected by higher currents and a change in the directionality of electron transfer, i.e., from mono- to bidirectional, between the redox-active metal complexes and the electrode surface. The supramolecular structure of the assemblies dominates the overall electron transfer properties and overrules possible electron transfer mediated by the extensive π-conjugation of its individual organic components.

  13. Local charge measurement using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Gontard, L.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.0E.

    2016-01-01

    A model-independent approach based on Gauss’ theorem for measuring the local charge in a specimen from an electron-optical phase image recorded using off-axis electron holography was recently proposed. Here, we show that such a charge measurement is reliable when it is applied to determine...... the total charge enclosed within an object. However, the situation is more complicated for a partial charge measurement when the integration domain encloses only part of the object. We analyze in detail the effects on charge measurement of the mean inner potential of the object, of the presence of induced...

  14. Measurement of Longitudinal Electron Diffusion in Liquid Argon

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yichen; Thorn, Craig; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Joshi, Jyoti; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William; Rao, Triveni; Stewart, Jim; Tang, Wei; Viren, Brett

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion coefficients in liquid argon for electric fields between 100 and 2000 V/cm with a gold photocathode as a bright electron source. The measurement principle, apparatus, and data analysis are described. Our results, which are consistent with previous measurements in the region between 100 to 350 V/cm [1] , are systematically higher than the prediction of Atrazhev-Timoshkin[2], and represent the world's best measurement in the region between 350 to 2000 V/cm. The quantum efficiency of the gold photocathode, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion coefficients in gas argon are also presented.

  15. Development of High Power Electron Beam Measuring and Analyzing System for Microwave Vacuum Electron Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, C. J.; Wu, X. L.; Li, Q. S.; Li, C. S.

    The measurement and analysis of high power electron beam during its formation and transmission are the basic scientific problems and key techniques for the development of high performance microwave vacuum electron devices, which are widely used in the fields of military weapon, microwave system and scientific instruments. In this paper, the dynamic parameters measurement and analysis system being built in Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) recently are introduced. The instrument are designed to determine the cross-section, the current density, and the energy resolution of the high power electron beam during its formation and transmission process, which are available both for the electron gun and the electron optics system respectively. Then the three dimension trajectory images of the electron beam can be rebuilt and display with computer controlled data acquisition and processing system easily. Thus, much more complicated structures are considered and solved completely to achieve its detection and analysis, such as big chamber with 10-6 Pa high vacuum system, the controlled detector movement system in axis direction with distance of 600 mm inside the vacuum chamber, the electron beam energy analysis system with high resolution of 0.5%, and the electron beam cross-section and density detector using the YAG: Ce crystal and CCD imaging system et al. At present, the key parts of the instrument have been finished, the cross-section experiment of the electron beam have been performed successfully. Hereafter, the instrument will be used to measure and analyze the electron beam with the electron gun and electron optics system for the single beam and multiple beam klystron, gyrotron, sheet beam device, and traveling wave tube etc. thoroughly.

  16. Absolute activity measurement of the electron-capture-based radionuclides Ce-139, I-125, Ir-192 and Zn-65 by liquid scintillation coincidence counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available measurements formed part of a regional comparison organized by the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP). Since Ce-139 decays simply by electron-capture to the 166 keV excited state of 139La. This state de-excites through the emission of conversion electrons...

  17. B factory via conversion of 1 TeV electron beams into 1 TeV photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mtingwa, S.K.; Strikman, M.

    1989-01-01

    We derive formulae which describe the interaction of laser beams with electron beams. Specializing to the case of 1 TeV electron beams from the future generation of electron linear accelerators, we calculate the production rate of backscattered 1 TeV photons, and using these photons, we show that it is possible to organize the photoproduction of beauty particles so as to measure 10/sup 9/b/bar b/ pairs per year. This should be adequate to study rare decays and CP violation in B meson decay. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Electron cyclotron emission measurements at the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichardt, Gabriel; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Koehn, Alf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements in the magnetised plasmas of the stellarator TJ-K are currently performed by means of Langmuir probes. The use of these probes is restricted to relatively low temperatures and the measurement of temperature profiles requires the acquisition of the local current-voltage characteristics which limits strongly the sampling rate. As an alternative, T{sub e} can be measured using the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) that is generated by the gyration of electrons in magnetised plasmas. Magnetic field gradients in the plasma lead to a spatial distribution of emission frequencies and thus the measured intensity at a given frequency can be related to its point of origin. The T{sub e} dependence of the intensity then leads to a temperature profile along the line of sight for Maxwellian velocity distributions. A diagnostic system for T{sub e} measurements using ECE is currently being set up at TJ-K. When non-thermal electrons are present the emission spectrum changes dramatically. Therefore, the ECE can also be used to investigate the contribution of fast electrons to previously observed toroidal net currents in TJ-K. Simulations are used to examine the role of electron drift orbits in generating these currents.

  19. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron tempe

  20. A hot-electron thermophotonic solar cell demonstrated by thermal up-conversion of sub-bandgap photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Daniel J; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Wang, Yunpeng; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2015-11-06

    The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity can be broadly separated into two main categories: photovoltaics and thermal photovoltaics, where the former utilizes gradients in electrical potential and the latter thermal gradients. Conventional thermal photovoltaics has a high theoretical efficiency limit (84%) but in practice cannot be easily miniaturized and is limited by the engineering challenges of sustaining large (>1,000 K) temperature gradients. Here we show a hot-carrier-based thermophotonic solar cell, which combines the compact nature of photovoltaic devices with the potential to reach the high-efficiency regime of thermal photovoltaics. In the device, a thermal gradient of 500 K is established by hot electrons, under Stokes illumination, rather than by raising the temperature of the material itself. Under anti-Stokes (sub-bandgap) illumination we observe a thermal gradient of ∼20 K, which is maintained by steady-state Auger heating of carriers and corresponds to a internal thermal up-conversion efficiency of 30% between the collector and solar cell.

  1. Enhancement of Electron Transfer in Various Photo-Assisted Oxidation Processes for Nitro-Phenolic Compound Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Do Ngoc; Lam, Tran Dai; Minh, Do Binh; Loi, Vu Duc; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Bach, Vu Quang; Van Anh, Nguyen; Van Hoang, Nguyen; Hu'ng, Dao Duy

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on photo-assisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with strongly enhanced electron transfer for degradation of nitro-phenolic compounds in aqueous medium. The effectiveness of these processes was estimated based on the pseudo-first order rate constant k determined from high-performance liquid chromatography. The degradation of four different nitro-phenolic compounds was systematically studied using selected AOPs; these four compounds were nitrophenol, dinitrophenol, trinitrophenol and trinitroresorcin. It was observed that the combination of ultraviolet light with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 enhanced and maintained hydroxyl radicals, and therefore increased the conversion yield of organic pollutants. These AOPs provided efficient and green removal of stable organic toxins found in a wide range of industrial wastewater.

  2. A direct current rectification scheme for microwave space power conversion using traveling wave electron acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of the Vision-21 conference held three years ago allowed the present author to reflect and speculate on the problem of converting electromagnetic energy to a direct current by essentially reversing the process used in traveling wave tubes that converts energy in the form of a direct current to electromagnetic energy. The idea was to use the electric field of the electromagnetic wave to produce electrons through the field emission process and accelerate these electrons by the same field to produce an electric current across a large potential difference. The acceleration process was that of cyclotron auto-resonance. Since that time, this rather speculative ideas has been developed into a method that shows great promise and for which a patent is pending and a prototype design will be demonstrated in a potential laser power beaming application. From the point of view of the author, a forum such as Vision-21 is becoming an essential component in the rather conservative climate in which our initiatives for space exploration are presently formed. Exchanges such as Vision-21 not only allows us to deviate from the 'by-the-book' approach and rediscover the ability and power in imagination, but provides for the discussion of ideas hitherto considered 'crazy' so that they may be given the change to transcend from the level of eccentricity to applicability.

  3. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-15

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 {mu}m precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  4. Development of an Accommodation-Dependent Eye Model and Studying the Effects of Accommodation on Electron and Proton Dose Conversion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP has provided a comprehensive discussion on threshold dose for radiation-induced cataract in ICRP publication 116. Accordingly, various parts of the eye lens have different radio-sensitivities. Recently, some studies have been performed to develop a realistic eye model with the aim of providing accurate estimation of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for different parts of the eye. However, the effect of accommodation, which changes the lens shape and pupil size, on dose conversion coefficients has not been considered yet. In this study, we purport to develop an accommodation-dependent eye model and to study the effects of accommodation on the electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Materials and Methods Herein, a modified eye model was developed by considering the effects of accommodation on the lens shape and pupil size. In addition, MCNPX 2.6 Monte Carlo transport code was used to calculate the effects of  eye lens accommodation on electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Results Calculation of dose conversion coefficients demonstrated that the accommodation causes up to 40% discrepancy for fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons in the range of 600 to 800 keV, which is due to the change of eye lens shape during the accommodation of the eye. Conclusion Since the accommodation of the eye change the lens shape and pupil size, it has considerable effect on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons at some ranges of incident particle energies that should be considered in simulation. However, the fluctuation of dose conversion coefficients of protons is negligible.

  5. Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, C., E-mail: c.dwyer@fz-juelich.de; Boothroyd, C.B.; Chang, S.L.Y.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E.

    2015-01-15

    It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1 nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence. - Highlights: • We demonstrate how three-wave electron vortex lattices can be generated using two electron biprisms in the TEM. • The optical setup can be used to measure nanoscale electromagnetic fields via vortex interferometry. • The presence of vortices is verified explicitly by using a third biprism to perform phase measurements. • The accuracy of vortex position measurements and the requirements of spatial coherence are discussed.

  6. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  7. Non-contact temperature measurement requirements for electronic materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements for non-contact temperature measurement capabilities for electronic materials processing in space are assessed. Non-contact methods are probably incapable of sufficient accuracy for the actual absolute measurement of temperatures in most such applications but would be useful for imaging in some applications.

  8. Imaging and Measuring Electron Beam Dose Distributions Using Holographic Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images and measur......Holographic interferometry was used to image and measure ionizing radiation depth-dose and isodose distributions in transparent liquids. Both broad and narrowly collimated electron beams from accelerators (2–10 MeV) provided short irradiation times of 30 ns to 0.6 s. Holographic images...... and measurements of absorbed dose distributions were achieved in liquids of various densities and thermal properties and in water layers thinner than the electron range and with backings of materials of various densities and atomic numbers. The lowest detectable dose in some liquids was of the order of a few k...

  9. Conversion of electronic to magnonic spin current at a heavy-metal magnetic-insulator interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Zhou, Zhen-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Zeng, Zhong-ming; Chotorlishvili, L.; Berakdar, J.; Guo, Guang-hua

    2017-01-01

    Electronic spin current is convertible to magnonic spin current via the creation or annihilation of thermal magnons at the interface of a magnetic insulator and a metal with a strong spin-orbital coupling. So far this phenomenon was evidenced in the linear regime. Based on analytical and full-fledged numerical results for the nonlinear regime we demonstrate that the generated thermal magnons or magnonic spin current in the insulator is asymmetric with respect to the charge current direction in the metal and exhibits a nonlinear dependence on the charge current density, which is explained by the tuning effect of the spin Hall torque and the magnetization damping. The results are also discussed in light of, and are in line with, recent experiments pointing to a new way of nonlinear manipulation of spin with electrical means.

  10. Elucidating energy and electron transfer dynamics within molecular assemblies for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morseth, Zachary Aaron

    The use of sunlight to make chemical fuels (i.e. solar fuels) is an attractive approach in the quest to develop sustainable energy sources. Using nature as a guide, assemblies for artificial photosynthesis will need to perform multiple functions. They will need to be able to harvest light across a broad region of the solar spectrum, transport excited-state energy to charge-separation sites, and then transport and store redox equivalents for use in the catalytic reactions that produce chemical fuels. This multifunctional behavior will require the assimilation of multiple components into a single macromolecular system. A wide variety of different architectures including porphyrin arrays, peptides, dendrimers, and polymers have been explored, with each design posing unique challenges. Polymer assemblies are attractive due to their relative ease of production and facile synthetic modification. However, their disordered nature gives rise to stochastic dynamics not present in more ordered assemblies. The rational design of assemblies requires a detailed understanding of the energy and electron transfer events that follow light absorption, which can occur on timescales ranging from femtoseconds to hundreds of microseconds, necessitating the use of sophisticated techniques. We have used a combination of time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies with observation times that span nine orders of magnitude to follow the excited-state evolution within single-site and polymer-based molecular assemblies. We complement experimental observations with electronic structure calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and kinetic modeling to develop a microscopic view of these dynamics. This thesis provides an overview of work on single-site molecular assemblies and polymers decorated with pendant chromophores, both in solution and on surfaces. This work was made possible through extensive collaboration with Dr. Kirk Schanze's and Dr. John Reynolds' research groups who

  11. Electron Identification Performance and First Measurement of $W \\to e + \

    CERN Document Server

    Ueno, Rynichi

    2010-01-01

    The identification of electrons is important for the ATLAS experiment because electrons are present in many interactions of interest produced at the Large Hadron Collider. A deep knowledge of the detector, the electron identification algorithms, and the calibration techniques are crucial in order to accomplish this task. This thesis work presents a Monte Carlo study using electrons from the W —> e + v process to evaluate the performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. A significant number of electrons was produced in the early ATLAS collision runs at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV between November 2009 and April 2010, and their properties are presented. Finally, a first measurement of W —> e + v process with the ATLAS experiment was successfully accomplished with the first C = 1.0 nb_ 1 of data at the 7 TeV collision energy, and the properties of the W candidates are also detailed.

  12. Measurements of electron drift velocity in pure isobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Lima, Iara B.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B., E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2009-07-01

    In this work we report on preliminary results related to the dependence of the electron drift velocity for pure isobutane as a function of reduced electric field (E/N) in the range from 100 Td up to 216 Td. The measurements of electron drift velocity were based on the Pulsed Townsend technique. In order to validate the technique and analyzing non-uniformity effects, results for nitrogen are also presented and compared with a numerical simulation of the Bolsig+ code. (author)

  13. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonst......Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  14. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuecks, D J; Skiff, F; Kletzing, C A

    2012-08-01

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense (ω(pe) > ω(ce)). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency ω(ce). As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation ω - k([parallel])v([parallel]) = ω(ce). The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  15. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Structural Engineering and Materials; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonstrated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA.

  16. Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

    2008-01-01

    An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

  17. Giant osmotic energy conversion measured in a single transmembrane boron nitride nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Poncharal, Philippe; Biance, Anne-Laure; Fulcrand, Rémy; Blase, Xavier; Purcell, Stephen T; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2013-02-28

    New models of fluid transport are expected to emerge from the confinement of liquids at the nanoscale, with potential applications in ultrafiltration, desalination and energy conversion. Nevertheless, advancing our fundamental understanding of fluid transport on the smallest scales requires mass and ion dynamics to be ultimately characterized across an individual channel to avoid averaging over many pores. A major challenge for nanofluidics thus lies in building distinct and well-controlled nanochannels, amenable to the systematic exploration of their properties. Here we describe the fabrication and use of a hierarchical nanofluidic device made of a boron nitride nanotube that pierces an ultrathin membrane and connects two fluid reservoirs. Such a transmembrane geometry allows the detailed study of fluidic transport through a single nanotube under diverse forces, including electric fields, pressure drops and chemical gradients. Using this device, we discover very large, osmotically induced electric currents generated by salinity gradients, exceeding by two orders of magnitude their pressure-driven counterpart. We show that this result originates in the anomalously high surface charge carried by the nanotube's internal surface in water at large pH, which we independently quantify in conductance measurements. The nano-assembly route using nanostructures as building blocks opens the way to studying fluid, ionic and molecule transport on the nanoscale, and may lead to biomimetic functionalities. Our results furthermore suggest that boron nitride nanotubes could be used as membranes for osmotic power harvesting under salinity gradients.

  18. Conversion of FAD to FMN and riboflavin in plasma: effects of measuring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Yuko; Okubo, Toshimi; Todo, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2006-08-01

    The stability of flavin adenin dinucleotide (FAD) in plasma was studied under a low-intensity light and FAD was found to be converted to flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and riboflavin (RF) in both human and rat plasma. The hydrolysis rates of FAD in plasma at 4 degrees C were lower than those at 37 degrees C. In addition, the hydrolysis rates were markedly inhibited when EDTA, known as an anticoagulant, was added to plasma. These results indicated that plasma samples in pharmacokinetic studies should be pretreated with EDTA, extracted at the earliest convenience and lower temperature like 4 degrees C to keep a high stability. The pharmacokinetic study after intravenous administration of FAD at a dose of 500 nmol/kg as FAD in rats was performed with plasma samples after addition of EDTA under strict light and temperature control. A measurable amount of FAD in plasma together with rapid conversions of FAD to FMN and RF were observed in rat plasma. The AUC values (mean+/-S.D. of 4 rats) for FAD, FMN and RF were 707+/-378, 3643+/-958 and 30095+/-3544 nmol x min/l, respectively. Using excess EDTA under strict temperature and light control may be useful for assessment of vitamin B2 in the in vivo study.

  19. Measurement of microwave radiation from electron beam in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, I.S.; Akimune, H. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Inome, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Matthews, J.N. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 4112-0830 (United States); Ogio, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sagawa, H. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Sako, T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tokonatu@konan-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2016-02-21

    We report the use of an electron light source (ELS) located at the Telescope Array Observatory in Utah, USA, to measure the isotropic microwave radiation from air showers. To simulate extensive air showers, the ELS emits an electron beam into the atmosphere and a parabola antenna system for the satellite communication is used to measure the microwave radiation from the electron beam. Based on this measurement, an upper limit on the intensity of a 12.5 GHz microwave radiation at 0.5 m from a 10{sup 18} eV air shower was estimated to be 3.96×10{sup −16} W m{sup −2} Hz{sup −1} with a 95% confidence level.

  20. Highly Accurate Measurement of the Electron Orbital Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Awobode, A M

    2015-01-01

    We propose to accurately determine the orbital magnetic moment of the electron by measuring, in a Magneto-Optical or Ion trap, the ratio of the Lande g-factors in two atomic states. From the measurement of (gJ1/gJ2), the quantity A, which depends on the corrections to the electron g-factors can be extracted, if the states are LS coupled. Given that highly accurate values of the correction to the spin g-factor are currently available, accurate values of the correction to the orbital g-factor may also be determined. At present, (-1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10-4 has been determined as a correction to the electron orbital g-factor, by using earlier measurements of the ratio gJ1/gJ2, made on the Indium 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 states.

  1. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Autoranging picoammeter ( error = 0.4%, resolution = 0.1 pA, 100 pA ± 4.4 pA). Between each measurement , the accelerating voltage was changed and the...characteristics of ideal diode behavior relative to leakage current. Device 33 leakage current was too high, preventing us from measuring output current...Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis by M Litz, W Ray, J Russo, S Kelley, and J Smith Approved for public

  2. Single Shot Measurement of a Silicon Single Electron Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrus, T.; Hasko, D. G.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Burge, S. R.; Freeman, E. J.; French, M. J.; Lam, A.; Creswell, L.; Collier, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Briggs, G. A. D.

    2009-06-01

    We describe measurements on a silicon single electron transistor (SET) carried out using a custom cryogenic CMOS measurement circuit (LTCMOS) in close proximity to the device. Quantum mechanical states in the SET were mapped by continuous microwave spectroscopy. The real time evolution of a particularly long lived quantum mechanical state was observed in a single shot measurement, made possible by the much faster measurement rate (50kHz bandwidth). This technique is intended to be applied to the measurement of coherent states in a charge qubit device made of a silicon double dot.

  3. Measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yichen, E-mail: yichen@bnl.gov [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 Pennsylvania St., Building 510E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Tsang, Thomas [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 N. Technology St., Building 535B, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Thorn, Craig; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Joshi, Jyoti; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 Pennsylvania St., Building 510E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rao, Triveni [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 N. Technology St., Building 535B, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Stewart, James; Tang, Wei; Viren, Brett [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 20 Pennsylvania St., Building 510E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    We report the measurement of longitudinal electron diffusion coefficients in liquid argon for electric fields between 100 and 2000 V/cm with a gold photocathode as a bright electron source. The measurement principle, apparatus, and data analysis are described. In the region between 100 and 350 V/cm, our results show a discrepancy with the previous measurement [1]. In the region between 350 and 2000 V/cm, our results represent the world's best measurement. Over the entire measured electric field range, our results are systematically higher than the calculation of Atrazhev‐Timoshkin [2]. The quantum efficiency of the gold photocathode, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion coefficients in gas argon are also presented.

  4. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Manzoni, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electron and photon is paramount for many ATLAS physics analysis. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed in-situ using a large statistics of Z->ee events. The results obtained with the pp collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb-1 and 2.7 fb-1 respectively , as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented.

  5. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Manzoni, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electrons and photons is paramount for many ATLAS physics analyses. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed $in$-$situ$ using a large statistics of $Z \\rightarrow ee$ events. The results obtained with the $pp$ collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ and 2.7 fb$^{-1}$ respectively, as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented

  6. Measurement of $T_{20}$ in Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwhuis, M; Botto, T; Van den Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Dolfini, S M; Ent, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Higinbotham, D W; De Jager, C W; Lang, J; De Lange, D J; Papadakis, N H; Passchier, I; Poolman, H R; Six, E; Steijger, J J M; Vodinas, N P; De Vries, H; Zhou, Z L

    1999-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the tensor-analyzing power T20 in elastic electron-deuteron scattering in the range of four-momentum transfer from 1.8 to 3.2 fm-1. Electrons of 704 MeV were scattered from a polarized deuterium internal target. The tensor polarization of the deuterium nuclei was determined with an ion-extraction system, allowing an absolute measurement of T20. The data are described well by a non-relativistic calculation that includes the effects of meson-exchange currents.

  7. Measurement of Single Electron Event Anisotropy in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Yu A; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S R; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; D'Enterria, D G; Dávid, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Chenawi, K F; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L A; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V P; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A G; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E A; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Muhlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V A; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarjan, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torie, H A; Towell, R S; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszpremi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E A; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L S

    2005-01-01

    The transverse momentum dependence of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v_2, the second harmonic of the azimuthal distribution, for electrons at mid-rapidity (|eta| < 0.35) has been measured with the PHENIX detector in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The measurement was made with respect to the reaction plane defined at high rapidities (|eta| = 3.1 -- 3.9). From the result we have measured the v_2 of electrons from heavy flavor decay after subtraction of the v_2 of electrons from other sources such as photon conversions and Dalitz decay from light neutral mesons. We observe a non-zero single electron v_2 with a 90% confidence level in the intermediate p_T region.

  8. Iron implantation in gadolinium gallium garnet studied by conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Szucs, I; Fetzer, C; Langouche, G

    1998-01-01

    Gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals were implanted with doses of sup 5 sup 7 Fe ions in the range 8x10 sup 1 sup 5 - 6x10 sup 1 sup 6 atoms cm sup - sup 2. Depending on the dose, iron with Fe sup 2 sup + or Fe sup 3 sup + charge states was found to have formed after the implantation. After a subsequent annealing in air, the iron oxidized to Fe sup 3 sup +. The Moessbauer and channelling measurements showed lattice recrystallization taking place at 600 deg. C. After recrystallization, the iron was found to have substituted for gallium ions both at the octahedral and at the tetrahedral positions. The relative concentration of the two types of iron at the two sites shifted towards the equilibrium distribution upon high-temperature annealing. (author)

  9. Spectral measurements of runway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudyakov, Timur

    2009-07-22

    The generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons is a well known effect related to the plasma disruptions in tokamaks. The runaway electrons can substantially reduce the lifetime of the future tokamak ITER. In this thesis physical properties of runaway electrons and their possible negative effects on ITER have been studied in the TEXTOR tokamak. A new diagnostic, a scanning probe, has been developed to provide direct measurements of the absolute number of runaway electrons coming from the plasma, its energy distribution and the related energy load in the material during low density (runaway) discharges and during disruptions. The basic elements of the probe are YSO crystals which transform the energy of runaway electrons into visible light which is guided via optical fibres to photomultipliers. In order to obtain the energy distribution of runaways, the crystals are covered with layers of stainless steel (or tungsten in two earlier test versions) of different thicknesses. The final probe design has 9 crystals and can temporally and spectrally resolve electrons with energies between 4 MeV and 30 MeV. The probe is tested and absolutely calibrated at the linear electron accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf. The measurements are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. The runaway transport in the presence of the internal and externally applied magnetic perturbations has been studied. The diffusion coefficient and the value of the magnetic fluctuation for runaways were derived as a function of B{sub t}. It was found that an increase of runaway losses from the plasma with the decreasing toroidal magnetic field is accompanied with a growth of the magnetic fluctuation in the plasma. The magnetic shielding picture could be confirmed which predicts that the runaway loss occurs predominantly for low energy runaways (few MeV) and considerably less for the high energy ones. In the case of the externally applied magnetic perturbations by means of the dynamic

  10. Comparison of simulations and offshore measurement data of a prototype of a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Anders; Larsen, Torben J.; Hansen, Anders Melchior

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results from comparisons of simulations and measured offshore data from a floating combined wind and wave energy conversion system are presented. The device is a downscaled prototype that consists of a floating platform equipped with ten wave energy absorbers and three wind turbines...

  11. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation. [PUCSF code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications.

  12. Direct electronic measurement of Peltier cooling and heating in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Marun, I. J.; van den Berg, J. J.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-05-01

    Thermoelectric effects allow the generation of electrical power from waste heat and the electrical control of cooling and heating. Remarkably, these effects are also highly sensitive to the asymmetry in the density of states around the Fermi energy and can therefore be exploited as probes of distortions in the electronic structure at the nanoscale. Here we consider two-dimensional graphene as an excellent nanoscale carbon material for exploring the interaction between electronic and thermal transport phenomena, by presenting a direct and quantitative measurement of the Peltier component to electronic cooling and heating in graphene. Thanks to an architecture including nanoscale thermometers, we detected Peltier component modulation of up to 15 mK for currents of 20 μA at room temperature and observed a full reversal between Peltier cooling and heating for electron and hole regimes. This fundamental thermodynamic property is a complementary tool for the study of nanoscale thermoelectric transport in two-dimensional materials.

  13. Fast Transverse Instability and Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Eddy, Nathan; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton; Thangaraj, Jayakar; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zwaska, Robert; Ji, Yichen

    2015-03-01

    A new transverse instability is observed that may limit the proton intensity in the Fermilab Recycler. The instability is fast, leading to a beam-abort loss within two hundred turns. The instability primarily affects the first high-intensity batch from the Fermilab Booster in each Recycler cycle. This paper analyzes the dynamical features of the destabilized beam. The instability excites a horizontal betatron oscillation which couples into the vertical motion and also causes transverse emittance growth. This paper describes the feasibility of electron cloud as the mechanism for this instability and presents the first measurements of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Recycler. Direct measurements of the electron cloud are made using a retarding field analyzer (RFA) newly installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Indirect measurements of the electron cloud are made by propagating a microwave carrier signal through the beampipe and analyzing the phase modulation of the signal. The maximum betatron amplitude growth and the maximum electron cloud signal occur during minimums of the bunch length oscillation.

  14. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  15. Secondary electron measurement and XPS characterization of NEG coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R. K., E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in; Sinha, Atul K., E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in; Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in; Nuwad, J., E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in; Jagannath,, E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in; Gadkari, S. C., E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in; Singh, M. R., E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: rajendra@barc.gov.in [Technical Physics Division, BARC Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Ternary alloy coatings of IVB and VB materials provide many of benefits over traditional material surfaces such as creation of extreme high vacuum(XHV), lower secondary electron yield(SEY), low photon desorption coefficient. XHV (pressure < 10{sup −10} mbar) is very useful to the study of surfaces of the material in as it is form, high energy particle accelerators(LHC, Photon Factories), synchrotrons (ESRF, Ellectra) etc.. Low secondary electron yield leads to very low multi-pacting utilizes to increase beam life time. In this paper preparation of the coatings and a study of secondary electron yield measurement after heating at different temperatures has been shown also results of their surface characterization based on shift in binding energy has been produced using the surface techniques XPS. Stoichiometry of the film was measured by Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX)

  16. Emittance Measurements from a Laser Driven Electron Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, David A

    2003-07-28

    The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was constructed to develop an appropriate electron beam suitable for driving a short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) such as the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). For operation at a wavelength of 1.5 {angstrom}, the LCLS requires an electron injector that can produce an electron beam with approximately 1 {pi} mm-mrad normalized rms emittance with at least 1 nC of charge in a 10 ps or shorter bunch. The GTF consists of a photocathode rf gun, emittance-compensation solenoid, 3 m linear accelerator (linac), drive laser, and diagnostics to measure the beam. The rf gun is a symmetrized 1.6 cell, s-band high gradient, room temperature, photocathode structure. Simulations show that this gun when driven by a temporally and spatially shaped drive laser, appropriately focused with the solenoid, and further accelerated in linac can produce a beam that meets the LCLS requirements. This thesis describes the initial characterization of the laser and electron beam at the GTF. A convolved measurement of the relative timing between the laser and the rf phase in the gun shows that the jitter is less than 2.5 ps rms. Emittance measurements of the electron beam at 35 MeV are reported as a function of the (Gaussian) pulse length and transverse profile of the laser as well as the charge of the electron beam at constant phase and gradient in both the gun and linac. At 1 nC the emittance was found to be {approx} 13 {pi} mm-mrad for 5 ps and 8 ps long laser pulses. At 0.5 nC the measured emittance decreased approximately 20% in the 5 ps case and 40% in the 8 ps case. These measurements are between 40-80% higher than simulations for similar experimental conditions. In addition, the thermal emittance of the electron beam was measured to be 0.5 {pi} mm-mrad.

  17. Measurement of D-region electron density by partial reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R. O.; Mott, D. L.; Gammill, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of electron density in the lower ionosphere were made at White Sands Missile Range throughout the STRATCOM VIII launch day using a partial-reflection sounder. Information regarding the sounder's antenna pattern was gained from the passage of the balloon over the array.

  18. Spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature on VX-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamma, Ella; Lee, Charles; Bengtson, Roger; Jacobson, Verlin; Lavagni-Bolanos, Frank; McCaskill, Greg

    2004-11-01

    We have made spectroscopic measurements at several locations in the VX-10 experiment in the near UV, visible, and near IR spectral region. We estimate electron temperatures using a collisional radiative model. Residual gas analysis is also performed with plasma discharges. Quantitative estimates of plasma composition are also discussed.

  19. An Electronic Timer for Measuring Spread Rates of Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Blank; Albert J. Simard

    1983-01-01

    There are many disadvantages to current techniques for measuring the spread rate of wildland fires. This paper describes the design and use of an electronic timber that resolves most of the problems. The unit is small, lightweight, inexpensive, easy-to-assemble, self-contained, and long-running.

  20. Method of Measuring Common-Mode Current Conversion Coefficient for Estimating Variation in Radiated Emission from Printed Circuit Board Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the measurement of the common-mode current conversion coefficient for a microstrip line with solid and slotted ground planes by using a VNA with a BCI probe. The radiated emissions estimated by the common-mode current conversion coefficient are further compared with those obtained by the FAC measurements. Furthermore, the proposed method was used to estimate radiated emissions from a microstrip bandpass filter. For all of the case studies, results of electromagnetic (EM simulation demonstrate the validity of the measurement results by the proposed method. Highly promising for use in EMI measurement application, the proposed method can estimate the radiated emissions by miniaturized microstrip components on a PCB when pre-tested for compliance with EMI regulations.

  1. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  2. Fe-contacts on InAs(100) and InP(100) characterised by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Gunnlaugsson, H.P; Weyer, G.;

    2005-01-01

    We have grown 4 nm thin films of Fe-57 on InAs(100) and InP(100) surfaces by use of MBE and studied the samples by Fe-57 conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy. In the case of InAs, the Mossbauer spectrum showed a sextet due to alpha-Fe and a further magnetically split component with slightly...

  3. G0 Electronics and Data Acquisition (Forward-Angle Measurements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Marchand; J. Arvieux; L. Bimbot; A. Biselli; J. Bouvier; H. Breuer; R. Clark; J.-C. Cuzon; M. Engrand; R. Foglio; C. Furget; X. Grave; B. Guillon; H. Guler; P.M. King; S. Kox; J. Kuhn; Y. Ky; J. Lachniet; J. Lenoble; E. Liatard; J. Liu; E. Munoz; J. Pouxe; G. Quéméne; B. Quinn; J.-S. Réal; O. Rossetto; R. Sellem

    2007-04-18

    The G$^0$ parity-violation experiment at Jefferson Lab (Newport News, VA) is designed to determine the contribution of strange/anti-strange quark pairs to the intrinsic properties of the proton. In the forward-angle part of the experiment, the asymmetry in the cross section was measured for $\\vec{e}p$ elastic scattering by counting the recoil protons corresponding to the two beam-helicity states. Due to the high accuracy required on the asymmetry, the G$^0$ experiment was based on a custom experimental setup with its own associated electronics and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Highly specialized time-encoding electronics provided time-of-flight spectra for each detector for each helicity state. More conventional electronics was used for monitoring (mainly FastBus). The time-encoding electronics and the DAQ system have been designed to handle events at a mean rate of 2 MHz per detector with low deadtime and to minimize helicity-correlated systematic errors. In this paper, we outline the general architecture and the main features of the electronics and the DAQ system dedicated to G$^0$ forward-angle measurements.

  4. Diagnostic techniques for measuring suprathermal electron dynamics in plasmas (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, S

    2008-10-01

    Plasmas, both in the laboratory and in space, are often not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the plasma electron distribution function is accordingly non-Maxwellian. Suprathermal electron tails can be generated by external drives, such as rf waves and electric fields, or internal ones, such as instabilities and magnetic reconnection. The variety and importance of the phenomena in which suprathermal electrons play a significant role explains an enduring interest in diagnostic techniques to investigate their properties and dynamics. X-ray bremsstrahlung emission has been studied in hot magnetized plasmas for well over two decades, flanked progressively by electron-cyclotron emission in geometries favoring the high-energy end of the distribution function (high-field-side, vertical, oblique emission), by electron-cyclotron absorption, by spectroscopic techniques, and at lower temperatures, by Langmuir probes and electrostatic analyzers. Continuous progress in detector technology and in measurement and analysis techniques, increasingly sophisticated layouts (multichannel and tomographic systems, imaging geometries), and highly controlled suprathermal generation methods (e.g., perturbative rf modulation) have all been brought to bear in recent years on an increasingly detailed, although far from complete, understanding of suprathermal electron dynamics.

  5. Insolation data for solar energy conversion derived from satellite measurements of earth radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the irradiance of the sun at ground locations is essential for the design and evaluation of solar energy conversion systems. The primary source of such data is the global network of weather stations. Such stations are often too far apart and for most locations the data available are only daily total irradiance or monthly averages. Solar energy conversion programs require insolation data with considerably higher geographical and temporal resolution. Meteorological satellites gather routinely extensive data on the energy reflected and scattered into space by the earth-atmosphere system. A program has been initiated to use such data for deriving ground insolation for energy conversion. Some of the preliminary results of this program will be discussed.

  6. Time-resolved electron density and electron temperature measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettgen, A.; Shkurenkov, I.; Simeni Simeni, M.; Petrishchev, V.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2016-10-01

     ≈  4.25 eV, attained after the surface ionization wave reaches the grounded electrode. The sensitivity of the present diagnostics is too low to measure electron density in the plasma during surface ionization wave propagation (estimated to be below n e  ≈  1013 cm-3). After peaking during the primary current pulse, the electron density decays due to dissociative recombination. Electron temperature decreases rapidly over ~150 ns after the primary current pulse rise, to T e  ≈  0.5 eV, followed by a much more gradual electron cooling between the primary and the secondary discharge pulses, due to superelastic collisions providing moderate electron heating in the afterglow.

  7. Thermal conversion of electronic and electrical properties of AuCl3-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon-Mi; Kim, Un Jeong; Benayad, Anass; Lee, Il Ha; Son, Hyungbin; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Choi, Won Mook; Lee, Young Hee; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Eun-Hong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

    2011-02-22

    By using carbon-free inorganic atomic layer involving heat treatment from 150 to 300 °C, environmentally stable and permanent modulation of the electronic and electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from p-type to ambi-polar and possibly to n-type has been demonstrated. At low heat treatment temperature, a strong p-doping effect from Au(3+) ions to CNTs due to a large difference in reduction potential between them is dominant. However at higher temperature, the gold species are thermally reduced, and thermally induced CNT-Cl finally occurs by the decomposition reaction of AuCl(3). Thus, in the AuCl(3)-doped SWCNTs treated at higher temperature, the p-type doping effect is suppressed and an n-type property from CNT-Cl is thermally induced. Thermal conversion of the majority carrier type of AuCl(3)-doped SWNTs is systematically investigated by combining various optical and electrical tools.

  8. Two old ways to measure the electron-neutrino mass

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A

    2013-01-01

    Three decades ago, the measurement of the electron neutrino mass in atomic electron capture (EC) experiments was scrutinized in its two variants: single EC and neutrino-less double EC. For certain isotopes an atomic resonance enormously enhances the expected decay rates. The favoured technique, based on calorimeters as opposed to spectrometers, has the advantage of greatly simplifying the theoretical analysis of the data. After an initial surge of measurements, the EC approach did not seem to be competitive. But very recently, there has been great progress on micro-calorimeters and the measurement of atomic mass differences. Meanwhile, the beta-decay neutrino-mass limits have improved by a factor of 15, and the difficulty of the experiments by the cube of that figure. Can the "calorimetric" EC theory cope with this increased challenge? I answer this question affirmatively. In so doing I briefly review the subject and extensively address some persistent misunderstandings of the underlying quantum physics.

  9. Storage Ring Measurements of Electron Impact Ionization for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Becker, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Grieser, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Müller, A.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Savin, D. W.

    2013-07-01

    The interpretation of astrophysical spectra requires knowledge of the charge state distribution (CSD) of the plasma. The CSD is determined by the rates of ionization and recombination. Thus, accurate electron impact ionization (EII) data are needed to calculate the CSD of the solar atmosphere as well as for other electron-ionized astrophysical objects, such as stars, supernovae, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. We are studying EII for astrophysically important ions using the TSR storage ring located at the Max Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Storage ring measurements are largely free of the metastable contamination found in other experimental geometries, resulting in unambiguous EII data. We have found discrepancies of about 10% - 30% between our measured cross sections and those commonly used in CSD models. Because it is impractical to perform experimental measurements for every astrophysically relevant ion, theory must provide the bulk of the necessary EII data. These experimental results provide an essential benchmark for such EII calculations.

  10. Measurement of the Electron Affinities of Indium and Thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J. S.; Carpenter, D. L.; Covington, A. M.; Williams, W. W.; Kvale, T. J.; Seely, D. G.

    1999-03-20

    The electron affinities of indium and thallium were measured in separate experiments using the laser-photodetachment electron spectroscopy technique. The measurements were performed at the University of Nevada, Reno. Negative ion beams of both indium and thallium were extracted from a cesium-sputter negative ion source, and mass analyzed using a 90{sup o} bending magnet. The negative ion beam of interest was then crossed at 90{sup o} with a photon beam from a cw 25-Watt Ar{sup +} laser. The resulting photoelectrons were energy analyzed with a 160{sup o} spherical-sector spectrometer. The electron affinity of In({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) was determined to be 0.404 {+-} 0.009 eV and the electron affinity of thallium was determined to be 0.377 {+-} 0.013 eV. The fine-structure splittings in the ground states of the negative ions were also determined. The experimental measurements will be compared to several recent theoretical predictions.

  11. Experimental measurement of electron heat diffusivity in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, J.D.; Jahns, G.L.

    1976-06-01

    The electron temperature perturbation produced by internal disruptions in the center of the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK) is followed with a multi-chord soft x-ray detector array. The space-time evolution is found to be diffusive in character, with a conduction coefficient larger by a factor of 2.5 - 15 than that implied by the energy containment time, apparently because it is a measurement for the small group of electrons whose energies exceed the cut-off energy of the detectors.

  12. Simulations and measurements in scanning electron microscopes at low electron energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher G H; Frank, Luděk; Müllerová, Ilona

    2016-11-01

    The advent of new imaging technologies in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) using low energy (0-2 keV) electrons has brought about new ways to study materials at the nanoscale. It also brings new challenges in terms of understanding electron transport at these energies. In addition, reduction in energy has brought new contrast mechanisms producing images that are sometimes difficult to interpret. This is increasing the push for simulation tools, in particular for low impact energies of electrons. The use of Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the transport of electrons in materials has been undertaken by many authors for several decades. However, inaccuracies associated with the Monte Carlo technique start to grow as the energy is reduced. This is not simply associated with inaccuracies in the knowledge of the scattering cross-sections, but is fundamental to the Monte Carlo technique itself. This is because effects due to the wave nature of the electron and the energy band structure of the target above the vacuum energy level become important and these are properties which are difficult to handle using the Monte Carlo method. In this review we briefly describe the new techniques of scanning low energy electron microscopy and then outline the problems and challenges of trying to understand and quantify the signals that are obtained. The effects of charging and spin polarised measurement are also briefly explored. SCANNING 38:802-818, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Measurement Of The Cross Section For Elastic Scattering Of Electron Neutrinos On Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wadia-Neville, D

    1998-01-01

    In this dissertation, we measure the cross section for the elastic scattering of electron neutrinos on electrons. We use data from the LSND experiment which is located at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. The neutrino beam is produced when an 800 MeV proton beam from a linear accelerator is incident on a target located 29.8 m from the detector. The LSND veto system allows us to reject charged cosmic-ray particles entering the detector with high efficiency. The detector consists of 180 tons of mineral oil, to which a small quantity of scintillator is added. This combination enables us to detect both Č erenkov and scintillation light produced by highly relativistic charged particles. For the neutrino-electron elastic scattering process, we detect the recoil electron and require it to be scattered along the direction of the incident neutrino.

  14. Electron density and electron temperature measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, M.; Roettgen, A.; Petrishchev, V.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved electron density, electron temperature, and gas temperature in nanosecond pulse discharges in helium and O2-He mixtures near liquid water surface are measured using Thomson/pure rotational Raman scattering, in two different geometries, (a) ‘diffuse filament’ discharge between a spherical high-voltage electrode and a grounded pin electrode placed in a reservoir filled with distilled water, with the tip exposed, and (b) dielectric barrier discharge between the high-voltage electrode and the liquid water surface. A diffuse plasma filament generated between the electrodes in helium during the primary discharge pulse exhibits noticeable constriction during the secondary discharge pulse several hundred ns later. Adding oxygen to the mixture reduces the plasma filament diameter and enhances constriction during the secondary pulse. In the dielectric barrier discharge, diffuse volumetric plasma occupies nearly the entire space between the high voltage electrode and the liquid surface, and extends radially along the surface. In the filament discharge in helium, adding water to the container results in considerable reduction of plasma lifetime compared to the discharge in dry helium, by about an order of magnitude, indicating rapid electron recombination with water cluster ions. Peak electron density during the pulse is also reduced, by about a factor of two, likely due to dissociative attachment to water vapor during the discharge pulse. These trends become more pronounced as oxygen is added to the mixture, which increases net rate of dissociative attachment. Gas temperature during the primary discharge pulse remains near room temperature, after which it increases up to T ~ 500 K over 5 µs and decays back to near room temperature before the next discharge pulse several tens of ms later. As expected, electron density and electron temperature in diffuse DBD plasmas are considerably lower compared to peak values in the filament discharge. Use of Thomson

  15. Measurement of secondary cosmic radiation and calculation of associated dose conversion coefficients for humans; Messung sekundaerer kosmischer Strahlung und Berechnung der zugehoerigen Dosiskonversionskoeffizienten fuer den Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmer, Gregor

    2012-04-11

    Due to secondary cosmic radiation (SCR), pilots and flight attendants receive elevated effective doses at flight altitudes. For this reason, since 2003 aircrew members are considered as occupationally exposed, in Germany. This work deals with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients (DCC) for protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons and myons, which are crucial for estimation of effective dose from SCR. For the first time, calculations were performed combining Geant4 - a Monte Carlo code developed at CERN - with the voxel phantoms for the reference female and male published in 2008 by ICRP and ICRU. Furthermore, measurements of neutron fluence spectra - which contribute the major part to the effective dose of SCR - were carried out at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) located at 2650 m above sea level nearby the Zugspitze mountain, Germany. These measured neutron spectra, and additionally available calculated spectra, were then folded with the DCC calculated in this work, and effective dose rates for different heights were calculated.

  16. Addressing electronic clinical information in the construction of quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L Charles; Mistry, Kamila B; Tinoco, Aldo; Earls, Marian; Rallins, Marjorie C; Hanley, Kendra; Christensen, Keri; Jones, Meredith; Woods, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) and registries play a central role in health care and provide access to detailed clinical information at the individual, institutional, and population level. Use of these data for clinical quality/performance improvement and cost management has been a focus of policy initiatives over the past decade. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA)-mandated Pediatric Quality Measurement Program supports development and testing of quality measures for children on the basis of electronic clinical information, including de novo measures and respecification of existing measures designed for other data sources. Drawing on the experience of Centers of Excellence, we review both structural and pragmatic considerations in e-measurement. The presence of primary observations in EHR-derived data make it possible to measure outcomes in ways that are difficult with administrative data alone. However, relevant information may be located in narrative text, making it difficult to interpret. EHR systems are collecting more discrete data, but the structure, semantics, and adoption of data elements vary across vendors and sites. EHR systems also differ in ability to incorporate pediatric concepts such as variable dosing and growth percentiles. This variability complicates quality measurement, as do limitations in established measure formats, such as the Quality Data Model, to e-measurement. Addressing these challenges will require investment by vendors, researchers, and clinicians alike in developing better pediatric content for standard terminologies and data models, encouraging wider adoption of technical standards that support reliable quality measurement, better harmonizing data collection with clinical work flow in EHRs, and better understanding the behavior and potential of e-measures.

  17. Ultrafast spectroscopy studies on the mechanism of electron transfer and energy conversion in the isolated pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The spectroscopy characteristics and the fluorescence lifetime for the chloroplasts isolated from the pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach plant leaves have been studied by absorption spectra, low temperature steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and single photon counting measurement under the same conditions and by the same methods. The similarity of the absorption spectra for the chloroplasts at room temperature suggests that different plants can efficiently absorb light of the same wavelength. The fluorescence decays in PS II measured at the natural QA state for the chloroplasts have been fitted by a three-exponential kinetic model. The three fluorescence lifetimes are 30, 274 and 805 ps for the pseudo ginseng chloroplast; 138, 521 and 1494 ps for the water hyacinth chloroplast; 197, 465 and 1459 ps for the spinach chloroplast, respectively. The slow lifetime fluorescence component is assigned to a collection of associated light harvesting Chl a/b proteins, the fast lifetime component to the reaction center of PS II and the middle lifetime component to the delay fluorescence of recombination of and Pheo-. The excitation energy conversion efficiency (η) in PS II RC is defined and calculated on the basis of the 20 ps electron transfer time constant model, 60%, 87% and 91% for the pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts, respectively. This interesting result is in unconformity with what is assumed to be 100% efficiency in PS II RC. Our result in this work stands in line with the 20 ps electron transfer time constant in PS II rather sound and the water hyacinth plant grows slower than the spinach plant does as envisaged on the efficiency. But, our results predict that those plants can perform highly efficient transfer of photo-excitation energy from the light-harvesting pigment system to the reaction center (closely to 100%). The conclusion contained in this paper reveals the plant growth characteristics expressed in the primary processes of

  18. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, S.; Thornton, B.; Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N.

    2016-05-01

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  19. Two-photon absorption measurements in graphene fragments: Role of electron-electron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A.; Roberts, A.; Aryanpour, K.; Shukla, A.; Mazumdar, S.

    2012-02-01

    Many-body interactions in graphene are an active field of research. There is a clear evidence of strong electron correlation effects in other carbon based materials which have the same sp^2 hybridization as graphene. For example, in linear-polyenes, the electron-electron interactions are considered responsible for the occurrence of lowest two-photon state below the optical one-photon state. The electronic correlation in these linear systems is a strong function of the chain length. Thus, it is pertinent to question if the two-dimensional graphene fragments also exhibit strong correlation effects and how these effects scale with fragment size. Using a white light super-continuum source, we perform z-scan measurements to extract frequency-dependent two-photon absorption coefficients in symmetric molecular fragments of graphene, e.g. coronene and hexabenzocoronene. A comparison of one-photon and two-photon absorption coefficients is then used to uncover the extent of correlation effects. In the smallest fragment, coronene, our results indicate a strong signature of the Coulomb interactions. We will discuss how the importance of electron-electron interaction varies with system size and its implication for the correlation effects in graphene.

  20. Plasma actuator electron density measurement using microwave perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhosseini, Farid; Colpitts, Bruce [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    A cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma under five different pressures is generated in an evacuated glass tube. This plasma volume is located at the center of a rectangular copper waveguide cavity, where the electric field is maximum for the first mode and the magnetic field is very close to zero. The microwave perturbation method is used to measure electron density and plasma frequency for these five pressures. Simulations by a commercial microwave simulator are comparable to the experimental results.

  1. Standardization Of Inkjet Drop Speed Measurement Methods For Printed Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoath, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the Society for Imaging Sciences and Technology via http://ist.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ist/nipdf/2015/00002015/00000001/art00029 Methods for measurement of inkjet-printed drop speed at various precision levels were proposed in a draft international standard by IEC TC119: Printed Electronics WG3 - Equipment. These are reviewed and discussed for feedback by NIP31/DF2015.

  2. Precision Measurements in Electron-Positron Annihilation: Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chetyrkin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Theory results on precision measurements in electron-positron annihilation at low and high energies are collected. These cover pure QCD calculations as well as mixed electroweak and QCD results, involving light and heavy quarks. The impact of QCD corrections on the $W$-boson mass is discussed and, last not least, the status and the perspectives for the Higgs boson decay rate into $b\\bar b$, $c\\bar c$ and into two gluons.

  3. Differential Electronic Nose in On-Line Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osowski S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of differential electronic nose in the dynamic (on-line volatile measurement. First we compare the classical nose employing only one sensor array and its extension in the differential form containing two sensor arrays working in differential mode. We show that differential nose performs better at changing environmental conditions, especially the temperature, and well performs in the dynamic mode of operation. We show its application in recognition of different brands of tobacco

  4. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostic systems for electron temperature perturbation measurement in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayama, Akihiko; Isei, Nobuaki; Ishida, Shinichi; Sato, Minoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Three systems are now operational in JT-60U tokamak for the measurement of electron cyclotron emissions. They are the Fourier transform spectrometer, 20 channels grating polychrometer, and 24 channels heterodyne radiometer. The first system has been absolutely calibrated, and used in the relative calibration of remaining two systems. The paper describes major specifications and recent upgrading of each system. In JT-60U experiments, the heterodyne radiometer system is mainly used for electron temperature perturbations with high signal-to-noise ratio. One of the disadvantage of this system is that the measurement points uniquely determined by the toroidal field, and thus cannot be chosen freely. In the experiment the third system, grating polychrometer, which allows free choice of measurement points, is used to cover the wide cross-section of the JT-60U plasma. (author)

  5. Precision Measurement of the Electron/Muon Gyromagnetic Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Awobode, A M

    2010-01-01

    Clear, persuasive arguments are brought forward to motivate the need for highly precise measurements of the electron/muon orbital g, i.e. gL. First, we briefly review results obtained using an extended Dirac equation, which conclusively showed that, as a consequence of quantum relativistic corrections arising from the time-dependence of the rest-energy, the electron gyromagnetic factors are corrected. It is next demonstrated, using the data of Kusch & Foley on the measurement of deltaS minus 2 deltaL together with the modern precise measurements of the electron deltaS where deltaS identically equal to gS minus 2, that deltaL may be a small, non-zero quantity, where we have assumed Russel-Saunders LS coupling and proposed, along with Kusch and Foley, that gS = 2 plus deltaS and gS = 1 plus deltaL. Therefore, there is probable evidence from experimental data that gS is not exactly equal to 1; the expectation that quantum effects will significantly modify the classical value of the orbital g is therefore rea...

  6. Intensity modulation with electrons: calculations, measurements and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, M G; Karlsson, M; Zackrisson, B

    1998-05-01

    Intensity modulation of electron beams is one step towards truly conformal therapy. This can be realized with the MM50 racetrack microtron that utilizes a scanning beam technique. By adjusting the scan pattern it is possible to obtain arbitrary fluence distributions. Since the monitor chambers in the treatment head are segmented in both x- and y-directions it is possible to verify the fluence distribution to the patient at any time during the treatment. Intensity modulated electron beams have been measured with film and a plane parallel chamber and compared with calculations. The calculations were based on a pencil beam method. An intensity distribution at the multileaf collimator (MLC) level was calculated by superposition of measured pencil beams over scan patterns. By convolving this distribution with a Gaussian pencil beam, which has propagated from the MLC to the isocentre, a fluence distribution at isocentre level was obtained. The agreement between calculations and measurements was within 2% in dose or 1 mm in distance in the penumbra zones. A standard set of intensity modulated electron beams has been developed. These beams have been implemented in a treatment planning system and are used for manual optimization. A clinical example (prostate) of such an application is presented and compared with a standard irradiation technique.

  7. Intensity modulation with electrons: calculations, measurements and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Magnus G.; Karlsson, Mikael [Department of Radiation Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 85 Umeaa (Sweden); Zackrisson, Bjoern [Department of Oncology, Umeaa University, S-901 85 Umeaa (Sweden)

    1998-05-01

    Intensity modulation of electron beams is one step towards truly conformal therapy. This can be realized with the MM50 racetrack microtron that utilizes a scanning beam technique. By adjusting the scan pattern it is possible to obtain arbitrary fluence distributions. Since the monitor chambers in the treatment head are segmented in both x- and y-directions it is possible to verify the fluence distribution to the patient at any time during the treatment. Intensity modulated electron beams have been measured with film and a plane parallel chamber and compared with calculations. The calculations were based on a pencil beam method. An intensity distribution at the multileaf collimator (MLC) level was calculated by superposition of measured pencil beams over scan patterns. By convolving this distribution with a Gaussian pencil beam, which has propagated from the MLC to the isocentre, a fluence distribution at isocentre level was obtained. The agreement between calculations and measurements was within 2% in dose or 1 mm in distance in the penumbra zones. A standard set of intensity modulated electron beams has been developed. These beams have been implemented in a treatment planning system and are used for manual optimization. A clinical example (prostate) of such an application is presented and compared with a standard irradiation technique. (author)

  8. Measurement of dihedral angles by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutaramayya, G.; Scott, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The extension of Hoover's (1971) technique to the case of dihedral-angle measurement is described. Dihedral angles are often determined by interferometry on thermally grooved grain boundaries to obtain information on relative interfacial energies. In the technique considered the measured angles approach the true angles as the tilt angle approaches 90 deg. It is pointed out that the scanning electron microscopy method provides a means of seeing the real root of a groove at a lateral magnification which is higher than that obtainable with interferometry.

  9. Measurement of the Electron Structure Function at LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, U; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W-D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Asman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K-H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Berat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besancon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Bruckman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, Ph; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D; Cuevas, J; D'Hondt, J; da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; De Boer, W; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; de Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelof, T; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Foeth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; Garcia, C; Gavillet, Ph; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S-O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouznetsov, O; Krumstein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; Lopez, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Marechal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J-C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martinez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; Mc Nulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W; Mjoernmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Moenig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Mueller, U; Muenich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nemecek, S; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Olshevski, A; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, Th D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdniakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Radojicic, D; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Richard, F; Ridky, J; Rivero, M; Rodriguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovsky, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Slominski, W; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassov, T; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Szwed, J; Tabarelli, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tome, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2010-01-01

    The hadronic part of the Electron Structure Function (ESF) has been measured for the first time, using e+e- data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies sqrt(s) = 91.2-209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The ESF data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the quasi-real photon virtuality contribution is significant. The presented data can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function analyses and help in refining existing parametrizations.

  10. Measurement of dihedral angles by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutaramayya, G.; Scott, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The extension of Hoover's (1971) technique to the case of dihedral-angle measurement is described. Dihedral angles are often determined by interferometry on thermally grooved grain boundaries to obtain information on relative interfacial energies. In the technique considered the measured angles approach the true angles as the tilt angle approaches 90 deg. It is pointed out that the scanning electron microscopy method provides a means of seeing the real root of a groove at a lateral magnification which is higher than that obtainable with interferometry.

  11. Measurement of semi-electronic beauty-hadron decays via their impact parameter in pp collisions in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Markus Ansgar

    2014-03-19

    The measurement of beauty-hadron decays via the detection of electron tracks that are displaced from the primary vertex can be performed with ALICE, whose capabilities of electron identification and tracking fulfil all requirements for this task. While the large corresponding branching ratios guarantee sufficient yields of beauty-decay electrons at LHC energies, the wide electron impact parameter distribution due to the long lifetime and the decay kinematics of beauty hadrons allows for a separation of electrons from beauty-hadron decays from background electrons on a statistical basis. This thesis presents the analysis of electrons from beauty-hadron decays in protonproton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 2.76 TeV. Using the ALICE central-barrel detectors ITS, TPC, and TOF, p{sub T}-differential electron spectra are measured at mid-rapidity (vertical stroke y vertical stroke <0.8) for transverse momenta between 1 and 8 GeV/c. Information from the TPC and TOF signal is combined to select pure electron samples, whose signal-to-background ratio is subsequently enhanced via the requirement of a minimal impact parameter of the tracks towards the primary vertex in the x - y plane. Tracks from photon conversions occurring outside the innermost ITS layer, which have a wide impact parameter distribution, are rejected via the requirement of hits in both SPD layers of the ITS. The remaining hadron contamination in the selected electron track samples is determined on a statistical basis from the distributions of their energy deposition per unit of length in the TPC. A crucial challenge of this analysis is the subtraction of the electron background originating from charm decays, photon conversions, and light-meson decays from the measured inclusive electron spectrum. The corresponding electron yields are determined using spectra from PYTHIA simulations that are reweighted based on previous measurements of charmed hadrons, π{sup 0}, and η. Minor

  12. Initial implementation of the conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number to electron density in tissue inhomogeneity corrections: An anthropomorphic phantom study of radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukihara, Masayoshi [Division of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Noto, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata 951-8520 (Japan); Sasamoto, Ryuta; Hayakawa, Takahide; Saito, Masatoshi, E-mail: masaito@clg.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To achieve accurate tissue inhomogeneity corrections in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide range of ρ{sub e}. The purpose of this study is to present an initial implementation of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method for a treatment planning system (TPS). In this paper, two example radiotherapy plans are used to evaluate the reliability of dose calculations in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method. Methods: CT images were acquired using a clinical dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner operated in the dual-energy mode with two tube potential pairs and an additional tin (Sn) filter for the high-kV tube (80–140 kV/Sn and 100–140 kV/Sn). Single-energy CT using the same DSCT scanner was also performed at 120 kV to compare the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method with a conventional conversion from a CT number to ρ{sub e} (Hounsfield units, HU–ρ{sub e} conversion). Lookup tables for ρ{sub e} calibration were obtained from the CT image acquisitions for tissue substitutes in an electron density phantom (EDP). To investigate the beam-hardening effect on dosimetric uncertainties, two EDPs with different sizes (a body EDP and a head EDP) were used for the ρ{sub e} calibration. Each acquired lookup table was applied to two radiotherapy plans designed using the XiO TPS with the superposition algorithm for an anthropomorphic phantom. The first radiotherapy plan was for an oral cavity tumor and the second was for a lung tumor. Results: In both treatment plans, the performance of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion was superior to that of the conventional HU–ρ{sub e} conversion in terms of the reliability of dose calculations. Especially, for the oral tumor plan, which dealt with dentition and bony structures, treatment

  13. Direct Measurements of the Electron Energy Flux versus Electron Temperature Gradient in Tokamak Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.W. Gentle; M.E. Austin; P.E. Phillips

    2004-01-01

    Electron thermal transport is one of the most complex processes in fusion plasmas. It is generally described by a simple thermal diffusivity in transport analyses of discharges, but there is evidence of critical gradient effects with moderate stiffness. By analyzing periodic perturbations to an equilibrium, one can measure the variations in electron energy flux and electron temperature gradient over the perturbation cycle, obtaining the flux as a function of gradient over the range of parameters generated by the perturbation. Although time-dependent transport analysis is very sensitive to noise in the input data, averaging over many cycles of a periodic perturbation can provide data of sufficient quality. The analyses presented here are based on the ECE temperature data with high spatial and temporal resolution and full profile coverage on DIII-D for sawteeth and modulated ECH heating.

  14. Measurement of parity violation in electron-quark scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Symmetry permeates nature and is fundamental to all laws of physics. One example is parity (mirror) symmetry, which implies that flipping left and right does not change the laws of physics. Laws for electromagnetism, gravity and the subatomic strong force respect parity symmetry, but the subatomic weak force does not. Historically, parity violation in electron scattering has been important in establishing (and now testing) the standard model of particle physics. One particular set of quantities accessible through measurements of parity-violating electron scattering are the effective weak couplings C2q, sensitive to the quarks' chirality preference when participating in the weak force, which have been measured directly only once in the past 40 years. Here we report a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in electron-quark scattering, which yields a determination of 2C2u - C2d (where u and d denote up and down quarks, respectively) with a precision increased by a factor of five relative to the earlier result. These results provide evidence with greater than 95 per cent confidence that the C2q couplings are non-zero, as predicted by the electroweak theory. They lead to constraints on new parity-violating interactions beyond the standard model, particularly those due to quark chirality. Whereas contemporary particle physics research is focused on high-energy colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider, our results provide specific chirality information on electroweak theory that is difficult to obtain at high energies. Our measurement is relatively free of ambiguity in its interpretation, and opens the door to even more precise measurements in the future.

  15. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-15

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  16. G$^0$ Electronics and Data Acquisition (Forward-Angle Measurements)

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, D; Bimbot, L; Biselli, A; Bouvier, J; Breuer, H; Clark, R; Cuzon, J C; Engrand, M; Foglio, R; Furget, C; Grave, X; Guillon, B; Guler, H; King, P M; Kox, S; Ky, Y; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Lenoble, J; Liatard, E; Liu, J; Muñoz, E; Pouxe, J; Qu'em'ener, G; Quinn, B; R'eal, J S; Rossetto, O; Sellem, R

    2007-01-01

    The G$^0$ parity-violation experiment at Jefferson Lab (Newport News, VA) is designed to determine the contribution of strange/anti-strange quark pairs to the intrinsic properties of the proton. In the forward-angle part of the experiment, the asymmetry in the cross section was measured for $\\vec{e}p$ elastic scattering by counting the recoil protons corresponding to the two beam-helicity states. Due to the high accuracy required on the asymmetry, the G$^0$ experiment was based on a custom experimental setup with its own associated electronics and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Highly specialized time-encoding electronics provided time-of-flight spectra for each detector for each helicity state. More conventional electronics was used for monitoring (mainly FastBus). The time-encoding electronics and the DAQ system have been designed to handle events at a mean rate of 2 MHz per detector with low deadtime and to minimize helicity-correlated systematic errors. In this paper, we outline the general architecture a...

  17. Emittance Measurements from a Laser Driven Electron Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, D

    2003-01-01

    The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was constructed to develop an appropriate electron beam suitable for driving a short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) such as the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). For operation at a wavelength of 1.5 (angstrom), the LCLS requires an electron injector that can produce an electron beam with approximately 1 pi mm-mrad normalized rms emittance with at least 1 nC of charge in a 10 ps or shorter bunch. The GTF consists of a photocathode rf gun, emittance-compensation solenoid, 3 m linear accelerator (linac), drive laser, and diagnostics to measure the beam. The rf gun is a symmetrized 1.6 cell, s-band high gradient, room temperature, photocathode structure. Simulations show that this gun when driven by a temporally and spatially shaped drive laser, appropriately focused with the solenoid, and further accelerated in linac can produce a beam that meets the LCLS requirements. This thesis describes the initial characterization of the ...

  18. A Michelson Interferometer for Electron Cyclotron Emission Measurements on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Stefan, Schmuck; Zhao, Hailin; John, Fessey; Paul, Trimble; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Zeying; Zang, Qing; Hu, Liqun

    2016-12-01

    A Michelson interferometer, on loan from EFDA-JET (Culham, United Kingdom) has recently been commissioned on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST, ASIPP, Hefei, China). Following a successful in-situ absolute calibration the instrument is able to measure the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum, from 80 GHz to 350 GHz in extraordinary mode (X-mode) polarization, with high accuracy. This allows the independent determination of the electron temperature profile from observation of the second harmonic ECE and the possible identification of non-Maxwellian features by comparing higher harmonic emission with numerical simulations. The in-situ calibration results are presented together with the initial measured temperature profiles. These measurements are then discussed and compared with other independent temperature profile measurements. This paper also describes the main hardware features of the diagnostic and the associated commissioning test results. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405211, 11275233), and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB106002, 2015GB101000), and the RCUK Energy Programme (No. EP/I501045), partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the Field of Plasma Physics (NSFC: No. 11261140328)

  19. Phase measurement error in summation of electron holography series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Robert A., E-mail: robbmcleod@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr., Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bergen, Michael [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr., Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Malac, Marek [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr., Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Off-axis electron holography is a method for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) that measures the electric and magnetic properties of a specimen. The electrostatic and magnetic potentials modulate the electron wavefront phase. The error in measurement of the phase therefore determines the smallest observable changes in electric and magnetic properties. Here we explore the summation of a hologram series to reduce the phase error and thereby improve the sensitivity of electron holography. Summation of hologram series requires independent registration and correction of image drift and phase wavefront drift, the consequences of which are discussed. Optimization of the electro-optical configuration of the TEM for the double biprism configuration is examined. An analytical model of image and phase drift, composed of a combination of linear drift and Brownian random-walk, is derived and experimentally verified. The accuracy of image registration via cross-correlation and phase registration is characterized by simulated hologram series. The model of series summation errors allows the optimization of phase error as a function of exposure time and fringe carrier frequency for a target spatial resolution. An experimental example of hologram series summation is provided on WS{sub 2} fullerenes. A metric is provided to measure the object phase error from experimental results and compared to analytical predictions. The ultimate experimental object root-mean-square phase error is 0.006 rad (2π/1050) at a spatial resolution less than 0.615 nm and a total exposure time of 900 s. The ultimate phase error in vacuum adjacent to the specimen is 0.0037 rad (2π/1700). The analytical prediction of phase error differs with the experimental metrics by +7% inside the object and −5% in the vacuum, indicating that the model can provide reliable quantitative predictions. - Highlights: • Optimization of electro-optical configuration for double biprism holography. • Model of drift

  20. Measuring the success of electronic medical record implementation using electronic and survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavjee, K; Troyan, S; Holbrook, A M; VanderMolen, D

    2001-01-01

    Computerization of physician practices is increasing. Stakeholders are demanding demonstrated value for their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) implementations. We developed survey tools to measure medical office processes, including administrative and physician tasks pre- and post-EMR implementation. We included variables that were expected to improve with EMR implementation and those that were not expected to improve, as controls. We measured the same processes pre-EMR, at six months and 18 months post-EMR. Time required for most administrative tasks decreased within six months of EMR implementation. Staff time spent on charting increased with time, in keeping with our anecdotal observations that nurses were given more responsibility for charting in many offices. Physician time to chart increased initially by 50%, but went down to original levels by 18 months. However, this may be due to the drop-out of those physicians who had a difficult time charting electronically.

  1. Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Polarization in Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Kenneth K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear physics traces it roots back to the very beginning of the last century. The concept of the nuclear atom was introduced by Rutherford around 1910. The discovery of the neutron Chadwick in 1932 gave us the concept of two nucleons: the proton and the neutron. The Jlab electron accelerator with its intermediate energy high current continuous wave beam combined with the Hall C high resolution electron spectrometer and a deutron recoil polarimeter provided experiment E94018 with the opportunity to study the deuteron electomagnetic structure, in particular to measure the tensor polarization observable t20, at high four momentum transfers than ever before. This dissertation presents results of JLab experiment E94018.

  2. Lifetime measurements of nuclei in few-electron ions

    CERN Document Server

    Faestermann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this review lifetime measurements of ions with at most two electrons are summarized. Such highly ionized systems have been studied - until now - only in the Experimental Storage Ring of the GSI in Darmstadt. Emphasis is put on decays via the weak interaction. The first observations of beta-decay into bound atomic states are described as well as its time mirrored counterpart, the electron-capture decay. In the latter case the decays of hydrogen- and helium-like ions are compared with a surprising result. Further on, the observation of sinusoidal modulations of the decay rate in two-body decays is summarized. As a possible cause an interference due to the emission of neutrinos with different rest mass is discussed.

  3. The GAMMA-400 Space Experiment: Gammas, Electrons and Nuclei Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocchiutti, E.; Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Carbone, R.; Cumani, P.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sarkar, R.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.; Zirakashvili, V. N.

    2013-06-01

    The present design of the new space gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-400 for the energy range 50 MeV-3 TeV is presented. The proposed instrument has an angular resolution of 1-2 degrees at E(γ)˜100 MeV and ˜0.01 degrees at E(γ)>100 GeV and an energy resolution ˜1% at E(γ)>100 GeV. By means of a deep segmented calorimeter high energy electron flux can be studied, with a proton rejection factor of about 106. The GAMMA-400 experiment is optimized to address a broad range of science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, studies of galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, gamma-ray bursts, as well as high-precision measurements of spectra of high energy electrons, protons and nuclei up to the knee.

  4. Iron silicide formation at different layers of (Fe/Si){sub 3} multilayered structures determined by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badía-Romano, L., E-mail: lbadia@unizar.es; Bartolomé, J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rubín, J. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Magén, C. [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bürgler, D. E. [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    The morphology and the quantitative composition of the Fe-Si interface layer forming at each Fe layer of a (Fe/Si){sub 3} multilayer have been determined by means of conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). For the CEMS measurements, each layer was selected by depositing the Mössbauer active {sup 57}Fe isotope with 95% enrichment. Samples with Fe layers of nominal thickness d{sub Fe} = 2.6 nm and Si spacers of d{sub Si} = 1.5 nm were prepared by thermal evaporation onto a GaAs(001) substrate with an intermediate Ag(001) buffer layer. HRTEM images showed that Si layers grow amorphous and the epitaxial growth of the Fe is good only for the first deposited layer. The CEMS spectra show that at all Fe/Si and Si/Fe interfaces a paramagnetic c-Fe{sub 1−x}Si phase is formed, which contains 16% of the nominal Fe deposited in the Fe layer. The bottom Fe layer, which is in contact with the Ag buffer, also contains α-Fe and an Fe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} alloy that cannot be attributed to a single phase. In contrast, the other two layers only comprise an Fe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} alloy with a Si concentration of ≃0.15, but no α-Fe.

  5. Measurement of semi-electronic beauty-hadron decays via their impact parameter in pp collisions in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Markus Ansgar

    2014-03-19

    The measurement of beauty-hadron decays via the detection of electron tracks that are displaced from the primary vertex can be performed with ALICE, whose capabilities of electron identification and tracking fulfil all requirements for this task. While the large corresponding branching ratios guarantee sufficient yields of beauty-decay electrons at LHC energies, the wide electron impact parameter distribution due to the long lifetime and the decay kinematics of beauty hadrons allows for a separation of electrons from beauty-hadron decays from background electrons on a statistical basis. This thesis presents the analysis of electrons from beauty-hadron decays in protonproton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 2.76 TeV. Using the ALICE central-barrel detectors ITS, TPC, and TOF, p{sub T}-differential electron spectra are measured at mid-rapidity (vertical stroke y vertical stroke <0.8) for transverse momenta between 1 and 8 GeV/c. Information from the TPC and TOF signal is combined to select pure electron samples, whose signal-to-background ratio is subsequently enhanced via the requirement of a minimal impact parameter of the tracks towards the primary vertex in the x - y plane. Tracks from photon conversions occurring outside the innermost ITS layer, which have a wide impact parameter distribution, are rejected via the requirement of hits in both SPD layers of the ITS. The remaining hadron contamination in the selected electron track samples is determined on a statistical basis from the distributions of their energy deposition per unit of length in the TPC. A crucial challenge of this analysis is the subtraction of the electron background originating from charm decays, photon conversions, and light-meson decays from the measured inclusive electron spectrum. The corresponding electron yields are determined using spectra from PYTHIA simulations that are reweighted based on previous measurements of charmed hadrons, π{sup 0}, and η. Minor

  6. On the basis set convergence of electron-electron entanglement measures: helium-like systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    A systematic investigation of three different electron-electron entanglement measures, namely the von Neumann, the linear and the occupation number entropy at full configuration interaction level has been performed for the four helium-like systems hydride, helium, Li(+) and Be(2+) using a large number of different basis sets. The convergence behavior of the resulting energies and entropies revealed that the latter do in general not show the expected strictly monotonic increase upon increase of the one-electron basis. Overall, the three different entanglement measures show good agreement among each other, the largest deviations being observed for small basis sets. The data clearly demonstrates that it is important to consider the nature of the chemical system when investigating entanglement phenomena in the framework of Gaussian type basis sets: while in case of hydride the use of augmentation functions is crucial, the application of core functions greatly improves the accuracy in case of cationic systems such as Li(+) and Be(2+). In addition, numerical derivatives of the entanglement measures with respect to the nucleic charge have been determined, which proved to be a very sensitive probe of the convergence leading to qualitatively wrong results (i.e., the wrong sign) if too small basis sets are used.

  7. On the basis set convergence of electron-electron entanglement measures: helium-like systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Hofer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of three different electron--electron entanglement measures, namely the von Neumann, the linear and the occupation number entropy at full configuration interaction level has been performed for the four helium-like systems hydride, helium, lithium(I and beryllium(II using a large number of different basis sets. The convergence behaviour of the resulting energies and entropies was revealed that the latter do in general not show monotonic convergence upon increase of the one--electron basis. Overall, the three different entanglement measures show good agreement among each other, the largest deviations being observed for small basis sets. The data clearly demonstrates that it is important to consider the nature of the chemical system when investigating entanglement phenomena in the framework of Gaussian type basis sets: while in case of hydride the use of augmentation functions is crucial, the application of core functions greatly improves the accuracy in case of cationic systems such as lithium(I and beryllium(II.In addition, numerical derivatives of the entanglement measures with respect to the nucleic charge have been determined, which proved to be a very sensitive probe of the convergence leading to qualitatively wrong results if inadequate basis sets are used.

  8. Search for quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation A measurement of an upper limit on the transducer conversion efficiency of yttrium barium copper oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, R Y; Speliotopoulos, A D

    2003-01-01

    A minimal coupling rule for the coupling of the electron spin to curved spacetime in general relativity suggests the possibility of a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation mediated by means of a quantum fluid. Thus quantum transducers between these two kinds of radiation fields might exist. We report here on the first attempt at a Hertz-type experiment, in which a high-$\\rm{T_c}$ superconductor (YBCO) was the sample material used as a possible quantum transducer to convert EM into GR microwaves, and a second piece of YBCO in a separate apparatus was used to back-convert GR into EM microwaves. An upper limit on the conversion efficiency of YBCO was measured to be $1.6\\times10^{-5}$ at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  9. Electron transit time measurements of 5-in photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, T.; Peatross, J.; Ware, M.; Rees, L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the uniformity of electron transit times for two 5-in photomultiplier tubes: the Hamamatsu R1250 and the Adit B133D01S. We focused a highly attenuated short-pulse laser on the tubes while they were mounted on a programmable stage. The stage translated the tubes relative to the incident beam so that measurements could be made with light focused at points along a grid covering the entire photocathodes. A portion of the incident light was split from the incident beam and measured and recorded by a fast photodiode. Electron transit times were measured by computing the time delay between the recorded photodiode signal and photomultiplier signal using software constant-fraction discrimination. The Hamamatsu tube exhibited a uniform timing response that varied by no more than 1.7 ns. The Adit tube was much less uniform, with transit times that varied by as much as 57 ns. The Adit response also exhibited a spatially varying double-peak structure in its response. The technique described in this paper could be usefully employed by photomultiplier tube manufacturers to characterize the performance of their products.

  10. A new era of quality measurement in rheumatology: electronic clinical quality measures and national registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonner, Chris; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews the evolution of quality measurement in rheumatology, highlighting new health-information technology infrastructure and standards that are enabling unprecedented innovation in this field. Spurred by landmark legislation that ties physician payment to value, the widespread use of electronic health records, and standards such as the Quality Data Model, quality measurement in rheumatology is rapidly evolving. Rather than relying on retrospective assessments of care gathered through administrative claims or manual chart abstraction, new electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) allow automated data capture from electronic health records. At the same time, qualified clinical data registries, like the American College of Rheumatology's Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness registry, are enabling large-scale implementation of eCQMs across national electronic health record networks with real-time performance feedback to clinicians. Although successful examples of eCQM development and implementation in rheumatology and other fields exist, there also remain challenges, such as lack of health system data interoperability and problems with measure accuracy. Quality measurement and improvement is increasingly an essential component of rheumatology practice. Advances in health information technology are likely to continue to make implementation of eCQMs easier and measurement more clinically meaningful and accurate in coming years.

  11. Electron Beam Lifetime in SPEAR3: Measurement and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.; Huang, X.; Lee, M.; Lui, P.; /SLAC; Sayyar-Rodsari, B.; /Pavilon Tech., Austin

    2007-12-19

    In this paper we report on electron beam lifetime measurements as a function of scraper position, RF voltage and bunch fill pattern in SPEAR3. We then outline development of an empirical, macroscopic model using the beam-loss rate equation. By identifying the dependence of loss coefficients on accelerator and beam parameters, a numerically-integrating simulator can be constructed to compute beam decay with time. In a companion paper, the simulator is used to train a parametric, non-linear dynamics model for the system [1].

  12. The role of electron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain and for radiosynovectomy: applications of conversion electron emitter Tin-117m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh C. Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of radionuclides continue to be investigated and/or clinically used for different therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. The choice of a particular radionuclide with regard to appropriate emissions, linear energy transfer (LET, and physical half-life, etc., is dictated to a large extent by the character of the disease (e.g., solid tumor or metastatic disease, and by the carrier to selectively transport the radionuclide to the desired site. An impressive body of information has appeared in the recent literature that addresses many of these considerations. This article summarizes and discusses the role of high-LET electron emitters and their advantage in the treatment of cancer or for other disorders in specific situations. Areas such as bone pain palliation, bone malignancy therapy, and radiation synovectomy are covered in greater detail. Projections are made as to the future directions and progress in these areas. A discussion of the various issues related to the selection criteria that are useful for choosing the appropriate radionuclide for a particular application is included. Use of high-LET electron emitters is discussed in greater detail, with particular emphasis on the use of conversion electron emitter tin-117m for various therapeutic applications.Uma variedade de radionuclídeos continua a ser investigada e/ou clinicamente utilizada para diferentes aplicações terapêuticas em medicina nuclear. A escolha de um radionuclídeo, considerando-se sua emissão apropriada, transferência linear de energia (LET e meia-vida física é determinada na maior parte pelo caráter da doença (p.ex., tumor sólido ou doença metastática, e pelo carreador que transporta o radionuclídeo seletivamente para o sítio desejado. Um notável conjunto de informações voltadas para essas considerações tem aparecido na literatura recente. Esse trabalho resume e discute o papel de emissores de elétrons de alta-LET e sua vantagem no

  13. An Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, David M

    2012-01-01

    The theory of neutrino oscillations explains changes in neutrino flavor, count rates, and spectra from solar, atmospheric, accelerator, and reactor neutrinos. These oscillations are characterized by three mixing angles and two mass-squared differences. The solar mixing angle, {\\theta}_12, and the atmospheric mixing angle, {\\theta}_23, have been well measured, but until recently the neutrino mixing angle {\\theta}_13 was not well known. The Daya Bay experiment, located northeast of Hong Kong at the Guangdong Nuclear Power Complex in China, has made a precise measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using six functionally-identical gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator-based detectors at three sites with distances between 364 and 1900 meters from six reactor cores. This proceeding describes the Daya Bay updated result, using 127 days of good run time collected between December 24, 2011 and May 11, 2012. For the far site, the ratio of the observed number of events to the expected number of events assumin...

  14. Electron Spin Resonance Measurement with Microinductor on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kitagawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of radicals on a chip is demonstrated. The proposed method is based on electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy and the measurement of high-frequency impedance of the microinductor fabricated on the chip. The measurement was by using a frequency sweep of approximately 100 MHz. The ESR spectra of di(phenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyliminoazanium (DPPH dropped on the microinductor which is fabricated with CMOS 350-nm technology were observed at room temperature. The volume of the DPPH ethanol solution was 2 μL, and the number of spins on the micro-inductor was estimated at about 1014. The sensitivity is not higher than that of the standard ESR spectrometers. However, the result indicates the feasibility of a near field radical sensor in which the microinductor as a probe head and ESR signal processing circuit are integrated.

  15. An instrument to measure mechanical up-conversion phenomena in metals in the elastic regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajente, G; Quintero, E A; Ni, X; Arai, K; Gustafson, E K; Robertson, N A; Sanchez, E J; Greer, J R; Adhikari, R X

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline materials, such as metals, are known to exhibit deviation from a simple linear relation between strain and stress when the latter exceeds the yield stress. In addition, it has been shown that metals respond to varying external stress in a discontinuous way in this regime, exhibiting discrete releases of energy. This crackling noise has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically when the metals are operating in the plastic regime. In our study, we focus on the behavior of metals in the elastic regime, where the stresses are well below the yield stress. We describe an instrument that aims to characterize non-linear mechanical noise in metals when stressed in the elastic regime. In macroscopic systems, this phenomenon is expected to manifest as a non-stationary noise modulated by external disturbances applied to the material, a form of mechanical up-conversion of noise. The main motivation for this work is for the case of maraging steel components (cantilevers and wires) in the suspension systems of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors. Such instruments are planned to reach very ambitious displacement sensitivities, and therefore mechanical noise in the cantilevers could prove to be a limiting factor for the detectors' final sensitivities, mainly due to non-linear up-conversion of low frequency residual seismic motion to the frequencies of interest for the gravitational wave observations. We describe here the experimental setup, with a target sensitivity of 10(-15) m/Hz in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, a simple phenomenological model of the non-linear mechanical noise, and the analysis method that is inspired by this model.

  16. An instrument to measure mechanical up-conversion phenomena in metals in the elastic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajente, G.; Quintero, E. A.; Ni, X.; Arai, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Robertson, N. A.; Sanchez, E. J.; Greer, J. R.; Adhikari, R. X.

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline materials, such as metals, are known to exhibit deviation from a simple linear relation between strain and stress when the latter exceeds the yield stress. In addition, it has been shown that metals respond to varying external stress in a discontinuous way in this regime, exhibiting discrete releases of energy. This crackling noise has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically when the metals are operating in the plastic regime. In our study, we focus on the behavior of metals in the elastic regime, where the stresses are well below the yield stress. We describe an instrument that aims to characterize non-linear mechanical noise in metals when stressed in the elastic regime. In macroscopic systems, this phenomenon is expected to manifest as a non-stationary noise modulated by external disturbances applied to the material, a form of mechanical up-conversion of noise. The main motivation for this work is for the case of maraging steel components (cantilevers and wires) in the suspension systems of terrestrial gravitational wave detectors. Such instruments are planned to reach very ambitious displacement sensitivities, and therefore mechanical noise in the cantilevers could prove to be a limiting factor for the detectors' final sensitivities, mainly due to non-linear up-conversion of low frequency residual seismic motion to the frequencies of interest for the gravitational wave observations. We describe here the experimental setup, with a target sensitivity of 10-15 m/ √{ Hz } in the frequency range of 10-1000 Hz, a simple phenomenological model of the non-linear mechanical noise, and the analysis method that is inspired by this model.

  17. Measurement of Low Energy Electronic Recoil Response and Electronic/Nuclear Recoils Discrimination in XENON100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingqiang; Xenon Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The XENON100 detector uses liquid xenon time projection chamber to search for nuclear recoils(NR) caused by hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The backgrounds are mostly electronic recoils(ER), thus it's crucial to distinguish NR from ER. Using high statistical calibration data from tritiated methane, AmBe and other sources in XENON100, the ER/NR discrimination under different electric fields are measured. The Photon yield and recombination fluctuation of low energy electronic recoils under different fields will also be presented and compared to results from NEST and other experiments, which is crucial to understanding the response of liquid xenon detectors in the energy regime of searching dark matter.

  18. Measurements of the Secondary Electron Emission of Some Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhko, Y; Hilleret, N

    2013-01-01

    Charging up the surface of an insulator after beam impact can lead either to reverse sign of field between the surface and collector of electrons for case of thick sample or appearance of very high internal field for thin films. Both situations discard correct measurements of secondary electron emission (SEE) and can be avoided via reducing the beam dose. The single pulse method with pulse duration of order of tens microseconds has been used. The beam pulsing was carried out by means of an analog switch introduced in deflection plate circuit which toggles its output between "beam on" and "beam off" voltages depending on level of a digital pulse. The error in measuring the beam current for insulators with high value of SEE was significantly reduced due to the use for this purpose a titanium sample having low value of the SEE with DC method applied. Results obtained for some not coated insulators show considerable increase of the SEE after baking out at 3500C what could be explained by the change of work functi...

  19. Measurement of Electron-Ion Relaxation in Warm Dense Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. Data are compared with various theoretical models.

  20. Measurement of precision oscillator phase noise using the two-oscillator coherent down-conversion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Christopher J.; Cashin, William F.

    1992-01-01

    The characterization of precision frequency standard phase noise and spurious outputs is addressed, using the two-oscillator coherent downconversion technique. Focus is on techniques for making accurate measurements of phase noise and spurious outputs within 100 KHz of a carrier. Significant sources of measurement error related to hardware design problems and inadequate measurement procedures are discussed: measurement errors resulting from system noise sources, phase-locked loop effects, and system bandwidth limitations. In addition, methods and design considerations for minimizing the effects of such errors are presented. Analytic discussions and results are supplemented with actual test data and measurements made using measurement hardware developed at the Ball Corporation, Efratom Division.

  1. Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Andrew Gerhart [University of Texas, Arlington; Rijssenbeek, Michael [Stony Brook

    2014-11-03

    TITLE: Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement ABSTRACT: Time-of-flight (TOF) detectors have historically been used as part of the particle identification capability of multi-purpose particle physics detectors. An accurate time measurement, combined with a momentum measurement based on the curvature of the track in a magnetic field, is often sufficient to determine the particle's mass, and thus its identity. Such detectors typically have measured the particle flight time extremely precisely, with an uncertainty of one hundred trillionths of a second (also referred to as 100 picoseconds). To put this in perspective it would be like counting all the people on the Earth and getting it right within 1 person! Another use of TOFs is to measure the vertex of the event, which is the location along the beam line where the incoming particles (typically protons) collide. This vertex positon is a well measured quantity for events where the protons collide “head on” as the outgoing particles produced when you blast the proton apart can be used to trace back to a vertex point from which they originated. More frequently the protons just strike a glancing blow and remain intact—in this case they are nearly parallel to the beam and you cannot tell their vertex without this ability to precisely measure the time of flight of the protons. Occasionally both happen in the same event, that is, a central system and two protons are produced. But are they from the same collision, or just a boring background where more than one collision in the same bunch crossing conspire to fake the signal of interest? That’s where the timing of the protons comes into play. The main idea is to measure the time it takes for the two protons to reach TOF detectors positioned equidistant from the center of the main detector. If the vertex is displaced to one side than that detector will measure a shorter time while the other side detector will measure a correspondingly longer time

  2. Electronically swept millimeter-wave interferometer for spatially resolved measurement of plasma electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Oliver, David

    2006-12-01

    We report the development and initial implementation of what we believe to be a new rapid- spatial-scan millimeter-wave interferometer for plasma density measurements. The fast scan is effected by electronic frequency sweeping of a wideband (180-280 GHz) backward-wave oscillator whose output is focused onto a fixed blazed diffraction grating. The system, which augments the rotating-grating scanned multiview H-1 heliac interferometer, can sweep the plasma cross section in a period of less than 1 ms with a beam diameter in the plasma of 20 mm and phase noise of the order of 0.01 rad.

  3. Direct 1{sup +}{yields}N{sup +} conversion of stable alkali ions using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mery, A.; Jardin, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Bajeat, O.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Fraanberg-Delahaye, H.; Lecomte, P.; Leherissier, P.; Maunoury, L.; Pichard, A.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Thomas, J. C. [GANIL, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France); Alcantara-Nunez, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The production of radioactive ions using the Isotope Separation On-Line method gives rise, in most cases, to singly charged ions. In order to perform experiments with postaccelerated radioactive ion beams, these ions have to be multicharged. We describe here a new compact design for a charge breeder that will be coupled to the production target of SPIRAL1 at GANIL. We present recent results obtained offline with stable alkali ions (Na, K, Rb, and Cs) on the SIRa test bench. Particularly, 1{sup +} to N{sup +} conversion efficiencies and conversion times are presented. Several points have been identified for the improvements of the present performances.

  4. Developing and measuring healthcare capacity and quality in Burundi: LifeNet International’s horizontal conversion franchise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and respond to a greater number of the obstacles preventing facilities from providing quality care. Through its Quality Score Card, LN measures improvements in quality of care within its network. This tool has measured consistent and significant improvements in quality of care following LN partnership. Together, these services improve quality of care at East African primary care facilities in ways that issue-specific, “vertical” interventions cannot.

  5. Measurement of the Circular Dichroism of Electronic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J.C.

    2010-08-11

    This chapter describes the measurement of circular dichroism (CD) for absorption due to transitions between two distinct electronic states. This is distinguished from absorption of lower energy photons, which are associated with changes of only the vibrational modes of the absorber and from the absorption of higher energy photons, which may result in ionizations. From the instrumental viewpoint, the chapter describes the measurement of CD that can be recorded using a photomultiplier or avalanche photodiode to quantify the intensity of a light beam, a photoelastic modulator to periodically alter the beam's polarization, and a monochromator located between the light source and the modulator. Using either criterion, the focus is on the spectral domain spanning about a decade in wavelength (photon energy) from roughly 1.2 {micro}m (1 eV {approx} 160 zJ) in the near infrared to 120 nm (10 eV {approx} 1.6 aJ) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). In the near infrared, there is overlap between the domain of electronic and purely vibrational transitions, the use of photomultipliers or avalanche photodiodes versus solid state detectors and dispersive versus Fourier-transform spectrometers. There is also some overlap in the VUV with synchrotron beamlines that use arrays of magnets called 'insertion devices' to cause the emitted synchrotron radiation to be elliptically polarized. To my knowledge, no single spectrometer spans this entire spectral domain discussed here, and the vast majority of laboratory instruments come nowhere close to either the upper or lower limit. However, similar analytical approaches and types of instrumentation are employed throughout this spectral domain and thus are logically treated together. The focus in this chapter is on the measurement of CD resulting from the inherent chirality of the absorbing system. Several spectroscopic methods that are closely related in terms of science or instrumentation are treated in other chapters. These

  6. Electron spin resonance and transient photocurrent measurements on microcrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, T.

    2004-09-01

    The electronic properties of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) films have been studied using electron spin resonance (ESR), transient photocurrent time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, and electrical conductivity measurements. Structural properties were determined by Raman spectroscopy. A wide range of structure compositions, from highly crystalline films with no discernable amorphous content, to predominantly amorphous films with no crystalline phase contributions, was investigated. Models and possible explanations concerning the nature and energetic distribution of electronic defects as a function of film composition are discussed. It is shown that the spin density N{sub S} in {mu}c-Si:H films is linked strongly to the structure composition of the material. Both reversible and irreversible changes in the ESR signal and dark conductivity due to atmospheric effects are found in {mu}c-Si:H. The porous structure of highly crystalline material facilitates in-diffusion of atmospheric gases, which strongly affects the character and/or density of surface states. Two contributing processes have been identified, namely adsorption and oxidation. Both processes lead to an increase of N{sub S}. Measurements on n-type {mu}c-Si:H films were used as a probe of the density of gap states, confirming that the spin density NS is related to the density of defects. The results confirm that for a wide range of structural compositions, the doping induced Fermi level shift in {mu}c-Si:H is governed by compensation of defect states, for doping concentrations up to the dangling bond spin density. At higher concentrations a doping efficiency close to unity was found, confirming that in {mu}c-Si:H the measured spin densities represent the majority of gap states (N{sub S}=N{sub DB}). By applying the TOF technique to study pin solar cells based on {mu}c-Si:H, conclusive hole drift mobility data were obtained. Despite the predominant crystallinity of these samples, the temperature-dependence of

  7. Measurements of 1.9 MeV electron Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Cabal, Fatima Padilla; D' Alessandro, Katia [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Maidana, Nora Lia; Vanin, Vito Roberto; Martins, Marcos Nogueira; Malafronte, Alexandre; Bonini, Alfredo L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Sempau, Josep [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Bremsstrahlung Cross section of 1.9 MeV electrons in Ti, Ag, and Au were measured at the Microtron accelerator of the IFUSP. Target mass surface density was in the range 0.1 to 1 mg/cm{sup 2} and the electron current varied from 3 to 30 nA, measured by a Faraday cup. The spectra were measured at three angles (30 deg; 90 deg and 60 deg) using a shielded p-type HPGe detector with an spectroscopy amplifier with pile-up rejection and a fast ADC. A 20 cm in length and 1.2 cm in diameter Pb collimator was placed in front of the detector to reduce the contribution of radiation scattered in the irradiation chamber or other background sources. With the goal of increasing the peak to total gamma-ray efficiency, the collimator hole was placed with its axis parallel to the coaxial detector symmetry axis, but displaced 1.4 cm to the right of the detector crystal axis. Hence, the Ge thickness exposed directly to the Bremsstrahlung beam was about 5 times bigger than that in the crystal axis, where the n-contact hole is located. The detector response functions were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations based on experimentally determined detector dimensions, in a procedure described in a companion paper submitted to this conference (Response function of a p-type Ge detector). Two energy bins: 50 keV and 1 keV were used in the Bremsstrahlung spectrum deconvolution. The first one was employed to determine the energy differential cross section from 0.1 to 1.9 MeV, and the second one for a more specific spectra study, in the high frequency limit or 'tip region'. The experimental spectrum was corrected for pile-up, with a simple model that assumes that the amplifier pile-up rejection resolving time is the same for all measured energies, and the photon background, measured with the target retracted from the beam. The Bremsstrahlung spectra B were obtained as: B = R{sup -}1 X E, where R is the matrix of the detector response function and E the recorded spectrum vector

  8. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  9. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  10. Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Beriguete, W; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Brown, R L; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Carr, R; Chan, W T; Chang, J F; Chang, Y; Chasman, C; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, S J; Chen, S M; Chen, X C; Chen, X H; Chen, X S; Chen, Y; Chen, Y X; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; Deng, Z Y; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Dong, L; Draeger, E; Dwyer, D; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Fang, S D; Fu, J Y; Fu, Z W; Ge, L Q; Gill, R L; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Gornushkin, Y A; Greenler, L S; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Hahn, R L; Hans, S; He, M; He, Q; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Hinrichs, P; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, T; Huang, H X; Huang, H Z; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Issakov, V; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; Jetter, S; Ji, X L; Ji, X P; Jiang, H J; Jiang, W Q; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lai, C Y; Lai, W C; Lai, W H; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Leitner, R; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lewis, C A; Li, B; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, J; Li, Q J; Li, S F; Li, W D; Li, X B; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, J; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, S K; Lin, S X; Lin, Y C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, B J; Liu, D W; Liu, J C; Liu, J L; Liu, S; Liu, Y B; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Luk, A; Luk, K B; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Ma, Q M; Ma, X B; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y Q; McDonald, K T; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mohapatra, D; Morgan, J E; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Nemchenok, I; Ngai, H Y; Ngai, W K; Nie, Y B; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Pagac, A; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Shih, K; Steiner, H; Stoler, P; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tam, Y H; Tanaka, H K; Tang, X; Tagg, N; Themann, H; Torun, Y; Trentalange, S; Tsai, O; Tsang, R H M; Tsang, K V; Tull, C; Tung, Y C; Viren, B; Virostek, S; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, L S; Wang, L Y; Wang, L Z; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Wenman, D L; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wilhelmi, J; Williamson, Y; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, J; Worcester, E T; Wu, F F; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xiang, S T; Xiao, Q; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J; Xu, J; Xu, J L; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yang, C G; Yang, L; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Young, B L; Yu, Z Y; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, F H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Q X; Zhang, S H; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2012-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. We exclude a zero value for $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations. Electron antineutrinos from six reactors of 2.9 GW$_{\\rm th}$ were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baselines of 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. Using 139 days of data, 28909 (205308) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to the expected number of antineutrinos assuming no oscillations at the far hall is $0.944\\pm 0.007({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.003({\\rm syst.})$. An analysis of the relative rates in six detectors finds $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}=0.089\\pm 0.010({\\rm stat.})\\pm0.005({\\rm syst.})$ in a three-neutrino framework.

  11. The Design and Measurement of Molecular Electronic Switches and Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark

    2000-03-01

    Electron transport studies in molecular-scale systems have recently become possible with the utilization of advanced microfabrication and self-assembly techniques. We have performed the measurement of the conductance of a single molecule using a break junction technique [1], the demonstration of molecular diodes [2], and the systematic investigation of metal-molecule contacts in a variety of systems [3]. Most recently, we have observed [4] large and useful reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules as the active component, specifically a nitroamine redox center. The molecular device exhibits negative differential resistance (NDR) and peak-to-valley ratios exceeding 1000:1 and exceeds that observed in typical solid state quantum well resonant tunneling heterostructures. The designs of molecular switches, memories, and their circuit applications will be discussed. 1. M. A. Reed et al., Science 278, 252 (1997). 2. C. Zhou et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 611 (1997). 3. J. Chen et al., Chem Phys Lett 313, 741 (1999). 4. J. Chen et al., Science 286, 1550 (1999).

  12. Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M. [Vanderbilt Free-Electron-Laser Center, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.

  13. Antiproton beam profile measurements using Gas Electron Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Spanggaard, Jens; Tranquille, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X_0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEgIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  14. Aging measurements with the gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Altunbas, M C; Kappler, S; Ketzer, B; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Simon, F

    2003-01-01

    Continuing previous aging measurements with detectors based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), a $31\\times 31$cm$^2$ triple-GEM detector, as used in the small area tracking of the COMPASS experiment at CERN, was investigated. With a detector identical to those installed in the experiment, long-term, high-rate exposures to $8.9$keV X-ray radiation were performed to study its aging properties. In standard operation conditions, with Ar:CO$_2$ (70:30) filling and operated at an effective gain of $8.5\\cdot 10^3$, no change in gain and energy resolution is observed after collecting a total charge of 7mC/mm$^2$, corresponding to seven years of normal operation. This observation confirms previous results demonstrating the relative insensitivity of GEM detectors to aging, even when manufactured with common materials.

  15. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  16. Solid-state dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} solar cells with high photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, U.; Comte, P.; Moser, J.E.; Gratzel, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laussanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Photonics and Interfaces; Lupo, D.; Spreitzer, H. [Hoechst Research and Technology Deutschland GmbH and Co., Frankfurt (Germany); Weissortel, F.; Salbeck, J. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1998-10-08

    Solar cells based on dye-sensitized mesoporous films of TiO{sub 2} are low-cost alternatives to conventional solid-state devices. Impressive solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies have been achieved with such films when used in conjunction with liquid electrolytes. Practical advantages may be gained by the replacement of the liquid electrolyte with a solid charge-transport material. Inorganic p-type semiconductors and organic materials have been tested in this regard, but in all cases the incident monochromatic photon-to-electron conversion efficiency remained low. Here we describe a dye-sensitized heterojunction of TiO{sub 2} with the amorphous organic hole-transport material 2,2`,7,7`-tetrakis (N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine) 9,9`-spirobifluorene. (author)

  17. New Experiment to Measure the Electron Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    An electron can possess an electric dipole moment (edm) only if time reversal symmetry (T) is violated. No edm of any particle has yet been discovered. CP-violation, equivalent to T-violation by the CPT theorem, does occur in Kaon decays and can be accounted for by the standard model. However, this mechanism leads to an electron edm d(sub e) of the order of 10(exp -38) e cm, whereas the current experimental bound on d(sub e) is about 10(exp -27) e cm. However, well-motivated extensions of the standard model such as supersymmetric theories do predict that de could be as large as the current bound. In addition, CP violation in the early universe is required to explain the preponderance of matter over anti-matter, but the exact mechanism of this CP violation is unclear. For these reasons, we are undertaking a new experimental program to determine de to an improved accuracy of 10(exp -29) e cm. Our experiment will use laser-cooled, trapped Cesium atoms to measure the atomic edm d(sub Cs) that occurs if d(sub e) is not zero. In order to do this, we will measure the energy splitting between the atoms spin states in parallel electric and magnetic fields. The signature of an edm would be a linear dependence of the splitting on the electric field E due to the interaction - d(sub Cs) dot E. Our measurement will be much more sensitive than previous measurements because atoms can be stored in the trap for tens of seconds, allowing for much narrower Zeeman resonance linewidths. Also, our method eliminates the most important systematic errors, proportional to atomic velocity, which have limited previous experiments. In this presentation, we will describe the design of our new apparatus, which is presently under construction. An important feature of our experimental apparatus is that magnetic field noise will be suppressed to a very low value of the order of 1 fT/(Hz)1/2. This requires careful attention to the Johnson noise currents in the chamber, which have not been important

  18. Spectral resolved Measurement of the Nitrogen Fluorescence Emissions in Air induced by Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Waldenmaier, Tilo; Klages, Hans

    2007-01-01

    For the calorimetric determination of the primary energy of extensive air showers, measured by fluorescence telescopes, a precise knowledge of the conversion factor (fluorescence yield) between the deposited energy in the atmosphere and the number of emitted fluorescence photons is essential. The fluorescence yield depends on the pressure and the temperature of the air as well as on the water vapor concentration. Within the scope of this work the fluorescence yield for the eight strongest nitrogen emission bands between 300 nm and 400 nm has been measured using electrons from a Sr-90 source with energies between 250 keV and 2000 keV. Measurements have been performed in dry air, pure nitrogen, and a nitrogen-oxygen mixture at pressures ranging from 2 hPa to 990 hPa. Furthermore the influence of water vapor has been studied. A new approach for the parametrization of the fluorescence yield was used to analyze the data, leading to a consistent description of the fluorescence yield with a minimal set of parameters...

  19. Predicted and measured total electron content over Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Jakowski, N.; Jadur, C. A.

    1997-03-01

    The total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere is a parameter often used to check the validity of ionospheric models. Moreover, it is very important for the systems which use transionospheric radio waves. In this paper, TEC measurements obtained with Faraday technique at Havana (23.1°N, 277.5°E, geomagnetic latitude: 34.2°), Cuba, during 1982-1983 period are used to check the validity of two ionospheric models to predict TEC over this station. Havana is a low latitude station but it is not affected by the equatorial anomaly (EA). The models considered are the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and a Chapman layer with scale height equal to atomic oxygen scale height (CHOEA). Measured values of the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric region obtained at San José de Las Lajas (23.0°N, 277.9°E, geomagnetic latitude: 34.1°), Cuba, are used as input coefficients in the models. The results show that the models have different performances as predictors of TEC over Havana. In general, the IRI gives very good predictions for the period around the daily minimum, and for the maximum TEC hours CHOEA is a very good predictor. Taking into account the simplicity of the calculations with CHOEA, this model would be an adequate alternative to predict TEC over stations which are not affected by the EA, as Havana, at least for the solar activity conditions considered.

  20. Noise in two-color electronic distance meter measurements revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.

    2004-01-01

    Frequent, high-precision geodetic data have temporally correlated errors. Temporal correlations directly affect both the estimate of rate and its standard error; the rate of deformation is a key product from geodetic measurements made in tectonically active areas. Various models of temporally correlated errors are developed and these provide relations between the power spectral density and the data covariance matrix. These relations are applied to two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) measurements made frequently in California over the past 15-20 years. Previous analysis indicated that these data have significant random walk error. Analysis using the noise models developed here indicates that the random walk model is valid for about 30% of the data. A second 30% of the data can be better modeled with power law noise with a spectral index between 1 and 2, while another 30% of the data can be modeled with a combination of band-pass-filtered plus random walk noise. The remaining 10% of the data can be best modeled as a combination of band-pass-filtered plus power law noise. This band-pass-filtered noise is a product of an annual cycle that leaks into adjacent frequency bands. For time spans of more than 1 year these more complex noise models indicate that the precision in rate estimates is better than that inferred by just the simpler, random walk model of noise.

  1. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging for aerodynamic and thermodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Nathan David

    This thesis presents applications of Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) to a variety of aerodynamic and thermodynamic measurements. FLEET tagged line characteristics such as intensity, width and spectral features are investigated in various flow conditions (pressure, temperature, velocity, steadiness, etc.) and environments (gas composition) for both temporally and spatially instantaneous and averaged data. Special attention is drawn to the nature of first and second positive systems of molecular nitrogen and the ramifications on FLEET measurements. Existing laser-based diagnostic techniques are summarized and FLEET is directly compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in various low speed flows. Multidimensional velocity, acceleration, vorticity and other flow parameters are extracted in supersonic free jets and within an enclosed in-draft tunnel test section. Probability distribution functions of the mean and standard deviation of critical flow parameters are unveiled by utilizing a Bayesian statistical framework wherein likelihood functions are established from prior and posterior distributions. Advanced image processing techniques based on fuzzy logic are applied to single-shot FLEET images with low signal-to-noise ratio to improve image quality and reduce uncertainty in data processing algorithms. Lastly, FLEET second positive and first negative emission are considered at a wide range of pressures to correct for changes in select rovibrational peak magnitude and shape due to density from which bulk gas temperature may be extracted.

  2. Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode connected with a 50 $\\Omega $ cable to an amplifier followed by a 5 GS/s sampling oscilloscope. The charge carriers in the sensor were produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for the laser light of both wavelengths, at voltages 50 V above the depletion voltage of about 90 V up to the maximum applied voltage of 1000 V. The method has been developed for the precise measurement of the dependence of the drift velocity of electrons an...

  3. Monte Carlo Studies of two Different Conversion Layers for Neutron Measurements with Medipix Silicon Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 the ventilation system of CNGS failed and investigations showed that the failure was due to Single Event Upset (SEU). Since then there has been increased interest in studies of neutron flux, that can potentially cause SEU. Two Medipix detectors have previously been installed in the CMS cavern on a test basis and have shown to work as intended[1]. More Medipix detectors will be installed to provide high resolution measurements of the particle flux in the vicinity of the CMS, focusing on measurements of the neutron flux. The measurements will provide an important basis to know what precautions to take to avoid another failure due to SEU. The measurements will also constitute a valuably reference to the FLUKA simulations of the general flux in the CMS cavern, that can potentially lead to important corrections of the simulations. Furthermore, measurements from the Medipix detectors will act as a cross check on the hadronic forward detector radiation monitoring system (HF radmon). Bonnos spheres are alread...

  4. Polarization Measurement of Spin-Polarized Electrons by Optical Electron Polarimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hai-Bing; PANG Wen-Ning; LIU Yi-Bao; SHANG Ren-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ The polarization of spin-polarized electrons, produced from a new GaAs spin-polarized electron source, is determined by an optical electron polarimeter. The He 3 3p → 23S1 (388.9nm) transition is used for the optical electron polarimetry. The structure and performance of the experimental setup of spin-polarized electron source and optical electron polarimeter are described. The result of polarization of 30.8% averaged spin-up and spindown polarized electrons is obtained and presented.

  5. Ab-initio primitive cell parameters from single convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns: a converse route to the identification of microcrystals with electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Y

    1992-04-01

    A new method for the ab initio derivation of Buerger-reduced primitive cell parameters from coordinate measurements of spots on single convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is described, which does not involve trial-and-error. The pattern can be taken along any zone axis, and misorientations of the crystallite by as much as a few degrees are taken into account without loss of accuracy. This derivation of cell parameters by least-squares analysis of the measurements has been automated in a program called NRCBED. Present accuracy is about 1% on lengths and 2 degrees on angles, but could be significantly improved by modelling projector lens aberrations, or by using a microscope without a projector lens. With present technology, it is possible to obtain a CBED pattern and a semi-quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis simultaneously from a single microcrystal a few hundred Angströms across. It becomes therefore possible to identify the material of the crystal on a single CBED pattern: a cell parameter database for known compounds is searched with the primitive cell parameters obtained in the above way, and with a mask describing the EDX results qualitatively. Feasibility is demonstrated on a crystallite of CeO2 500 Angströms across. With this new approach, trial-and-error should disappear from the solution of other long-standing problems: interpretation of X-ray powder patterns for new compounds in the presence of impurity lines, or in the case of multiple phases should become straight-forward.

  6. [Electronic eikonometer: Measurement tests displayed on stereoscopic screen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdy, C; James, Y

    2016-05-01

    We propose the presentation on a stereoscopic screen of the electronic eikonometer tests intended for analysis and measurement of perceptual effects of binocular disparity. These tests, so-called "built-in magnification tests" are constructed according to the same principle as those of preceding eikonometers (disparity variation parameters being included in each test presentation, which allows, for test observation and measurements during the examination, the removing of any intermediate optical system). The images of these tests are presented separately to each eye, according to active or passive stereoscopic screen technology: (1) Ogle Spatial Test to measure aniseikonia; (2) Fixation Disparity test: binocular nonius; (3) retinal correspondence test evaluated by nonius horopter; (4) stereoscopic test using Julesz' random-dot stereograms (RDS). All of these tests, with their variable parameters included, are preprogrammed by means of an associated mini-computer. This new system (a single screen for the presentation of tests for the right eye and left eye) will be much simpler to reproduce and install for all practitioners interested in the functional exploration of binocular vision. We develop the suitable methodology adapted to each type of examination, as well as manipulations to be performed by the operator. We then recall the possibilities for reducing aniseikonia thanks to some theoretical studies previously performed by matrix calculation of the size of the retinal images for different types of eye (emmetropia, axial or conformation anisometropia, aphakia) and for different means of correction (glasses, contact lenses, implants). Software for achieving these different tests is available, on request, at this address: eiconometre.electronique@gmail.com. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Conversion of urodynamic pressures measured simultaneously by air-charged and water-filled catheter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Hassan K; Fletter, Paul C; Zaszczurynski, Paul J; Cooper, Mitchell A; Damaser, Margot S

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the simultaneous responses of water-filled (WFC) and air-charged (ACC) catheters during simulated urodynamic pressures and develop an algorithm to convert peak pressures measured using an ACC to those measured by a WFC. Examples of cough leak point pressure and valsalva leak point pressure data (n = 4) were obtained from the literature, digitized, and modified in amplitude and duration to create a set of simulated data that ranged in amplitude from 15 to 220 cm H2 O (n = 25) and duration from 0.1 to 3.0 sec (n = 25) for each original signal. Simulated pressure signals were recorded simultaneously by WFCs, ACCs, and a reference transducer in a specially designed pressure chamber. Peak pressure and time to peak pressure were calculated for each simulated pressure signal and were used to develop an algorithm to convert peak pressures recorded with ACCs to corresponding peak pressures recorded with WFCs. The algorithm was validated with additional simulated urodynamic pressure signals and additional catheters that had not been utilized to develop the algorithm. ACCs significantly underestimated peak pressures of more rapidly changing pressures, as in coughs, compared to those measured by WFCs. The algorithm corrected 90% of peak pressures measured by ACCs to within 5% of those measured by WFCs when simultaneously exposed to the same pressure signals. The developed algorithm can be used to convert rapidly changing urodynamic pressures, such as cough leak point pressure, obtained using ACC systems to corresponding values expected from WFC systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. From orthography to phonetics: ERP measures of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion mechanisms in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vecchi, Liza; Zani, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    Neuroimaging has provided evidence that the first stages of visual word recognition activate a visual word-form center localized in the left extrastriate cortex (fusiform gyrus). Accordingly, neurological cases of patients suffering from pure alexia reported the left posterior occipital lobe as the possible locus of orthographic analysis. There is less agreement in the literature about which brain structures are involved in the subsequent stages of word processing and, in particular, their time course of activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic source imaging studies recently reported data that could indicate a dual route model of reading. These findings are particularly relevant to studies on the functional deficits associated with phonological and surface dyslexia. There is evidence for the existence of two different brain mechanisms supporting phonological processing in visual word recognition: one mechanism subserving "assembled phonology" for reading letter strings and another one subserving "addressed phonology" for reading meaningful words. However, available knowledge on the time course and neural locus of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion mechanisms in reading is still inadequate. In this study, we compared processing of meaningful and meaningless Italian words in a task requiring a phonemic/phonetic decision task. Stimuli were 1152 different orthographic stimuli presented in the central visual field. Half the stimuli were Italian words (with a high or low frequency of occurrence), the other half were meaningless strings of letters (legal pseudowords and letter strings). Event-related potentials were recorded from 28 scalp sites in 10 Italian university students. The task consisted of deciding about the presence/absence of a given "phone" in the hypothetical enunciation of word read: for example, "Is there a /k/ in cheese?". Results showed that lexical frequency and orthographical regularity affected linguistic processing within 150 msec

  9. Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjšček, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  10. What in situ measurements of thermal electrons tell us about electron heating in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E. J.; Lessard, M.; Cohen, I. J.; Lynch, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    The transfer of energy from precipitating particles and incoming photons to ionospheric plasma is a key issue in the physics of the high-latitude ionosphere. However, in situ measurements of electron temperature in the ionosphere have historically been difficult to make. Over the past decade, we have flown several rockets equipped with an electron retarding potential analyzer (ERPA), an instrument designed to measure thermal electrons in the ionosphere. These missions include launches into the cusp (SERSIO, SCIFER-2) and nightside aurora (CASCADES-2, ACES, MICA). In the cusp, the soft electron precipitation which is found in regions of ion outflow leads to increases in electron temperature due to energy deposition in the E and lower F region. The electron temperature increase at sounding rocket altitudes (500--1500~km) is delayed by ˜100~s with respect to the precipitation. By contrast, the higher energy of precipitating electrons in the nightside aurora makes them less effective at heating ionospheric electrons at these altitudes, while in downward current regions ionospheric electrons are found to be cooler than in upward current regions. We discuss the implications of these results for the ionospheric ion outflow problem as well as future prospects for in situ electron temperature measurements.

  11. Tuning the near-gap electronic structure of Cu2O by anion-cation co-doping for enhanced solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yuan; Yang, Hao-Ming; Wu, Hong-Yu; Huang, Wei-Qing; Yang, Ke; Peng, Ping; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Doping is an effective strategy to tune the electronic properties of semiconductors, but some side effects caused by mono-doping degrade the specific performance of matrixes. As a model system to minimize photoproduced electron-hole pairs recombination by anion-cation co-doping, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properties of (Fe+N) co-doped Cu2O using the first-principles calculations. Compared to the case of mono-doping, the FeCuNO (a Fe (N) atom substituting a Cu (O) atom) co-doping reduces the energy cost of doping as a consequence of the charge compensation between the iron and nitrogen impurities, which eliminates the isolated levels (induced by mono-dopant) in the band gap. Interestingly, it is found that the contributions of different host atoms (Cu and O) away from anion (N) and cation (Fe) dopants to the variation of near band gap electronic structure of the co-doped Cu2O are different. Moreover, co-doping reduces the band gap and increases the visible-light absorption of Cu2O. Both band gap reduction and low recombination rate are critical elements for efficient light-to-current conversion in co-doped semiconductor photocatalysts. These findings raise the prospect of using co-doped Cu2O with specifically engineered electronic properties in a variety of solar applications.

  12. 60 GHz antenna measurement setup using a VNA without external frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund;

    2014-01-01

    and phase, 0.06 dB and 6 degrees peak-to-peak deviations over 4 hours. A PNF measurement of a 25 dBi Standard Gain Horn was carried out and the results were compared to those from the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Facility with a good agreement in the validity region. Uncertainty investigations regarding...... cable flexing effects at 60 GHz have shown that these introduce an uncertainty of about 0.02 dB (1 sigma) around the main beam region indicating a very good performance of the PNF setup....

  13. submitter Measurement of LYSO Intrinsic Light Yield Using Electron Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Pizzichemi, Marco; Ghezzi, Alessio; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Paganoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the intrinsic light yield $(LY_{int})$ of scintillating crystals, i.e. number of optical photons created per amount of energy deposited, constitutes a key factor in order to characterize and optimize their energy and time resolution. However, until now measurements of this quantity are affected by large uncertainties and often rely on corrections for bulk absorption and surface/edge state. The novel idea presented in this contribution is based on the confinement of the scintillation emission in the central upper part of a 10 mm cubic crystal using a 1.5 MeV electron beam with diameter of 1 mm. A black non-reflective pinhole aligned with the excitation point is used to fix the light extraction solid angle (narrower than total reflection angle), which then sets a light cone travel path through the crystal. The final number of photoelectrons detected using a Hamamatsu R2059 photomultiplier tube (PMT) was corrected for the extraction solid angle, the Fresnel reflection coefficient and quantum...

  14. Measuring Nursing Value from the Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    We report the findings of a big data nursing value expert group made up of 14 members of the nursing informatics, leadership, academic and research communities within the United States tasked with 1. Defining nursing value, 2. Developing a common data model and metrics for nursing care value, and 3. Developing nursing business intelligence tools using the nursing value data set. This work is a component of the Big Data and Nursing Knowledge Development conference series sponsored by the University Of Minnesota School Of Nursing. The panel met by conference calls for fourteen 1.5 hour sessions for a total of 21 total hours of interaction from August 2014 through May 2015. Primary deliverables from the bit data expert group were: development and publication of definitions and metrics for nursing value; construction of a common data model to extract key data from electronic health records; and measures of nursing costs and finance to provide a basis for developing nursing business intelligence and analysis systems.

  15. A New Method of Measuring Electron Emission Induced by Low Energy Ions from Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Heng-Da; A. Breskin; R. Chechik; S. Shckemelinin; E. Cheifetz

    2005-01-01

    @@ A new mathematical method of measuring electron emission induced by low energy ions from solids is described and used to calculate secondary electron emission according to the recorded pulse-height spectra of ions and ultraviolet (UV) photons. Using the UV single secondary electron spectra, we predict the shape of many secondary electron distributions under consideration of detection efficiency of MCP detector. These calculated distributions allow us to characterize the secondary electrons yield, and to give a secondary electron distribution for measured data. It seems rather feasible to determine secondary electron yield emitted by low energy ions at very low ion fluxes.

  16. Experimental observation of electron bounce resonance through electron energy distribution measurement in a finite size inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Seuli [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chang, Yoon-Min; Chung, Chin-Wook, E-mail: joykang@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Deuk-Chul [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The electron bounce resonance was experimentally investigated in a low pressure planar inductively coupled plasma. The electron energy probability functions (EEPFs) were measured at different chamber heights and the energy diffusion coefficients were calculated by the kinetic model. It is found that the EEPFs begin to flatten at the first electron bounce resonance condition, and the plateau shifts to a higher electron energy as the chamber height increases. The plateau which indicates strong electron heating corresponds not only to the electron bounce resonance condition but also to the peaks of the first component of the energy diffusion coefficients. As a result, the plateau formation in the EEPFs is mainly due to the electron bounce resonance in a finite inductive discharge.

  17. Computational characterization of competing energy and electron transfer states in bimetallic donor-acceptor systems for photocatalytic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, Lisa A.; Persson, Petter

    2016-09-01

    The rapidly growing interest in photocatalytic systems for direct solar fuel production such as hydrogen generation from water splitting is grounded in the unique opportunity to achieve charge separation in molecular systems provided by electron transfer processes. In general, both photoinduced and catalytic processes involve complicated dynamics that depend on both structural and electronic effects. Here the excited state landscape of metal centered light harvester-catalyst pairs is explored using density functional theory calculations. In weakly bound systems, the interplay between structural and electronic factors involved can be constructed from the various mononuclear relaxed excited states. For this study, supramolecular states of electron transfer and excitation energy transfer character have been constructed from constituent full optimizations of multiple charge/spin states for a set of three Ru-based light harvesters and nine transition metal catalysts (based on Ru, Rh, Re, Pd, and Co) in terms of energy, structure, and electronic properties. The complete set of combined charge-spin states for each donor-acceptor system provides information about the competition of excited state energy transfer states with the catalytically active electron transfer states, enabling the identification of the most promising candidates for photocatalytic applications from this perspective.

  18. Computational characterization of competing energy and electron transfer states in bimetallic donor-acceptor systems for photocatalytic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, Lisa A; Persson, Petter

    2016-09-14

    The rapidly growing interest in photocatalytic systems for direct solar fuel production such as hydrogen generation from water splitting is grounded in the unique opportunity to achieve charge separation in molecular systems provided by electron transfer processes. In general, both photoinduced and catalytic processes involve complicated dynamics that depend on both structural and electronic effects. Here the excited state landscape of metal centered light harvester-catalyst pairs is explored using density functional theory calculations. In weakly bound systems, the interplay between structural and electronic factors involved can be constructed from the various mononuclear relaxed excited states. For this study, supramolecular states of electron transfer and excitation energy transfer character have been constructed from constituent full optimizations of multiple charge/spin states for a set of three Ru-based light harvesters and nine transition metal catalysts (based on Ru, Rh, Re, Pd, and Co) in terms of energy, structure, and electronic properties. The complete set of combined charge-spin states for each donor-acceptor system provides information about the competition of excited state energy transfer states with the catalytically active electron transfer states, enabling the identification of the most promising candidates for photocatalytic applications from this perspective.

  19. Electronic Single Molecule Measurements with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong One

    Richard Feynman said "There's plenty of room at the bottom". This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it has been developed in various field and evolved into powerful tools to understand chemical and biological property of molecules. This thesis demonstrates electronic single molecule measurement with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and two of applications of STM; Break Junction (BJ) and Recognition Tunneling (RT). First, the two series of carotenoid molecules with four different substituents were investigated to show how substituents relate to the conductance and molecular structure. The measured conductance by STM-BJ shows that Nitrogen induces molecular twist of phenyl distal substituents and conductivity increasing rather than Carbon. Also, the conductivity is adjustable by replacing the sort of residues at phenyl substituents. Next, amino acids and peptides were identified through STM-RT. The distribution of the intuitive features (such as amplitude or width) are mostly overlapped and gives only a little bit higher separation probability than random separation. By generating some features in frequency and cepstrum domain, the classification accuracy was dramatically increased. Because of large data size and many features, supporting vector machine (machine learning algorithm for big data) was used to identify the analyte from a data pool of all analytes RT data. The STM-RT opens a possibility of molecular sequencing in single molecule level. Similarly, carbohydrates were studied by STM-RT. Carbohydrates are difficult to read the sequence, due to their huge number of possible isomeric configurations. This study shows that STM-RT can identify not only isomers of mono-saccharides and disaccharides, but also various mono-saccharides from a data pool of eleven analytes. In addition, the binding affinity between recognition molecule and analyte was investigated by comparing with

  20. Simulations and Measurement of Electron Energy and Effective Electron Temperature of Nanosecond Pulsed Argon Plasma%Simulations and Measurement of Electron Energy and Effective Electron Temperature of Nanosecond Pulsed Argon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻雪晴; 信裕; 冯春雷; 丁洪斌

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of argon plasma driven by nanosecond pulsed plasma in a low-pressure plasma reactor is investigated using a global model, and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. The time evolution of plasma density and the electron energy probability function are calculated by solving the energy balance and Boltzmann equations. During and shortly after the discharge pulse, the electron energy probability function can be represented by a bi-Maxwellian distribution, indicating two energy groups of electrons. According to the effective electron temperature calculation, we find that there are more high-energy electrons that play an important role in the excitation and ionization processes than low-energy electrons. The effective electron temperature is also measured via optical emission spectroscopy to evaluate the simulation model. In the comparison, the simulation results are found to be in agreement with the measure- ments. Furthermore, variations of the effective electron temperature are presented versus other discharge parameters, such as pulse width time, pulse rise time and gas pressure.

  1. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  2. Measurement of chromatic aberration in STEM and SCEM by coherent convergent beam electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C L; Etheridge, J

    2013-02-01

    A simple method is described for the accurate and precise measurement of chromatic aberration under electron-optical conditions pertinent to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM). The method requires only the measurement of distances in a coherent CBED pattern and knowledge of the electron wavelength and the lattice spacing of a calibration specimen. The chromatic aberration of a spherical-aberration corrected 300 kV thermal field emission TEM is measured in STEM and SCEM operating modes and under different condenser lens settings. The effect of the measured chromatic aberrations on the 3 dimensional intensity distribution of the electron probe is also considered.

  3. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  4. CT- and MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen: Comparison to intraoperative volume and weight measurements and calculation of conversion factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, C., E-mail: christoph.karlo@usz.c [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Reiner, C.S.; Stolzmann, P. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Breitenstein, S. [Department of Visceral Surgery, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland); Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, D. [Institute for Radiology and Radiodiagnostics, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Frauenfelder, T. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To compare virtual volume to intraoperative volume and weight measurements of resected liver specimen and calculate appropriate conversion factors to reach better correlation. Methods: Preoperative (CT-group, n = 30; MRI-group, n = 30) and postoperative MRI (n = 60) imaging was performed in 60 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Intraoperative volume and weight of the resected liver specimen was measured. Virtual volume measurements were performed by two readers (R1,R2) using dedicated software. Conversion factors were calculated. Results: Mean intraoperative resection weight/volume: CT: 855 g/852 mL; MRI: 872 g/860 mL. Virtual resection volume: CT: 960 mL(R1), 982 mL(R2); MRI: 1112 mL(R1), 1115 mL(R2). Strong positive correlation for both readers between intraoperative and virtual measurements, mean of both readers: CT: R = 0.88(volume), R = 0.89(weight); MRI: R = 0.95(volume), R = 0.92(weight). Conversion factors: 0.85(CT), 0.78(MRI). Conclusion: CT- or MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen is accurate and recommended for preoperative planning. A conversion of the result is necessary to improve intraoperative and virtual measurement correlation. We found 0.85 for CT- and 0.78 for MRI-based volumetry the most appropriate conversion factors.

  5. [Value of electronic measuring instruments for optimizing functional TMJ diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, B; Keese, E; Kubein-Meesenburg, D

    1989-09-01

    In order to get additional information about the significance of electronic axiographic recordings in TMJ-diagnosis, 34 patients, who showed 47 clicking TMJs, were examined by use of an electronic axiographic instrument (SAS-system). The frequency of the detected findings emphasize the value of electronic axiographic devices for differential diagnosis. In detail the following conclusions could be drawn: examination of different types of movement is recommended because clicking must not exist in all types, recording in more than one plane is necessary in order to detect the (prevailing) plane of dislocation, a magnification of tracings provides addition information concerning different types of clicking.

  6. Noninvasive measurement of micron electron beam size of high energy using diffraction radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, G A

    2003-01-01

    Treatments of the usage of diffraction radiation from the relativistic electrons moving though a conductive slit for the transverse beam size measurement encounter hard limitation of the method sensitivity for the electron energy larger than 1 GeV. We consider in this article a possibility of application of the artificial phase shift, which can take place when transverse electron position varies. This allows us to realize the measurements of transverse size of supper-relativistic electron beams with the small emittance.

  7. STEREO measurements of electron acceleration beyond fast Fermi at the bow shock

    CERN Document Server

    Pulupa, Marc; Opitz, Andrea; Fedorov, Andrei; Lin, Robert P; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind electrons are accelerated and reflected upstream by the terrestrial bow shock into a region known as the electron foreshock. Previously observed electron spectra at low energies are consistent with a fast Fermi mechanism, based on the adiabatic conservation of the magnetic moment ({\\mu}) of the accelerated electrons. At higher energies, suprathermal power law tails are observed beyond the level predicted by fast Fermi. The SWEA and STE electron detectors on STEREO enable measurements of foreshock electrons with good energy resolution and sensitivity over the entire foreshock beam. We investigate the electron acceleration mechanism by comparing observed STEREO electron spectra with predictions based on a Liouville mapping of upstream electrons through a shock encounter. The foreshock electron beam extends up to several tens of keV, energies for which the Larmor radii of electrons is tens of km or greater. These radii are comparable to the scale sizes of the shock, and {\\mu} conservation no longer ap...

  8. Pulse height measurements and electron attachment in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2003-01-01

    We present pulse height measurements in drift chambers operated with Xe,CO2 gas mixtures. We investigate the attachment of primary electrons on oxygen and SF6 contaminants in the detection gas. The measurements are compared with simulations of properties of drifting electrons. We present two methods to check the gas quality: gas chromatography and Fe55 pulse height measurements using monitor detectors.

  9. 57Fe-ion implantation in pulse laser deposited La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 films: Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U D Lanke; J Prabhjyot Pal

    2000-02-01

    Oriented La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 (LCMO) films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on (100) LaAlO3 substrates. Ion-beam technique is used to introduce a very low concentration of 57Fe+ in LCMO film. The deposited films were subjected to 100 keV 57Fe+ implantation with different fluences at room temperature. The main motivation of this work was to study the influence of implantation on the transport mechanism in materials exhibiting colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) property. It is observed that Fe implantation drastically affects the structural and magneto-transport properties. The samples were characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and resistance temperature (–) measurements.

  10. Pack-Year Cigarette Smoking History for Determination of Lung Cancer Screening Eligibility. Comparison of the Electronic Medical Record versus a Shared Decision-making Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Hannah E; Fathi, Joelle T; Gilbert, Christopher R; Wilshire, Candice L; Wilson, Andrew K; Aye, Ralph W; Farivar, Alexander S; Louie, Brian E; Vallières, Eric; Gorden, Jed A

    2017-08-01

    Implementation of lung cancer screening programs is occurring across the United States. Programs vary in approaches to patient identification and shared decision-making. The eligibility of persons referred to screening programs, the outcomes of eligibility determination during shared decision-making, and the potential for the electronic medical record (EMR) to identify eligible individuals have not been well described. Our objectives were to assess the eligibility of individuals referred for lung cancer screening and compare information extracted from the EMR to information derived from a shared decision-making conversation for the determination of eligibility for lung cancer screening. We performed a retrospective analysis of individuals referred to a centralized lung cancer screening program serving a five-hospital health services system in Seattle, Washington between October 2014 and January 2016. Demographics, referral, and outcomes data were collected. A pack-year smoking history derived from the EMR was compared with the pack-year history obtained during a shared decision-making conversation performed by a licensed nurse professional representing the lung cancer screening program. A total of 423 individuals were referred to the program, of whom 59.6% (252 of 423) were eligible. Of those, 88.9% (224 of 252) elected screening. There was 96.2% (230 of 239) discordance in pack-year smoking history between the EMR and the shared decision-making conversation. The EMR underreported pack-years of smoking for 85.2% (196 of 230) of the participants, with a median difference of 29.2 pack-years. If identification of eligible individuals relied solely on the accuracy of the pack-year smoking history recorded in the EMR, 53.6% (128 of 239) would have failed to meet the 30-pack-year threshold for screening. Many individuals referred for lung cancer screening may be ineligible. Overreliance on the EMR for identification of individuals at risk may lead to missed opportunities

  11. Digital holography with electron wave: measuring into the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Voelkl, Edgar

    2016-04-01

    Dennis Gabor invented Holography in 1949. His main concern at the time was centered on the spherical aberration correction in the recently created electron microscopes, especially after O. Scherzer had shown mathematically that round electron optical lenses always have a positive spherical aberration coefficient and the mechanical requirements for minimizing the spherical aberration were too high to allow for atomic resolution. At the time the lack of coherent electron sources meant that in-line holography was developed using quasi-coherent light sources. As such Holography did not produce scientific good enough results to be considered a must use tool. In 1956, G. Moellenstedt invented a device called a wire-biprism that allowed the object and reference beams to be combined in an off-axis configuration. The invention of the laser at the end of the 1950s gave a great leap to Holography since this light source was highly coherent and hence led to the invention of Holographic Interferometry during the first lustrum of the 1960s. This new discipline in the Optics field has successfully evolved to become a trusted tool in a wide variety of areas. Coherent electron sources were made available only by the late 1970s, a fact that gave an outstanding impulse to electron holography so that today nanomaterials and structures belonging to a wide variety of subjects can be characterized in regards to their physical and mechanical parameters. This invited paper will present and discuss electron holography's state of the art applications to study the shape of nanoparticles and bacteria, and the qualitative and quantitative study of magnetic and electric fields produced by novel nano-structures.

  12. Measurement of mobility and lifetime of electrons and holes in a Schottky CdTe diode

    OpenAIRE

    Ariño-Estrada, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Kolstein, M.; Puigdengoles, C; García, J; Cabruja, E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the measurement of drift properties of electrons and holes in a CdTe diode grown by the travelling heating method (THM). Mobility and lifetime of both charge carriers has been measured independently at room temperature and fixed bias voltage using charge integration readout electronics. Both electrode sides of the detector have been exposed to a 241Am source in order to obtain events with full contributions of either electrons or holes. The drift time has been measured to obtain ...

  13. Dark-field electron holography for the measurement of geometric phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytch, M.J., E-mail: hytch@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and Universite de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Houdellier, F.; Huee, F.; Snoeck, E. [CEMES-CNRS and Universite de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-07-15

    The genesis, theoretical basis and practical application of the new electron holographic dark-field technique for mapping strain in nanostructures are presented. The development places geometric phase within a unified theoretical framework for phase measurements by electron holography. The total phase of the transmitted and diffracted beams is described as a sum of four contributions: crystalline, electrostatic, magnetic and geometric. Each contribution is outlined briefly and leads to the proposal to measure geometric phase by dark-field electron holography (DFEH). The experimental conditions, phase reconstruction and analysis are detailed for off-axis electron holography using examples from the field of semiconductors. A method for correcting for thickness variations will be proposed and demonstrated using the phase from the corresponding bright-field electron hologram. -- Highlights: {yields} Unified description of phase measurements in electron holography. {yields} Detailed description of dark-field electron holography for geometric phase measurements. {yields} Correction procedure for systematic errors due to thickness variations.

  14. Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Emission with One of the Power Transmission Lines for ECH in LHD%Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Emission with One of the Power Transmission Lines for ECH in LHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroe IGAMI; Hiroshi IDEI; Shin KUBO; Yasuo YOSHIMURA; Takashi SHIMOZUMA; Hiromi TAKAHASHI

    2011-01-01

    Possibility of the measurement of radiated waves derived from the thermally emitted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is numerically investigated based on the assumption of the super dense core (SDC) plasma generated in LHD. EBW that is thermally emitted in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) layer may couple with the electromagnetic wave and be emitted to the vacuum via the EBW-extraordinary-ordinary (B-X-O) mode conversion process. We consider the use of one of the transmission lines for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in LHD as a receiving system of the emission. It is derived that the waves in the fundamental cyclotron frequency range are emitted as the EBW near their upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer outside the last close flux surface (LCFS). On the other hand, waves in the second harmonics cyclotron frequency range are emitted in the core region. It means that successful measurement of waves of the second harmonic frequency range emitted from extremely high dense core plasma with setting an aim angle for receiving indicates a possibility of the second harmonic ECH by EBW in the core region with setting the same aim angle and the same polarization for launching.

  15. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, l...

  16. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  17. Electron Bunch Length Measurements from Laser-Accelerated Electrons Using Single-Shot THz Time-Domain Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, A. D.; Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Major, Zs.; Hörlein, R.; Veisz, L.; Schmid, K.; Schreiber, J.; Witte, K.; Jamison, S. P.; Gallacher, J. G.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Kaluza, M. C.; Hidding, B.; Kiselev, S.; Heathcote, R.; Foster, P. S.; Neely, D.; Divall, E. J.; Hooker, C. J.; Smith, J. M.; Ertel, K.; Langley, A. J.; Norreys, P.; Collier, J. L.; Karsch, S.

    2010-02-01

    Laser-plasma wakefield-based electron accelerators are expected to deliver ultrashort electron bunches with unprecedented peak currents. However, their actual pulse duration has never been directly measured in a single-shot experiment. We present measurements of the ultrashort duration of such electron bunches by means of THz time-domain interferometry. With data obtained using a 0.5 J, 45 fs, 800 nm laser and a ZnTe-based electro-optical setup, we demonstrate the duration of laser-accelerated, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches [best fit of 32 fs (FWHM) with a 90% upper confidence level of 38 fs] to be shorter than the drive laser pulse, but similar to the plasma period.

  18. Optical Transition Radiation Measurement of Electron Beam for Beijing Free Electron Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiang; XIE Jia-Lin; LI Yong-Gui; ZHUANG Jie-Jia

    2001-01-01

    We used transition radiation techniques instead of the original phosphor targets to improve the electronic beam diagnostic system at Beijing Free Electron Laser. The beam profile, size (3.3 × 2.4 mm), position and divergence angle (σrms = 2.5 mrad) in transverse have been obtained from optical transition radiation. We also present the experimental set-up and some preliminary results.

  19. Edge shadow projection method for measuring the brightness of electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheolsu; Sul, Inho; Cho, Boklae

    2017-02-01

    The performance of an electron gun is evaluated in terms of the gun brightness. The brightness of an electron gun is typically measured by dividing the angular current density by the virtual source area. An electron gun brightness measurement system was constructed without an electron lens. The system consists of movable apertures (∅ 30, 50, 100, 200 μ m ), a Faraday cup, and a phosphor screen. The Faraday cup is employed to measure the angular current density. The electron beam passes through an aperture and its shade is projected onto the phosphor screen. The virtual source position is determined by measuring the displacement of the aperture shade made by the movement of the aperture. The blurring width of the edge of the shadow on the screen is measured by a charged-coupled device camera to calculate the virtual source size. Brightness values of a tungsten filament electron gun were obtained and compared to reported values.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF L-SHELL IONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS FOR NIOBIUM BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG XIU-FENG; HE FU-QING; LONG XIAN-GUAN; AN ZHU; LUO ZHENG-MING

    2001-01-01

    L-shell ionization cross sections of Nb by electron impact in the energy range from 3 to 40 keV have been determined with a Si(Li) X-ray detector. Influence of reflected electrons from backing on the measurement was corrected using an electron transport model. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations of Gryzinski and McGuire.

  1. Measurement of Hot Electron Spectrum During the Interaction of Ultrashort Pulse UV Laser With Solid Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYe-jun; SHANYu-sheng; ZHANGJi; ZHANGHai-feng; TANGXiu-zhang; WANGLei-jian

    2003-01-01

    The hot electron spectrum was measured using electron magnetic spectrometer through the irradiation of solid Cu target by an intense, UV (248 nm) femtosecond (440 fs) laser pulse with free pre-pulse, and the intensity of laser is 1017 W/cm2. We find the electron spectrum presents two temperatures Maxwellian distribution.

  2. Radial profile and q dependence of electron heat diffusion measured with ech modulation in RTP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantica, P.; Peters, M.; De Luca, F.; DeLauri, A.; Gorini, G.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Jacchia, A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Perturbative measurements of the electron thermal diffusivity (chi(pert)) in the RTP tokamak are presented. Electron temperature perturbations are induced by on- and off-axis modulated electron cyclotron heating (MECH) and the sawtooth instability. The radial profile of chi(pert) is deduced from the

  3. Simulations of the electron cloud buildup and its influence on the microwave transmission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Petrov, Fedor

    2013-11-01

    An electron cloud density in an accelerator can be measured using the Microwave Transmission (MWT) method. The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of a realistic, nonuniform electron cloud on the MWT. We conduct electron cloud buildup simulations for beam pipe geometries and bunch parameters resembling roughly the conditions in the CERN SPS. For different microwave waveguide modes the phase shift induced by a known electron cloud density is obtained from three different approaches: 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of the electron response, a 2D eigenvalue solver for waveguide modes assuming a dielectric response function for cold electrons, a perturbative method assuming a sufficiently smooth density profile. While several electron cloud parameters, such as temperature, result in minor errors in the determined density, the transversely inhomogeneous density can introduce a large error in the measured electron density. We show that the perturbative approach is sufficient to describe the phase shift under realistic electron cloud conditions. Depending on the geometry of the beam pipe, the external magnetic field configuration and the used waveguide mode, the electron cloud density can be concentrated at the beam pipe or near the beam pipe center, leading to a severe over- or underestimation of the electron density. Electron cloud distributions are very inhomogeneous, especially in dipoles. These inhomogeneities affect the microwave transmission measurement results. Electron density might be over- or underestimated, depending on setup. This can be quantified with several models, e.g. a perturbative approach.

  4. Electronic measurement of variable torques in precision work technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehr, M.

    1978-01-01

    Approaches for the determination of torques on the basis of length measurements are discussed. Attention is given to torque determinations in which the deformation of a shaft is measured, an electric measurement of the torsion angle, and an approach proposed by Buschmann (1970). Methods for a torque determination conducted with the aid of force measurements make use of piezoelectric approaches. The components used by these methods include a quartz crystal and a charge amplifier.

  5. E-MODULE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SUBJECT OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT IN ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryake Fajaryati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an e-module as a medium of learning for the practice course of Measuring Instruments and Measurement in the Department of Electronics Engineering Education of Yogyakarta State University and to determine the feasibility of the e-module. This study employed a method of research and development. The development process was conducted through four phases by using the model of Lee and Owens which consisted of analysis phase, design phase, developing and implementation phase, as well as evaluation phase.The evaluation was conducted in several stages. Firstly, an alpha test for product validation was conducted by the experts on material and media. After that, a beta test was conducted by testing the product in small group users. The subjects of this study were the students of Electronics Engineering. The instruments used to collect the data were a validation sheet and questionnaires. The results of qualitative data were then modified into quantitative data with a range of 1 to 5, then they were converted with a rating scale to determine the feasibility of the medium. The results showed that based on the alpha test, the medium was in a very high quality. Meanwhile, in the beta test of the instructional aspect, in terms of material and evaluation and the multimedia aspect the e-module was respectively considered feasible and quite feasible. The four indicators namely text, image, animation and video were all generally considered feasible. In terms of usage aspect, the e-module was considered feasible where its two indicators, namely instructions and navigation, were generally regarded as very feasible by all respondents.

  6. Two-electron photo-oxidation of betanin on titanium dioxide and potential for improved dye-sensitized solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Banerji, N.; Hayes, S. C.; Knorr, Fritz J.; Melamen, Deborah J.; Mchale, Jeanne L.; Marchioro, Arianna; Moser, Jacques-Edouard

    2014-01-01

    The plant pigment betanin is investigated as a dye-sensitizer on TiO2 with regard to its potential to undergo two- electron oxidation following one-photon excitation. Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical and transient absorption measurements provide evidence for two-electron proton-coupled photo-oxidation leading to a quinone methide interme- diate which rearranges to 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of betanin on nanocrystalline TiO2 and ZrO2 films w...

  7. Two-electron photo-oxidation of betanin on titanium dioxide and potential for improved dye-sensitized solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr, Fritz J.; Malamen, Deborah J.; Mchale, Jeanne L.; Marchioro, Arianna; Moser, Jacques-Edouard

    2014-01-01

    The plant pigment betanin is investigated as a dye-sensitizer on TiO2 with regard to its potential to undergo two-electron oxidation following one-photon excitation. Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical and transient absorption measurements provide evidence for two-electron proton-coupled photo-oxidation leading to a quinone methide intermediate which rearranges to 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of betanin on nanocrystalline TiO2 and ZrO2 films were...

  8. Cryogenic instrumentation for fast current measurement in a silicon single electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrus, T.; Hasko, D. G.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Burge, S. R.; Freeman, E. J.; French, M. J.; Lam, A.; Creswell, L.; Collier, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Briggs, G. A. D.

    2009-08-01

    We present a realization of high bandwidth instrumentation at cryogenic temperatures and for dilution refrigerator operation that possesses advantages over methods using radio frequency single electron transistor or transimpedance amplifiers. The ability for the low temperature electronics to carry out faster measurements than with room temperature electronics is investigated by the use of a phosphorous-doped single electron transistor. A single shot technique is successfully implemented and used to observe the real-time decay of a quantum state. A discussion on various measurement strategies is presented and the consequences on electron heating and noise are analyzed.

  9. Generating Periodic Terahertz Structures in a Relativistic Electron Beam through Frequency Down-Conversion of Optical Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Michael

    2012-07-19

    We report generation of density modulation at terahertz (THz) frequencies in a relativistic electron beam through laser modulation of the beam longitudinal phase space. We show that by modulating the energy distribution of the beam with two lasers, density modulation at the difference frequency of the two lasers can be generated after the beam passes through a chicane. In this experiment, density modulation around 10 THz was generated by down-converting the frequencies of an 800 nm laser and a 1550 nm laser. The central frequency of the density modulation can be tuned by varying the laser wavelengths, beam energy chirp, or momentum compaction of the chicane. This technique can be applied to accelerator-based light sources for generation of coherent THz radiation and marks a significant advance toward tunable narrow-band THz sources.

  10. Accuracy of cutoff probe for measuring electron density: simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Woong; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Si-June; Lee, Jang-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2016-09-01

    The electron density has been used for characterizing the plasma for basic research as well as industrial application. To measure the exact electron density, various type of microwave probe has been developed and improved. The cutoff probe is a promising technique inferring the electron density from the plasma resonance peak on the transmission spectrum. In this study, we present the accuracy of electron density inferred from cutoff probe. The accuracy was investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment. The discrepancy between the electron densities from the cutoff probe and other sophisticated microwave probes were investigated and discussed. We found that the cutoff probe has good accuracy in inferred electron density. corresponding author.

  11. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  12. Traceability of Dimensional Measurements using the Scanning Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bariani, Paolo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2004-01-01

    its unique combination of three imaging properties: • Lateral ultimate resolution down to 2 nm • Large range of possible magnification levels ranging from a few hundred times to hundred thousand times magnification • Large depth of field Topography reconstruction with this instrument and photogra...... investigation is presented that addresses the performance of 3D topography calculation based on secondary electron imaging and the stereo-pair technique....

  13. Electrochemistry of the Zinc-Silver Oxide System. Part 2: Practical Measurements of Energy Conversion Using Commercial Miniature Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the quantitative relationships pertaining to the operation of electrochemical cells. Energy conversion efficiency, cycle efficiency, battery power, and energy/power density of two types of zinc-silver oxide cells are discussed. (YP)

  14. Measurement: concepts, methods and practice within an electronic book

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Restivo; Fernando Gomes Almeida; Maria Fátima Chouzal; Joaquim Gabriel Magalhães Mendes; António Mendes Lopes

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on a novel use of Information and Communication Technologies for composing an electronicbook on the measurement field. The e-book "Laboratórios de Instrumentação para Medição/Laboratories of Instrumentation for Measurement" is written in Portuguese and in English. Dealing with concepts, methods, procedures and hands-on activityit combines sketches, figures, animations, videos and remote and virtual labs on the measurement area, integrating many types of multimedia within the...

  15. A Collective Scattering System for Measuring Electron Gyroscale Fluctuations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.

    2009-02-13

    A collective scattering system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure electron gyroscale fluctuations in NSTX plasmas. Up to five distinct wavenumbers are measured simultaneously, and the large toroidal curvature of NSTX plasmas provides enhanced spatial localization. Steerable optics can position the scattering volume throughout the plasma from the magnetic axis to the outboard edge. Initial measurements indicate rich turbulent dynamics on the electron gyroscale. The system will be a valuable tool for investigating the connection between electron temperature gradient turbulence and electron thermal transport in NSTX plasmas.

  16. Generation and measurement of sub-picosecond electron bunch in photocathode rf gun

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weiwei; He, Zhiagng; Jia, Qika

    2013-01-01

    We consider a scheme to generate sub-picosecond electron bunch in the photocathode rf gun by improving the acceleration gradient in the gun, suitably tuning the bunch charge, the laser spot size and the acceleration phase, and reducing the growth of transverse emittance by laser shaping. A nondestructive technique is also reported to measure the electron bunch length, by measuring the high-frequency spectrum of wakefield radiation which is caused by the passage of a relativistic electron bunc...

  17. Optimization of an Electron Transport Layer to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency of Flexible Inverted Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kang Hyuck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The photovoltaic (PV performance of flexible inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs with an active layer consisting of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butlyric acid methyl ester was investigated by varying the thicknesses of ZnO seed layers and introducing ZnO nanorods (NRs. A ZnO seed layer or ZnO NRs grown on the seed layer were used as an electron transport layer and pathway to optimize PV performance. ZnO seed layers were deposited using spin coating at 3,000 rpm for 30 s onto indium tin oxide (ITO-coated polyethersulphone (PES substrates. The ZnO NRs were grown using an aqueous solution method at a low temperature (90°C. The optimized device with ZnO NRs exhibited a threefold increase in PV performance compared with that of a device consisting of a ZnO seed layer without ZnO NRs. Flexible IOSCs fabricated using ZnO NRs with improved PV performance may pave the way for the development of PV devices with larger interface areas for effective exciton dissociation and continuous carrier transport paths.

  18. On the perspectives of wide-band gap power devices in electronic-based power conversion for renewable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos Araujo, Samuel

    2013-10-01

    The high breakdown field from WBG materials allows the construction of unipolar devices with very low specific chip resistance mainly characterized by very low conduction and switching losses, even at high blocking voltages. Suitable concepts for SiC and GaN range from traditional FET structures driven by a MOS interface or a PN-Junction, bipolar devices and even high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT). A detailed revision of the literature will be performed in this work with the objective of providing a broad overview of possible approaches, along with inherent advantages and limitations. In addition to this, a benchmarking of several SiC-based devices technologies rated for 1200 V and 1700 V will be performed against their state-of-the-art Silicon-counterparts. Concerning the application of wide band gap devices in renewable energy systems, a significant cost reduction potential can be obtained due to smaller expenditure with magnetic filters and cooling, alongside higher efficiency levels. These aspects will be discussed in details in order to identify constraints and bottlenecks at application level with special focus on photovoltaic and wind power systems.

  19. Optimization of an Electron Transport Layer to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency of Flexible Inverted Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kumar, Brijesh; Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2010-08-31

    The photovoltaic (PV) performance of flexible inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) with an active layer consisting of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6, 6]-phenyl C(61)-butlyric acid methyl ester was investigated by varying the thicknesses of ZnO seed layers and introducing ZnO nanorods (NRs). A ZnO seed layer or ZnO NRs grown on the seed layer were used as an electron transport layer and pathway to optimize PV performance. ZnO seed layers were deposited using spin coating at 3,000 rpm for 30 s onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethersulphone (PES) substrates. The ZnO NRs were grown using an aqueous solution method at a low temperature (90°C). The optimized device with ZnO NRs exhibited a threefold increase in PV performance compared with that of a device consisting of a ZnO seed layer without ZnO NRs. Flexible IOSCs fabricated using ZnO NRs with improved PV performance may pave the way for the development of PV devices with larger interface areas for effective exciton dissociation and continuous carrier transport paths.

  20. Spectroscopic diagnostics of electron temperature and energy conversion efficiency of laser-sustained plasma in flowing argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, J.; Krier, H.; Chen, X.

    1988-08-01

    Laser sustained plasmas are often formed during laser materials interaction. The University's 10 kW CW CO2 laser has been used to study argon plasmas for the application to laser supported propulsion and laser materials processing. The spectroscopic diagnostic method has been applied to study laser-sustained plasmas in 1 atmosphere pure argon gas flow with an f/7 on-axis laser focusing scheme. High flow speeds of 2 to 10 m/sec are achieved. Plasma electron temperatures distributions are determined from the 415.8 nm Ar1 line and its adjacent continuum intensities. Plasma core temperatures as high as 20,000 K are reported. The total absorption of the incident laser power and the radiation loss by the plasma are calculated from the temperature distribution. Results indicated that up to 86 percent of the incident laser power can be absorbed and nearly 60 percent of the incident laser power can be retained by the flowing argon gas to provide thrust. Further research is called for in the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique for diagnostics of the downstream mixing zone and the plasma outer region. Experiments over a wider range of operating conditions, as well as multiple plasma testings, are required to find the optimum operating scheme.

  1. Lattice constant measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saowadee, N; Agersted, K; Bowen, J R

    2017-02-20

    Kikuchi bands in election backscattered diffraction patterns (EBSP) contain information about lattice constants of crystallographic samples that can be extracted via the Bragg equation. An advantage of lattice constant measurement from EBSPs over diffraction (XRD) is the ability to perform local analysis. In this study, lattice constants of cubic STN and cubic YSZ in the pure materials and in co-sintered composites were measured from their EBSPs acquired at 10 kV using a silicon single crystal as a calibration reference. The EBSP distortion was corrected by spherical back projection and Kikuchi band analysis was made using in-house software. The error of the lattice constant measurement was determined to be in the range of 0.09-1.12% compared to values determined by XRD and from literature. The confidence level of the method is indicated by the standard deviation of the measurement, which is approximately 0.04 Å. Studying Kikuchi band size dependence of the measurement precision shows that the measurement error decays with increasing band size (i.e. decreasing lattice constant). However, in practice, the sharpness of wide bands tends to be low due to their low intensity, thus limiting the measurement precision. Possible methods to improve measurement precision are suggested.

  2. Remarkably High Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: From Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy to Device Fabrication and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsulami, Qana

    2016-04-10

    In organic donor-acceptor systems, ultrafast interfacial charge transfer (CT), charge separation (CS), and charge recombination (CR) are key determinants of the overall performance of photovoltaic devices. However, a profound understanding of these photophysical processes at device interfaces remains superficial, creating a major bottleneck that circumvents advancements and the optimization of these solar cells. Here, results from time-resolved laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy are examined to provide the fundamental information necessary to fabricate and optimize organic solar cell devices. In real time, CT and CS are monitored at the interface between three fullerene acceptors (FAs) (PC71BM, PC61BM, and IC60BA) and the PTB7-Th donor polymer. Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) data demonstrates that photoinduced electron transfer from the PTB7-Th polymer to each FA occurs on the sub-picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of long-lived radical ions. It is also found that the power conversion efficiency improves from 2% in IC60BA-based solar cells to >9% in PC71BM-based devices, in support of our time-resolved results. The insights reported in this manuscript provide a clear understanding of the key variables involved at the device interface, paving the way for the exploitation of efficient CS and subsequently improving the photoconversion efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Measurement of beauty-hadron decay electrons in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.76 TeV with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Völkl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration at the LHC studies heavy-ion collisions to investigate the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Heavy quarks (charm and beauty) are effective probes for this purpose. Both their energy loss in the medium as well as their possible thermalization yield information about the medium properties. Experimentally, the reconstruction of hadrons with charm valence quarks is possible. For hadrons with beauty valence quarks a promising strategy is the measurement of their decay electrons. To separate these from the background electrons (mainly from charm hadron decays, photon conversions or light-meson decays) the large decay length of beauty hadrons can be utilized. It leads to a relatively large typical impact parameter of the decay electrons. By comparing the impact parameter distribution of the signal electrons with those from the background sources, the signal can be statistically separated from the background. For this purpose a maximum likelihood fit is employed using impact paramete...

  4. Nuclear conversion theory: molecular hydrogen in non-magnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilisca, Ernest; Ghiglieno, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    The hydrogen conversion patterns on non-magnetic solids sensitively depend upon the degree of singlet/triplet mixing in the intermediates of the catalytic reaction. Three main `symmetry-breaking' interactions are brought together. In a typical channel, the electron spin-orbit (SO) couplings introduce some magnetic excitations in the non-magnetic solid ground state. The electron spin is exchanged with a molecular one by the electric molecule-solid electron repulsion, mixing the bonding and antibonding states and affecting the molecule rotation. Finally, the magnetic hyperfine contact transfers the electron spin angular momentum to the nuclei. Two families of channels are considered and a simple criterion based on the SO coupling strength is proposed to select the most efficient one. The denoted `electronic' conversion path involves an emission of excitons that propagate and disintegrate in the bulk. In the other denoted `nuclear', the excited electron states are transients of a loop, and the electron system returns to its fundamental ground state. The described model enlarges previous studies by extending the electron basis to charge-transfer states and `continui' of band states, and focuses on the broadening of the antibonding molecular excited state by the solid conduction band that provides efficient tunnelling paths for the hydrogen conversion. After working out the general conversion algebra, the conversion rates of hydrogen on insulating and semiconductor solids are related to a few molecule-solid parameters (gap width, ionization and affinity potentials) and compared with experimental measures.

  5. Measurement of muon-neutrino and -antineutrino scattering off electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Faissner, Helmut; Bobisut, F; De Witt, H; Fasold, H G; Frenzel, E; Hansl, T; Hoffmann, D; Huzita, H; Loreti, M; Maull, K; Puglierin, G; Radermacher, E; Reithler, H; Scotoni, I; Vascon, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Muon-neutrino and -antineutrino scattering off electrons was detected in a 19-ton Al spark chamber, exposed to the wide-band nu ( nu ) beam from the CERN proton synchrotron. The background was determined experimentally. 11 (10) genuine nu /sub mu -/( nu /sub mu -/) e scattering events were found. The respective cross sections are (1.1+or-0.6)*10/sup -42/ (E/sub nu //GeV) cm/sup 2/ and (2.2+or-1.0) *10/sup -42/ (E/sub nu //GeV) cm/sup 2/. The analysis excludes a pure V-A interaction, and makes a pure V or A theory improbable. The data agree well with the Salam-Weinberg model and sin/sup 2/ theta /sub w /=0.35+or-0.08. (13 refs).

  6. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 13}=0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW{sub th} commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ{sub 13}.

  7. Confocal Raman and electronic microscopy studies on the topotactic conversion of calcium carbonate from Pomacea lineate shells into hydroxyapatite bioceramic materials in phosphate media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePaula, S M; Huila, M F G; Araki, K; Toma, H E

    2010-12-01

    Conversion of Pomacea lineate shells into hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic materials was investigated by their in vitro treatment with phosphate solutions, at room temperature. Confocal Raman microscopy revealed that the conversion proceeds at distinct rates through the nacreous or periostracum sides of the shell. The conversion can be accelerated using powdered samples, yielding biocompatible materials of great interest in biomedicine.

  8. Comparative characterization of two-electron wavefunctions using information-theory measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, I.A., E-mail: ihoward@vub.ac.b [Department of Chemistry (ALGC), Free University of Brussels (VUB), B-1050, Brussels, Belgium/Member of the QCMM-Alliance Ghent-Brussels (Belgium); Borgoo, A.; Geerlings, P. [Department of Chemistry (ALGC), Free University of Brussels (VUB), B-1050, Brussels, Belgium/Member of the QCMM-Alliance Ghent-Brussels (Belgium); Sen, K.D. [School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2009-08-31

    Information-theory measures, in particular the Shannon entropy, Fisher information and statistical complexity, are used to discuss the variations among several commonly encountered model two-electron correlated wavefunctions. The Hookean, Moshinsky, and three-parameter Chandrasekhar wavefunctions are considered in real and momentum space, with further comparisons to the Hookean-Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunction of Ragot, the numerical HF limit, and the hydrogenic (pure Coulomb) limit. The purpose of the study is to quantitatively analyze the effect of different models for inclusion of electron-electron correlation on information-theoretical measures, including statistical complexity, which characterize the electron distribution in position and momentum space.

  9. A Stern-Gerlach-like approach to electron orbital angular momentum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Tyler R

    2016-01-01

    Many methods now exist to prepare free electrons into orbital angular momentum states, and the predicted applications of these electron states as probes of materials and scattering processes are numerous. The development of electron orbital angular momentum measurement techniques has lagged behind. We show that coupling between electron orbital angular momentum and a spatially varying magnetic field produces an angular momentum-dependent focusing effect. We propose a design for an orbital angular momentum measurement device built on this principle. As the method of measurement is non-interferometric, the device works equally well for mixed, superposed and pure final orbital angular momentum states. The energy and orbital angular momentum distributions of inelastically scattered electrons may be simultaneously measurable with this technique.

  10. Weak measurement from the electron displacement current: new path for applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, D.; Colomés, E.; Zanghì, N.; Oriols, X.

    2015-10-01

    The interest on weak measurements is rapidly growing during the last years as a unique tool to better understand and predict new quantum phenomena. Up to now many theoretical and experimental weak-measurement techniques deal with (relativistic) photons or cold atoms, but there is much less investigation on (non-relativistic) electrons in up-to-date electronics technologies. We propose a way to perform weak measurements in nanoelectronic devices through the measurement of the total current (particle plus displacement component) in such devices. We study the interaction between an electron in the active region of a electron device with a metal surface working as a sensing electrode by means of the (Bohmian) conditional wave function. We perform numerical (Monte Carlo) simulations to reconstruct the Bohmian trajectories in the iconic double slit experiment. This work opens new paths for understanding the quantum properties of an electronic system as well as for exploring new quantum engineering applications in solid state physics.

  11. A platform for in-situ multi-probe electronic measurements and modification of nanodevices inside a transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T. T.; Ning, Z. Y.; Shi, T. W.; Fu, M. Q.; Wang, J. Y.; Chen, Q.

    2014-06-01

    We developed a new platform that enables in-situ four-probe electronic measurements, in-situ three-probe field-effect measurements, nanomanipulation, and in-situ modification of nanodevices inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The platform includes a specially designed chip-holder and a silicon (Si) chip with suspended metal electrodes. The chip-holder can hold one Si chip with a size up to 3 mm × 3 mm and provides four electrical connections that can be connected to the micrometer-sized electrodes on the Si chip by wire-bonding. The other side of the electrical connections on the chip-holder is connected to the electronic instruments outside the TEM through a commercial Nanofactory SPM-TEM holder. The Si chip with suspended metal electrodes on one of its edges was fabricated by lithography and wet etching. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), InAs nanowires, and tungsten disulfide nanowires were placed to stride over and connect to the suspended electrodes on the Si chip by nanomanipulations inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). By using the platform, I-V curves of an individual single-walled CNT connecting to four electrodes were in-situ measured between any two of the four suspended electrodes, and a high-resolution TEM image of the same CNT was obtained. Furthermore, four-terminal I-V measurement on an InAs nanowire was achieved on this platform, and with a movable probe used as a gate electrode, field-effect measurement on the same InAs nanowire device was accomplished in SEM. In addition, by using the movable probe on the SPM-TEM holder, we could further in-situ modify nanomaterial and nanodevices. The present work demonstrates a method that allows a direct correlation between the atomic-level structure and the electronic property of nanomaterials or nanodevices whose structure can be further modified in-situ.

  12. Lattice constant measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2017-01-01

    Kikuchi bands in election backscattered diffraction patterns (EBSP) contain information about lattice constants of crystallographic samples that can be extracted via the Bragg equation. An advantage of lattice constant measurement from EBSPs over diffraction (XRD) is the ability to perform local ...

  13. Emittance Measurements of Space Charge Dominated Electron Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    measurement 2,3 have been introduced in the past, especially in particle accelerator physics. In free space, the envelope of a non -neutral charged...density no and thickness 2d is located on the y-axis. Let us assume that the velocity space distribution is a Maxwellian with a temperature T and the beam

  14. GHz measurements of correlated electron systems in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, R S

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis presents experiments performed on the high-frequency conductivity of materials in high magnetic fields. The angle dependence of resonances measured in the millimetre-wave absorption is studied using a rotating resonant cavity system, and the frequency dependence is measured using transmission techniques and a tuneable resonant cavity. Chapter 1 introduces the materials. These include the crystalline organic metals, the layered superconductor Sr sub 2 RUO sub 4 and the quantum Ising ferromagnet LiHoF sub 4. In Chapters 2 and 3, the necessary physics and experimental techniques for their investigation are outlined. Chapters 4 to 6 present measurements of cyclotron resonance in layered materials. Chapter 4 describes several models for the origin of cyclotron resonance harmonics, and describes the first definite measurement of the harmonics of a cyclotron resonance in an organic molecular metal, namely beta sup - (BEDT-TTF) sub 2 SF sub 5 CH sub 2 CF sub 2 SO sub 3. The angle dependence of the field p...

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 1. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. The foundation to describe coal specific conversion behavior was AFR`s Functional Group and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, which had been previously developed. The combined FG-DVC model was integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model for combustion and coal gasification, PCGC-2, and a one-dimensional model for fixed-bed gasifiers, FBED-1. Progress utilizing these models is described.

  16. Control and measurement of electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Elzerman, J.M.; Hanson, R.; Willems van Beveren, L.H.; Vandersypen, L.M.K. [ERATO Mesoscopic Correlation Project, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    We present an overview of experimental steps taken towards using the spin of a single electron trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot as a spin qubit [Loss and DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. A 57, 120 (1998)]. Fabrication and characterization of a double quantum dot containing two coupled spins has been achieved, as well as initialization and single-shot read-out of the spin state. The relaxation time T {sub 1} of single-spin and two-spin states was found to be on the order of a millisecond, dominated by spin-orbit interactions. The time-averaged dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *}, due to fluctuations in the ensemble of nuclear spins in the host semiconductor, was determined to be on the order of several tens of nanoseconds. Coherent manipulation of single-spin states can be performed using a microfabricated wire located close to the quantum dot, while two-spin interactions rely on controlling the tunnel barrier connecting the respective quantum dots [Petta et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005)]. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Development of methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power for low energy conversion electrons; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para estimativa da dose absorvida e do poder de freamento para eletrons de conversao de baixa energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of absorbed dose in the case of external and internalcontamination due to radionuclides is sometimes hard, because of the difficulties in the assessment of the absorbed dose caused by electrons with energy less than 100 KeV in mucous membrane. In this work, a methodology for assessment of absorbed dose and stopping power in VYNS (co-polymer of polivinyl chloride - acetate) absorbers, for the 62.5 KeV and 84-88 KeV energy {sup 109} Cd conversion electrons, working with a 4 {pi} proportional pressurized detector, is presented. In order to assure the reproducibility of measurement conditions, one of the detector halves has been used to obtain a spectrum of a thin {sup 109} Cd source, without absorber. The other half of the detector was used in concomitance to obtain spectra with different thicknesses if absorber. The absorbed energy was obtained subtracting each spectrum with absorber from the spectrum without absorber, which were stored in a microcomputer connected to signal processing systems by ACE type interface. The VYNS weight and thickness were evaluated using common radionuclide metrology procedures. As VYNS has characteristics similar to a tissue equivalent material, the results obtained are consistent with dosimetric concepts and have a good agreement with those of the literature. (author)

  18. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  19. Energy slicing analysis for time-resolved measurement of electron-beam properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Allaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new diagnostic method allowing one to reconstruct certain properties of a relativistic electron beam and of a laser pulse by looking at the result of their interaction. The latter takes place within an undulator and results in energy modulation of electrons. By taking advantage of the correlation between time and electron-beam energy, measurements of the electron-beam length, current and energy spread are possible simultaneously. Moreover, the scheme allows an accurate measurement of the timing jitter between the electron beam and the external laser and also of the laser’s actual pulse length at the interaction point. Experimental demonstration of the last two measurements is reported in this paper. Finally, this diagnostic method provides an independent measure of the energy transferred from the electron beam to free-electron laser light produced when seeded electrons are injected into a long undulator. Experimental results obtained at the FERMI free-electron laser are presented after a description of the proposed technique.

  20. Development and application of diagnostic instrumentation for measurement of electron density and conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, L.E.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this contract was to assemble and demonstrate in the laboratory a Faraday rotation system for measurement of electron density and conductivity, with the intent to produce a system suitable for diagnostic support of the development of pulsed, space-based magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems. Two system configurations were tested: (1) a rotating polarizer and (2) a beam splitting polarizer. Due to the short path length plasma produced in the laboratory flame, the long wavelength 496 {mu}m methyl fluoride laser line was used and only the more sensitive rotating polarizer configuration was used for the demonstration experiments. Electron number densities from 2 {times} 10{sup 19} to 9 {times} 10{sup 19} were measured with good agreement to statistical equilibrium (Saha) calculations using emission absorption-measured flame temperatures and neutral seed atom number seed atom nuclear densities. The electron collision frequencies were measured by transmission measurements. Combining these two measurements gave measured electron conductivities of between 4 and 12 mohs/m. These results compared reasonably well with those found with an electron collision frequency model combined with chemical equilibrium calculations and the emission absorption measurements. Ellipticity measurements of electron collision frequency were not possible due to the short path length of the laboratory plasma. 46 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Measurement of electron neutrino appearance with the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Joshua Adam Alpern [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. By measuring the neutrino interactions in a detector near the neutrino source and again 735 km away from the production site, it is possible to probe the parameters governing neutrino oscillation. The majority of the vμ oscillate to vτ but a small fraction may oscillate instead to ve. This thesis presents a measurement of the ve appearance rate in the MINOS far detector using the first two years of exposure. Methods for constraining the far detector backgrounds using the near detector measurements is discussed and a technique for estimating the uncertainty on the background and signal selection are developed. A 1.6σ excess over the expected background rate is found providing a hint of ve appearance.

  2. Effect of Short-Circuit Faults in the Back-to-Back Power Electronic Converter and Rotor Terminals on the Operational Behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Giaourakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the operational behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System under power electronic converter and rotor terminals faulty conditions. More specifically, the effect of the short-circuit fault both in one IGBT of the back-to-back power electronic converter and in rotor phases on the overall system behavior has been investigated via simulation using a system of 2 MW. Finally, the consequences of these faults have been evaluated.

  3. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-11-04

    Measurements of 2s{sub l/2}-2p{sub 3/2} electric dipole and 2p{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U{sup 82+} through U{sup 89+} have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer {minus}39.21 {plus_minus} 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy of lithiumlike U{sup 89+}. A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell.

  4. Obtaining the conversion curve of CT numbers to electron density from the effective energy of the CT using the dummy SEFM; Obtencion de la curva de conversion de numeros TC a densidad electronica a partir de la energia efectiva del TC usando el maniqui de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Moreno Saiz, E. M.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Caudepon Moreno, F.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the conversion curve of Hounsfield units (A) versus electron densities using a mannequin with different tissue equivalent materials. This provides for the effective energy beam CT and is used to characterize the linear coefficients of absorption of different materials that comprise the dummy.

  5. On Cu(II) Cu(II) distance measurements using pulsed electron electron double resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongyu; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2007-10-01

    The effects of orientational selectivity on the 4-pulse electron electron double resonance (PELDOR) ESR spectra of coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) spins are presented. The data were collected at four magnetic fields on a poly-proline peptide containing two Cu(II) centers. The Cu(II)-PELDOR spectra of this peptide do not change appreciably with magnetic field at X-band. The data were analyzed by adapting the theory of Maryasov, Tsvetkov, and Raap [A.G. Maryasov, Y.D. Tsvetkov, J. Raap, Weakly coupled radical pairs in solids:ELDOR in ESE structure studies, Appl. Magn. Reson. 14 (1998) 101-113]. Simulations indicate that orientational effects are important for Cu(II)-PELDOR. Based on simulations, the field-independence of the PELDOR data for this peptide is likely due to two effects. First, for this peptide, the Cu(II) g-tensor(s) are in a very specific orientation with respect to the interspin vector. Second, the flexibility of the peptide washes out the orientation effects. These effects reduce the suitability of the poly-proline based peptide as a good model system to experimentally probe orientational effects in such experiments. An average Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.1-2.2 nm was determined, which is consistent with earlier double quantum coherence ESR results.

  6. Quantum spatial correlations in high-gain parametric down-conversion measured by means of a CCD camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jedrkiewicz, O.; Brambilla, E.; Bache, Morten

    2006-01-01

    We consider travelling-wave parametric down-conversion in the high-gain regime and present the experimental demonstration of the quantum character of the spatial fluctuations in the system. In addition to showing the presence of sub-shot noise fluctuations in the intensity difference, we demonstr...

  7. Shielded-Pickups for Time-Resolved Measurements of Electron Cloud Buildup

    CERN Document Server

    Crittenden, James A; Li, Yulin; Palmer, Mark A; Sikora, John P

    2013-01-01

    We report on the design, deployment and signal analysis for shielded-pickups sensitive to electron cloud buildup at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These simple detectors derived from a beam-position monitor electrode design have provided detailed information on the physical processes underlying the local production and lifetime of electron densities in the storage ring. Digitizing oscilloscopes are used to record electron fluxes incident on the vacuum chamber wall in 1024 time steps of 100 ps or more. The fine time steps provide highly differential characterization of the cloud, allowing the independent estimation of processes contributing on differing time scales and providing sensitivity to the characteristic kinetic energies of the electrons making up the cloud. By varying the spacing and population of electron and positron beam bunches, we map the time development of competing cloud production and re-absorption processes. The excellent reproducibility of the measurements also permits the measurement o...

  8. Measuring Quality of Electronic Service (E- Service In Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba M. Hussain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research to evaluate e- service quality from the customers, perspective, and to examine the effect of e- service quality dimensions on customer's perception of banking e- service quality. Data was collected via self-administered questionnaire from random samples drawn from the population of customers using e-banking service. The constructs in this search were developed by using measurement scales adopted from prior studies. The instrument was evaluated for reliability and validity. The results in this search indicate that Reliability; Responsiveness; Ease of use; Personalization; Security; and Website design have influence on customer's perception of e- service quality.

  9. Measuring electron-positron annihilation radiation from laser plasma interactionsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tommasini, R.; Seely, J.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Pereira, N.; Gregori, G.; Falk, K.; Mithen, J.; Murphy, C. D.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated various diagnostic techniques to measure the 511 keV annihilation radiations. These include step-wedge filters, transmission crystal spectroscopy, single-hit CCD detectors, and streaked scintillating detection. While none of the diagnostics recorded conclusive results, the step-wedge filter that is sensitive to the energy range between 100 keV and 700 keV shows a signal around 500 keV that is clearly departing from a pure Bremsstrahlung spectrum and that we ascribe to annihilation radiation.

  10. Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberberger, D., E-mail: dhab@lle.rochester.edu; Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres.

  11. Pulsed Electron Beam Spectroscopy for Temperature Measurements in Hypersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    as rotational-level dependent, so the proper modeling of k i can be important as temperature changes and if tem perature measurements based on the...through a hy drogen thyratron switch into the primary of a step-up transformer. A limited number of off-th e-shelf prod ucts perfor ming the function...of a thyratron drive for pulse switching were identifie d, but none met the specialize d power a nd switchin g wavefor m requirements of the pulsed

  12. Measuring electron-positron annihilation radiation from laser plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui; Tommasini, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Seely, J.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Pereira, N. [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Gregori, G.; Falk, K.; Mithen, J.; Murphy, C. D. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    We investigated various diagnostic techniques to measure the 511 keV annihilation radiations. These include step-wedge filters, transmission crystal spectroscopy, single-hit CCD detectors, and streaked scintillating detection. While none of the diagnostics recorded conclusive results, the step-wedge filter that is sensitive to the energy range between 100 keV and 700 keV shows a signal around 500 keV that is clearly departing from a pure Bremsstrahlung spectrum and that we ascribe to annihilation radiation.

  13. Internal conversion in highly-stripped {sup 83}Kr ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Gehring, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The transition probability per unit time for the decay of a nuclear level via internal conversion (IC), {lambda}IC, depends on the electron environment of the nucleus. For example, inner-shell conversion in highly-charged ions can change appreciably as electrons are successively removed from the ion. Magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions are especially sensitive to this effect since the internal conversion depends strongly on the electron density at the nucleus. Hence, measurements of {lambda}IC,q, the internal conversion rate in an ion with charge state q, can provide good tests of theoretical electron wave functions if the electron configuration in the ions is known. In a previous experiment, a new method which identifies charge-changing events during passage of ion beams through a magnetic spectrometer was used to determine {lambda}IC,q for the 14.4-keV isomer in {sup 57}Fe. This contribution reports measurements made using the same technique for the 9.4-keV isomer in {sup 83}Kr. A beam of {sup 83}Kr with energy 650 MeV bombarded a Au target with a thickness 300 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Secondary scattered beams were accepted and analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrometer. The numbers of excited nuclei decaying during passage through the spectrometer and their internal conversion rates were deduced from the pattern of events measured in the spectrometer focal plane.

  14. Time-resolved measurements with streaked diffraction patterns from electrons generated in laser plasma wakefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alec; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    Femtosecond bunches of electrons with relativistic to ultra-relativistic energies can be robustly produced in laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA). Scaling the electron energy down to sub-relativistic and MeV level using a millijoule laser system will make such electron source a promising candidate for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) applications due to the intrinsic short bunch duration and perfect synchronization with the optical pump. Recent results of electron diffraction from a single crystal gold foil, using LWFA electrons driven by 8-mJ, 35-fs laser pulses at 500 Hz, will be presented. The accelerated electrons were collimated with a solenoid magnetic lens. By applying a small-angle tilt to the magnetic lens, the diffraction pattern can be streaked such that the temporal evolution is separated spatially on the detector screen after propagation. The observable time window and achievable temporal resolution are studied in pump-probe measurements of photo-induced heating on the gold foil.

  15. Shaping electron beams for the generation of innovative measurements in the (S)TEM

    CERN Document Server

    Verbeeck, Jo; Clark, Laura; Juchtmans, Roeland; Van Boxem, Ruben; Tian, He; Béché, Armand; Lubk, Axel; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2014-01-01

    In TEM, a typical goal consists of making a small electron probe in the sample plane in order to obtain high spatial resolution in scanning transmission electron microscopy. In order to do so, the phase of the electron wave is corrected to resemble a spherical wave compensating for aberrations in the magnetic lenses. In this contribution we discuss the advantage of changing the phase of an electron wave in a specific way in order to obtain fundamentally different electron probes opening up new application in the (S)TEM. We focus on electron vortex states as a specific family of waves with an azimuthal phase signature and discuss their properties, production and applications. The concepts presented here are rather general and also different classes of probes can be obtained in a similar fashion showing that electron probes can be tuned to optimise a specific measurement or interaction.

  16. Conversational Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines narcissistic communication and the ways it is exhibited in everyday conversation. Identifies the following behavioral referents: boasting, refocusing the topic of conversation on the self, exaggerating hand and body movements, using a loud tone of voice, and "glazing over" when others speak. Suggests that conversational…

  17. Contentious Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  18. Genome-assisted prediction of a quantitative trait measured in parents and progeny: application to food conversion rate in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Guilherme JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accuracy of prediction of yet-to-be observed phenotypes for food conversion rate (FCR in broilers was studied in a genome-assisted selection context. Data consisted of FCR measured on the progeny of 394 sires with SNP information. A Bayesian regression model (Bayes A and a semi-parametric approach (Reproducing kernel Hilbert Spaces regression, RKHS using all available SNPs (p = 3481 were compared with a standard linear model in which future performance was predicted using pedigree indexes in the absence of genomic data. The RKHS regression was also tested on several sets of pre-selected SNPs (p = 400 using alternative measures of the information gain provided by the SNPs. All analyses were performed using 333 genotyped sires as training set, and predictions were made on 61 birds as testing set, which were sons of sires in the training set. Accuracy of prediction was measured as the Spearman correlation (r¯S MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGafmOCaiNbaebadaWgaaWcbaGaem4uamfabeaaaaa@2EB5@ between observed and predicted phenotype, with its confidence interval assessed through a bootstrap approach. A large improvement of genome-assisted prediction (up to an almost 4-fold increase in accuracy was found relative to pedigree index. Bayes A and RKHS regression were equally accurate (r¯S MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGafmOCaiNbaebadaWgaaWcbaGaem4uamfabeaaaaa@2EB5@ = 0.27 when all 3481 SNPs were included in the model. However, RKHS with 400 pre-selected informative SNPs was more accurate than Bayes A with all SNPs.

  19. Measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielastic-like scattering on hydrocarbon at $\\langle E_{\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Carneiro, M F; Chvojka, J; da Motta, H; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Diaz, G A; Eberly, B; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Ghosh, A; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Muhlbeier, T; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Osta, J; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wospakrik, M; Zavala, G; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2015-01-01

    The first direct measurement of electron-neutrino quasielastic and quasielastic-like scattering on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has been carried out using the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The flux-integrated differential cross sections in electron production angle, electron energy and $Q^{2}$ are presented. The ratio of the quasielastic, flux-integrated differential cross section in $Q^{2}$ for $\

  20. Single event effects measurements on the electronics for the CMS muon barrel detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Dal Corso, F; Dallavalle, G M; De Giorgi, M; Fernández, C; Gonella, F; Lippi, I; Marin, J; Martinelli, R; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Oller, J C; Pegoraro, M

    2002-01-01

    Several irradiation tests of the electronics of the CMS barrel muon detector were performed using neutrons, protons and heavy ions. The Single Event Upset rate on some tested devices was measured, while upper limits were obtained for devices having experienced no failure. Single Event Transients on front-end electronics and destructive effects on the High-voltage distribution electronics were observed. Overcurrent protection and error correction circuits were included in the irradiated boards and were tested.

  1. Simulations of the electron cloud buildup and its influence on the microwave transmission measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian, E-mail: o.haas@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Petrov, Fedor [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    An electron cloud density in an accelerator can be measured using the Microwave Transmission (MWT) method. The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of a realistic, nonuniform electron cloud on the MWT. We conduct electron cloud buildup simulations for beam pipe geometries and bunch parameters resembling roughly the conditions in the CERN SPS. For different microwave waveguide modes the phase shift induced by a known electron cloud density is obtained from three different approaches: 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of the electron response, a 2D eigenvalue solver for waveguide modes assuming a dielectric response function for cold electrons, a perturbative method assuming a sufficiently smooth density profile. While several electron cloud parameters, such as temperature, result in minor errors in the determined density, the transversely inhomogeneous density can introduce a large error in the measured electron density. We show that the perturbative approach is sufficient to describe the phase shift under realistic electron cloud conditions. Depending on the geometry of the beam pipe, the external magnetic field configuration and the used waveguide mode, the electron cloud density can be concentrated at the beam pipe or near the beam pipe center, leading to a severe over- or underestimation of the electron density. -- Author-Highlights: •Electron cloud distributions are very inhomogeneous, especially in dipoles. •These inhomogeneities affect the microwave transmission measurement results. •Electron density might be over- or underestimated, depending on setup. •This can be quantified with several models, e.g. a perturbative approach.

  2. Enclosed Electronic System for Force Measurements in Knee Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Forchelet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty is a widely performed surgical technique. Soft tissue force balancing during the operation relies strongly on the experience of the surgeon in equilibrating tension in the collateral ligaments. Little information on the forces in the implanted prosthesis is available during surgery and post-operative treatment. This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of an instrumented insert performing force measurements in a knee prosthesis. The insert contains a closed structure composed of printed circuit boards and incorporates a microfabricated polyimide thin-film piezoresistive strain sensor for each condylar compartment. The sensor is tested in a mechanical knee simulator that mimics in-vivo conditions. For characterization purposes, static and dynamic load patterns are applied to the instrumented insert. Results show that the sensors are able to measure forces up to 1.5 times body weight with a sensitivity fitting the requirements for the proposed use. Dynamic testing of the insert shows a good tracking of slow and fast changing forces in the knee prosthesis by the sensors.

  3. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, M; Oyama, K-I; Abe, T; Yau, A W

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  4. Study on optical electron polarimeter and measurement of the relative Stokes parameters of weak light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮存军; 庞文宁; 高君芳; 尚仁成

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the research on an optical electron polarimeter, which is used to determine the polarizationof an incident electron beam by measuring the relative Stokes paraneters of the fluorescence emitted from the He gasfollowing the impact excitation with the electron beam. The fundamental theory of the optical electron polarimeter isdiscussed with the 33p→23S transition of He. The structure and performance of the instrument are described, whichare different in some aspects from previous works.The arrangement of the experiment for measuring the relativeStokes parameters of linearly polarized weak light is also investigated, which actually involves the same processes as thepolarization measurement with the incident electron beam. The results obtained are in agreement with the theoreticalprediction.

  5. Front-end and high-voltage electronics developments for compact, dual ion-electron thermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, A.; Lavraud, B.; Tap, H.; Ballot, Y.; Aoustin, C.; Chassela, O.; Cadu, A.; Devoto, P.; Fedorov, A.; Rouzaud, J.; Rubiella, J.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Seran, H. C.; Bernal, O.; Payan, D.; Rouzies, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Active Monitor Box of Electrostatic Risks (AMBER) is a double-head thermal electron and ion electrostatic analyzer (~0 - 30 keV) that will be launched onboard the Jason-3 spacecraft in 2015. The new generation AMBRE instrument (AMBER_NG) constitutes a significant new evolution that will be based on a single head with newly developed sub-systems to reduce all instrument resources. We will describe the main front-end and high-voltage electronics developments which are being made to perform such dual ion-electron measurements. The first purpose of AMBER_NG is the monitoring of spacecraft charging and of the plasma populations at the origin of this charging. The design is also appropriate for the study of space plasma processes in the Earth's magnetosphere, as well as at other planets where time resolution may not prevail over mass constraints.

  6. Selective detection of Fe and Mn species at mineral surfaces in weathered granite by conversion electron yield X-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)], E-mail: itai-epss@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Takahashi, Yoshio [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Iida, Atsuo [Photon Factory, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, O-ho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    A new method for the speciation of Fe and Mn at mineral surfaces is proposed using X-ray absorption fine structure in conversion electron yield mode (CEY-XAFS). This method generally reflects information on the species at the sub-{mu}m scale from the particle surface due to the limited escape depth of the inelastic Auger electron. The surface sensitivity of this method was assessed by experiments on two samples of granite showing different degrees of weathering. The XANES spectra of the Fe-K and Mn-K edge clearly gave different information for CEY and fluorescence (FL) modes. These XANES spectra of Fe and Mn show a good fit upon application of least-squares fitting using ferrihydrite/MnO{sub 2} and biotite as the end members. The XANES spectra collected by CEY mode provided more selective information on the secondary phases which are probably present at the mineral surfaces. In particular, CEY-XANES spectra of Mn indicated the presence of Mn oxide in unweathered granite despite a very small contribution of Mn oxide being indicated by FL-XANES and selective chemical-extraction analyses. Manganese oxide could not be detected by micro-beam XANES (beam size: 5 x 5 {mu}m{sup 2}) in unweathered granite, suggesting that Mn oxide thinly and ubiquitously coats mineral surface at a sub-{mu}m scale. This information is important, since Mn oxide can be the host for various trace elements. CEY-XAFS can prove to be a powerful tool as a highly sensitive surface speciation method. Combination of CEY and FL-XAFS will help identify minor phases that form at mineral surfaces, but identification of Fe and Mn oxides at mineral surfaces is critical to understand the migration of trace elements in water-rock interaction.

  7. Measurements of hot electrons in the Extrap T1 reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, A.; Bergsåker, H.

    1998-02-01

    The presence of an anisotropic energetic electron population in the edge region is a characteristic feature of reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. In the Extrap T1 RFP, the anisotropic, parallel heat flux in the edge region measured by calorimetry was typically several hundred 0741-3335/40/2/011/img1. To gain more insight into the origin of the hot electron component and to achieve time resolution of the hot electron flow during the discharge, a target probe with a soft x-ray monitor was designed, calibrated and implemented. The x-ray emission from the target was measured with a surface barrier detector covered with a set of different x-ray filters to achieve energy resolution. A calibration in the range 0.5-2 keV electron energy was performed on the same target and detector assembly using a 0741-3335/40/2/011/img2 cathode electron gun. The calibration data are interpolated and extrapolated numerically. A directional asymmetry of more than a factor of 100 for the higher energy electrons is observed. The hot electrons are estimated to constitute 10% of the total electron density at the edge and their energy distribution is approximated by a half-Maxwellian with a temperature slightly higher than the central electron temperature. Scalings with plasma current, as well as correlations with local 0741-3335/40/2/011/img3 measurements and radial dependences, are presented.

  8. Structure and 57Fe conversion electron M(o)ssbauer spectroscopy study of Mn-Zn ferrite nanocrystal thin films by electroless plating in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JianRong; WANG XueWen; LIU JinHong; WANG JianBo; LI FaShen

    2008-01-01

    Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 thin films with various Zn contents and of different thickness were synthesized on glass substrates directly by electroless plating in aqueous solution at 90℃ without heat treatment. The Mn-Zn ferrite films have a single spinel phase structure and well-crystallized columnar grains growing per-pendicularly to the substrates. The results of conversion electron 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) indicate that the cation distribution of Mn-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite nanocrystal thin films fabricated by elec-troless plating is different from the bulk materials' and a great quantity of Fe3+ ions are still present on A sites for x>0.5. When the Zn content of the films increases, Fe3+ ions in the films transfer from A sites to B sites and the hyperfine magnetic field reduces, suggesting that Zn2+ has strong chemical affinity towards the A sites. On the other side, with the increase of the thickness of the films, Fe3+ ions, at B sites in the spinel structure, increase and the array of magnetic moments no longer lies in the thin film plane completely. At x=0.5, Hc and Ms of Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 thin films show a minimum of 3.7 kA/m and a maximum of 419.6 kA/m, respectively.

  9. Development of a sampling method for carbonyl compounds released due to the use of electronic cigarettes and quantitation of their conversion from liquid to aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-15

    In this study, an experimental method for the collection and analysis of carbonyl compounds (CCs) released due to the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or ECs) was developed and validated through a series of laboratory experiments. As part of this work, the conversion of CCs from a refill solution (e-solution) to aerosol also was investigated based on mass change tracking (MCT) approach. Aerosol samples generated from an e-cigarette were collected manually using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges at a constant sampling (puffing) velocity of 1 L min(-1) with the following puff conditions: puff duration (2s), interpuff interval (10s), and puff number (5, 10, and 15 times). The MCT approach allowed us to improve the sampling of CCs through critical evaluation of the puff conditions in relation to the consumed quantities of refill solution. The emission concentrations of CCs remained constant when e-cigarettes were sampled at or above 10 puff. Upon aerosolization, the concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased 6.23- and 58.4-fold, respectively, relative to their concentrations in e-solution. Furthermore, a number of CCs were found to be present in the aerosol samples which were not detected in the initial e-solution (e.g., acetone, butyraldehyde, and o-tolualdehyde).

  10. First Measurement of Electron Neutrino Appearance in NOvA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P; Ader, C; Andrews, M; Anfimov, N; Anghel, I; Arms, K; Arrieta-Diaz, E; Aurisano, A; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Baird, M; Bambah, B A; Bays, K; Bernstein, R; Betancourt, M; Bhatnagar, V; Bhuyan, B; Bian, J; Biery, K; Blackburn, T; Bocean, V; Bogert, D; Bolshakova, A; Bowden, M; Bower, C; Broemmelsiek, D; Bromberg, C; Brunetti, G; Bu, X; Butkevich, A; Capista, D; Catano-Mur, E; Chase, T R; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Chowdhury, B; Coan, T E; Coelho, J A B; Colo, M; Cooper, J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Cunningham, A; Davies, G S; Davies, J P; Del Tutto, M; Derwent, P F; Deepthi, K N; Demuth, D; Desai, S; Deuerling, G; Devan, A; Dey, J; Dharmapalan, R; Ding, P; Dixon, S; Djurcic, Z; Dukes, E C; Duyang, H; Ehrlich, R; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fenyves, E J; Flumerfelt, E; Foulkes, S; Frank, M J; Freeman, W; Gabrielyan, M; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Ghosh, T; Gilbert, W; Giri, A; Goadhouse, S; Gomes, R A; Goodenough, L; Goodman, M C; Grichine, V; Grossman, N; Group, R; Grudzinski, J; Guarino, V; Guo, B; Habig, A; Handler, T; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Hatzikoutelis, A; Heller, K; Howcroft, C; Huang, J; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Ishitsuka, M; Jediny, F; Jensen, C; Jensen, D; Johnson, C; Jostlein, H; Kafka, G K; Kamyshkov, Y; Kasahara, S M S; Kasetti, S; Kephart, K; Koizumi, G; Kotelnikov, S; Kourbanis, I; Krahn, Z; Kravtsov, V; Kreymer, A; Kulenberg, Ch; Kumar, A; Kutnink, T; Kwarciancy, R; Kwong, J; Lang, K; Lee, A; Lee, W M; Lee, K; Lein, S; Liu, J; Lokajicek, M; Lozier, J; Lu, Q; Lucas, P; Luchuk, S; Lukens, P; Lukhanin, G; Magill, S; Maan, K; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Martens, M; Martincik, J; Mason, P; Matera, K; Mathis, M; Matveev, V; Mayer, N; McCluskey, E; Mehdiyev, R; Merritt, H; Messier, M D; Meyer, H; Miao, T; Michael, D; Mikheyev, S P; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mohanta, R; Moren, A; Mualem, L; Muether, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Newman, H B; Nelson, J K; Niner, E; Norman, A; Nowak, J; Oksuzian, Y; Olshevskiy, A; Oliver, J; Olson, T; Paley, J; Pandey, P; Para, A; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearson, N; Perevalov, D; Pershey, D; Peterson, E; Petti, R; Phan-Budd, S; Piccoli, L; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Poling, R; Potukuchi, B; Psihas, F; Pushka, D; Qiu, X; Raddatz, N; Radovic, A; Rameika, R A; Ray, R; Rebel, B; Rechenmacher, R; Reed, B; Reilly, R; Rocco, D; Rodkin, D; Ruddick, K; Rusack, R; Ryabov, V; Sachdev, K; Sahijpal, S; Sahoo, H; Samoylov, O; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schlabach, P; Schneps, J; Schroeter, R; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J; Shanahan, P; Sherwood, B; Sheshukov, A; Singh, J; Singh, V; Smith, A; Smith, D; Smolik, J; Solomey, N; Sotnikov, A; Sousa, A; Soustruznik, K; Stenkin, Y; Strait, M; Suter, L; Talaga, R L; Tamsett, M C; Tariq, S; Tas, P; Tesarek, R J; Thayyullathil, R B; Thomsen, K; Tian, X; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Trevor, J; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Valerio, L; Vinton, L; Vrba, T; Waldron, A V; Wang, B; Wang, Z; Weber, A; Wehmann, A; Whittington, D; Wilcer, N; Wildberger, R; Wildman, D; Williams, K; Wojcicki, S G; Wood, K; Xiao, M; Xin, T; Yadav, N; Yang, S; Zadorozhnyy, S; Zalesak, J; Zamorano, B; Zhao, A; Zirnstein, J; Zwaska, R

    2016-04-15

    We report results from the first search for ν_{μ}→ν_{e} transitions by the NOvA experiment. In an exposure equivalent to 2.74×10^{20} protons on target in the upgraded NuMI beam at Fermilab, we observe 6 events in the Far Detector, compared to a background expectation of 0.99±0.11(syst) events based on the Near Detector measurement. A secondary analysis observes 11 events with a background of 1.07±0.14(syst). The 3.3σ excess of events observed in the primary analysis disfavors 0.1π<δ_{CP}<0.5π in the inverted mass hierarchy at the 90% C.L.

  11. First Measurement of Electron Neutrino Appearance in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Ader, C.; Andrews, M.; Anfimov, N.; Anghel, I.; Arms, K.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Aurisano, A.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Bernstein, R.; Betancourt, M.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Biery, K.; Blackburn, T.; Bocean, V.; Bogert, D.; Bolshakova, A.; Bowden, M.; Bower, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bromberg, C.; Brunetti, G.; Bu, X.; Butkevich, A.; Capista, D.; Catano-Mur, E.; Chase, T. R.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Chowdhury, B.; Coan, T. E.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Colo, M.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Cunningham, A.; Davies, G. S.; Davies, J. P.; Del Tutto, M.; Derwent, P. F.; Deepthi, K. N.; Demuth, D.; Desai, S.; Deuerling, G.; Devan, A.; Dey, J.; Dharmapalan, R.; Ding, P.; Dixon, S.; Djurcic, Z.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyang, H.; Ehrlich, R.; Feldman, G. J.; Felt, N.; Fenyves, E. J.; Flumerfelt, E.; Foulkes, S.; Frank, M. J.; Freeman, W.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Gebhard, M.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, W.; Giri, A.; Goadhouse, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodenough, L.; Goodman, M. C.; Grichine, V.; Grossman, N.; Group, R.; Grudzinski, J.; Guarino, V.; Guo, B.; Habig, A.; Handler, T.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Heller, K.; Howcroft, C.; Huang, J.; Huang, X.; Hylen, J.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jediny, F.; Jensen, C.; Jensen, D.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kafka, G. K.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kasetti, S.; Kephart, K.; Koizumi, G.; Kotelnikov, S.; Kourbanis, I.; Krahn, Z.; Kravtsov, V.; Kreymer, A.; Kulenberg, Ch.; Kumar, A.; Kutnink, T.; Kwarciancy, R.; Kwong, J.; Lang, K.; Lee, A.; Lee, W. M.; Lee, K.; Lein, S.; Liu, J.; Lokajicek, M.; Lozier, J.; Lu, Q.; Lucas, P.; Luchuk, S.; Lukens, P.; Lukhanin, G.; Magill, S.; Maan, K.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Martens, M.; Martincik, J.; Mason, P.; Matera, K.; Mathis, M.; Matveev, V.; Mayer, N.; McCluskey, E.; Mehdiyev, R.; Merritt, H.; Messier, M. D.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Michael, D.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mohanta, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Newman, H. B.; Nelson, J. K.; Niner, E.; Norman, A.; Nowak, J.; Oksuzian, Y.; Olshevskiy, A.; Oliver, J.; Olson, T.; Paley, J.; Pandey, P.; Para, A.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Pearson, N.; Perevalov, D.; Pershey, D.; Peterson, E.; Petti, R.; Phan-Budd, S.; Piccoli, L.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poling, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Psihas, F.; Pushka, D.; Qiu, X.; Raddatz, N.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Ray, R.; Rebel, B.; Rechenmacher, R.; Reed, B.; Reilly, R.; Rocco, D.; Rodkin, D.; Ruddick, K.; Rusack, R.; Ryabov, V.; Sachdev, K.; Sahijpal, S.; Sahoo, H.; Samoylov, O.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Schlabach, P.; Schneps, J.; Schroeter, R.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.; Shanahan, P.; Sherwood, B.; Sheshukov, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, V.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smolik, J.; Solomey, N.; Sotnikov, A.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Stenkin, Y.; Strait, M.; Suter, L.; Talaga, R. L.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tariq, S.; Tas, P.; Tesarek, R. J.; Thayyullathil, R. B.; Thomsen, K.; Tian, X.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Trevor, J.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Valerio, L.; Vinton, L.; Vrba, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z.; Weber, A.; Wehmann, A.; Whittington, D.; Wilcer, N.; Wildberger, R.; Wildman, D.; Williams, K.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wood, K.; Xiao, M.; Xin, T.; Yadav, N.; Yang, S.; Zadorozhnyy, S.; Zalesak, J.; Zamorano, B.; Zhao, A.; Zirnstein, J.; Zwaska, R.; NOvA Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We report results from the first search for νμ→νe transitions by the NOvA experiment. In an exposure equivalent to 2.74 ×1020 protons on target in the upgraded NuMI beam at Fermilab, we observe 6 events in the Far Detector, compared to a background expectation of 0.99 ±0.11 (syst) events based on the Near Detector measurement. A secondary analysis observes 11 events with a background of 1.07 ±0.14 (syst) . The 3.3 σ excess of events observed in the primary analysis disfavors 0.1 π <δC P<0.5 π in the inverted mass hierarchy at the 90% C.L.

  12. Measurement of optically and thermally stimulated electron emission from natural minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, C.; Murray, A.S.; Denby, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Electron emission during thermal stimulation has been studied before in some detail, but there has been less work on the optically stimulated signal, especially in natural dosimeters. We report on measurements obtained using a windowless pancake Geiger-Nifiller electron detector attachment...

  13. The N400 effect during speaker-switch – Towards a conversational approach of measuring neural correlates of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Goregliad Fjaellingsdal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Language occurs naturally in conversations. However, the study of the neural underpinnings of language has mainly taken place in single individuals using controlled language material. The interactive elements of a conversation (e.g., turn-taking are often not part of neurolinguistic setups. The prime reason is the difficulty to combine open unrestricted conversations with the requirements of neuroimaging. It is necessary to find a trade-off between the naturalness of a conversation and the restrictions imposed by neuroscientific methods to allow for ecologically more valid studies.Here we make an attempt to study the effects of a conversational element, namely turn-taking, on linguistic neural correlates, specifically the N400 effect. We focus on the physiological aspect of turn-taking, the speaker-switch, and its effect on the detectability of the N400 effect. The N400 event-related potential reflects expectation violations in a semantic context; the N400 effect describes the difference of the N400 amplitude between semantically expected and unexpected items.Sentences with semantically congruent and incongruent final words were presented in two turn-taking modes: (1 reading aloud first part of the sentence and listening to speaker-switch for the final word, and (2 listening to first part of the sentence and speaker-switch for the final word.A significant N400 effect was found for both turn-taking modes, which was not influenced by the mode itself. However, the mode significantly affected the P200, which was increased for the reading aloud mode compared to the listening mode.Our results show that an N400 effect can be detected during a speaker-switch. Speech articulation (reading aloud before the analyzed sentence fragment did also not impede the N400 effect detection for the final word. The speaker-switch, however, seems to influence earlier components of the electroencephalogram, related to processing of salient stimuli. We conclude that the N

  14. Invoking the frequency dependence in square modulated light intensity techniques for the measurement of electron time constants in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaithan, Hamid M.; Qaid, Saif M.; Hezam, Mahmoud; Siddique, Muhemmad B.; Bedja, Idriss M.; Aldwayyana, Abdullah S.

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been considered as one of the most promising new generation solar cells. Enormous research efforts have been invested to improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion which is determined by the light harvesting efficiency, electron injection efficiency and undesirable electron lifetime. A simple, cheap and trustable laser-induced photovoltage and photocurrent decay (LIPVCD) technique is adopted in this work in order to determine the electron lifetime (τe) and electron transport (τtr) in DSSCs. In LIPVCD technique, DSSC is illuminated by a small squared intensity-modulated laser beam. Time-based response of the DSSC is recorded using a transient digitized oscilloscope for further analysis. Frequency-based response was also investigated in this work. The frequency-dependent measurements turned out to be a powerful method to determine electron time constants in a fast, real-time fashion. Measurements were carried out using a standard dye-sensitized solar cell, and results were in excellent agreement with results obtained from traditional IMVS-MPS measurements. Measurements were also performed for a variety of DSSCs, having various electrodes including TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets and ZnO vertically aligned nanowires. Results will also be presented and discussed in this work.

  15. Analysis of Upper Hybrid Wave Growth Rates From Measured Electron Distributions; An Encounter With the Source of Auroral Roar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, S. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Samara, M.; Yoon, P. H.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2003, the High Bandwidth Auroral Rocket (HIBAR) passed through two regions of strong upper hybrid wave emission associated with the approximate matching of the upper hybrid frequency to twice the electron cyclotron frequency (fuh = 2 fce) (Samara 2004) These types of emission are believed to be the source of the HF auroral roar often observed by ground based receivers. The current model theorizes that the free space 0-mode waves observed on the ground are produced through mode conversion of strong emission of Z-mode, or upper hybrid waves. The relativistic electron cyclotron maser exhibits significant growth rates for the Z-mode when the local upper hybrid frequency is just below (~1%) twice the electron cyclotron frequency and with the appropriately unstable electron distribution (Yoon 1996, Yoon 1998, Yoon 2000). Though auroral roar is frequently observed from the ground, the source region has rarely been identified in-situ and even more rarely with sufficient bandwidth to analyze the underlying physical processes. Analysis of the electron distributions from HIBAR show good agreement with the theoretical distributions used by Yoon:98. HIBAR encountered three separate regions where fuh ≍ 2 fce, two of these regions include strong upper hybrid emission, while the third is void of upper hybrid wave activity. The measured particle distributions demonstrate that, in the two regions with wave emission, the relativistic electron cyclotron maser instability produces Z mode wave growth rates at least an order of magnitude greater than the electron collision frequency. In the third region without wave emission, the growth rates are much smaller in both amplitude and the extent of occurance. Samara, M., J. LaBelle, C. A. Kletzing, and S. R. Bounds, Rocket observations of structured upper hybrid wave at fuh=2fce, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22804, doi:10.1029/2004GL021043. Yoon, P. H., A. T. Weatherwax, and T. J. Rosenberg, Lower ionospheric cyclotron maser

  16. Measurement of SFDR and noise in EDF amplified analog RF links using all-optical down-conversion and balanced receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Charles; Borbath, Michael; Wyatt, Jeff; DeSalvo, Richard

    2008-04-01

    Optical down-conversion techniques have become an increasingly popular architecture to realize Multi-band Enterprise Terminals (MET), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation (OAWG), RF Channelizers and other technologies that need rapid frequency agile tunability in the microwave and millimeter RF bands. We describe recent SFDR, NF, Gain, and Noise modeling and measurements of Erbium-doped-fiber amplified analog RF optical links implementing all-optical down-conversion and balanced photodiode receivers. We describe measurements made on our newly designed extensive test-bed utilizing a wide array of high powered single and balanced photodiodes, polarization preserving output LN modulators, EAMs, LIMs, tunable lasers, EDFAs, RF Amplifiers, and other components to fully characterize direct and coherent detection techniques. Additionally, we compare these experimental results to our comprehensive MATLAB system modeling and optimization software tools.

  17. Power electronics advanced conversion technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Symbols and Factors Used in This Book AC/DC Rectifiers DC/DC Converters DC/AC Inverters AC/AC Converters AC/DC/AC and DC/AC/DC Converters Uncontrolled AC/DC Converters Single-Phase Half-Wave Converters Single-Phase Full-Wave Converters Three-Phase Half-Wave Converters Six-Phase Half-Wave Converters Three-Phase Full-Wave Converters Multiphase Full-Wave Converters Controlled AC/DC Converters Single-Phase Half-Wave Controlled Converters Single-Phase Full-Wave Controlled Converters Three-Phase Half-Wave Controlled Rectifiers Six-Phase Half-Wave Controlled Rectifiers Three-Phase Full-W

  18. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. [Conversion factors are given for dose rates to 21 organs from 240 different radionuclides for 3 different modes of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1979-02-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation have been calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure to a contaminated ground surface are estimated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. For each exposure mode, photon dose-rate conversion factors are also estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations assume that the contaminated air, water, and ground surface are infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. Dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water are based on the requirement that all energy emitted in the decay of a radionuclide is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated for a height of 1 m using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air. The computer code DOSFACTER written to perform the calculations is described and documented.

  19. 76 FR 12401 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR'') is...

  20. 75 FR 60159 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR'') is...

  1. Measurement of electron blockage factors for mamma scars; Medida de los factores de bloque de electrones para cicatrices de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Fraguela, E.; Suero Rodrigo, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    Pencil Beam algorithm XiO CMS scheduler uses the applicator factor, instead of blocking factor in the calculation of monitor units (MU) shaped electron fields. This feature makes the algorithm for calculating an input field the same dose in the beam axis than it would if it were not blocked. It should, therefore, to correct the UM that provides the planner by a factor. The blocks used in electron treatment of the surgical mamma cancers often have a narrow elongated shape following the contour of the scar. Such openings have difficulty measuring the blocking factor with plane-parallel chambers recommended by national and international protocols (eg PTW Roos 34 001) as being so narrow that sometimes the camera is not completely irradiated. In this paper, we study the possibility of using a PTW 30010 Farmer cylindrical chamber for measuring the blocking factor of such openings.

  2. First results of electron cyclotron emission measurements at the GDT magnetic mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Shalashov, A G; Gospodchikov, E D; Lubyako, L V; Yakovlev, D V; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments on electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements at the fundamental harmonic recently performed at the axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). New ECE diagnostics is installed to facilitate the successful electron cyclotron resonance heating experiment and operates in the vicinity of the heating frequency of 54.5 GHz. Besides expected emission of thermal electrons, a clearly resolved non-thermal ECE is observed indicating the presence of suprathermal electrons driven by high-power microwave heating. The particulars of plasma emission are studied experimentally in a broad range of discharge scenarios.

  3. ElectroOptical measurements of ultrashort 45 MeV electron beam bunch

    CERN Document Server

    Nikas, D; Kowalski, L A; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Ozben, C; Semertzidis, Y K; Tsang, Thomas; Srinivasan-Rao, T

    2001-01-01

    We have made an observation of 45 MeV electron beam bunches using the nondestructive electro-optical (EO) technique. The amplitude of the EO modulation was found to increase linearly with electron beam charge and decrease inversely with the optical beam path distance from the electron beam. The risetime of the signal was bandwidth limited by our detection system to \\~70ps. An EO signal due to ionization caused by the electrons traversing the EO crystal was also observed. The EO technique may be ideal for the measurement of bunch structure with femtosecond resolution of relativistic charged particle beam bunches.

  4. Beam Spot Measurement on a 400 keV Electron Accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1979-01-01

    A line probe is used to measure the beam spot radius and beam divergence at a 400 keV ICT electron accelerator, and a method is shown for reducing the line probe data in order to get the radial function.......A line probe is used to measure the beam spot radius and beam divergence at a 400 keV ICT electron accelerator, and a method is shown for reducing the line probe data in order to get the radial function....

  5. Electron transfer and ionic displacements at the origin of the 2D electron gas at the LAO/STO interface: direct measurements with atomic-column spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Claudia; Gazquez, Jaume; Miletto Granozio, Fabio; Oxley, Mark P; Varela, Maria; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Aruta, Carmela; di Uccio, Umberto Scotti; Perna, Paolo; Maccariello, Davide

    2012-08-02

    Using state-of-the-art, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy with atomic-scale spatial resolution, experimental evidence for an intrinsic electronic reconstruction at the LAO/STO interface is shown. Simultaneous measurements of interfacial electron density and system polarization are crucial for establishing the highly debated origin of the 2D electron gas. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Novel method for measurement of transistor gate length using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungho; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kang, Jonghyuk; Yang, Cheol-Woong

    2016-12-01

    As the feature size of devices continues to decrease, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is becoming indispensable for measuring the critical dimension (CD) of structures. Semiconductors consist primarily of silicon-based materials such as silicon, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride, and the electrons transmitted through a plan-view TEM sample provide diverse information about various overlapped silicon-based materials. This information is exceedingly complex, which makes it difficult to clarify the boundary to be measured. Therefore, we propose a simple measurement method using energy-filtered TEM (EF-TEM). A precise and effective measurement condition was obtained by determining the maximum value of the integrated area ratio of the electron energy loss spectrum at the boundary to be measured. This method employs an adjustable slit allowing only electrons with a certain energy range to pass. EF-TEM imaging showed a sharp transition at the boundary when the energy-filter’s passband centre was set at 90 eV, with a slit width of 40 eV. This was the optimum condition for the CD measurement of silicon-based materials involving silicon nitride. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and EF-TEM images were used to verify this method, which makes it possible to measure the transistor gate length in a dynamic random access memory manufactured using 35 nm process technology. This method can be adapted to measure the CD of other non-silicon-based materials using the EELS area ratio of the boundary materials.

  7. Unique electron polarimeter analyzing power comparison and precision spin-based energy measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Grames; Charles Sinclair; Joseph Mitchell; Eugene Chudakov; Howard Fenker; Arne Freyberger; Douglas Higinbotham; B. Poelker; Michael Steigerwald; Michael Tiefenback; Christian Cavata; Stephanie Escoffier; Frederic Marie; Thierry Pussieux; Pascal Vernin; Samuel Danagoulian; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Renee Fatemi; Kyungseon Joo; Markus Zeier; Viktor Gorbenko; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Brian Raue; Riad Suleiman; Benedikt Zihlmann

    2004-03-01

    Precision measurements of the relative analyzing powers of five electron beam polarimeters, based on Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering, have been performed using the CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory). A Wien filter in the 100 keV beamline of the injector was used to vary the electron spin orientation exiting the injector. High statistical precision measurements of the scattering asymmetry as a function of the spin orientation were made with each polarimeter. Since each polarimeter receives beam with the same magnitude of polarization, these asymmetry measurements permit a high statistical precision comparison of the relative analyzing powers of the five polarimeters. This is the first time a precise comparison of the analyzing powers of Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering polarimeters has been made. Statistically significant disagreements among the values of the beam polarization calculated from the asymmetry measurements made with each polarimeter reveal either errors in the values of the analyzing power, or failure to correctly include all systematic effects. The measurements reported here represent a first step toward understanding the systematic effects of these electron polarimeters. Such studies are necessary to realize high absolute accuracy (ca. 1%) electron polarization measurements, as required for some parity violation measurements planned at Jefferson Laboratory. Finally, a comparison of the value of the spin orientation exiting the injector that provides maximum longitudinal polarization in each experimental hall leads to an independent and very precise (better than 10-4) absolute measurement of the final electron beam energy.

  8. Measurements of electron cloud density in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron with the microwave transmission method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron cloud effect can pose severe performance limitations in high-energy particle accelerators as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS. Mitigation techniques such as vacuum chamber thin film coatings with low secondary electron yields (SEY<1.3 aim to reduce or even suppress this effect. The microwave transmission method, developed and first applied in 2003 at the SPS, measures the integrated electron cloud density over a long section of an accelerator. This paper summarizes the theory and measurement principle and describes the new SPS microwave transmission setup used to study the electron cloud mitigation of amorphous carbon coated SPS dipole vacuum chambers. Comparative results of carbon coated and bare stainless steel dipole vacuum chambers are given for the beam with nominal LHC 25 ns bunch-to-bunch spacing in the SPS and the electron cloud density is derived.

  9. Electron Cloud Density Measurements in Accelerator Beam-pipe Using Resonant Microwave Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, John P

    2013-01-01

    An accelerator beam can generate low energy electrons in the beam-pipe, generally called electron cloud, that can produce instabilities in a positively charged beam. One method of measuring the electron cloud density is by coupling microwaves into and out of the beam-pipe and observing the response of the microwaves to the presence of the electron cloud. This paper describes a technique in which the beam-pipe is resonantly excited with microwaves and the electron cloud density calculated from the change that it produces in the resonant frequency of the beam-pipe. The resonant technique has the advantage that measurements can be localized to sections of beam-pipe that are a meter or less in length, as well as greatly improving the signal to noise ratio.

  10. Direct measurement of the charge distribution along a biased carbon nanotube bundle using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image........ We present results from a biased bundle of carbon nanotubes, in which we show that the charge density increases linearly with distance from its base, reaching a value of ~0.8 electrons/nm near its tip.......Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image...

  11. Moiré fringe method of using warping deformation measurement of electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Huang, Biaobing; Xu, Hongji; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Wenpeng

    2010-10-01

    Computers, mobile phones, cameras and video equipment and other electronic products, Moving in the light, thin, small, high speed, high reliability, multi-functional aspects of development, Namely, 3G technology and the SOC of. Therefore, the various components of the packaging technology have become increasingly demanding, Electronic components of residual stress after encapsulation and the use of temperature changes during, Body will be made electronic packaging warpage, Seriously affect the quality of the product. Therefore, to establish a set of micron, sub-micron-level detection method for testing. In this paper, Moiré fringe method to measure warpage of electronic packages body volume, Was first proposed application of Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory, Proof presented in this paper with a small spacing diffraction grating problems arising from the assumption can be overcome, Greatly improved the precision deformation measurement of electronic components.

  12. Electro-optical Measurements of Ultrashort 45 MeV Electron Beam Bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Thomas; Kowalski, L A; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Semertzidis, Y K; Srinivasan-Rao, T

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the temporal duration of 45 MeV picosecond electron beam bunches using a noninvasive electro-optical (EO) technique. The amplitude of the EO modulation was found to increase linearly with electron beam charge and decrease inversely with distance from the electron beam. The risetime of the temporal signal was limited by our detection system to ~70ps. The EO signal due to ionization caused by the electrons traversing the EO crystal was also observed. It has a distinctively long decay time constant and signal polarity opposite to that due to the field induced by the electron beam. The electro-optical technique may be ideal for the measurement of bunch length of femtosecond, relativistic, high energy, charged, particle beams.

  13. Generation and measurement of sub-picosecond electron bunch in photocathode rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weiwei; Jia, Qika

    2013-01-01

    We consider a scheme to generate sub-picosecond electron bunch in the photocathode rf gun by improving the acceleration gradient in the gun, suitably tuning the bunch charge, the laser spot size and the acceleration phase, and reducing the growth of transverse emittance by laser shaping. A nondestructive technique is also reported to measure the electron bunch length, by measuring the high-frequency spectrum of wakefield radiation which is caused by the passage of a relativistic electron bunch through a channel surrounded by a dielectric.

  14. Transparency of graphene for low-energy electrons measured in a vacuum-triode setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hassink

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, being an atomically thin conducting sheet, is a candidate material for gate electrodes in vacuum electronic devices, as it may be traversed by low-energy electrons. The transparency of graphene to electrons with energies between 2 and 40 eV has been measured by using an optimized vacuum-triode setup. The measured graphene transparency equals ∼60% in most of this energy range. Based on these results, nano-patterned sheets of graphene or of related two-dimensional materials are proposed as gate electrodes for ambipolar vacuum devices.

  15. The H.E.S.S. measurement of the cosmic-ray electron spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egberts, Kathrin; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlühr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Conrad, J.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Domainko, A. Djannati-Ataü W.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fürster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füssling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Güring, D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khálifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schück, F. M.; Schünwald, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sushch, I.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Vülk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    The measurement of very-high-energy cosmic-ray electrons is intrinsically difficult due to their very steep spectrum with low fluxes and an enormous background of hadronic cosmic rays. The large collection areas needed for such a measurement can be provided by ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has performed the first ground-based cosmic-ray electron measurement and thereby extended the measured range of the spectrum to several TeV.

  16. Correlated electric field and low-energy electron measurements in the low-altitude polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, P. M.; Ackerson, K. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    Correlated electric field and low-energy electron measurements are presented for two passes of Hawkeye 1 through the south polar cusp at 2000-km altitude during local morning. In one case the electric field reversal coincides with the boundary of detectable 5.2keV electron intensities and the equatorward boundary of the cusp. In the other case the electric field reversal and the 5.2 keV electron trapping boundary coincide, but the equatorward edge of the cusp as determined from the presence of 180 eV electron intensities is 5 degrees invariant latitude equatorward of the electric field reversal. It is concluded that in the second case, electron intensities associated with the polar cusp populate closed dayside field lines, and hence the corresponding equatorward edge of these electron intensities is not always an indicator of the boundary between closed dayside field lines and polar cap field lines.

  17. In-Situ Measurements of the Secondary Electron Yield in an Accelerator Environment: Instrumentation and Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hartung, W H; Conway, J V; Dennett, C A; Greenwald, S; Kim, J -S; Li, Y; Moore, T P; Omanovic, V; Palmer, M A; Strohman, C R

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings...

  18. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  19. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  20. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  1. Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin; Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue

    2015-02-01

    Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (∼2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic "poly-tropic law" is more appropriate than the isothermal "barometric law" to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the "poly-tropic law" are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3.

  2. Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin; Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue

    2015-02-01

    Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (˜2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic "poly-tropic law" is more appropriate than the isothermal "barometric law" to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the "poly-tropic law" are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3.

  3. Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin, E-mail: thb@buaa.edu.cn; Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue [School of Astronautics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (∼2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic “poly-tropic law” is more appropriate than the isothermal “barometric law” to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the “poly-tropic law” are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3.

  4. Parental report of infant sleep behavior by electronic versus paper-and-pencil diaries, and their relationship to actigraphic sleep measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Silvana; Hemmi, Mirja H; Wilhelm, Frank H; Barr, Ronald G; Schneider, Silvia

    2011-12-01

    Reliable, valid and cost-effective methods for the assessment of infant sleep and sleep problems are of major importance. In this study, the first aim was to assess the agreement of an electronic diary as well as a paper diary with actigraphy for measuring infant sleep patterns in a community sample. The second aim was to assess the feasibility and acceptance of, and compliance with, the electronic diary and the paper diary. Ninety parents reported infant sleep behavior in a paper diary in their home environments for a total of 6 days, 95 in an electronic diary, within two consecutive weeks while actigraphic data were obtained simultaneously. We found moderate to good agreement between electronic diaries and actigraphy (r = 0.41-0.65, P actigraphy (r = 0.47-0.70, P actigraphy for sleep percentage over 24 h (electronic diaries and actigraphy: 54.1 ± 0.7%, 52.5 ± 0.7%, P actigraphy: 55.1 ± 0.5%, 52.2 ± 0.6%, P actigraphy: 27.3 ± 0.9%, 23.5 ± 1.2%, P actigraphy: 27.3 ± 0.8%, 23.2 ± 1.0%, P sleep was recorded on actigraphy than on either diary. In conclusion, the electronic diary and the paper diary are valid and well-accepted methods for the assessment of infant sleep. Parents preferred the electronic diary but, conversely, they were less compliant in completing it.

  5. Measurement of Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Electron-Deuteron Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D; Subedi, R; Ahmed, Z; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Armstrong, D S; Arrington, J; Bellini, V; Beminiwattha, R; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, J -P; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Dalton, M M; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deconinck, W; Deng, X; Deur, A; Dutta, C; Fassi, L El; Erler, J; Flay, D; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, A; Golge, S; Grimm, K; Hafidi, K; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Holmstrom, T; Holt, R J; Huang, J; Hyde, C E; Jen, C M; Jones, D; Kang, Hoyoung; King, P M; Kowalski, S; Kumar, K S; Lee, J H; LeRose, J J; Liyanage, N; Long, E; McNulty, D; Margaziotis, D J; Meddi, F; Meekins, D G; Mercado, L; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Mesick, K E; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman, A; Oh, Y; Parno, D; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Quinn, B; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Rider, K; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Rubin, J; Russo, G; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Silwal, R; Širca, S; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C M; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Waidyawansa, B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ye, L; Zhao, B; Zheng, X

    2014-01-01

    The parity-violating asymmetries between a longitudinally-polarized electron beam and an unpolarized deuterium target have been measured recently. The measurement covered two kinematic points in the deep inelastic scattering region and five in the nucleon resonance region. We provide here details of the experimental setup, data analysis, and results on all asymmetry measurements including parity-violating electron asymmetries and those of inclusive pion production and beam-normal asymmetries. The parity-violating deep-inelastic asymmetries were used to extract the electron-quark weak effective couplings, and the resonance asymmetries provided the first evidence for quark-hadron duality in electroweak observables. These electron asymmetries and their interpretation were published earlier, but are presented here in more detail.

  6. Simultaneous equatorial measurements of waves and precipitating electrons in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, W. L.; Robinson, R. M.; Collin, H. L.; Wygant, J. R.; Anderson, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Simultaneous wave and precipitating electron measurements near the equator in the outer radiation belt have been made from the CRRES satellite. The electron data of principal concern here were acquired in and about the loss cone with narrow angular resolution spectrometers covering the energy range 340 eV to 5 MeV. The wave data included electric field measurements spanning frequencies from 5 Hz to 400 kHz and magnetic field measurements from 5 Hz to 10 kHz. This paper presents examples in which the variations in electron fluxes in the loss cone and the wave intensities were correlated. These variations in electron flux were confined to pitch angles less than about 30 deg. The association between the flux enhancements and the waves is consistent with wave-induced pitch angle diffusion processes.

  7. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  8. Measurement of chromatic aberration in STEM and SCEM by coherent convergent beam electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, C.L. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Etheridge, J., E-mail: joanne.etheridge@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-02-15

    A simple method is described for the accurate and precise measurement of chromatic aberration under electron-optical conditions pertinent to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM). The method requires only the measurement of distances in a coherent CBED pattern and knowledge of the electron wavelength and the lattice spacing of a calibration specimen. The chromatic aberration of a spherical-aberration corrected 300 kV thermal field emission TEM is measured in STEM and SCEM operating modes and under different condenser lens settings. The effect of the measured chromatic aberrations on the 3 dimensional intensity distribution of the electron probe is also considered. - Highlights: ► A method is presented to measure chromatic aberration (C{sub c}) using coherent CBED. ► The C{sub c} of the probe and imaging lens systems in STEM and SCEM modes is measured in a C{sub 3}-corrected S/TEM. ► The effect of the measured C{sub c} on the depth resolution in STEM is simulated for different energy spreads.

  9. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton-proton collision data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-03-15

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at √(s) = 8 TeV. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from Z → ee, Z → eeγ and J/ψ → ee decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb{sup -1}, is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with E{sub T} = 15 GeV and 99% at E{sub T} = 50 GeV. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject electrons from background processes or misidentified hadrons, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify electrons at the ATLAS experiment varies from 65 to 95%, depending on the transverse momentum of the electron and background rejection. (orig.)

  10. Electron efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using 2012 LHC proton-proton collision data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adachi, S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alshehri, A A; Alstaty, M; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antrim, D J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Bajic, M; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barranco Navarro, L; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethani, A; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; De Mendizabal, J Bilbao; Billoud, T R V; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bisanz, T; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blue, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossio Sola, J D; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burger, A M; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Callea, G; Caloba, L P; Calvente Lopez, S; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminal Armadans, R; Camincher, C; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Camplani, A; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Carbone, R M; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, I; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carlson, B T; Carminati, L; Carney, R M D; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Casper, D W; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelijn, R; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavallaro, E; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerda Alberich, L; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, S K; Chan, Y L; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chatterjee, A; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Che, S; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, H J; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; El Moursli, R Cherkaoui; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiarelli, G; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chomont, A R; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chudoba, J; Chuinard, A J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Cioara, I A; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirotto, F; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, B L; Clark, M R; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Colasurdo, L; Cole, B; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cormier, F; Cormier, K J R; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crawley, S J; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cribbs, W A; Crispin Ortuzar, M; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Cueto, A; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cúth, J; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; D'amen, G; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dado, T; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dandoy, J R; Dang, N P; Daniells, A C; Dann, N S; Danninger, M; Dano Hoffmann, M; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, M; Davison, P; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Benedetti, A; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Maria, A; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dedovich, D V; Dehghanian, N; Deigaard, I; Del Gaudio, M; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delgove, D; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; DeMarco, D A; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Denysiuk, D; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deterre, C; Dette, K; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Clemente, W K; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Petrillo, K F; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Di Valentino, D; Diaconu, C; Diamond, M; Dias, F A; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Díez Cornell, S; Dimitrievska, A; Dingfelder, J; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Djuvsland, J I; do Vale, M A B; Dobos, D; Dobre, M; Doglioni, C; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Donadelli, M; Donati, S; Dondero, P; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Doyle, A T; Drechsler, E; Dris, M; Du, Y; Duarte-Campderros, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Ducu, O A; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Dudder, A Chr; Duffield, E M; Duflot, L; Dührssen, M; Dumancic, M; Duncan, A K; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Düren, M; Durglishvili, A; Duschinger, D; 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Reece, R; Reed, R G; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reichert, J; Reiss, A; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Resseguie, E D; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rifki, O; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rimoldi, M; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Rizzi, C; Roberts, R T; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Rodina, Y; Rodriguez Perez, A; Rodriguez, D; Roe, S; Rogan, C S; Røhne, O; Roloff, J; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Saez, S M Romano; Romero Adam, E; Rompotis, N; Ronzani, M; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, P; Rosien, N-A; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, J H N; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Russell, H L; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryu, S; Ryzhov, A; Rzehorz, G F; Saavedra, A F; Sabato, G; Sacerdoti, S; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Safai Tehrani, F; Saha, P; Sahinsoy, M; Saimpert, M; Saito, T; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Salazar Loyola, J E; Salek, D; De Bruin, P H Sales; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sammel, D; Sampsonidis, D; Sánchez, J; Sanchez Martinez, V; Pineda, A Sanchez; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, C; Sankey, D P C; Sannino, M; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Santoyo Castillo, I; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sasaki, O; Sato, K; Sauvan, E; Savage, G; Savard, P; Savic, N; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Scarfone, V; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schachtner, B M; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, L; Schaefer, R; Schaeffer, J; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Schiavi, C; Schier, S; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K R; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, S; Schneider, B; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schopf, E; Schott, M; Schouwenberg, J F P; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schuh, N; Schulte, A; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schweiger, H; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekhon, K; Sekula, S J; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Serre, T; Sessa, M; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shaikh, N W; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shaw, S M; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shirabe, S; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shoaleh Saadi, D; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shope, D R; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sickles, A M; Sidebo, P E; Sideras Haddad, E; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simon, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sioli, M; Siragusa, G; Siral, I; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Slovak, R; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smiesko, J; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, J W; Smith, M N K; Smith, R W; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snyder, I M; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Sokhrannyi, G; Solans Sanchez, C A; Solar, M; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Stark, S H; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Stärz, S; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Suster, C J E; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Swift, S P; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanioka, R; Tannenwald, B B; Tapia Araya, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Temple, D; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Tibbetts, M J; Ticse Torres, R E; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Tornambe, P; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tu, Y; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tulbure, T T; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turgeman, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usui, J; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valdes Santurio, E; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vasquez, G A; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veeraraghavan, V; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; 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Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xi, Z; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zacharis, G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms for the reconstruction and identification of electrons in the central region of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These algorithms were used for all ATLAS results with electrons in the final state that are based on the 2012 pp collision data produced by the LHC at [Formula: see text] = 8 [Formula: see text]. The efficiency of these algorithms, together with the charge misidentification rate, is measured in data and evaluated in simulated samples using electrons from [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays. For these efficiency measurements, the full recorded data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text], is used. Based on a new reconstruction algorithm used in 2012, the electron reconstruction efficiency is 97% for electrons with [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and 99% at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Combining this with the efficiency of additional selection criteria to reject electrons from background processes or misidentified hadrons, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify electrons at the ATLAS experiment varies from 65 to 95%, depending on the transverse momentum of the electron and background rejection.

  11. Linear theory and measurements of electron oscillations in an inertial Alfvén wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S.

    2017-03-01

    The physics of the aurora is one of the foremost unsolved problems of space physics. The mechanisms responsible for accelerating electrons that precipitate onto the ionosphere are not fully understood. For more than three decades, particle interactions with inertial Alfvén waves have been proposed as a possible means for accelerating electrons and generating auroras. Inertial Alfvén waves have an electric field aligned with the background magnetic field that is expected to cause electron oscillations as well as electron acceleration. Due to the limitations of spacecraft conjunction studies and other multi-spacecraft approaches, it is unlikely that it will ever be possible, through spacecraft observations alone, to confirm definitively these fundamental properties of the inertial Alfvén wave by making simultaneous measurements of both the perturbed electron distribution function and the Alfvén wave responsible for the perturbations. In this laboratory experiment, the suprathermal tails of the reduced electron distribution function parallel to the mean magnetic field are measured with high precision as inertial Alfvén waves simultaneously propagate through the plasma. The results of this experiment identify, for the first time, the oscillations of suprathermal electrons associated with an inertial Alfvén wave. Despite complications due to boundary conditions and the finite size of the experiment, a linear model is produced that replicates the measured response of the electron distribution function. These results verify one of the fundamental properties of the inertial Alfvén wave, and they are also a prerequisite for future attempts to measure the acceleration of electrons by inertial Alfvén waves.

  12. Measurements of hot-electron temperature in laser-irradiated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodov, A. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Myatt, J. F.; Sorce, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-10-01

    In a recently published work [Yaakobi et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 012704 (2012)] we reported on measuring the total energy of hot electrons produced by the interaction of a nanosecond laser with planar CH-coated molybdenum targets, using the Mo Kα emission. The temperature of the hot electrons in that work was determined by the high-energy bremsstrahlung [hard X-ray (HXR)] spectrum measured by a three-channel fluorescence-photomultiplier HXR detector (HXRD). In the present work, we replaced the HXRD with a nine-channel image-plate (IP)-based detector (HXIP). For the same conditions (irradiance of the order of 1014 W/cm2; 2-ns pulses), the measured temperatures are consistently lower than those measured by the HXRD (by a factor ˜1.5 to 1.7). We supplemented this measurement with three experiments that measure the hot-electron temperature using Kα line-intensity ratios from high-Z target layers, independent of the HXR emission. These experiments yielded temperatures that were consistent with those measured by the HXIP. We showed that the thermal X-ray radiation must be included in the derivation of total energy in hot electrons (Ehot), and that this makes Ehot only weakly dependent on hot-electron temperature. For a given X-ray emission in the inertial confinement fusion compression experiments, this result would lead to a higher total energy in hot electrons, but preheating of the compressed fuel may be lower because of the reduced hot-electron range.

  13. Uncertainties of size measurements in electron microscopy characterization of nanomaterials in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; Chaudhry, Qasim;

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy is a recognized standard tool for nanomaterial characterization, and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for the size measurement of nanomaterials in food. Despite this, little data have been published assessing the reliability of the method, especially for size...... measurement of nanomaterials characterized by a broad size distribution and/or added to food matrices. This study is a thorough investigation of the measurement uncertainty when applying electron microscopy for size measurement of engineered nanomaterials in foods. Our results show that the number of measured...... particles was only a minor source of measurement uncertainty for nanomaterials in food, compared to the combined influence of sampling, sample preparation prior to imaging and the image analysis. The main conclusion is that to improve the measurement reliability, care should be taken to consider...

  14. Introduction of measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics: Basic principles and recent trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Ebihara, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Measurement — the act of measuring physical properties that we perform — has the potential to contribute to the successful advancement of sciences and society. To open doors in physics and other sciences, various measurement methods and related applications have been developed, and ultrasound has remained a useful probe, power source, and interesting measurement object for the past two centuries. In this paper, we first summarize the basic principles of ultrasound from the viewpoint of measurement techniques for readers who just have started studying or are interested in the field of ultrasonic electronics. Moreover, we also introduce recent studies — ultrasonic properties of materials, measurement techniques, piezoelectric devices, nonlinear acoustics, biomedical ultrasound, and ocean acoustics — and their trends related to measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics to provide some ideas for related applications.

  15. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  16. Performances of Dose Measurement of Commercial Electronic Dosimeters using Geiger Muller Tube and PIN Diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyunjun; Kim, Chankyu; Kim, Yewon; Kim, Giyoon; Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    There are two categories in personal dosimeters, one is passive type dosimeter such as TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) and the other is active type dosimeter such as electronic dosimeter can show radiation dose immediately while TLD needs long time to readout its data by heating process. For improving the reliability of measuring dose for any energy of radiations, electronic dosimeter uses energy filter by metal packaging its detector using aluminum or copper, but measured dose of electronic dosimeter with energy filter cannot be completely compensated in wide radiation energy region. So, in this paper, we confirmed the accuracy of dose measurement of two types of commercial EPDs using Geiger Muller tube and PIN diode with CsI(Tl) scintillator in three different energy of radiation field. The experiment results for Cs-137 was almost similar with calculation value in the results of both electronic dosimeters, but, the other experiment values with Na-22 and Co-60 had higher error comparing with Cs-137. These results were caused by optimization of their energy filters. The optimization was depending on its thickness of energy filter. So, the electronic dosimeters have to optimizing the energy filter for increasing the accuracy of dose measurement or the electronic dosimeter using PIN diode with CsI(Tl) scintillator uses the multi-channel discriminator for using its energy information.

  17. Design and construction of a Faraday cup for measurement of small electronic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyssiere, A.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a device to measure and integrate very small currents generated by the impact of a charged particle beam upon a Faraday cut is described. The main component is a graphite block capable of stopping practically all the incident changes. The associated electronic apparatus required to measure better than 10/13 ampere with a precision of 10/0 is described.

  18. Dosimetry measurements during the commissioning of the GJ-2 electron accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chosdu, R.; Hilmy, N.; Tobing, R.

    1995-01-01

    . The electron energy was determined applying both wedge and stack methods at 1.5 and 2.0 MeV. The scanning width and homogeneity and the dose distribution in reference product were measured with film dosimeters. Nominal dose measurements were performed using alanine-polyethylene dosimeters produced at CAIR...

  19. Precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the electron in hydrogen-like carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Häffner, H

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the g-factor of the electron in hydrogen-like highly-charged carbon ( sup 1 sup 2 C sup 5 sup +). The measuring method uses the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, in order to discriminate the two spin eigenstates in a Penning trap.

  20. First state selective electron capture measurements with trapped highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, F.W.; Woestenenk, G.R.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first state selective electron capture cross section measurements at eV energies are reported for collisions between C4+ ions and H-2 molecules. The cross sections are measured in a crossed beam experiment by means of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. The ion beams are decelerated in an octopole ion

  1. Strain localization band width evolution by electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)], E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel; Montay, Guillaume [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurements are used to quantify the width of the strain localization band, which occurs when a sheet specimen is submitted to tension. It is shown that the width of this band decreases with increasing strain. Just before fracture, this measured width is about five times wider than the shear band and the initial sheet thickness.

  2. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; van Mourik, Reinier; Leemans, Wim

    2010-02-20

    Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.

  3. Measurement of mobility and lifetime of electrons and holes in a Schottky CdTe diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño-Estrada, G.; Chmeissani, M.; de Lorenzo, G.; Kolstein, M.; Puigdengoles, C.; García, J.; Cabruja, E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the measurement of drift properties of electrons and holes in a CdTe diode grown by the travelling heating method (THM). Mobility and lifetime of both charge carriers has been measured independently at room temperature and fixed bias voltage using charge integration readout electronics. Both electrode sides of the detector have been exposed to a 241Am source in order to obtain events with full contributions of either electrons or holes. The drift time has been measured to obtain the mobility for each charge carrier. The Hecht equation has been employed to evaluate the lifetime. The measured values for μτe/h (mobility-lifetime product) are in agreement with earlier published data.

  4. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  5. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B.; Stephens, H. D.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXRDF) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXRDF measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXRDF discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXRDF analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  6. A computationally assisted spectroscopic technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients in radio frequency plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Daksha, M; Schuengel, E; Korolov, I; Derzsi, A; Koepke, M; Donko, Z; Schulze, J

    2016-01-01

    A Computationally Assisted Spectroscopic Technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients ($\\gamma$-CAST) in capacitively-coupled radio-frequency plasmas is proposed. This non-intrusive, sensitive diagnostic is based on a combination of Phase Resolved Optical Emission Spectroscopy and particle-based kinetic simulations. In such plasmas (under most conditions in electropositive gases) the spatio-temporally resolved electron-impact excitation/ionization rate features two distinct maxima adjacent to each electrode at different times within each RF period. While one maximum is the consequence of the energy gain of electrons due to sheath expansion, the second maximum is produced by secondary electrons accelerated towards the plasma bulk by the sheath electric field at the time of maximum voltage drop across the adjacent sheath. Due to these different excitation/ionization mechanisms, the ratio of the intensities of these maxima is very sensitive to the secondary electron emission coefficient $\\gamma$...

  7. Measurement of electron neutrino CCQE-like cross-section in MINERvA

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) cross-section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross-section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross-section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present a preliminary result from the MINERvA experiment on the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross-section for a CCQE-like process. The result is given both as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and $Q^{2}$, as well as a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy.

  8. Measurement of the electron drift velocity for directional dark matter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mayet, F; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Guillaudin, O; Lamblin, J; Richer, J P; Riffard, Q; Santos, D; Iguaz, F J; Lebreton, L; Maire, D

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional track reconstruction is a key issue for directional Dark Matter detection. It requires a precise knowledge of the electron drift velocity. Magboltz simulations are known to give a good evaluation of this parameter. However, large TPC operated underground on long time scale may be characterized by an effective electron drift velocity that may differ from the value evaluated by simulation. In situ measurement of this key parameter is hence a way to avoid bias in the 3D track reconstruction. We present a dedicated method for the measurement of the electron drift velocity with the MIMAC detector. It is tested on two gas mixtures : $\\rm CF_4$ and $\\rm CF_4+CHF_3$. We also show that adding $\\rm CHF_3$ allows us to lower the electron drift velocity while keeping almost the same Fluorine content of the gas mixture.

  9. Projections for measuring the size of the solar core with neutrino-electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Jonathan H

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the amount of data needed in order to measure the size of the solar core with future experiments looking at elastic scattering between electrons and solar neutrinos. The directions of the electrons immediately after scattering are strongly correlated with the incident directions of the neutrinos, however this is degraded significantly by the subsequent scattering of these electrons in the detector medium. We generate distributions of such electrons for different sizes of the solar core, and use a maximum likelihood analysis to make projections for future experimental sensitivity. We find that after approximately 5 years of data-taking an experiment the size of Hyper Kamiokande could measure the solar core radius with an uncertainty of 20% of the total solar radius at 95% confidence, and could exclude the scenario where the neutrinos are produced throughout the entire sun at 3 $\\sigma$.

  10. Surface electronic transport measurements: A micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    setup, but the terminology used and data analysis were also ameliorated in order to simplify the interpretation of the results. We used the mentioned technique in the following projects: • The electronic transport dimensionality of epitaxial grahene grown on SiC is detected and important physical......This work is mostly focused on the study of electronic transport properties of two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene and topological insulators. To study these, we have improved a unique micro multi-point probe instrument used to perform transport measurements. Not only the experimental...... a direct measurement of the surface electronic transport on a bulk topological insulator. The surface state conductivity and mobility are obtained. Apart from transport properties, we also investigate the atomic structure of the Bi2Se3(111) surface via surface x-ray diraction and low-energy electron...

  11. Liquid-phase catalytic reactor combined with measurement of hot electron flux and chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedrygailov, Ievgen I.; Lee, Changhwan; Moon, Song Yi; Lee, Hyosun; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the role of electronically nonadiabatic interactions during chemical reactions on metal surfaces in liquid media is of great importance for a variety of applications including catalysis, electrochemistry, and environmental science. Here, we report the design of an experimental apparatus for detection of the highly excited (hot) electrons created as a result of nonadiabatic energy transfer during the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide on thin-film metal-semiconductor nanodiodes. The apparatus enables the measurement of hot electron flows and related phenomena (e.g., surface chemiluminescence) as well as the corresponding reaction rates at different temperatures. The products of the chemical reaction can be characterized in the gaseous phase by means of gas chromatography. The combined measurement of hot electron flux, catalytic activity, and light emission can lead to a fundamental understanding of the elementary processes occurring during the heterogeneous catalytic reaction.

  12. Pulse-mode measurement of electron beam halo using diamond-based detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Hideki; Asano, Yoshihiro; Itoga, Toshiro; Nariyama, Nobuteru; Bizen, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Takashi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2012-02-01

    Using a diamond-based detector, the electron beam halo in a high-energy accelerator can be measured with a lower detection limit than that using other instruments, such as a core monitor, a dose meter, or an optical fiber. We have successfully measured an electron beam halo using diamond-based detectors operating in the ionization mode, which were installed in the beam duct to measure the intensity of the beam halo directly. Pulse-by-pulse measurements were adopted to suppress the background noise efficiently. Feasibility tests on the diamond-based detector and beam halo monitor were performed in the beam dump area of the 8 GeV SPring-8 synchrotron booster and at the 250 MeV SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator for the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA), respectively. We achieved a lower detection limit of 2×103electrons/pulse for single-shot measurement, which corresponds to a ratio of about 10-6 relative to the typical charge of the beam core of 0.3 pC. We also confirmed the feasibility of the electron beam halo monitor for use as an interlock sensor to protect undulator permanent magnets used in SACLA from radiation damage.

  13. Pulse-mode measurement of electron beam halo using diamond-based detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Aoyagi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a diamond-based detector, the electron beam halo in a high-energy accelerator can be measured with a lower detection limit than that using other instruments, such as a core monitor, a dose meter, or an optical fiber. We have successfully measured an electron beam halo using diamond-based detectors operating in the ionization mode, which were installed in the beam duct to measure the intensity of the beam halo directly. Pulse-by-pulse measurements were adopted to suppress the background noise efficiently. Feasibility tests on the diamond-based detector and beam halo monitor were performed in the beam dump area of the 8 GeV SPring-8 synchrotron booster and at the 250 MeV SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator for the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA, respectively. We achieved a lower detection limit of 2×10^{3}  electrons/pulse for single-shot measurement, which corresponds to a ratio of about 10^{-6} relative to the typical charge of the beam core of 0.3 pC. We also confirmed the feasibility of the electron beam halo monitor for use as an interlock sensor to protect undulator permanent magnets used in SACLA from radiation damage.

  14. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Avda. de la Universitat, s/n, 46100-Burjassot (Spain); Cardoso, S. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); Ferreira, R. [INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal); Freitas, P. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal)

    2015-06-15

    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  15. Fully automated, gas sensing, and electronic parameter measurement setup for miniaturized nanoparticle gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. K.; Kruis, F. E.; Fissan, H.; Mehta, B. R.

    2003-11-01

    In this study, a measurement setup has been designed and fabricated for the measurement of gas sensor characteristics and electronic parameters of nanostructured thin layers in the temperature range from room temperature to 450 °C in controlled gas environments. The setup consists of: (i) a gas environment chamber, (ii) a specially designed substrate and substrate holder, and (iii) control, supply, and measurement electronics. The buried geometry of the contacts is specially designed for the deposition of nanoparticles from the gas phase to guarantee uniform thin layers, and the setup can be used to make measurement on high resistivity (1010 Ω cm) nanoparticle samples. The gas inlet, operating temperature, and electronic control of the measurement system are automated by means of a personal computer. Coupling the measurements of interdependent gas sensing and electronic parameters at identical conditions, in a single setup encompassing a wide range of sensing gas levels and substrate temperatures, makes this system ideally suited for carrying out multiple measurements required for optimizing sensor configuration and understanding the size-dependent properties of nanoparticle sensors.

  16. In-Situ Space Charge Measurements on Dielectrics during Electronic Irradiation by PEA

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan Truong; Griseri, V.; Berquez, L.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Material used is space environment are submitted to a large amount of charged particles. This work is focused on the effect of electrons on PolytetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) that is commonly found in satellites pieces of equipment. To study the behavior of electrons during and post-irradiation we are mainly using the Pulse Electro Acoustic (PEA) technique in an open configuration. Measurements are performed between two periods of irradiation under vacuum. The space charge...

  17. A 'multi-colour' SXR diagnostic for time and space-resolved measurements of electron temperature, MHD activity and particle transport in MCF plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L F [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Stutman, D [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tritz, K [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Finkenthal, M [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Gates, D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Kaita, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); LeBlanc, B [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Maingi, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory/UT-Battelle, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Yuh, H [Nova Photonics, Inc., One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Levinton, F [Nova Photonics, Inc., One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Heidbrink, W [University of California-Irvine, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2007-08-01

    A fast ({<=}0.1 ms) and compact 'multi-colour' soft x-ray array has been developed for time and space-resolved electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements in magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasmas. The electron temperature is obtained by modelling the slope of the continuum radiation from ratios of the available 1D-Abel inverted radial emissivity profiles over different energy ranges, with no a priori assumptions of plasma profiles, magnetic field reconstruction constraints or need of shot-to-shot reproducibility. This technique has been used to perform fast T{sub e} measurements in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), avoiding the limitations imposed by the well-known multi-point Thompson scattering, electron cyclotron emission and electron Bernstein wave mode conversion diagnostics. The applicability of this 'multi-colour' technique for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode recognition and a variety of perturbative electron and impurity transport studies in MCF plasmas is also discussed. Reconstructed 'multi-colour' emissivity profiles for a variety of NSTX scenarios are presented here for the first time.

  18. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Rim; Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon; Jung, Won Gyun; Lim, Hansang; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2017-06-01

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a 90Sr beta source, a 60Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  19. Alfvénic oscillations of the electron distribution function: Linear theory and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J. W. R., E-mail: james-schroeder@uiowa.edu; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Wave propagation can be an accurate method for determining material properties. High frequency whistler mode waves (0.7 < ω/|Ω{sub ce}| < 1) in an overdense plasma (ω{sub pe} > |Ω{sub ce}|) are damped primarily by Doppler-shifted electron cyclotron resonance. A kinetic description of whistler mode propagation parallel to the background magnetic field shows that damping is proportional to the parallel electron distribution function. This property enables an experimental determination of the parallel electron distribution function using a measurement of whistler mode wave absorption. The whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic uses this technique on UCLA’s Large Plasma Device (LaPD) to measure the distribution of high energy electrons (5 − 10v{sub te}) with 0.1% precision. The accuracy is limited by systematic effects that need to be considered carefully. Ongoing research uses this diagnostic to investigate the effect of inertial Alfvén waves on the electron distribution function. Results presented here verify experimentally the linear effects of inertial Alfvén waves on the reduced electron distribution function, a necessary step before nonlinear physics can be tested. Ongoing experiments with the whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic are making progress toward the first direct detection of electrons nonlinearly accelerated by inertial Alfvén waves, a process believed to play an important role in auroral generation.

  20. Measurement of fast electrons spectra generated by interaction between solid target and peta watt laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, T; Habara, H; Tanaka, K A; Kodama, R [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakatsutsumi, M [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Laser Intenses (LULI), CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau, Cedex F 91128 (France); Lancaster, K L; Green, J S; Scott, R H H; Sherlock, M; Norreys, P A [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Evans, R G; Haines, M G [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Kar, S; Zepf, M [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); King, J; Ma, T; Wei, M S; Yabuuchi, T; Beg, F N [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC San Diego, 9500 Gillman Drive 0411, La Jolla, California 92093-0411, United States of America (United States); Key, M H, E-mail: tanimoto@ile.osaka-u.ac.j [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, California 94550, United States of America (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Fast electron energy spectra have been measured for a range of intensities between 10{sup 18} Wcm{sup -2} and 10{sup 21} Wcm{sup -2} and for different target materials using electron spectrometers. Several experimental campaigns were conducted on peta watt laser facilities at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and Osaka University. In these experimental campaigns, the pulse duration was varied from 0.5 ps to 5 ps. The laser incident angle was also changed from normal incidence to 40{sup 0} in p-polarized. The results show a reduction from the ponderomotive scaling on fast electrons over 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup -2}.