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Sample records for conversion disorder

  1. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  2. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  3. Conversion Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Robert S; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Barry, John J

    2006-01-01

    ... to proceed after establishing a diagnosis of conversion disorder. Case Presentation "Ms. A," a 53-year-old left-handed woman, was admitted to our epilepsy monitoring unit for evaluation of a 4-month history of tremors, head bobbing, and episodic loss of awareness. The onset of these symptoms was 1 week after she had visited an emergency department...

  4. Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Rofé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder remains a mystery that has only become more complicated with the decline of the scientific status of psychoanalysis (e.g., Piper, Lillevik, & Kritzer, 2008; Rofé, 2008 and recent neurological findings suggest that this behavior is controlled by biological mechanisms (van Beilen, Vogt, & Leenders, 2010. Moreover, existing theories have difficulty explaining the efficacy of various interventions, such as psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, drug therapy and religious therapy. This article reviews research and clinical evidence pertaining to both the development and treatment of conversion disorder and shows that this seemingly incompatible evidence can be integrated within a new theory, the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis (RCTN; Rofé, 2010. Despite the striking differences, RCTN continues Freud's framework of thinking as it employs a new concept of repression and replaces the unconscious with self-deception. Moreover, it incorporates Freud's idea, implicitly expressed in his theory, that neurotic disorders are, in fact, rational behaviors.

  5. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Paralympics and conversion disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, Anthony S

    ...' for whose disorders are the most stigmatised. Psychiatry has a strong claim on this with mental illness generally regarded as among the most feared and least understood. 1 And within psychiatry there is a similar hierarchy such that patients with 'hysteria' or conversion disorder (CD) are those found to be least satisfying to treat and are least like...

  7. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  8. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  9. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  10. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  11. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Messina; Anna Maria Fogliani

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  12. Conversion Disorder in Stroke: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yeh Chou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is caused by previous severe stress, emotional conflict, or an associated psychiatric disorder, and usually presents with one or more neurologic symptoms. Clinically, it is challenging to diagnose diseases such as transient ischemia attack, stroke, brain tumor, spinal cord injury, and neuropathy. In this case report, we present a male stroke patient who had a typical conversion disorder.

  13. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  14. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  15. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  16. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  17. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  18. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  19. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  20. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,

  1. Conversion Disorder Comorbidity and Childhood Trauma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatma Akyüz; Peykan G Gökalp; Sezgin Erdıman; Serap Oflaz; Çağatay Karşidağ

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the presence of comorbidity, and the link with childhood traumatic experiences in patients with conversion disorder (CD...

  2. [Chronic conversion somatic disorder: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Francesco; Minichino, Amedeo; Campi, Sandra; Marino, Marzia; Pannese, Rossella; De Michele, Francesco; Capra, Enrico; Trabucchi, Guido; Bersani, Francesco Saverio

    2013-02-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by several neurological and internistical symptoms that cannot be explained by an organic cause, exacerbating after stress events. The course of this disorder is typically short: it usually lasts about two weeks, and only 20-25% of patients relapse in the following year. This paper aims to show the clinical history of a patient complaining conversion symptoms from 7 consecutive years.

  3. Case Study: Camptocormia, a Rare Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, Velayudhan; Thomas, Biju; Sreekumar, Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Camptocormia is a condition characterized by severe frontal flexion of the spinal cord and knees, with passive drooping of both arms. It occurs as a form of conversion disorder. Some cases are associated with behavioral problems. A case of camptocormia of 2-year duration in a south Indian adolescent girl with oppositional defiant disorder and…

  4. Neuroimaging in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medically unexplained symptoms are not uncommon in the clinical setting. Conversion disorder is a psychological disorder in which there is no neurological explanation for patients’ physical symptoms. These physical symptoms can be both positive or negative, e.g. tremor or paresis. This

  5. Meige's Syndrome: Rare Neurological Disorder Presenting as Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debadatta, Mohapatra; Mishra, Ajay K

    2013-07-01

    Meige's syndrome is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm. Its pathophysiology is not clearly determined. A 35-year-old female presented to psychiatric department with blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia with clinical provisional diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (Conversion Disorder). After thorough physical examination including detailed neurological exam and psychiatric evaluation no formal medical or psychiatric diagnosis could be made. The other differential diagnoses of extra pyramidal symptom, tardive dyskinesia, conversion disorder, anxiety disorder were ruled out by formal diagnostic criteria. Consequently with suspicion of Meige's syndrome she was referred to the department of Neurology and the diagnosis was confirmed. Hence, Meige's syndrome could be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder such as conversion disorder or anxiety disorder because clinical features of Meige's syndrome are highly variable and affected by psychological factors and also can be inhibited voluntarily to some extent.

  6. Alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulpek, Demet; Kelemence Kaplan, Figen; Kesebir, Sermin; Bora, Ozlem

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, it has been observed that alexithymia is not specified for the psychosomatic disorders. It is known that alexithymia is observed frequently in various psychiatric disorders especially in the somatoform disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate alexithymia in the patients with the conversion disorder. The study was performed in the Psychiatry Outpatients Clinics of the Izmir Atatürk Training and Research Hospital and Erenköy Psychiatry Education and Research Hospital. A total of 93 cases-47 outpatients who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria and 46 age, gender and educational level matched healthy controls-were included in the study. All the cases were assessed by a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were evaluated with a questionnaire (which included demographics and clinical data), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. When the two groups were compared, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale scores (except "externally oriented thinking" subscale) and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale score of the conversion disorder group were statistically significantly higher than the control group. The number of the alexithymic cases of the patient group was significantly higher than the control group's. The level of alexithymia in conversion disorder patients, without any other psychiatric disorder, is higher than that of the healthy controls. During the evaluation of the psychological state of patients with conversion disorder, it could be useful to keep in mind the probability of them having alexithymia to determine the type of suitable therapy.

  7. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Emotional Stimuli and Motor Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…

  9. Psychiatric symptoms and dissociation in conversion, somatization and dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito-Santo, Helena; Pio-Abreu, Jose Luis

    2009-03-01

    Conversion, dissociation and somatization are historically related in the long established concept of hysteria. Somewhere along the way they were separated due to the Cartesian dualistic view. The aim of the present study was to compare these pathologies and investigate whether symptoms of these pathologies overlap in their clinical appearance in a Portuguese sample. Twenty-six patients with conversion disorder, 38 with dissociative disorders, 40 with somatization disorder, and a comparison group of 46 patients having other psychiatric disorders answered questions about dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale), somatoform dissociation (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire), and psychopathological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory). Dissociative and somatoform symptoms were significantly more frequent in dissociative and conversion disorder than in somatization disorder and controls. There were no significant differences between dissociative and conversion patients. Conversion disorder is closely related to dissociative disorders. These results support the ICD-10 categorization of conversion disorder among dissociative disorders and the hypothesis of analogous psychopathological processes in conversion and dissociative disorders versus somatization disorder.

  10. [Conversion Disorder in Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Paula Andrea; Vásquez, Rafael; Cote, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Conversion disorder is diagnosed late, by exclusion and with a high risk of complications. There is a wide experience in adults that is not extrapolated to paediatric patients. According to the literature, the prognosis is better in children, but this changes when other variables such are included, such as comorbidities, late diagnosis and a very convincing social image of the neurological disease. To review the medical literature on the clinical features, diagnosis, comorbidities and treatment of this disorder. A literature research was performed on Medline and Pubmed, the terms used were "conversion disorder", pseudoseizures, treatment, clinic, children ("conversion disorder" OR hysteria OR hysterical) (child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR paediatric). The most relevant material found is included in this review. Conversion disorder is often an imprecise diagnosis in high complexity paediatric services. No consensus was found in the literature search on how to treat patients after the initial diagnosis. The evidence that it becomes chronic is not strong enough, just as the evidence is not convincing enough to argue that comorbidity factors are those maintained over time. Clearly, there is no medical experience of the natural history of this disorder in children and adolescents. It is only known is that it is a complex condition, on which there is experience only in the diagnosis and treatment of the acute state, but not so in the long-term care. It is proposed that each patient is studied in detail in order to define the psychiatric diagnosis and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  12. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  13. Conversion Disorder Comorbidity and Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Fatma; Gökalp, Peykan G; Erdiman, Sezgin; Oflaz, Serap; Karşidağ, Çağatay

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the presence of comorbidity, and the link with childhood traumatic experiences in patients with conversion disorder (CD) in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. A total of 60 literate, female patients between 18 and 65 years of age who were referred to the general psychiatry outpatient clinic and who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were included in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Dissociative Events Scale (DES) were used to assess the cases. The mean age of the participants was 36.27±11.18 years. 72% of the patients were married and 63% were primary school graduates. The most common symptoms were asthenia (100%), aphasia (96.7%), and crying-convulsions (93%). The most common co-morbidities were depression (50%) and dissociative disorders (48.3%). Among the patients, 53.3% reported a history of exposure to physical violence and 25% reported a history of sexual assault in childhood. Assessment of the Childhood Traumatic Questionnaire revealed a significant positive relation between emotional, physical, and sexual abuse scores and DES score. CD has not yet been fully analyzed in detail in health institutions; co-existence of another mental disorder and the presence of traumatic experiences in the past further complicate the issue. Consideration of these factors during treatment will have a positive impact on the course and prognosis of the disorder.

  14. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders (Conversion Disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Cavanna, Andrea E; Coburn, Kerry; Sampson, Shirlene; Reeve, Alya; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-01-01

    Much is known regarding the physical characteristics, comorbid symptoms, psychological makeup, and neuropsychological performance of patients with functional neurological disorders (FNDs)/conversion disorders. Gross neurostructural deficits do not account for the patients' deficits or symptoms. This review describes the literature focusing on potential neurobiological (i.e. functional neuroanatomic/neurophysiological) findings among individuals with FND, examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with the various forms of motor and sensory FND. In summary, neural networks and neurophysiologic mechanisms may mediate "functional" symptoms, reflecting neurobiological and intrapsychic processes.

  15. An atypical presentation of visual conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutch, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    Nonorganic vision loss accounts for up to 5% of patients and presents in two forms, malingering and visual conversion disorder (VCD). It is described a case of VCD in a new mother struggling both with her husband being deployed overseas and the recent death of her father. In addition, she had been evaluated for a concussion secondary to a motor vehicle accident three months prior. An inexpensive series of clinical tests were performed to rule out organic disease and obtained equivocal results. Some tests revealed intact vision in the affected eye while others supported a neurological cause for the vision loss. However, the patient quickly recovered normal visual acuity when encouraged to discuss situations that have been causing emotional stress. This almost immediate recovery of vision confirmed the diagnosis of VCD. This report should make primary eye care professionals more aware of visual conversion disorder and its clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood Trauma and Alexithymia in Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Anum; Yousaf, Aasma

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between childhood trauma (physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) and alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder, and to identify it as a predictor of alexithymia in conversion disorder. An analytical study. Multiple public sector hospitals in Lahore, from September 2012 to July 2013. Eighty women with conversion disorder were recruited on the basis of DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria checklist to screen conversion disorder. Childhood abuse interview to measure childhood trauma and Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, DSM-IV TR Dianostic Criteria Checklist, and Childhood Abuse Interview to assess alexithymia were used, respectively. The mean age of the sample was 18 ±2.2 years. Thirty-six cases had a history of childhood trauma, physical abuse was the most reported trauma (f = 19, 23.8%) in their childhood. Patients with conversion disorder has a significant association with alexithymia (p conversion disorder. Strategies should be devised to reduce this disorder among women in Pakistani society.

  17. TEMPERAMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT AND CONVERSION DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY In a comparative study of temperament profiles of groups of 30 children each diagnosed as conduct disorders, conversion disorder, emotional disorders (according to DSM-III) and normal control, it was found that the children diagnosed as conduct disorders showed high activity and intensity of emotional response as well as negative mood, those diagnosed as conversion disorder exhibited low distractibility. The significance of various temperament variables in differing clinical outcomes ...

  18. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyekli, Utkan; Calıyurt, Okan; Tiyekli, Nimet Dilek

    2013-06-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine levels and conversion disorder both commonly known as stress regulated. Baseline proinflammatory cytokine levels-[Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6)]-were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 35 conversion disorder patients and 30 healthy controls. Possible changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated again, after their acute phase in conversion disorder patients. Statistically significant decreased serum TNF-α levels were obtained in acute phase of conversion disorder. Those levels increased after acute conversion phase. There were no statistically significant difference observed between groups in serum IL-1β and (IL-6) levels. Stress associated with conversion disorder may suppress immune function in acute conversion phase and may have diagnostic and therapeutic value.

  19. Conversion Disorder in an Appalachian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is believed to be the manifestation of physical and/or neurological symptoms for primary gain without an identifiable organic cause. Although it is believed to be more common in rural areas, the literature examining this claim is sparse. To our knowledge, no study has been published evaluating the prevalence of CD in a rural Appalachian population. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the prevalence of CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria in a rural Appalachian psychiatric consultation service and to compare this population with control patients from the same service. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed as having CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria on a psychiatric consultation service at a rural Appalachian academic medical center during a 13-month time period. For each case, two consecutive control patients were selected from the same service and time span. There were 21 cases and 42 controls in this study, with a CD prevalence rate of 6.0% (N = 21/351). Sociodemographic, comorbidity, and recent symptomatology data were obtained. Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse, seizure disorder, antiepileptic use, neurologic referral, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and history of CD. We found it interesting that fewer cases reported alcohol and drug use. The observed prevalence of 6.0% does not support the historical theory that CD is more prevalent in rural or lower socioeconomic populations. Our data add to the characterization of the Appalachian CD population.

  20. Hysteria to conversion disorders: Babinski's contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the importance of hysteria on Babinski's oeuvre, and the conceptions of pithiatism from Babinski until the one of conversion disorder. Babinski gave a mental basis for hysteria in the place of Charcot's encephalopatic one, and several important semiotic tools to differentiate organic from hysterical manifestations based on studies from 1893-1917/8. His teachings were spread worldwide, and in Brazil they were also appreciated in the work on hysteria by Antonio Austregesilo, the first Brazilian neurology chairman. The neurobiological basis of hysteria conceived by Charcot is nowadays reappraised, and Babinski's neurosemiological contribution is everlasting. The patients believed to be hysterical, and the two outstanding neurologists, Charcot and Babinski, gave support for the development of the modern neurology.

  1. Psychometric properties of Conversion Disorder Scale- Revised (CDS) for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen

    2017-05-01

    To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.

  2. Culture and conversion disorder: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria and related features of conversion disorder are under revision for DSM-5, including the requirement that psychological factors accompany the symptoms or deficits in question (Criterion B) and whether conversion disorder should be re-labeled as a dissociative, rather than a somatoform, condition. We examined the cross-cultural evidence on the prevalence, characteristics, and associated features of pseudoneurological symptoms more generally, and conversion disorder in particular, in order to inform the ongoing re-evaluation of the conversion disorder category. We also examined the relationship between these constructs and dissociative symptoms and disorders across cultural groups. Searches were conducted of the mental health literature, particularly since 1994, regarding culture, race, or ethnicity factors related to conversion disorder. Many proposed DSM-5 revisions were supported, such as the elimination of Criterion B. We also found cross-cultural variability in predominant symptoms, disorder prevalence, and relationship with cultural syndromes. Additional information that may contribute to DSM-5 includes the elevated rates across cultures of traumatic exposure and psychiatric comorbidity in conversion disorder. Cross-culturally, conversion disorder is associated strongly with both dissociative and somatoform presentations, revealing no clear basis on which to locate the disorder in DSM-5. Careful consideration should be given to the possible alternatives.

  3. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies...... that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. RESULTS: A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry......, the prevalence of psychotic depression, the prevalence of chronic depression, and severity of depression. It was not possible to identify risk factors that were consistently or mainly confirmed to predict conversion across studies. CONCLUSIONS: The conversion rate from unipolar to bipolar disorder decreases...

  4. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER FOLLOWING CONVERSION AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER NOS : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jhingan, Harsh Prem; Aggarwal, Neeruj; Saxena, Shekhar; Gupta, Dhanesh K

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.

  5. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER FOLLOWING CONVERSION AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER NOS : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jhingan, Harsh Prem; Aggarwal, Neeruj; Saxena, Shekhar; Gupta, Dhanesh K

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Multiple personality disorder following conversion and dissociative disorder nos : a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhingan, H P; Aggarwal, N; Saxena, S; Gupta, D K

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Life events and escape in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Craig, T; Harris, T; Wojcik, W; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Psychological models of conversion disorder (CD) traditionally assume that psychosocial stressors are identifiable around symptom onset. In the face of limited supportive evidence such models are being challenged. Forty-three motor CD patients, 28 depression patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule in the year before symptom onset. A novel 'escape' rating for events was developed to test the Freudian theory that physical symptoms of CD could provide escape from stressors, a form of 'secondary gain'. CD patients had significantly more severe life events and 'escape' events than controls. In the month before symptom onset at least one severe event was identified in 56% of CD patients - significantly more than 21% of depression patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-13.70] and healthy controls (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.86-18.2). In the same time period 53% of CD patients had at least one 'high escape' event - again significantly higher than 14% in depression patients (OR 6.90, 95% CI 2.05-23.6) and 0% in healthy controls. Previous sexual abuse was more commonly reported in CD than controls, and in one third of female patients was contextually relevant to life events at symptom onset. The majority (88%) of life events of potential aetiological relevance were not identified by routine clinical assessments. Nine per cent of CD patients had no identifiable severe life events. Evidence was found supporting the psychological model of CD, the Freudian notion of escape and the potential aetiological relevance of childhood traumas in some patients. Uncovering stressors of potential aetiological relevance requires thorough psychosocial evaluation.

  8. Conversion disorder and mass psychogenic illness in child neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Jonathan W

    2013-11-01

    A common problem faced by neurologists is the existence of disorders that present with neurological symptoms but do not have identifiable neurological bases. Conversion disorder is the most common of these disorders. In some situations, members of a cohesive social group will develop the same or similar symptoms. This review discusses conversion disorder in children, with an emphasis on function movement disorders. It also reviews a recent occurrence of mass psychogenic illness in New York State with discussion of the key features of mass psychogenic illness. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Frustration and fulfillment of needs in dissociative and conversion disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ISHIKURA, REIJI; TASHIRO, NOBUTADA

    2002-01-01

    ...) and conversion disorders (10 patients) who were admitted and treated during the past 15 years. Needs frustrated at the appearance of the symptoms and those fulfilled at discharge were studied in both groups using Maslow's hierarchy of needs...

  10. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: The role of ancillary activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Burke, MD

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Sensory conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  11. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  12. Abreaction for conversion disorder: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman A; Wuerz, Axel; Agrawal, Niruj

    2010-08-01

    The value of drug interviews in the treatment of conversion disorder is at present unknown. To review all the available papers published in English that report on the use of drug interviews for treating conversion/dissociative disorder. Databases (including EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) were searched from 1920 to 2009. Selected publications had to report on the use of drug interviews in people diagnosed with a conversion/dissociative disorder. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted. Predictors of a positive response were ascertained using meta-analytic techniques. Fifty-five papers meeting inclusion criteria were identified. No studies compared the intervention with a suitable control group. However, two studies reported high response rates when drug interview was used in individuals with treatment-resistant conversion disorder. In the meta-analysis, the use of suggestion and occurrence of emotional catharsis during the interview were positively associated with recovery. Combining two medications and comorbid psychiatric disorder were negatively associated with recovery. The evidence for effectiveness of drug interviews is of poor quality but it may be of benefit in the treatment of acute and treatment-resistant conversion disorder. A proactive approach during the interview, making suggestions the individual will respond, could influence outcome. Comorbid psychiatric disorder should be treated conventionally. Experimental studies to determine efficacy are required.

  13. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  14. Operant procedures applied to a conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P.F.M.; Heijden, H.P. van der; Hoogduin, K.A.L.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Conversion symptoms, as identified by the existing classification systems, do not form a single unitary class. It is therefore difficult to find an adequate treatment that closely connects to the basic characteristics of the disease. Instead, we designed a treatment method that closely relates to

  15. Conversion disorder: current problems and potential solutions for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jon; LaFrance, W Curt; Brown, Richard; Spiegel, David; Levenson, James L; Sharpe, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Conversion disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) describes neurological symptoms, including weakness, numbness and events resembling epilepsy or syncope, which can be positively identified as not being due to recognised neurological disease. This review combines perspectives from psychiatry, psychology and neurology to identify and discuss key problems with the current diagnostic DSM-IV criteria for conversion disorder and to make the following proposals for DSM-5: (a) abandoning the label "conversion disorder" and replacing it with an alternative term that is both theoretically neutral and potentially more acceptable to patients and practitioners; (b) relegating the requirements for "association of psychological factors" and the "exclusion of feigning" to the accompanying text; (c) adding a criterion requiring clinical findings of internal inconsistency or incongruity with recognised neurological or medical disease and altering the current 'disease exclusion' criteria to one in which the symptom must not be 'better explained' by a disease if present, (d) adding a 'cognitive symptoms' subtype. We also discuss whether conversion symptoms are better classified with other somatic symptom disorders or with dissociative disorders and how we might address the potential heterogeneity of conversion symptoms in classification. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pituitary volumes are changed in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Baykara, Sema; Mermi, Osman; Yildirim, Hanefi; Akaslan, Unsal

    2016-03-01

    Our study group previously measured pituitary volumes and found a relationship between somatoform disoders and pituitary volumes. Therefore, in conversion disorder, another somatoform disorder, we hypothesized that pituitary gland volumes would be reduced. Twenty female patients and healthy controls were recruited to the present investigation. The volumes of the pituitary gland were determined by using a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. We found that the pituitary gland volumes of the patients with conversion disorder were significantly smaller than those of healthy control subjects. In the patients with conversion disorder but not in the healthy control group, a significant negative correlation between the duration of illness and pituitary gland volume was determined. In summary, in the present study, we suggest that the patients with conversion disorder have smaller pituitary volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects. Further studies should confirm our data and ascertain whether volumetric alterations determined in the patients with conversion disorder can be changed with treatment or if they change over time.

  17. Motor and somatosensory conversion disorder: a functional unawareness syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L; Barsky, Arthur J; Daffner, Kirk; Silbersweig, David A

    2012-01-01

    Although conversion disorder is closely connected to the origins of neurology and psychiatry, it remains poorly understood. In this article, the authors discuss neural and clinical parallels between lesional unawareness disorders and unilateral motor and somatosensory conversion disorder, emphasizing functional neuroimaging/disease correlates. Authors suggest that a functional-unawareness neurobiological framework, mediated by right hemisphere-lateralized, large-scale brain network dysfunction, may play a significant role in the neurobiology of conversion disorder. The perigenual anterior cingulate and the posterior parietal cortices are detailed as important in disease pathophysiology. Further investigations will refine the functional-unawareness concept, clarify the role of affective circuits, and delineate the process through which functional neurologic symptoms emerge.

  18. Caesarean delivery complicated by unintentional subdural block and conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Khanna, Ashish K; Barsoum, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Combined spinal epidural (CSE) can provide excellent labor analgesia. Subdural block is also a potential but rare complication of attempted epidural placement during a CSE procedure, which may present as a block that is usually patchy in nature, with a component of sensory and/or motor deficit and a variable duration of action. In addition, a conversion disorder or a functional neurological disorder has been described with epidural and spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients. In this clinical report, we describe a 33-year-old G4P3 at 40 weeks gestation that received an unintentional subdural block as part of her labor analgesia and after an uneventful caesarean delivery presented with a conversion disorder. The rarity of the association between a subdural block and a conversion disorder complicated by the fact that the neurological deficit produced by the subdural block and that produced by a conversion disorder are similar in distribution made the clinical presentation and diagnosis a challenge for the obstetric anesthesia team. A functional neurological disorder of this nature complicating a subdural block in an obstetric anesthesia clinical practice has not been described so far.

  19. Postoperative Conversion Disorder in Elderly Oral Cancer Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Takashi; Hayashi, Kamichika; Morikawa, Takamichi; Migita, Masashi; Ogane, Satoru; Muramatsu, Kyotaro; Kamio, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Takano, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a condition in which psychological stress in response to difficult situations manifests as physical symptoms. Here, we report a case of postoperative coma due to conversion disorder in an elderly oral cancer patient. An 82-year-old woman was referred to Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital with a mass lesion on the tongue. A biopsy revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical treatment was performed for the tongue carcinoma and tracheotomy for management of the airway. On postoperative day 5, the patient exhibited loss of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale: E1, VT, M1; Japan Coma Scale: III-300). The patient's vital signs were all normal, as were the results of a full blood count, brain-CT, MRI, and MRA. Only the arm dropping test was positive. Therefore, the cause of the coma was diagnosed as conversion disorder. Seven hours later, the patient showed a complete recovery.

  20. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: the role of ancillary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Matthew J; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  1. Frustration and fulfillment of needs in dissociative and conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Reiji; Tashiro, Nobutada

    2002-08-01

    We reviewed all patients with dissociative disorders (nine patients with dissociative amnesia or dissociative fugue) and conversion disorders (10 patients) who were admitted and treated during the past 15 years. Needs frustrated at the appearance of the symptoms and those fulfilled at discharge were studied in both groups using Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The patients of both groups who encountered troubles in their life events were found to have frustrated needs. These symptoms tended to be accompanied more often by frustrations regarding a 'need for love' in the dissociative disorders group and by frustration in the need for 'self-esteem and self-actualization' in the conversion disorders group. In addition, needs of lower orders were already threatened at onset in many patients. The symptoms disappeared in patients in whom the situation completely improved (needs were fulfilled), but the symptoms were alleviated or unchanged in those in whom the problems remained unresolved.

  2. Conversive disorders among children and adolescents: towards new "complementarist" paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouss, L; Tordjman, E

    2014-10-01

    This paper aims to describe current questions concerning conversive disorders among children and adolescents. We first describe prevalence and clinical characteristics of these. Many unresolved questions remain. Why do patients show excess, or loss of function? Attachment theory offers a relevant framework to answer this question. Does neurobiology of conversion disorders shed light on conversive processes? Current neurobiological research paradigms focus on the symptom, trying to infer processes, instead of proposing paradigms that test theoretical hypotheses. The most convincing theoretical framework that has already proposed a coherent theory of conversion is a psychodynamic one, which has not yet been tested with neurobiological paradigms. The interest of studying child and adolescent conversive disorders is to provide a means to more deeply investigate the two challenges we face: theoretical, and clinical ones. It provides the opportunity to access a pathopsychological process at its roots, not yet hidden by many defensive, rationalizing attitudes, and to better explore environmental features. We propose a "complementarist" model, which allows the combination of different approaches (neural, cognitive, environmental, attachment, intra-psychic) and permits proposal of different levels of therapeutic targets and means.

  3. Embedded Narratives: Metabolic Disorders and Pentecostal Conversion in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Jessica

    2017-03-10

    Drawing from interviews and participant observation, this article explores the intersection of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and religious conversion among Pentecostal Christians in Samoa by analyzing what I call embedded narratives--conversion narratives embedded in illness narratives. Drawing from ethnographic data, I examine how using conversion narrative conventions enabled those living with metabolic disorders to narrate behavior change in a culturally and socially valorized way. By embedding their narratives, I suggest those living with metabolic disorders shifted the object of care from a disease process toward the creation of a religious life and in turn transformed the risks associated with metabolic disorders, including diet, exercise, and pharmaceutical use into moral risks associated with everyday religious life. In these cases, Pentecostal conversion created possible scripts for changing health practices, managing stress, and shifting resource use in the name of religious commitment, providing insights into how self-care can be an expression of religious practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Conversion Disorder; an Unusual Etiology of Unilateral Foot Drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Saeed Bin; Matee, Sumeera; Malik, Riffat; Ahmad, Khalil

    2015-06-01

    Foot drop is generally a consequence of common peroneal or sciatic nerve injury or L5 radiculopathy but rarely, it can be a manifestation of conversion disorder. A 24-year-old male presented with a foot drop on left side that developed overnight. He had difficulty walking with a trunk tilt towards right side and numbness in left leg up to mid-thigh. The initial diagnosis by the general practitioner was common peroneal nerve injury, which was not supported by the subsequent detailed examination in the physiatry department. Routine laboratory investigations, computed tomographic scan of brain and electrophysiological evaluation were normal. In a multidisciplinary team evaluation involving a psychiatrist, he was diagnosed to be suffering from conversion disorder and was advised gait retraining, cognitive and behavioral therapy and tablet venlafaxine. By sixth day of treatment, the patient was able to walk independently with a normal gait pattern and reported complete recovery of his symptoms. In the absence of an identifiable organic cause of foot drop in a patient, conversion disorder may be considered necessitating early intervention by a psychiatrist.

  5. Conversion disorder: A systematic review of current terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Juen Mei; Kanaan, Richard Antony Alexander

    It has been argued that the label given to unexplained neurological symptoms is an important contributor to their often poor acceptance, and there has been recent debate on proposals to change the name from conversion disorder. There have been multiple studies of layperson and clinician preference and this article aimed to review these. Multiple databases were searched using terms including "conversion disorder" and "terminology", and relative preferences for the terms extracted. Seven articles were found which looked at clinician or layperson preferences for terminology for unexplained neurological symptoms. Most neurologists favoured terms such as "functional" and "psychogenic", while laypeople were comfortable with "functional" but viewed "psychogenic" as more offensive; "non-epileptic/organic" was relatively popular with both groups. "Functional" is a term that is relatively popular with both clinicians and the public. It also meets more of the other criteria proposed for an acceptable label than other popular terms - however the views of neither psychiatrists nor actual patients with the disorder were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ['Histrionic personality disorder with regression and conversion': a meningioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Elberink, A M L; Oudijn, M S; Kwa, V I H; Van, H L

    2011-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman, who was believed to be suffering from histrionic personality disorder with regression and conversion, was finally diagnosed with a frontal meningioma. Patients with meningiomas can present with a variety of psychiatric symptoms, sometimes even before neurological symptoms occur. The diagnosis is often delayed because the symptoms are misleading and it is difficult to modify a psychiatric diagnosis once this has been made. Discussion focuses on the characteristic signs of a meningioma, the reasons for delays in diagnosis and the indications for brain-imaging on psychiatric patients.

  7. Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Markus; Liegl, Gregor; Jank, Robert; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-06-10

    Conversion Disorders (CD) are prevalent functional disorders. Although the pathogenesis is still not completely understood, an interaction of genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors is quite likely. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic overview on imaging studies on CDs and investigate neuronal areas involved in Motor Conversion Disorders (MCD). A systematic literature search was conducted on CD. Subsequently a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies on MCD was implemented using an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE). We calculated differences between patients and healthy controls as well as between affected versus unaffected sides in addition to an overall analysis in order to identify neuronal areas related to MCD. Patients with MCD differ from healthy controls in the amygdala, superior temporal lobe, retrosplenial area, primary motor cortex, insula, red nucleus, thalamus, anterior as well as dorsolateral prefrontal and frontal cortex. When comparing affected versus unaffected sides, temporal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, supramarginal gyrus, dorsal temporal lobe, anterior insula, primary somatosensory cortex, superior frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal as well as frontal cortex show significant differences. Neuronal areas seem to be involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance or as a result of MCD. Areas that are important for motor-planning, motor-selection or autonomic response seem to be especially relevant. Our results support the emotional unawareness theory but also underline the need of more support by conduction imaging studies on both CD and MCD.

  8. Monetary conversion factors for economic evaluations of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn; Yang, Xuan; Sayed, Bisma; French, Michael T; Leff, Jared A; Schackman, Bruce R

    2017-10-01

    Estimating the economic consequences of substance use disorders (SUDs) is important for evaluating existing programs and new interventions. Policy makers in particular must weigh program effectiveness with scalability and sustainability considerations in deciding which programs to fund with limited resources. This study provides a comprehensive list of monetary conversion factors for a broad range of consequences, services, and outcomes, which can be used in economic evaluations of SUD interventions (primarily in the United States), including common co-occurring conditions such as HCV and HIV. Economic measures were selected from standardized clinical assessment instruments that are used in randomized clinical trials and other research studies (e.g., quasi-experimental community-based projects) to evaluate the impact of SUD interventions. National datasets were also reviewed for additional SUD-related consequences, services, and outcomes. Monetary conversion factors were identified through a comprehensive literature review of published articles as well as targeted searches of other sources such as government reports. Eight service/consequence/outcome domains were identified containing more than sixty monetizable measures of medical and behavioral health services, laboratory services, SUD treatment, social services, productivity outcomes, disability outcomes, criminal activity and criminal justice services, and infectious diseases consequences. Unit-specific monetary conversion factors are reported, along with upper and lower bound estimates, whenever possible. Having an updated and standardized source of monetary conversion factors will facilitate and improve future economic evaluations of interventions targeting SUDs and other risky behaviors. This exercise should be repeated periodically as new sources of data become available to maintain the timeliness, comprehensiveness, and quality of these estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Behavioural treatment of a food refusal conversion disorder in a mentally retarded adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, B; Haydon, S; Sapan, J

    1990-12-01

    A 31-year-old woman with mental retardation who demonstrated total food refusal as the symptom of a conversion disorder was successfully treated with behavioural management techniques. The treatment utilized a shaping paradigm combined with relaxation procedures. The results supported the hypothesis that conversion disorder symptoms are maintained through their consequences, and the efficacy of behavioural treatments for those disorders.

  10. Etiology, pathogenesis, and therapy according to Pierre Janet concerning conversion disorders and dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Karl-Ernst; Heim, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Pierre Janet's works on conversion disorders or dissociative disorders has mainly fallen to the wayside in favour of Freud's works. In the first part of this paper, Janet's conception of hysteria is discussed and his place in French psychiatry described. Different aspects of Janet's diathesis-stress approach are presented (particularly the pathogenic concept of fixed ideas), which refer not only to a conception of hysteria but also to traumatic (stress) disorders and other psychological disturbances. The second part of the paper details the varieties of Janetian therapeutic treatments of these disorders: the "liquidation" of fixed ideas by hypnosis and suggestion, confrontation techniques, which resemble contemporary cognitive behavioural approaches, and special cognitive ("logagogic") interventions. Finally, we discuss the various treatment strategies based on psychoeconomic considerations such as physical or psycho-phyical therapies, psychoeducation, treatment through rest, and simplification of life for dealing with basic disturbances of psychic disorders.

  11. Hypnotizability, dissociation and trauma in patients with a conversion disorder: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, F.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Sandyck, P.; Roelofs, K.

    2001-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the assumed high hypnotizability of conversion patients and on their dissociative experiences. Moreover, a relation is described between trauma, dissociation, somatization, psychopathology and conversion disorder. One hundred and two patients with motor

  12. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression.

  13. [Dissociation (conversion) - malingering - antisocial personality disorder: differential diagnostic reflection on the basis of a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothuber, Helfried; Mitterauer, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    In this case report we refer to the big challenge of making a diagnosis in a deliberate malingering in the field of mental disorders. We specifically describe the difficulty regarding the differentiation between a conversion disorder and malingering of a serial delinquent. For such a person avoiding criminal persecution is one of the most frequent reason to deceitfully simulate a mental illness. In this field, symptoms of conversion disorders exceed the average; furthermore, a great number of organic-neurological illnesses may appear to be very similar to a conversion disorder or in many cases a neurological disorder can actually be detected in the course of a somatic examination. A further obstacle for the differential diagnosis can be seen in the difficulty to discern it from factitious disorders. However, it is quite possible to discern the deliberate malingering of a mental disorder from a conversion disorder by means of the diligent diagnosis of a competent and experienced doctor/assessor who specialises.

  14. Subtypes of dissociative (conversion) disorder in two tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M S; Mullick, S I; Sobhan, M A; Khanam, M; Nahar, J S; Salam, M A; Ali, R; Islam, M; Kabir, M S

    2010-01-01

    Dissociative (conversion) disorders are common among the patients attending in and out patients of Psychiatry Department of tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh. This study was done to see the subtypes of dissociative (conversion) disorder according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). This is a descriptive, cross sectional study done on 100 consecutive patients from the Departments of Psychiatry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH). Study period was July 2005 to June 2006. Among the patients of dissociative (conversion) disorder, mixed dissociative (conversion) disorder was found highest 34%, followed by dissociative convulsion 33%, dissociative motor disorders 19%, dissociative anaesthesia and sensory loss 5%, dissociative amnesia 4%, dissociative fugue 3%. However, the researcher did not find any multiple personality disorder which is relatively common in North America. This finding reflected that there are differences in prevalence of sub types of dissociative disorders in Bangladesh and Western countries.

  15. Aversive stimuli exacerbate defensive motor behaviour in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Sinanaj, Indrit; Galli, Silvio; Aybek, Selma; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Conversion disorder or functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) can affect the voluntary motor system, without an organic cause. Functional symptoms are thought to be generated unconsciously, arising from underlying psychological stressors. However, attempts to demonstrate a direct relationship between the limbic system and disrupted motor function in FND are lacking. We tested whether negative affect would exacerbate alterations of motor control and corresponding brain activations in individuals with FND. Ten patients and ten healthy controls produced an isometric precision-grip contraction at 10% of maximum force while either viewing visual feedback of their force output, or unpleasant or pleasant emotional images (without feedback). Force magnitude was continuously recorded together with change in brain activity using fMRI. For controls, force output decayed from the target level while viewing pleasant and unpleasant images. Patients however, maintained force at the target level without decay while viewing unpleasant images, indicating a pronounced effect of negative affect on force output in FND. This emotional modulation of force control was associated with different brain activation patterns between groups. Contrasting the unpleasant with the pleasant condition, controls showed increased activity in the inferior frontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas patients had greater activity in the cerebellum (vermis), posterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus. Engagement of a cerebellar-limbic network in patients is consistent with heightened processing of emotional salience, and supports the role of the cerebellum in freezing responses in the presence of aversive events. These data highlight a possible neural circuit through which psychological stressors elicit defensive behaviour and modulate motor function in FND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hospital revisit rate after a diagnosis of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkler, Alexander E; Parikh, Neal S; Chaudhry, Simriti; Chait, Alanna; Allen, Nicole C; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the hospital revisit rate of patients diagnosed with conversion disorder (CD). Using administrative data, we identified all patients discharged from California, Florida and New York emergency departments (EDs) and acute care hospitals between 2005 and 2011 with a primary discharge diagnosis of CD. Patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of seizure or transient global amnesia (TGA) served as control groups. Our primary outcome was the rate of repeat ED visits and hospital admissions after initial presentation. Poisson regression was used to compare rates between diagnosis groups while adjusting for demographic characteristics. We identified 7946 patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of CD. During a mean follow-up of 3.0 (±1.6) years, patients with CD had a median of three (IQR, 1-9) ED or inpatient revisits, compared with 0 (IQR, 0-2) in patients with TGA and 3 (IQR, 1-7) in those with seizures. Revisit rates were 18.25 (95% CI, 18.10 to 18.40) visits per 100 patients per month in those with CD, 3.90 (95% CI, 3.84 to 3.95) in those with TGA and 17.78 (95% CI, 17.75 to 17.81) in those with seizures. As compared to CD, the incidence rate ratio for repeat ED visits or hospitalisations was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for seizure disorder and 0.32 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.34) for TGA. CD is associated with a substantial hospital revisit rate. Our findings suggest that CD is not an acute, time-limited response to stress, but rather that CD is a manifestation of a broader pattern of chronic neuropsychiatric disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Emotion-motion interactions in conversion disorder: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aybek

    Full Text Available To evaluate the neural correlates of implicit processing of negative emotions in motor conversion disorder (CD patients.An event related fMRI task was completed by 12 motor CD patients and 14 matched healthy controls using standardised stimuli of faces with fearful and sad emotional expressions in comparison to faces with neutral expressions. Temporal changes in the sensitivity to stimuli were also modelled and tested in the two groups.We found increased amygdala activation to negative emotions in CD compared to healthy controls in region of interest analyses, which persisted over time consistent with previous findings using emotional paradigms. Furthermore during whole brain analyses we found significantly increased activation in CD patients in areas involved in the 'freeze response' to fear (periaqueductal grey matter, and areas involved in self-awareness and motor control (cingulate gyrus and supplementary motor area.In contrast to healthy controls, CD patients exhibited increased response amplitude to fearful stimuli over time, suggesting abnormal emotional regulation (failure of habituation / sensitization. Patients with CD also activated midbrain and frontal structures that could reflect an abnormal behavioral-motor response to negative including threatening stimuli. This suggests a mechanism linking emotions to motor dysfunction in CD.

  18. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  19. Emotion-motion interactions in conversion disorder: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Selma; Nicholson, Timothy R; O'Daly, Owen; Zelaya, Fernando; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the neural correlates of implicit processing of negative emotions in motor conversion disorder (CD) patients. An event related fMRI task was completed by 12 motor CD patients and 14 matched healthy controls using standardised stimuli of faces with fearful and sad emotional expressions in comparison to faces with neutral expressions. Temporal changes in the sensitivity to stimuli were also modelled and tested in the two groups. We found increased amygdala activation to negative emotions in CD compared to healthy controls in region of interest analyses, which persisted over time consistent with previous findings using emotional paradigms. Furthermore during whole brain analyses we found significantly increased activation in CD patients in areas involved in the 'freeze response' to fear (periaqueductal grey matter), and areas involved in self-awareness and motor control (cingulate gyrus and supplementary motor area). In contrast to healthy controls, CD patients exhibited increased response amplitude to fearful stimuli over time, suggesting abnormal emotional regulation (failure of habituation / sensitization). Patients with CD also activated midbrain and frontal structures that could reflect an abnormal behavioral-motor response to negative including threatening stimuli. This suggests a mechanism linking emotions to motor dysfunction in CD.

  20. The classification of conversion disorder (functional neurologic symptom disorder) in ICD and DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, J L; Sharpe, M

    2016-01-01

    The name given to functional neurologic symptoms has evolved over time in the different editions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), reflecting a gradual move away from an etiologic conception rooted in hysterical conversion to an empiric phenomenologic one, emphasizing the central role of the neurologic examination and testing in demonstrating that the symptoms are incompatible with recognized neurologic disease pathophysiology, or are internally inconsistent. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conversion disorder: from DSM IV to DSM 5 or from a psychiatric to a neurological diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vermeulen, M; Willems, M H A

    2015-01-01

    According to one of the diagnostic criteria of the dsm iv for conversion disorder there has to be a temporal relationship between psychological factors and the onset, or the worsening, of the symptoms...

  2. A study of clinical correlates and socio-demographic profile in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Kamala; Chaudhury, Pranit K.; Bora, Kavery; Kalita, Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the clinical presentations and relationship of socio-demographic variables with conversion disorder. Methods: Forty patients admitted to the department of psychiatry, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, during November 2004 to August 2005 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study were evaluated for socio-demographic variables and clinical presentations on a semi-structured pro forma. Results: Conversion disorder is more common in young adults (57.5%), females ...

  3. Sex distribution and psychiatric features of child and adolescent conversion disorder across 2 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Ying-Shue

    2009-09-01

    Earlier research suggested female predominance in adult conversion disorder, and the strong association between conversion disorder and experiences of being abused is well known. However, the data for child and adolescent populations are limited. In Taiwan, the dramatic increase in child abuse may have some impact on the features of child and adolescent conversion disorder. This study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and experiences of being abused in Taiwanese children and adolescents diagnosed with conversion disorder in psychiatric consultations across 2 decades. Retrospective and consecutive chart reviews were conducted for child and adolescent patients (conversion disorder in psychiatric consultations at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 1987 to 2006. The first group included patients who were diagnosed between 1987 and 1996 (the first decade), and the second group included patients who were diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 (the second decade). A total of 42 patients diagnosed with conversion disorder were included in this study. Nineteen of the 42 subjects were diagnosed in the first decade (from 1987 to 1996), and 23 in the second decade (from 1997 to 2006). There existed among patients a tendency toward an increasing number of male subjects (p conversion disorder might have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. There is an increasing need for screening and interventions for psychiatric comorbidity and experiences of being abused in children and adolescents with conversion disorder. Because of the small sample size of our study, further studies that include multiple study sites and a larger number of patients are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

  4. Sex Distribution and Psychiatric Features of Child and Adolescent Conversion Disorder Across 2 Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Lin Huang

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: The sex distribution in conversion disorder might have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. There is an increasing need for screening and interventions for psychiatric comorbidity and experiences of being abused in children and adolescents with conversion disorder. Because of the small sample size of our study, further studies that include multiple study sites and a larger number of patients are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

  5. Childhood trauma and dissociation in women with pseudoseizure-type conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcetin, Adnan; Belli, Hasan; Ertem, Umit; Bahcebasi, Talat; Ataoglu, Ahmet; Canan, Fatih

    2009-11-01

    Conversion disorder is thought to be associated with psychological factors because of the presence of conflict and other stressors prior to the condition. The aim of this study is to compare adult patients with pseudoseizure-type conversion disorder with healthy control group in terms of childhood trauma, dissociative disorder and family history of psychiatric disorders. 56 female patients were admitted to the general psychiatry hospital outpatient clinic between January and July 2005. All patients had a negative experience about their families just before having the conversion. Diagnosis was made according to the DSM-IV criteria. A control group consisting of similar patient demographics of the disease group has been selected. Socio-demographic information forms, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q), were completed on the patients. CTQ total (t=12.12, Pconversion group. DIS-Q mean points were statistically higher in the conversion group (t=11.05, Pconversion disorder) should be included within dissociative disorders in DSM system as in ICD. It is usually uncommon for the patient to tell about childhood trauma without being specially questioned about this issue. Thus, it would be helpful to uncover these experiences by using related scales in conversion disorder patients.

  6. Enhancing the conversation skills of a boy with Asperger's Disorder through Social Stories and video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattone, Dorothy

    2008-02-01

    This study combined Social Stories with video modeling in an effort to enhance the conversation skills of a boy with Asperger's Disorder. Treatment consisted of two components: (a) observation of video taped Social Stories that included two adults modeling targeted conversational skills and (b) 5-min social interactions. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to evaluate the intervention and an increase in 2 out of 3 targeted conversation skills occurred. In addition, generalized behavior changes were observed. These findings provide support for including Social Stories as part of a video treatment package in teaching complex social interaction behaviors to young children with Asperger's Disorder.

  7. The relationship between temperament and character in conversion disorder and comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Evrim; Yenilmez, Yelda; Fistikci, Nurhan; Saatcioglu, Omer

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare conversion disorder patients with healthy controls in terms of temperament and character, and to determine the effect of these characteristics on comorbid depression, based on the idea that conversion disorder patients may have distinctive temperament and character qualities. The study involved 58 patients diagnosed with conversion disorder, based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, under observation at the Bakırköy Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders Outpatient Center, Istanbul. The patients were interviewed with a Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) and 57 healthy volunteers, matched for age, sex and education level, were interviewed with a Structured Clinical Interview for people without a psychiatric disorder (SCID-I/NP). All the participants completed a sociodemographic form, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Temperament and Character Inventory. The conversion disorder patients displayed more harm avoidance (Pconversion disorder patients had high self-transcendence (PConversion disorder patients are significantly different from healthy controls on temperament and character measures of harm avoidance, persistence, self-transcendence and self-directedness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Evoked potentials and regional cerebral blood flow changes in conversion disorder: a case report and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Nadide; Temuçin, Cağri Mesut; Lay Ergün, Eser; Ertuğrul, Aygün; Ozer, Suzan; Demir, Başaran

    2008-01-01

    Conversion disorder is defined as the presence of functional impairment in motor, sensory or neurovegetative systems which cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Although the diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction in conversion disorder, there has been a growing interest in the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms in recent years, particularly by examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological measures. In this case report, regional cerebral blood flow changes and evoked potentials of a patient with conversion symptoms are presented. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) of this patient with conversion disorder who had signs of movement disorder revealed that the latency to N20, P 25 waves were in normal limits while the amplitudes of the P25 and N33 components were extremely high (giant SEP). Regional cerebral blood flow assessment revealed hypoperfusion in the left parietal and temporal lobes of the brain. Three months after the first assessment, the control scans showed that the left parietal hypoperfusion disappeared while the left temporal hypoperfusion was still present. The following SEP evaluations which were repeated twice in three months intervals after the initial recordings, showed the persistence of the abnormalities in somatosensorial measures. The neurophysiological and neuroimaging findings in conversion disorder were reviewed and the results of the evaluations of this case were discussed in this article.

  9. Temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and their relations with dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarisoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ö Mer Faruk; Öztürk, Arif; Yilman, Tuba; Mor, Sema; Özturan, Deniz Deniz; Yazici, Neslihan; Gümüş, Kübra

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate temperament and character traits in patients with conversion disorder and the relation of these traits with dissociative symptoms. Sixty patients (60) diagnosed with conversion disorder according to DSM-IV-TR and 60 healthy volunteers were included in the study. All participants' temperament and character traits were determined using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Patients with conversion disorder were divided into two subgroups using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), dissociative (n=30, 50%) and non-dissociative (n=30, 50%). The two conversion disorder subgroups were compared with the control group in terms of temperament and character traits. Correlation analysis was also performed between TCI and DES scores in the entire conversion group. Novelty seeking (NS) scores were lower in both the dissociative and non-dissociative groups compared to the control group. Harm avoidance (HA) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the control group. Reward dependence (RD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative and control group. Self-directedness (SD) scores were lower in the dissociative group than in the control group. Self-transcendence (ST) scores were higher in the dissociative group than in the non-dissociative group. DES scores were negatively correlated with RD and SD scores in the entire conversion group and positively correlated with ST scores. Low NS temperament traits may be associated with conversion disorder. High HA and low RD temperament traits and low SD and high ST character traits may be associated with pathological dissociation in patients with conversion disorder.

  10. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  11. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-05-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  12. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with conversion disorder and prevalence of dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayla, Sinan; Bakım, Bahadır; Tankaya, Onur; Ozer, Omer Akil; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Ertekin, Hulya; Tekin, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The 1st objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and types of dissociative symptoms in patients with conversion disorder (CD). The 2nd objective of the current study was to determine psychiatric comorbidity in patients with and without dissociative symptoms. A total of 54 consecutive consenting patients primarily diagnosed with CD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria who were admitted to the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of Sisli Etfal Research and Teaching Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) were included in the study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. Study groups consisted of 20 patients with a dissociative disorder and 34 patients without a diagnosis of any dissociative disorder. A total of 37% of patients with CD had any dissociative diagnosis. The prevalence of dissociative disorders was as follows: 18.5% dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 14.8% dissociative amnesia, and 3.7% depersonalization disorder. Significant differences were found between the study groups with respect to comorbidity of bipolar disorder, past hypomania, and current and past posttraumatic stress disorder (ps = .001, .028, .015, and .028, respectively). Overall comorbidity of bipolar disorder was 27.8%. Psychiatric comorbidity was higher and age at onset was earlier among dissociative patients compared to patients without dissociative symptoms. The increased psychiatric comorbidity and early onset of conversion disorder found in patients with dissociative symptoms suggest that these patients may have had a more severe form of conversion disorder.

  13. A diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorder predicts diagnostic conversion from unipolar depression to bipolar disorder: a 5-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Sup; Shim, In Hee; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Song, Hoo Rim; Jun, Tae-Youn; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-03-15

    The major aims of this study were to identify factors that may predict the diagnostic conversion from major depressive disorder (MDD) to bipolar disorder (BP) and to evaluate the predictive performance of the bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSD) diagnostic criteria. The medical records of 250 patients with a diagnosis of MDD for at least 5 years were retrospectively reviewed for this study. The diagnostic conversion from MDD to BP was observed in 18.4% of 250 MDD patients, and the diagnostic criteria for BPSD predicted this conversion with high sensitivity (0.870) and specificity (0.917). A family history of BP, antidepressant-induced mania/hypomania, brief major depressive episodes, early age of onset, antidepressant wear-off, and antidepressant resistance were also independent predictors of this conversion. This study was conducted using a retrospective design and did not include structured diagnostic interviews. The diagnostic criteria for BPSD were highly predictive of the conversion from MDD to BP, and conversion was associated with several clinical features of BPSD. Thus, the BPSD diagnostic criteria may be useful for the prediction of bipolar diathesis in MDD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach. We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder. Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis. Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases.

  15. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Thomas; Sebastian, Alexandra; Liepert, Joachim; Weiller, Cornelius; Schmidt, Roger; Tüscher, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-)supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  16. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hassa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  17. Chronic subjective dizziness versus conversion disorder: discussion of clinical findings and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Gilbert, Jane M; Staab, Jeffrey P

    2010-06-01

    Audiologists frequently encounter patients who complain of chronic dizziness or imbalance, in the absence of active vestibular or neurological deficits. Knowledge about conditions that cause this clinical presentation will allow audiologists to make important contributions to accurate diagnosis and effective management of these patients. This article reviews 2 such conditions, chronic subjective dizziness (CSD) and conversion disorder. A case of CSD and another of conversion disorder are presented, with a literature review of their clinical presentations, key diagnostic features, and treatment strategies. The role of the audiologist in assessing patients with these conditions and facilitating appropriate treatment referrals is discussed. The audiologist is in a key position to identify individuals with CSD and conversion disorder, 2 conditions that can be effectively managed if properly recognized. The authors demonstrate an effective team approach program that includes the audiologist's contribution to differential diagnosis, education of patients and other clinicians about these conditions, and development of recommendations for neurological, psychiatric, otologic, and physical therapy referrals.

  18. Is physiotherapy effective in the management of child and adolescent conversion disorder? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Tara L; Southby, Alesha K; Haines, Terrence P; Hough, Janet P; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-02-01

    Child and adolescent conversion disorder has the potential to impart significant burden on health-care services and affect quality of life. Clinically, physiotherapists are involved in conversion disorder management; however, no systematic reviews have examined physiotherapy effectiveness in its management. The aim of this review is to identify the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorder. A search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, PEDro and the Cochrane Library) was completed along with manual searching of relevant reference lists to identify articles including children 0-18 years with a diagnosis of conversion disorder who received physical management. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts using criteria. Data were extracted regarding study characteristics, functional outcome measures, length of stay, physiotherapy service duration and resolution of conversion symptoms. Methodological quality was assessed using a tool designed for observational studies. Twelve observational studies were included. No functional outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment protocols in the case studies. Resolution of symptoms occurred in all but two cases, with conversion symptoms still present at 11 months and at 2 years. Length of stay varied from 3 days to 16 weeks, with similar variation evident in length of physiotherapy service provision (2.5 weeks to 16 weeks). There was limited and poor quality evidence to establish the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorders. More rigorous study designs with consistent use of reliable, valid and sensitive functional outcome measures are needed in this area. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. [Conversion disorder in an internal medicine department: A series of 37 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régny, P; Cathébras, P

    2016-04-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of a series of patients presenting conversion disorder in a general internal medicine ward and outpatient clinic, the arguments retained by the physicians in favour of the diagnosis, the somatic and psychiatric co-morbidities, the management and the outcome of the disorder. We report the study of 37 patients diagnosed with conversion disorder in an internal medicine department of a French university hospital over a period of 14 years. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of the patients and contacted their primary care physicians to obtain follow-up data. No structured instrument was used for the diagnosis of conversion disorder or for the assessment of psychiatric comorbidities. As expected, patients were mostly young females, although a great variety of age, gender, and socio-cultural background was observed. Motor symptoms predominated (62%). A relevant psychogenic factor was explicitly mentioned in only 43% of the cases. In many cases, organic disease was also present, and an organic cause for the symptom initially considered as conversion was suspected in 3 cases. Depressive and anxious disorders were present respectively in 38% and 35% of cases. A pain complaint was associated in half of the cases. Among patients for whom follow-up data is available, conversion symptoms persisted or recurred in 70% of cases and were associated with a poor quality of life. This case series confirms that the DSM-IV-TR criterion of "psychogenicity" (later abandoned in DSM-5) is highly problematic in clinical practice. It suggests a close relationship between conversion disorder and unexplained chronic pain. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A 14-year-old girl with an unusual combination of incontinentia pigmenti and conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Yihui; Wang, Qiaoshu; Wang, Guodong; Guo, Chunni; Wang, Feng; Deng, Xiaolei; Wang, Weizhen

    2013-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare X-linked neurological-skin genetic disease. Some studies have shown that about 30~40% of patients with IP have varying symptoms of eye/central nervous system which are the major causes of disability. Conversion disorder is one of the most common mental diseases in children and may exhibit the single or multiple neurological symptoms. In this paper, we will report a child with new and rare incontinentia pigmenti accompanied by conversion disorder and explore the relationship of this rare combination.

  1. [Conversion disorder: from DSM IV to DSM 5 or from a psychiatric to a neurological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, M; Willems, M H A

    2015-01-01

    According to one of the diagnostic criteria of the dsm iv for conversion disorder there has to be a temporal relationship between psychological factors and the onset, or the worsening, of the symptoms. This criterion has been omitted in the dsm-5. Another criterion, namely that the symptoms are not produced intentionally, has also been abandoned. A new recommendation is that therapists should look for neurological symptoms that support the diagnosis. To investigate whether studies support the changes in the criteria. We searched literature using PubMed. When the symptoms first appear, trauma or stress in 37% of patients is of a physical rather than a psychological nature. Different forms of stress were found in equal proportions (20%) in patients with or without conversion disorder. There are no specific stressors, except possibly in patients with dysphonia. The percentages of childhood abuse vary widely, namely from 0 to 85%. The characteristic phenomenon of 'la belle indifference' occurs in only 3% of patients with conversion disorder versus only 2% of controls. Most of the 'positive' clinical tests for partial paralysis and sensory and gait disorders are highly specific. There are no reliable tests for distinguishing conversion disorder from simulation. The changes of the criteria are supported by recent studies.

  2. Using Self-Management to Improve the Reciprocal Social Conversation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Park, Mi N.; Koegel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit difficulties with reciprocal social conversation, engaging in limited verbal exchanges, even when language structures are intact. This study employed a multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention targeting (1) on-topic responsiveness to a…

  3. Using Reframing to Reduce Negative Statements in Social Conversation for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Navab, Anahita; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teaching the reframing of negative statements through self-management and video-feedback on social conversation in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline design across five participants showed that, following intervention, all were able to increase their positive and neutral statements…

  4. Diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder in unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, J; Licht, R W; Andersen, K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, we investigated if illness characteristics at baseline could predict conversion to bipolar disorder. METHOD: A long-term register-based follow-up study of 290 unipolar depressed patients with a mean age of 50...

  5. Cognitive rehabilitation treatment for mental slowness in conversion disorder : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vroege, L.; Khasho, D.; Foruz, A.; Van Der Feltz-cornelis, C.M.; Walla, P.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation treatment (CRT) has been described in patients with brain injury, but it has not been attempted in cases of cognitive dysfunction without organic cause. This case report describes CRT of neurocognitive impairment in a 54-year-old female patient with conversion disorder (CD).

  6. Increased activation in cingulate cortex in conversion disorder : What does it mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M.; Vogt, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is one of the terms used to describe various psychosomatic neurological symptoms that are thought to originate from a psychological conflict Psychological stressors can usually be identified but appear to be almost similar to the severity of psychological stress in

  7. Behavioral Treatment of Conversion Disorder in Adolescence: A Case Example of Globus Hystericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Thevenin, Deborah M.; Runyon, Melissa K.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of a patient diagnosed with a conversion disorder characterized by a perceived lump in the throat and subsequent weight loss. Results indicate that the behavioral therapy procedures contributed to increased weight and improved eating behavior. (RJM)

  8. Traumatic life history and co-existing psychiatric disorders in adolescents with a diagnosis of conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Aybüke Sarı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the perception of self and other important individuals’, the ways of this perception and the self-esteem, comorbid psychopathologies and the traumatic experiences in adolescents took the diagnosis of Conversion Disorder (CD. Method: A total of 20 adolescent girls aged 12-18 took the diagnosis of CD and have still being followed were included in the study as experimental group and 20 healthy girl adolescents paired with the experimental group in the terms of age, gender, educational status. Both of groups were evaluated with Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version, Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale. Results: Adolescents with CD have more psychopathology levels, lower self-esteem. Traumatic experiences, including sexual abuse in particular have been identified in patients more commonly than the controls. Discussion: CD is usually accompanied with mood disorders. These are followed by anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders and personality disorders respectively. In a study, patients who experienced pseudoseizures have been reported to have borderline personality disorders by %55, histrionic personality disorder by %16 and, antisocial personality disorder by %11.

  9. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  10. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  11. Parent Conversations about Healthful Eating and Weight: Associations with Adolescent Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. This study aimed to examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from two linked multi-level population-based studies. Setting Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009–2010. Participants Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010 (n = 2,793, mean age=14.4) and parents from F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) (n = 3,709, mean age = 42.3). Main Exposure Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Outcome Measures Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and binge eating. Results Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight/obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Additionally, sub-analyses with adolescents with data from two parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight/obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Conclusion Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors. PMID:23797808

  12. Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight: associations with adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Maclehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. To examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis using data from 2 linked multilevel population-based studies. Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009-2010. Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2793; mean age, 14.4 years) and parents from Project Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (Project F-EAT) (n = 3709; mean age, 42.3 years). EXPOSURE Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and binge eating. Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight or obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Additionally, subanalyses with adolescents with data from 2 parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight or obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors.

  13. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hassa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG, with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects.

  14. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Thomas; de Jel, Esther; Tuescher, Oliver; Schmidt, Roger; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects.

  15. Role of sexual abuse in development of conversion disorder: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobot, V; Ivanovic-Kovacevic, S; Markovic, J; Misic-Pavkov, G; Novovic, Z

    2012-02-01

    Described case report speaks in favour of the relation between childhood sexual abuse with the development of conversion disorder. Following Salmonella poisoning, adolescent, at the age of 16, develops series of severe somatic symptoms. Results of diagnostic procedures excluded organic foundation of the symptoms; diagnosis of conversion disorder is established. Soon, patient's problems stop abruptly and spontaneously, and the aetiology of the mental disorder remains unexplained. Six years later, adolescent reveals for the first time data about the childhood sexual abuse during the forensic evaluation (within the court process related to the request for compensation for the complications which occurred following the Salmonella infection). During the forensic evaluation, we had insight into the previous medical history, while an interview, psychological and psychiatric exploration was conducted with the examinee. Data about the sexual abuse retrospectively explain the dynamics of the development of conversion disorder. The described case indicates that sexual abuse of children and adolescents frequently remains unrecognized, which has sequels for treatment and prevention of subsequent consequences for mental health. It is important to emphasize the significance of examining history of abuse during the diagnostic of certain mental disorders. Forensic implications of the case have not been discussed in details for the needs of this report.

  16. "Hunger Hurts, but Starving Works". The Moral Conversion to Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Gisella

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined. The moral transformations of women with eating disorders in Malta and Italy, the two considered contexts of this research, reflect the social expectations of women in these societies. The drastic changes in personal attitudes towards both food and the body that characterise eating disorders are the result of a complete dedication to the moral values embodied in thinness, namely the control of bodily needs and pleasure. The self-transformative process of people with eating disorders can be understood as a form of moral conversion along a continuum of increasing control over hunger: the higher the control, the higher the level of satisfaction and the degree of moral conversion achieved. Considering the general low recovery rates of people with eating disorders, this approach helps in the understanding of why people who are diagnosed with an eating disorder accept medical definitions and treatments to different extents.

  17. A Case of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting as Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegya-Raman, Nikhil; Aziz, Rehan; Schneider, Daniel; Tobia, Anthony; Leitch, Megan; Nwobi, Onyi

    2017-01-01

    Background. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare disorder of the central nervous system. Its initial diagnosis may be obscured by its variable presentation. This case report illustrates the complexity of diagnosing this disease early in the clinical course, especially when the initial symptoms may be psychiatric. It offers a brief review of the literature and reinforces a role for consultation psychiatry services. Methods. PUBMED/MEDLINE was searched using the terms "Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease", "psychiatric symptoms", "conversion disorder", "somatic symptom disorder", "functional movement disorder", and "functional neurologic disorder". Case. The patient was a 64-year-old woman with no prior psychiatric history who was initially diagnosed with conversion disorder and unspecified anxiety disorder but soon thereafter was discovered to have Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Discussion. This case highlights the central role of psychiatric symptoms in early presentations of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Still, few other cases in the literature report functional neurological symptoms as an initial sign. The consultation psychiatrist must remain alert to changing clinical symptoms, especially with uncharacteristic disease presentations.

  18. Personality disorder symptom severity predicts onset of mood episodes and conversion to bipolar I disorder in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tommy H; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Walshaw, Patricia D; Weiss, Rachel B; Urosevic, Snezana; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-04-01

    Although personality disorders (PDs) are highly comorbid with bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs), little longitudinal research has been conducted to examine the prospective impact of PD symptoms on the course of BSDs. The aim of this study is to examine whether PD symptom severity predicts shorter time to onset of bipolar mood episodes and conversion to bipolar I disorder over time among individuals with less severe BSDs. Participants (n = 166) with bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia, or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified completed diagnostic interview assessments of PD symptoms and self-report measures of mood symptoms at baseline. They were followed prospectively with diagnostic interviews every 4 months for an average of 3.02 years. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses indicated that overall PD symptom severity significantly predicted shorter time to onset of hypomanic (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; p conversion to bipolar I disorder (HR = 2.51; p conversion to bipolar I disorder (HR = 2.77; p < .001), whereas cluster C severity (HR = 1.56; p < .001) predicted shorter time to onset of major depressive episodes. These results support predisposition models in suggesting that PD symptoms may act as a risk factor for a more severe course of BSDs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Brain circuits implicated in psychogenic paralysis in conversion disorders and hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, P

    2014-10-01

    Conversion disorders are defined as neurological symptoms arising without organic damage to the nervous system, presumably in relation to various emotional stress factors, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the mechanisms responsible for their production remain poorly understood. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from conversion disorders in both motor and non-motor (e.g. somatosensory, visual) domains. Several studies have also compared brain activation patterns in conversion to those observed during hypnosis, where similar functional losses can be evoked by suggestion. The current review summarizes these recent results and the main neurobiological hypotheses proposed to account for conversion symptoms, in particular motor deficits. An emerging model points to an important role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), precuneus, and perhaps other limbic structures (including amygdala), all frequently found to be hyperactivated in conversion disorders in parallel to impaired recruitment of primary motor and/or sensory pathways at the cortical or subcortical (basal ganglia) level. These findings are only partly shared with hypnosis, where increases in precuneus predominate, together with activation of attentional control systems, but without any activation of VMPFC. Both VMPFC and precuneus are key regions for access to internal representations about the self, integrating information from memory and imagery with affective relevance (in VMPFC) and sensory or agency representations (in precuneus). It is therefore postulated that conversion deficits might result from an alteration of conscious sensorimotor functions and self-awareness under the influence of affective and sensory representations generated in these regions, which might promote certain patterns of behaviors in response to self-relevant emotional states.

  20. Action-effect binding is decreased in motor conversion disorder: implications for sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranick, Sarah M; Moore, James W; Yusuf, Nadia; Martinez, Valeria T; LaFaver, Kathrin; Edwards, Mark J; Mehta, Arpan R; Collins, Phoebe; Harrison, Neil A; Haggard, Patrick; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    The abnormal movements seen in motor conversion disorder are affected by distraction and entrainment, similar to voluntary movement. Unlike voluntary movement, however, patients lack a sense of control for the abnormal movements, a failure of "self-agency." The action-effect binding paradigm has been used to quantify the sense of self-agency, because subjective contraction of time between an action and its effect only occurs if the patient feels that they are the agent responsible for the action. We used this paradigm, coupled with emotional stimuli, to investigate the sense of agency with voluntary movements in patients with motor conversion disorder. Twenty patients with motor conversion disorder and 20 age-matched and sex-matched healthy volunteers used a rotating clock to judge the time of their own voluntary key presses (action) and a subsequent auditory tone (effect) after they completed conditioning blocks in which high, medium, and low tones were coupled to images of happy, fearful, and neutral faces. The results replicated those produced previously: it was reported that an effect after a voluntary action occurred earlier, and the preceding action occurred later, compared with trials that used only key presses or tones. Patients had reduced overall binding scores relative to healthy volunteers, suggesting a reduced sense of agency. There was no effect of the emotional stimuli (faces) or other interaction effects. Healthy volunteers with subclinical depressive symptoms had higher overall binding scores. We demonstrate that patients with motor conversion disorder have decreased action-effect binding for normal voluntary movements compared with healthy volunteers, consistent with the greater experience of lack of control. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Group Dialectical-Behavior Therapy Skills Training for Conversion Disorder With Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kim D; Mirza, Nida; Forte, Craig; Trockel, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%.

  2. Children with autism spectrum disorder: teaching conversation involving feelings about events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conallen, K; Reed, P

    2017-03-01

    Two procedures were developed to teach individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders labels (tacts) for various private events (emotions): Study 1 attempted to distinguish them from pure tacts and mands (requests); and Study 2 attempted to train initiating a conversation with grammatically correct subject-verb-comment construction. A multiple treatment reversal design was used in both studies, followed by a probe to see if the tacts were used across novel settings. The children were prompted to initiate a series of language exchanges, which resulted in an increased ability to participate in conversations about private events. Together, the results of both studies suggest that, by providing an effective and reinforcing means of teaching both the function and the form of these tacts, conversations can be successfully initiated by children with ASD. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical Considerations Regarding Regression in Psychotherapy with Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marcia

    Regression is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis, typically part of a reorganization that leads to progression, at least with respect to recruiting elements in the unconscious to consciousness. Regression in patients with conversion disorder (i.e., pseudo-neurological symptoms without an organic basis) is often itself somatic/physical rather than psychic in nature. Psychotherapists working with these patients must be prepared for confusing or frightening forms of regression that should be expected as part of the therapeutic process. In conversion disorder patients with adequate character structure, this regression, when handled effectively by the psychotherapist, ultimately leads to verbalized thoughts and feelings and a gradually strengthening alternative to physically experienced psychic conflict.

  4. Postoperative Conversion Disorder Presenting as Inspiratory Stridor and Hemiparesis in a Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Wu, Jennifer Y

    2017-01-17

    BACKGROUND Postoperative conversion disorder is rare and has been reported. The diagnosis is usually made after all major organic causes have been ruled out. CASE REPORT We describe a case of a 13-year-old female who presented in the post-anesthesia care unit with acute-onset inspiratory stridor and unresponsiveness to verbal or painful stimuli after receiving a general anesthetic for upper endoscopy. Later in the post-anesthesia care unit, she presented with acute-onset right hemiplegia and sensory loss. She was first evaluated for causes of her stridor and unresponsiveness. The evaluation revealed paradoxical vocal cord movement, and all laboratory test values were normal. For her hemiplegia and sensory loss, she was evaluated for stroke with head MRI and CT scans, which were normal. CONCLUSIONS After extensive workup and consideration of multiple etiologies for her presenting signs and symptoms, the most likely diagnosis was conversion disorder.

  5. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge; Andersen, Per Kragh; Bukh, Jens Drachman

    2017-08-01

    For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder to 3.1% in years 1-2, 1.0% in years 2-5 and 0.8% in years 5-10. A total of eight risk factors were evaluated comprising gender, age at onset of unipolar disorder, number of depressive episodes, treatment resistance to antidepressants, family history of bipolar disorder, the prevalence of psychotic depression, the prevalence of chronic depression, and severity of depression. It was not possible to identify risk factors that were consistently or mainly confirmed to predict conversion across studies. The conversion rate from unipolar to bipolar disorder decreases with time. It was not possible to identify predictors of conversion that were consistently or mainly confirmed across studies, which may be due to variations in methodology across studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation as a Treatment for Conversion Disorder: A Case Report and Medical Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eNoll-Hussong; Sabrina eHolzapfel; Dan ePokorny; Simone D Herberger

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) has been demonstrated to modulate transiently a variety of cognitive ...

  7. Cathecol-O-methyl transferase Val158Met genotype is not a risk factor for conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armagan, E; Almacıoglu, M L; Yakut, T; Köse, A; Karkucak, M; Köksal, O; Görükmez, O

    2013-03-19

    Alterations in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity are involved in various types of neurological disorders. We examined a possible association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and conversion disorder in a study of 48 patients with conversion disorder and 48 control patients. In the conversion disorder group, 31 patients were Val/Met heterozygotes, 15 patients were Val/Val homozygotes and 2 patients were Met/Met homozygotes. In the control group, 32 patients were Val/Met heterozygotes and 16 patients were Val/Val homozygotes. There was no significant difference between the groups. We conclude that the COMT Val158Met genotype is quite common in Turkey and that it is not a risk factor for conversion disorder in the Turkish population.

  8. Conversion disorder in children and adolescents: a disorder of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Palmer, Donna M; Brown, Kerri J; Scher, Stephen; Chudleigh, Catherine; Davies, Fiona; Williams, Leanne M

    2015-03-01

    To assess cognitive function in children and adolescents presenting with acute conversion symptoms. Fifty-seven participants aged 8.5-18 years (41 girls and 16 boys) with conversion symptoms and 57 age- and gender-matched healthy controls completed the IntegNeuro neurocognitive battery, an estimate of intelligence, and self-report measures of subjective emotional distress. Participants with conversion symptoms showed poorer performance within attention, executive function, and memory domains. Poorer performance was reflected in more errors on specific tests: Switching of Attention (t(79) = 2.17, p = .03); Verbal Interference (t(72) = 2.64, p = .01); Go/No-Go (t(73) = 2.20, p = .03); Memory Recall and Verbal Learning (interference errors for memory recall; t(61) = 3.13, p conversion symptoms have a reduced capacity to manipulate and retain information, to block interfering information, and to inhibit responses, all of which are required for effective attention, executive function, and memory. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Postoperative Conversion Disorder Presenting as Inspiratory Stridor and Hemiparesis in a Pediatric Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Wu, Jennifer Y.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 13 Final Diagnosis: Postoperative conversion disorder Symptoms: Right-sided weakness and right-sided sensory loss • difficulty speaking Medication: — Clinical Procedure: EUS/EGD Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Postoperative conversion disorder is rare and has been reported. The diagnosis is usually made after all major organic causes have been ruled out. Case Report: We describe a case of a 13-year-old female who presented in the post-anesthesia care unit with acute-onset inspiratory stridor and unresponsiveness to verbal or painful stimuli after receiving a general anesthetic for upper endoscopy. Later in the post-anesthesia care unit, she presented with acute-onset right hemiplegia and sensory loss. She was first evaluated for causes of her stridor and unresponsiveness. The evaluation revealed paradoxical vocal cord movement, and all laboratory test values were normal. For her hemiplegia and sensory loss, she was evaluated for stroke with head MRI and CT scans, which were normal. Conclusions: After extensive workup and consideration of multiple etiologies for her presenting signs and symptoms, the most likely diagnosis was conversion disorder. PMID:28093564

  10. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: AVC ou transtorno conversivo? Global aphasia without hemiparesis: stroke or conversion disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Philippi de Negreiros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A realização de diagnóstico neurológico e psiquiátrico em ambiente de emergência hospitalar com freqüência é uma tarefa complexa e exige colaboração interdisciplinar. Um dos diagnósticos diferenciais de doenças neurológicas é o transtorno conversivo, cuja característica principal é a presença de sintomas afetando funções motoras ou sensoriais, que sugerem desordem clínica ou neurológica, porém sem doença orgânica subjacente que explique o quadro. RELATO DE CASO: Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente de 23 anos com apresentação clínica atípica de acidente vascular cerebral, afasia global sem hemiparesia, que foi inicialmente diagnosticada como transtorno psiquiátrico pelo serviço de clínica médica de emergência. CONCLUSÃO: Certas apresentações neurológicas podem ser interpretadas como transtorno conversivo pelas similaridades clínicas entre as duas desordens, raridade do quadro clínico, pela presença de sintomatologia psiquiátrica e fatores psicossociais nos pacientes neurológicos. Mesmo com apresentações neurológicas atípicas e sintomas psiquiátricos, pacientes com quadro sugestivo de transtorno conversivo devem ser sempre investigados de forma interdisciplinar.BACKGROUND: The neurologic and psychiatric diagnosis in emergency settings are difficult tasks and require interdisciplinary effort. Conversion disorder is one of the differential diagnosis for certain neurologic disorders. The main characteristic is motor or sensory deficits suggesting neurologic or medical condition, but without organic disease that explains the symptoms. CASE REPORT: We present a 23 year-old-woman with an atypical clinical presentation of stroke: global aphasia without hemiparesis. This patient was initially diagnosed with conversion disorder by the internal medicine service in the emergency room. CONCLUSION: Some rare neurologic diseases can be interpreted as conversive disorders due to some reasons

  11. Diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder in unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmskov, J; Licht, R W; Andersen, K; Bjerregaard Stage, T; Mørkeberg Nilsson, F; Bjerregaard Stage, K; Valentin, J B; Bech, P; Ernst Nielsen, R

    2017-02-01

    In unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, we investigated if illness characteristics at baseline could predict conversion to bipolar disorder. A long-term register-based follow-up study of 290 unipolar depressed patients with a mean age of 50.8 years (SD=11.9) participating in three randomized trials on antidepressants conducted in the period 1985-1994. The independent effects of explanatory variables were examined by applying Cox regression analyses. The overall risk of conversion was 20.7%, with a mean follow-up time of 15.2 years per patient. The risk of conversion was associated with an increasing number of previous depressive episodes at baseline, [HR 1.18, 95% CI (1.10-1.26)]. No association with gender, age, age at first depressive episode, duration of baseline episode, subtype of depression or any of the investigated HAM-D subscales included was found. The patients were followed-up through the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, which resulted in inherent limitations such as possible misclassification of outcome. In a sample of middle-aged hospitalized unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, the risk of conversion was associated with the number of previous depressive episodes. Therefore, this study emphasizes that unipolar depressed patients experiencing a relatively high number of recurrences should be followed more closely, or at least be informed about the possible increased risk of conversion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. The value of 'positive' clinical signs for weakness, sensory and gait disorders in conversion disorder: a systematic and narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Corinna; Hubschmid, Monica; Aybek, Selma

    2014-02-01

    Experts in the field of conversion disorder have suggested for the upcoming DSM-V edition to put less weight on the associated psychological factors and to emphasise the role of clinical findings. Indeed, a critical step in reaching a diagnosis of conversion disorder is careful bedside neurological examination, aimed at excluding organic signs and identifying 'positive' signs suggestive of a functional disorder. These positive signs are well known to all trained neurologists but their validity is still not established. The aim of this study is to provide current evidence regarding their sensitivity and specificity. We conducted a systematic search on motor, sensory and gait functional signs in Embase, Medline, PsycINfo from 1965 to June 2012. Studies in English, German or French reporting objective data on more than 10 participants in a controlled design were included in a systematic review. Other relevant signs are discussed in a narrative review. Eleven controlled studies (out of 147 eligible articles) describing 14 signs (7 motor, 5 sensory, 2 gait) reported low sensitivity of 8-100% but high specificity of 92-100%. Studies were evidence class III, only two had a blinded design and none reported on inter-rater reliability of the signs. Clinical signs for functional neurological symptoms are numerous but only 14 have been validated; overall they have low sensitivity but high specificity and their use should thus be recommended, especially with the introduction of the new DSM-V criteria.

  13. Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: A case report and medical hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eNoll-Hussong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS has been demonstrated to modulate transiently a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal-parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure.

  14. Recurrence of conversion disorder symptoms in a successfully treated 16-year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael; Mehta, Anuja; Avila, Jorge; Nguyen, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 16-year-old Caucasian female with a history of major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder who was admitted to an inpatient adolescent psychiatric unit with symptoms of conversion disorder, including non-epileptic seizures, an inability to speak or walk, and not eating on her own. She has a history of multiple previous medical and psychiatric hospitalizations without any significant resolution of symptoms, and extensive medical workups have all been negative. Treatment ultimately involved reassuring the patient and family that there was no underlying medical condition and emphasizing the conversion disorder diagnosis. The patient participated daily in physical therapy to improve mobility, deconditioning, and functioning. Hospital staff was instructed on the nature of the non-epileptic seizures, which continued to occur during the hospitalization. After one month, the patient was discharged home fully functional: walking, speaking, and eating on her own. One week after discharge, the patient presented with the same symptoms and was readmitted to the psychiatric facility. She subsequently never regained her previous level of functioning, and she was ultimately transferred to a residential treatment facility. We will discuss factors that led to the initial improvement and the factors that led to recurrence and persistence of symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: a case report and medical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Holzapfel, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal-parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure.

  16. Enhancing the Conversation Skills of a Boy with Asperger's Disorder through Social Stories[TM] and Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattone, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    This study combined Social Stories with video modeling in an effort to enhance the conversation skills of a boy with Asperger's Disorder. Treatment consisted of two components: (a) observation of video taped Social Stories that included two adults modeling targeted conversational skills and (b) 5-min social interactions. A multiple baseline design…

  17. Conversion from bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I or II in youth with family history as a predictor of conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Molly S; Fristad, Mary A

    2013-06-01

    Bipolar disorder-not otherwise specified (BD-NOS) is an imprecise, heterogeneous diagnosis that is unstable in youth. This study reports rates of conversion from BD-NOS to BD-I or II in children aged 8-12, and investigates the impact of family history of bipolar disorder and depression on conversion. As part of the Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP) study, 27 children (6-12 years of age) diagnosed with BD-NOS at baseline were reassessed every 6 months over an 18-month period. Family history of bipolar disorder and depression was assessed at baseline. One-third of the sample converted from BD-NOS to BD-I or II over 18-months. Having a first-degree relative with symptoms of bipolar disorder and having a loaded pedigree for diagnosis of depression each were associated with conversion from BD-NOS to BD-I or II (odds ratio range: 1.09-3.14; relative risk range: 1.06-2.34). This study had very low power (range: 10-45) given the small sample size, precluding statistical significance of non-parametric Fisher's Exact test findings. This study replicates the previous finding of a high rate of conversion from BD-NOS to BD-I or II among youth, and suggests conversion is related to symptoms of bipolar disorder or depression diagnoses in the family history. Additional research is warranted in a larger sample with a longer follow-up period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinct modulation of event-related potentials during motor preparation in patients with motor conversion disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah L Blakemore

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Conversion paresis patients and healthy people feigning weakness both exhibit weak voluntary movement without detectable neuropathology. Uniquely, conversion patients lack a sense of conscious awareness of the origin of their impairment. We investigated whether conversion paresis patients show distinct electroencephalographic (EEG markers associated with their unconscious movement deficits. METHODS: Six unilateral upper limb conversion paresis patients, 12 feigning participants asked to mimic weakness and 12 control participants performed a precued reaction time task, requiring movements of either hand, depending on precue information. Performance measures (force, reaction and movement time, and event-related EEG potentials (ERP were compared, between groups and across hands or hemisphere, using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Feigners generated the same inter-hand difference in reaction and movement time as expressed by patients, even though no specific targets were set nor feedback given on these measures. We found novel ERP signatures specific to patients. When the symptomatic hand was precued, the P3 ERP component accompanying the precue was dramatically larger in patients than in feigning participants. Additionally, in patients the earlier N1 ERP component was diminished when the precue signalled either the symptomatic or asymptomatic hand. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with previous suggestions that lack of awareness of the origin of their symptoms in conversion disorder patients may result from suppression of brain activity normally related to self-agency. In patients the diminished N1 to all precues is consistent with a generalised reduction in cognitive processing of movement-related precues. The P3 enhancement in patients is unlikely to simply reflect changes required for generation of impaired movements, because it was not seen in feigners showing the same behavioural deficits. Rather, this P3 enhancement in

  19. Evaluation of oxidant, antioxidant, and S100B levels in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükaslan, Hasan; Kandemir, Sultan Basmacı; Asoğlu, Mehmet; Kaya, Halil; Gökdemir, Mehmet Tahir; Karababa, İbrahim Fatih; Güngörmez, Fatih; Kılıçaslan, Fethiye; Şavik, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Various psychodynamic, neurobiological, genetic, and sociocultural factors are believed to be involved in the etiology of conversion disorder (CD). Oxidative metabolism has been shown to deteriorate in association with many health problems and psychiatric disorders. We evaluated oxidative metabolism and S100B levels in the context of this multifactorial disease. Thirty-seven patients with CD (25 females and 12 males) and 42 healthy volunteers (21 females and 21 males), all matched for age and sex, were included in this study. The total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were compared between the two groups. The total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were significantly higher in patients with CD than in the control group, whereas the total antioxidant status was significantly lower. CD is associated with deterioration of oxidative metabolism and increased neuronal damage.

  20. MicroRNA association with synucleinopathy conversion in rapid eye movement behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Santiago, Rubén; Iranzo, Alex; Gaig, Carles; Serradell, Mónica; Fernández, Manel; Tolosa, Eduardo; Santamaría, Joan; Ezquerra, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we reported downregulated circulating levels of the microRNAs miR-19b, miR-29a, and miR-29c in Parkinson disease. Here we investigated the expression of these microRNAs in serum samples from 56 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, before and after their conversion into a synucleinopathy. Compared to controls, we found that the expression level of miR-19b is downregulated in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and antedates the diagnosis of Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies after 4.67 ± 2.61 years of follow-up. Our findings indicate that dysregulation of the microRNA miR-19b occurs in the prodromal stage of synucleinopathies. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  1. First episode of psychosis in a middle-aged patient with a 14-year history of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Manthopoulou, Thiresia; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders).

  2. First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a 14-Year History of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaios Peritogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders.

  3. Brain dysfunction behind functional symptoms: neuroimaging and somatoform, conversive, and dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campayo, Javier; Fayed, Nicolas; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Roca, Miquel

    2009-03-01

    Neuroimaging research in psychiatry has been increasing exponentially in recent years, yet many psychiatrists are relatively unfamiliar with this field. This article summarizes the findings of the most relevant research articles on the neuroimaging of somatoform, conversive, and dissociative disorders published from January 2007 through June 2008. Neuroimaging findings summarized here include alterations of stress regulation and coping in somatoform pain disorders, the importance of catastrophizing in somatization disorder, and the relevance of a history of physical/sexual abuse in irritable bowel syndrome. Regarding fibromyalgia, three of the most significant advances have been the impossibility of differentiating primary and concomitant fibromyalgia in the presence of quiescent underlying disease, the role of hippocampal dysfunction, and the possibility that fibromyalgia may be characterized as an aging process. In dissociative disorders, the high levels of elaborative memory encoding and the reduced size of the parietal lobe are highlighted. The most promising clinical consequence of these studies, in addition to improving knowledge about the etiology of these illnesses, is the possibility of using neuroimaging findings to identify subgroups of patients, which could allow treatments to be tailored.

  4. Elevated left mid-frontal cortical activity prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.; Urosevic, Snezana; Goldstein, Kim; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues and a propensity to experience an excessive increase in approach-related affect, which may be reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between relative left-frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, a proposed neurophysiological index of approach-system sensitivity and approach/reward-related affect, and bipolar course and state-related variables. Fifty-eight individuals with cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder and 59 healthy control participants with no affective psychopathology completed resting EEG recordings. Alpha power was obtained and asymmetry indices computed for homologous electrodes. Bipolar spectrum participants were classified as being in a major/minor depressive episode, a hypomanic episode, or a euthymic/remitted state at EEG recording. Participants were then followed prospectively for an average 4.7 year follow-up period with diagnostic interview assessments every four-months. Sixteen bipolar spectrum participants converted to bipolar I disorder during follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, elevated relative left-frontal EEG activity at baseline 1) prospectively predicted a greater likelihood of converting from cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder over the 4.7 year follow-up period, 2) was associated with an earlier age-of-onset of first bipolar spectrum episode, and 3) was significantly elevated in bipolar spectrum individuals in a hypomanic episode at EEG recording. This is the first study to identify a neurophysiological marker that prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder. The fact that unipolar depression is characterized by decreased relative left-frontal EEG activity suggests that unipolar depression and vulnerability to hypo/mania may be characterized by different profiles of frontal EEG asymmetry. PMID:22775582

  5. Elevated left mid-frontal cortical activity prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B; Urosevic, Snezana; Goldstein, Kim; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2012-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues and a propensity to experience an excessive increase in approach-related affect, which may be reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between relative left-frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, a proposed neurophysiological index of approach-system sensitivity and approach/reward-related affect, and bipolar course and state-related variables. Fifty-eight individuals with cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder and 59 healthy control participants with no affective psychopathology completed resting EEG recordings. Alpha power was obtained and asymmetry indices computed for homologous electrodes. Bipolar spectrum participants were classified as being in a major/minor depressive episode, a hypomanic episode, or a euthymic/remitted state at EEG recording. Participants were then followed prospectively for an average 4.7-year follow-up period with diagnostic interview assessments every 4 months. Sixteen bipolar spectrum participants converted to bipolar I disorder during follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, elevated relative left-frontal EEG activity at baseline (a) prospectively predicted a greater likelihood of converting from cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder over the 4.7-year follow-up period, (b) was associated with an earlier age-of-onset of first bipolar spectrum episode, and (c) was significantly elevated in bipolar spectrum individuals in a hypomanic episode at EEG recording. This is the first study to our knowledge to identify a neurophysiological marker that prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder. The fact that unipolar depression is characterized by decreased relative left-frontal EEG activity suggests that unipolar depression and vulnerability to hypo/mania may be characterized by different profiles of frontal EEG asymmetry.

  6. Rates and predictors of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder after the first lifetime episode of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, J. D.; Andersen, P. K.; Kessing, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    to 2013. Cumulative incidences and the influence of clinical variables on the rates of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder, respectively, were estimated by survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: Within 5 years, 83.3% obtained remission, 31.5% experienced recurrence of depression and 8......BACKGROUND: In depression, non-remission, recurrence of depressive episodes after remission and conversion to bipolar disorder are crucial determinants of poor outcome. The present study aimed to determine the cumulative incidences and clinical predictors of these long-term outcomes after the first.......6% converted to bipolar disorder (6.3% within the first 2 years). Non-remission increased with younger age, co-morbid anxiety and suicidal ideations. Recurrence increased with severity and treatment resistance of the first depression, and conversion to bipolar disorder with treatment resistance, a family...

  7. P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izci F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Filiz Izci,1 Hilal Hocagil,2 Servet Izci,3 Vedat Izci,4 Merve Iris Koc,5 Rezzan Deniz Acar3 1Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul Bilim University, Sisli Florence Nightingale Hospital; 2Department of Emergency, Faculty of Medicine Hospital Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Kosuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Emergency, Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Erenköy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd, which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD.Patients and methods: A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, P<0.001 and Beck Depression Scale scores (11.24±6.15 and 6.58±5.69, respectively, P<0.01 were significantly higher in CD patients. P-wave dispersion measurements did not show any significant differences between conversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156. Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416

  8. [Postoperative visual loss due to conversion disorder after spine surgery: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Dailson Mamede; Bezerra, Eglantine Mamede; Silva Junior, Antonio Jorge; Amorim, Marco Aurélio Soares; Miranda, Denismar Borges de

    2016-01-21

    Patients undergoing spinal surgeries may develop postoperative visual loss. We present a case of total bilateral visual loss in a patient who, despite having clinical and surgical risk factors for organic lesion, evolved with visual disturbance due to conversion disorder. A male patient, 39 years old, 71kg, 1.72 m, ASA I, admitted to undergo fusion and discectomy at L4-L5 and L5-S1. Venoclysis, cardioscopy, oximetry, NIBP; induction with remifentanil, propofol and rocuronium; intubation with ETT (8.0mm) followed by capnography and urinary catheterization for diuresis. Maintenance with full target-controlled intravenous anesthesia. During fixation and laminectomy, the patient developed severe bleeding and hypovolemic shock. After 30minutes, hemostasis and hemodynamic stability was achieved with infusion of norepinephrine, volume expansion, and blood products. In the ICU, the patient developed mental confusion, weakness in the limbs, and bilateral visual loss. It was not possible to identify clinical, laboratory or image findings of organic lesion. He evolved with episodes of anxiety, emotional lability, and language impairment; the hypothesis of conversion syndrome with visual component was raised after psychiatric evaluation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after visual education and introduction of low doses of antipsychotic, antidepressant, and benzodiazepine. Other symptoms also regressed, and the patient was discharged 12 days after surgery. After 60 days, the patient had no more symptoms. Conversion disorders may have different signs and symptoms of non-organic origin, including visual component. It is noteworthy that the occurrence of this type of visual dysfunction in the postoperative period of spinal surgery is a rare event and should be remembered as a differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors for conversion from unipolar psychotic depression to bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Straszek, Sune; Petrides, Georgios; Skadhede, Søren; Jensen, Signe Olrik Wallenstein; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-03-01

    Patients with unipolar psychotic depression (PD) are at high risk of developing bipolar disorder (BD). This conversion has important implications for the choice of treatment. This study, therefore, aimed to identify risk factors associated with diagnostic conversion from PD to BD. We conducted a population-based, historical prospective cohort study by merging data from Danish registers. Patients assigned an ICD-10 diagnosis of PD between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2007 were identified in the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register and were followed until the development of BD, death, loss to follow-up, or 31 December 2007. Potential risk factors for conversion to BD, also defined through various Danish registers, were tested in multiple logistic regression analyses with risk expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). We identified 8,588 patients with PD, of whom 609 (7.1%) developed BD during follow-up. The following characteristics were significantly associated with diagnostic conversion from PD to BD: early onset of PD [AOR = 0.99 (per year of increasing age), p = 0.044], recurrent depression [AOR = 1.02 (per episode), p = 0.036], living alone (AOR = 1.29, p = 0.007), receiving a disability pension (AOR = 1.55, p educational level being a technical education (AOR = 1.55, p education (AOR = 2.65, p education (AOR = 1.75, p disability pension, and the highest educational level being a technical education, short-cycle higher education, or medium-cycle higher education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of oxidant, antioxidant, and S100B levels in patients with conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büyükaslan H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasan Büyükaslan,1 Sultan Basmacı Kandemir,2 Mehmet Asoğlu,3 Halil Kaya,4 Mehmet Tahir Gökdemir,1 İbrahim Fatih Karababa,3 Fatih Güngörmez,5 Fethiye Kılıçaslan,6 Emin Şavik7 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Balıklıgöl State Hospital, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 4Bursa Yüksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Mehmet Akif İnan Research Hospital, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey Introduction: Various psychodynamic, neurobiological, genetic, and sociocultural factors are believed to be involved in the etiology of conversion disorder (CD. Oxidative metabolism has been shown to deteriorate in association with many health problems and psychiatric disorders. We evaluated oxidative metabolism and S100B levels in the context of this multifactorial disease.Methods: Thirty-seven patients with CD (25 females and 12 males and 42 healthy volunteers (21 females and 21 males, all matched for age and sex, were included in this study. The total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were compared between the two groups.Results: The total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were significantly higher in patients with CD than in the control group, whereas the total antioxidant status was significantly lower.Conclusion: CD is associated with deterioration of oxidative metabolism and increased neuronal damage. Keywords: conversion disorder, oxidative stress, S100B

  11. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Diagnosis of Conversion Disorder in a Patient with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison N. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple reports have described patients with disordered articulation and prosody, often following acute aphasia, dysarthria, or apraxia of speech, which results in the perception by listeners of a foreign-like accent. These features led to the term foreign accent syndrome (FAS, a speech disorder with perceptual features that suggest an indistinct, non-native speaking accent. Also correctly known as psuedoforeign accent, the speech does not typically match a specific foreign accent, but is rather a constellation of speech features that result in the perception of a foreign accent by listeners. The primary etiologies of FAS are cerebrovascular accidents or traumatic brain injuries which affect cortical and subcortical regions critical to expressive speech and language production. Far fewer cases of FAS associated with psychiatric conditions have been reported. We will present the clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological assessment, cognitive-behavioral and biofeedback assessments, and motor speech examination of a patient with FAS without a known vascular, traumatic, or infectious precipitant. Repeated multidisciplinary examinations of this patient provided convergent evidence in support of FAS secondary to conversion disorder. We discuss these findings and their implications for evaluation and treatment of rare neurological and psychiatric conditions.

  12. Multidisciplinary assessment and diagnosis of conversion disorder in a patient with foreign accent syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Story, Tyler J; Collins, Timothy A; Dejoy, Daniel; Edwards, Christopher L

    2011-01-01

    Multiple reports have described patients with disordered articulation and prosody, often following acute aphasia, dysarthria, or apraxia of speech, which results in the perception by listeners of a foreign-like accent. These features led to the term foreign accent syndrome (FAS), a speech disorder with perceptual features that suggest an indistinct, non-native speaking accent. Also correctly known as psuedoforeign accent, the speech does not typically match a specific foreign accent, but is rather a constellation of speech features that result in the perception of a foreign accent by listeners. The primary etiologies of FAS are cerebrovascular accidents or traumatic brain injuries which affect cortical and subcortical regions critical to expressive speech and language production. Far fewer cases of FAS associated with psychiatric conditions have been reported. We will present the clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological assessment, cognitive-behavioral and biofeedback assessments, and motor speech examination of a patient with FAS without a known vascular, traumatic, or infectious precipitant. Repeated multidisciplinary examinations of this patient provided convergent evidence in support of FAS secondary to conversion disorder. We discuss these findings and their implications for evaluation and treatment of rare neurological and psychiatric conditions.

  13. [Before you diagnose a patient with a conversion disorder, perform a thorough general medical and neurological examination. Case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative and conversion disorders are classified together according to ICD-10 as states that are not confirmed by the presence of somatic diseases, which they suggest. According to the DSM-IV, both disorders are classified separately. Conversion disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders whose symptoms mimic the presence of malfunction or loss of motor or sensory function, whereas the nature and dynamics of the observed symptoms is not fully explained by the results of objective assessments and consultations, nor is the direct effect of a psychoactive substance. Impaired mental integration of different functions which normally interact simultaneously in the perception of reality and inner experience of the individual is found in dissociative disorders. The article describes the case of 25-year old man, in whom after initial suspicion of myasthenia gravis and its exclusion, a diagnosis of conversion disorder was made on the basis of the clinical picture and treatment with an SSRI antidepressant and individual psychotherapy were recommended. No improvement in mental and neurological status after six month therapy resulted in an in-depth diagnostics in a clinical setting and diagnosis of brain stem tumor (aastrocytoma fibrillare). (a) Neuroimaging is a source of important clinical data and in many cases should constitute an inherent element of a psychiatric diagnosis. (b) Diagnosis of conversion (dissociative) disorders requires a precise differential diagnosis, excluding the somatic causes of observed neurological ailments. (c) A late diagnosis of neurological or somatic causes of symptoms which arouse a suspicion of conversion (dissociative) disorders may make a radical treatment impossible or may considerably aggravate the remote prognosis and quality of the patients' life.

  14. Conversion disorder as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in suspected cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Xavier F; Sharma, Jennifer S; Dar, Syma A

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a form of conversion disorder, are paroxysmal episodes resembling epilepsy while lacking electrographic correlation. The phenomenon has rarely been reported in elderly patients and has not been associated with a new-onset medical diagnosis. We present the case of an 81-year-old female with no past psychiatric or traumatic history who developed PNES within the context of a new, suspected cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case of a suspected cancer (or otherwise medical) diagnosis contributing directly and temporally to the development of PNES. Discussion of involved psychosocial variables follows the vignette, and a brief review of relevant literature is offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Are psychogenic non-epileptic seizures just another symptom of conversion disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A A; Duncan, Roderick; Goldstein, Laura H; Jankovic, Joseph; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2017-05-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified with other functional neurological symptoms as 'Conversion Disorder', but there are reasons to wonder whether this symptomatology constitutes a distinct entity. We reviewed the literature comparing PNES with other functional neurological symptoms. We find eight studies that directly examined this question. Though all but one found significant differences-notably in presenting age, trauma history, and dissociation-they were divided on whether these differences represented an important distinction. We argue that the aetiological and mechanistic distinctions they support, particularly when bolstered by additional data, give reason to sustain a separation between these conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Filiz; Hocagil, Hilal; Izci, Servet; Izci, Vedat; Koc, Merve Iris; Acar, Rezzan Deniz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd), which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD). A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, Pconversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156). Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416±10 vs 398±12, Pdisorders was also observed in CD patients. QTc and QTd were significantly increased compared to the control group in patients with CD. These results suggest a possibility of increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia resulting from QTd in CD patients. Larger samples are needed to evaluate the clinical course and prognosis in terms of arrhythmia risk in CD patients.

  17. Problems with diagnosing Conversion Disorder in response to variable and unusual symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnum R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Richard BarnumPrivate practice, Child and adolescent psychiatry, MA, USAAbstract: Conversion Disorder (CD is a diagnosis offered to explain signs and symptoms that do not correspond to recognized medical conditions. Pediatric patients with variable, vague, and multisystem complaints are at increased risk for being diagnosed with CD. Little is known about the impact of such a diagnosis. In making such diagnoses, it is likely that pediatric providers hope to encourage patients to access mental health care, but no basis exists to show that these diagnoses result in such access in any useful way. This article presents the case of a child with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, who had been previously (incorrectly diagnosed with CD and referred for mental health care. It offers commentary based on interviews with other pediatric patients with similar experiences – conducted in collaboration with the Ehlers-Danlos National Foundation. These cases indicate that CD diagnoses can seriously undermine patients’ trust in doctors, and can create such defensiveness that it may interfere with (especially patients’ abilities to engage with mental health services. Such interference is an important problem, if the diagnosis is accurate. But, in the (more likely event that it is not accurate, this defensiveness can interfere with both important mental health care and further ongoing necessary medical care.Keywords: somatoform disorders, dysautonomias, pain, collagen diseases, mitochondrial diseases, complex regional pain syndromes

  18. Incidence and 12-month outcome of non-transient childhood conversion disorder in the U.K. and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Cornelius; Reading, Richard; Lynn, Richard; Forlee, Simone; Garralda, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about conversion disorder in childhood. To document clinical incidence, features, management and 12-month outcome of non-transient conversion disorder in under 16-year-olds in the U.K. and Ireland. Surveillance through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Surveillance System. In total, 204 cases (age range 7-15 years) were reported, giving a 12-month incidence of 1.30/100 000 (95% CI 1.11-1.52). The most common symptoms were motor weakness and abnormal movements. Presentation with multiple symptoms was the norm. Antecedent stressors were reported for 80.8%, most commonly bullying in school. Most children required in-patient admission with frequent medical investigations. Follow-up at 12 months was available for 147 children, when all conversion disorder symptoms were reported as improved. Most families (91%) accepted a non-medical explanation of the symptoms either fully or partially. Childhood conversion disorder represents an infrequent but significant clinical burden in the UK and Ireland.

  19. [When a patient falls (asleep) and can't get up: conversion disorder - Paraplegia following general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chawla LaToya

    2016-09-19

    This case report describes the rare occurrence of paraplegia caused by conversion disorder in a woman who received general anesthesia for breast surgery. A 46-year-old healthy woman received general anesthesia for excision of a left breast fibroepithelial lesion. In the post-anesthesia care unit, she reported bilateral loss of both sensation and motor function below the knees. Physical signs and symptoms did not correlate with any anatomical or neurological patterns; imaging revealed no abnormalities. Psychiatric consultation was performed wherein familial stressor circumstances were identified, leading to diagnosis and management of conversion disorder. Conversion disorder is characterized by alteration of physical function due to expression of an underlying psychological ailment. Its diagnosis requires thorough evaluation including appropriate workup to exclude organic causes. The meshing together of anesthesiology and psychiatry - as demonstrated by this case report - offers an opportunity to highlight important information pertaining to the definition, diagnosis, and management of conversion disorder as it may be encountered in the postanesthesia recovery period. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopic study of frontopolar activation during face-to-face conversation in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Noriko; Tagawa, Minami; Motegi, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Miho; Narita, Kosuke; Fukuda, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) patients show speech characteristics that vary greatly according to mood state. In a previous study, we found impaired temporal and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation in schizophrenia during face-to-face conversation; no study had, however, previously investigated mood disorders during face-to-face conversation. Here, we investigated frontal and temporal lobe activation during conversation in patients with MDD and BD. Frontal and temporal lobe activation was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 29 patients with MDD, 31 patients with BD, and 31 normal controls (NC). We compared continuous activation and rapid change of activation with talk/listen phase changes during the conversation and analyzed the correlation between these indices and clinical variables. Both the MDD and BD groups showed decreased continuous activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and left frontopolar cortices (FPCs); they also showed decreased rapid change in bilateral FPC activation. In the MDD group, the rapid change of activation was positively correlated with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. In the BD group, continuous activation was negatively correlated with age of onset. These results indicate that frontal activation during conversation decreases in both MDD and BD. However, both continuous activation and rapid change may reflect the pathophysiological character of MDD and BD; in particular, the reduced amount of rapid change in the right FPC may be related to impaired adaptive ability in MDD.

  1. Downwards Vertical Attention Bias in Conversion Disorder vs Controls: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Sivan; Elkana, Odelia; Dawidowicz, Liraz; Yeshayahu, Liel; Biran, Iftah

    2017-07-15

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a largely enigmatic disorder, one that requires a thorough ruling-out process. Prior research suggests that metaphors and conceptualization are rooted in physical experience, and that we interpret our affective world through metaphors. Spatial metaphors (interaction of affect and vertical space) are a prominent example of the grounding of metaphors. This is a relatively unpaved direction of research of CD. The present pilot study sought to explore this view by investigating the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphors (e.g., "fell ill" and "top shape") in patients with CD, examining the correlation between the processing of bodily-related words, CD, and vertical space. We hypothesized that patients with CD, who experience their bodies as ill, will demonstrate a downwards bias when processing bodily-related words; corresponding to the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphor. A total of 8 female patients (ages M-38.13 SD-10.44) and 42 female controls (ages M-36.4 SD-14.57) performed a visual attention task. Participants were asked to identify a spatial probe at the top or the bottom of a screen, following either a bodily related (e.g., arm) or non-bodily related (e.g., clock) prime word. As predicted, when processing bodily-related words, patients with CD demonstrated a downwards attention bias. Moreover, the higher the patient's level of somatization, the faster the patient detected lower (vs upper) spatial targets. This study suggests that the changed health paradigm of patients with CD is grounded in sensorimotor perception. Further research could propose new diagnostic and treatment options for CD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of brief interdisciplinary psychotherapeutic intervention for motor conversion disorder and nonepileptic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubschmid, M; Aybek, S; Maccaferri, G E; Chocron, O; Gholamrezaee, M M; Rossetti, A O; Vingerhoets, F; Berney, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to compare a brief interdisciplinary psychotherapeutic intervention to standard care as treatments for patients recently diagnosed with severe motor conversion disorder or nonepileptic attacks. This randomized controlled trial of 23 consecutive patients compared (a) an interdisciplinary psychotherapeutic intervention group receiving four to six sessions by a consultation liaison psychiatrist, the first and last sessions adding a neurological consultation and a joint psychiatric and neurological consultation, and (b) a standard care group. After intervention, patients were assessed at 2, 6 and 12 months with the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20), Clinical Global Impression scale, Rankin scale, use of medical care, global mental health [Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, mental health component of Short Form (SF)-36] and quality of life (SF-36). We calculated linear mixed models. Our intervention brought a statistically significant improvement of physical symptoms [as measured by the SDQ-20 (P<.02) and the Clinical Global Impression scale (P=.02)] and psychological symptoms [better scores on the mental health component of the SF-36 (P<.05) and on the Beck Depression Inventory (P<.05)] and a reduction in new hospital stays after intervention (P<.05). A brief psychotherapeutic intervention taking advantage of a close collaboration with neurology consultants in the setting of consultation liaison psychiatry appears effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge of conversion disorder in children by pediatricians in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukuba, A C; Ibekwe, R C; Odinka, P C; Muomah, R C; Nwoha, S O; Eze, C

    2015-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) in children presents the clinician with a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Mistaking a physical condition for CD carries serious consequences for the child while continued investigation in line with physical disease in a child with CD also may expose the child to serious harm. One hundred and seventy-four consenting doctors who attended a national conference of pediatricians were administered a 10 item questionnaire developed by the researchers. Only 5 (2.9%) of participants had good knowledge (scored above the mean plus one standard deviation of the score obtained by the psychiatry residents. Gender, rank, years of experience, availability of psychiatric service in center and duration of the psychiatry posting as the medical student could not differentiate those with good/fair knowledge from those without. However, those who have referred children for psychiatric assessment (P=0.015), those who believe that children can have CD (P=0.000) and those who are fairly confident that they could diagnose CD in children (P=0.000) had better knowledge of CD. Pediatricians have poor knowledge of CDs in children. Those that know that children could have the condition have confidence that they can identify children with the condition and have referred with mental health problems to psychiatrists have better knowledge than those who did not.

  4. Can motor imagery and hypnotic susceptibility explain Conversion Disorder with motor symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srzich, Alexander J; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, James W; Cirillo, John; Anson, J Greg

    2016-08-01

    Marked distortions in sense of agency can be induced by hypnosis in susceptible individuals, including alterations in subjective awareness of movement initiation and control. These distortions, with associated disability, are similar to those experienced with Conversion Disorder (CD), an observation that has led to the hypothesis that hypnosis and CD share causal mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationships among motor imagery (MI), hypnotic susceptibility, and CD, then to propose how MI ability may contribute to hypnotic responding and CD. Studies employing subjective assessments of mental imagery have found little association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility. A positive association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility becomes apparent when objective measures of imagery ability are employed. A candidate mechanism to explain motor responses during hypnosis is kinaesthetic MI, which engages a strategy that involves proprioception or the "feel" of movement when no movement occurs. Motor suppression imagery (MSI), a strategy involving inhibition of movement, may provide an alternate objective measurable phenomenon that underlies both hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Evidence to date supports the idea that there may be a positive association between kinaesthetic MI ability and hypnotic susceptibility. Additional evidence supports a positive association between hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Disturbances in kinaesthetic MI performance in CD patients indicate that MI mechanisms may also underlie CD symptoms. Further investigation of the above relationships is warranted to explain these phenomena, and establish theoretical explanations underlying sense of agency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Specialist inpatient treatment for severe motor conversion disorder: a retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ruaidhri; Moriarty, John; Mellers, John D; Shotbolt, Paul; Pastena, Rosa; Landes, Nadine; Goldstein, Laura; Fleminger, Simon; David, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    Gold standard protocols have yet to be established for the treatment of motor conversion disorder (MCD). There is limited evidence to support inpatient, multidisciplinary intervention in chronic, severe cases. To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of MCD patients admitted to a specialist neuropsychiatric inpatient unit. All patients admitted to the Lishman Unit (years 2007-2011) with a diagnosis of MCD were included. Data relevant to characteristics and status with regard to mobility, activities of daily living (ADLs) and Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score at admission and discharge were extracted. Thirty-three cases (78.8% female) were included; the median duration of illness was 48 months. In comparison with brain injury patients admitted to the same unit, more cases had histories of childhood sexual abuse (36.4%, n=12), premorbid non-dissociative mental illness (81.1%, n=27) and employment as a healthcare/social-care worker (45.5%, n=15). Cases showed significant improvements in MRS scores (p<0.001), mobility (p<0.001) and ADL (p=0.002) following inpatient treatment. Patients with severe, long-standing MCD can achieve significant improvements in functioning after admission to a neuropsychiatry unit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A prospective study of diagnostic conversion of major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Xie, Bin; Campbell, M Karen; Penava, Debbie; Hampson, Elizabeth; Mazmanian, Dwight; Pope, Carley J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of, and risk factors for, a change in diagnosis from major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder, and from bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder in pregnancy and postpartum. Patients with a prior history of major depressive disorder or bipolar II disorder were recruited between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation and followed through to one year postpartum. Diagnostic interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at study intake and repeated using the Mini-International Psychiatric Interview at one, three, six, and 12 months after childbirth. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the association between various risk factors and diagnostic switch. A total of 146 participants completed the intake interview and at least one follow-up interview postpartum. Of these, 92 were diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 54 with bipolar II disorder at intake. Six women (6.52%) experienced a diagnostic change from major depressive disorder to bipolar II disorder during the first six months after childbirth. There were no cases of switching to bipolar I disorder, but in one participant the diagnosis changed from bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder during the three months after childbirth. Bipolar switch was associated with a family history of bipolar disorder. The postpartum period appears to be a time of high risk for a new onset of hypomania in women with major depressive disorder. Our rate of diagnostic switching to bipolar II disorder (6.52%) is at least 11- to 18-fold higher than the rates of switching in similar studies conducted in both men and women. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Personality disorders and accentuations in at-risk persons with and without conversion to first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Michel, Chantal; Winkler, Karen; Ruhrmann, Stephan

    2012-11-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Cluster A personality disorders (PDs), particularly schizotypal PD, are considered a part of the schizophrenia spectrum and a risk factor of psychosis. The role of PDs and personality accentuations (PAs) in predicting conversion to psychosis was studied in patients symptomatically considered at risk, assuming a major role of the schizotypal subtype. PDs and PAs, assessed at baseline with a self-report questionnaire, were compared between risk-, gender- and age-matched at-risk patients with (n = 50) and without conversion to psychosis (n = 50). Overall, Cluster A-PDs were the least frequent cluster (14%), and schizotypal PD was rare (7%). Yet, PDs in general were frequent (46%), especially Cluster B- (31%) and C-PDs (23%). Groups did not differ in frequencies of PDs, yet converters tended to have a higher expression of schizoid (P = 0.057) and Cluster A-PAs (P = 0.027). In regression analyses, schizoid PA was selected as sole but weak predictor of conversion (OR = 1.685; 95% CIs: 1.134/2.504). Unexpectedly, schizotypal PD was infrequent and did not predict conversion. Conversion was best predicted by schizoid PA, indicating more severe, persistent social deficits already at baseline in later converters. This corresponds to premorbid social deficits reported for genetic high-risk children and low social functioning in at-risk patients later converting to psychosis. Further, PDs occurred frequently in at-risk patients irrespective of conversion. As psychopathology and personality relate closely to one another, this result highlights that, beyond the current narrow focus on schizotypal PD, personality-related factors should be considered more widely in the prevention of psychosis. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. What's on Your Mind? Conversation Topics Chosen by People With Degenerative Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders for Communication Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried-Oken, Melanie; Daniels, Darlene; Ettinger, Olivia; Mooney, Aimee; Noethe, Glory; Rowland, Charity

    2015-05-01

    Conversational topics chosen by a group of adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for personalized communication board development were examined. The patient-generated themes commonly selected are presented to guide treatment planning and communication board development. Communication boards were created for 109 adults as part of a larger research project. One autobiographical topic that each participant would enjoy discussing multiple times was represented on each communication board with 16 pictures and word labels. For this review, topics were collapsed into general themes through a consensus process and examined by gender and age. Sixty unique conversational topics were identified from 109 participants and collapsed into 9 general themes: Hobbies, Family, Travel, Work, Home/Places I've Lived, Sports/Fitness, Religion, Animals, and World War II. Age and gender produced variations in themes chosen, though no significance in rank orders was found across groups. Topics selected by adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for communication boards resemble common conversational adult themes and do not center around basic needs or medical issues. Differences in gender and age for topic selection tend to be based on traditional roles. These general themes should be used when creating personalized communication boards for those who benefit from conversational aids.

  9. The modified gait abnormality rating scale in patients with a conversion disorder: a reliability and responsiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Justin M; George, Deanna R; O'Leary, Andrea J; Olson, Lindsay C; Strassburg, Kaitlyn R; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with conversion disorder have neurologic symptoms that are not identified by an underlying organic cause. Often the symptoms manifest as gait disturbances. The modified gait abnormality rating scale (GARS-M) may be useful for quantifying gait abnormalities in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and concurrent validity of GARS-M scores in individuals with conversion disorder. Data from 27 individuals who completed a rehabilitation program were included in this study. Pre- and post-intervention videos were obtained and walking speed was measured. Five examiners independently evaluated gait performance according to the GARS-M criteria. Inter- and intrarater reliability of GARS-M scores were estimated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Responsiveness was estimated with the minimum detectable change (MDC). Pre- to post-treatment changes in GARS-M scores were analyzed with a dependent t-test. The correlation between GARS-M scores and walking speed was analyzed to assess concurrent validity. GARS-M scores were quantified with good-to-excellent inter- (ICC = 0.878) and intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.989). The MDC was 2 points. Mean GARS-M scores decreased from 7 ± 5 at baseline to 1 ± 2 at discharge (t26 = 7.411, p conversion disorder. GARS-M scores provide objective measures upon which treatment effects can be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. When neurological symptoms are not what they appear: the challenge of caring for patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, M F

    1993-09-01

    Conversion Disorders involve the psychogenic loss or disturbance of sensory, motor or other physical functions in a manner suggestive of neurologic or other somatic disease but without any actual finding of the latter. These problems are subconscious, with patients not being able to control their symptoms. Jean-Marie Charcot, in the 19th century, was fascinated with this disorder and his work, followed by that of Sigmund Freud, laid the foundation for our modern concept of Conversion Disorder. Multiple Sclerosis, with its fluctuating and unpredictable symptoms has frequently been erroneously diagnosed in these cases. The often bizarre, flamboyant presentations, while interesting, pose many difficult and complex management problems. This paper will describe three of the more severe and disabled examples of this condition seen in the London Multiple Sclerosis Clinic and an attempt will be made to uncover common patient characteristics. Current thoughts regarding the management of these patients will be outlined, the emphasis being on helping neuroscience nurses develop an approach which is informed, positive and compassionate.

  11. Transmural dispersion of repolarization and atrial electromechanical coupling: complementary indices for quantifying cardiac electrical heterogeneity in patients with conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokatli A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alptug Tokatli,1 Omer Yiginer,2 Gokhan Degirmencioglu,2 Fethi Kilicaslan,3 Mehmet Uzun2 1Department of Cardiology, Golcuk Military Hospital, Kocaeli, 2Department of Cardiology, GATA Haydarpasa Hospital, 3Department of Cardiology, Medipol University, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read with great interest the article entitled “P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder” by Izci et al1 in Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. In this well designed research, Izci et al studied QT dispersion (QTd and P-wave dispersion (Pd in patients with conversion disorder (CD. In conclusion, they reported that corrected QT (QTc and QTd values were significantly altered in patients with CD when compared to healthy controls, but that there was no significant difference in terms of Pd.Read the original article

  12. Disordered Speech Disrupts Conversational Entrainment: A study of Acoustic-prosodic Entrainment and Communicative Success in Populations with Communication Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anna Borrie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in other disciplines, this phenomenon has received limited attention in the field of speech pathology and the study of communication breakdowns in clinical populations. The current study examined acoustic-prosodic entrainment, as well as a measure of communicative success, in three distinctly different dialogue groups: (i healthy native vs. healthy native speakers (Control, (ii healthy native vs. foreign-accented speakers (Accented, and (iii healthy native vs. dysarthric speakers (Disordered. Dialogue group comparisons revealed significant differences in how the groups entrain on particular acoustic–prosodic features, including pitch, intensity, and jitter. Most notably, the Disordered dialogues were characterized by significantly less acoustic-prosodic entrainment than the Control dialogues. Further, a positive relationship between entrainment indices and communicative success was identified. These results suggest that the study of conversational entrainment in speech pathology will have essential implications for both scientific theory and clinical application in this domain.

  13. Disordered speech disrupts conversational entrainment: a study of acoustic-prosodic entrainment and communicative success in populations with communication challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Stephanie A; Lubold, Nichola; Pon-Barry, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in other disciplines, this phenomenon has received limited attention in the field of speech pathology and the study of communication breakdowns in clinical populations. The current study examined acoustic-prosodic entrainment, as well as a measure of communicative success, in three distinctly different dialogue groups: (i) healthy native vs. healthy native speakers (Control), (ii) healthy native vs. foreign-accented speakers (Accented), and (iii) healthy native vs. dysarthric speakers (Disordered). Dialogue group comparisons revealed significant differences in how the groups entrain on particular acoustic-prosodic features, including pitch, intensity, and jitter. Most notably, the Disordered dialogues were characterized by significantly less acoustic-prosodic entrainment than the Control dialogues. Further, a positive relationship between entrainment indices and communicative success was identified. These results suggest that the study of conversational entrainment in speech pathology will have essential implications for both scientific theory and clinical application in this domain.

  14. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: jie.wang2@osumc.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Osei, Kwame [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Primary proinsulin maturation disorder is inherent in Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells. {yields} A consequence is the inefficient conversion of proinsulin to insulin. {yields} Post-translational defects occur as well in the involved PC1/3 and PC2 convertases. {yields} Proinsulin maturation chaos results in defects in the following conversion process. {yields} A link of the proinsulin maturation disorder and hyperproinsulinemia is suggested. -- Abstract: Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia is an indicator of {beta}-cell dysfunction in diabetes and the basis underlying this abnormality remains obscure. Recently, we have found proinsulin is an aggregation-prone molecule inherent with a low relative folding rate and maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO) in normal {beta}-cells as a result of the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to environmental and genetic influences. Perturbation of PIHO produces a number of toxic consequences with known association to {beta}-cell failure in diabetes. To explore whether the perturbation of PIHO has a link to disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia, we investigated proinsulin conversion and the involved prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) in mouse Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells that preserve a primary PIHO disorder due to a mutation (C96Y) in the insulin 2 (Ins2) gene. Our metabolic-labeling studies found an increased ratio of proinsulin to insulin in the cellular or released proteins of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets. Histological, metabolic-labeling, and RT-PCR analyses revealed decreases of the PC1/3 and PC2 immunoreactivities in the {beta}-cells of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets in spite of no declines of these two convertases at the transcriptional and translational levels. Immunoblot analyses in cloned Ins2{sup +/Akita} {beta}-cells further confirmed the increased ratio of proinsulin

  15. La belle indifférence revisited: a case report on progressive supranuclear palsy misdiagnosed as conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Meerkerk-Aanen PJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Petra J van Meerkerk-Aanen,1 Lars de Vroege,1,2 David Khasho,1 Aziza Foruz,1 J Thies van Asseldonk,3 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis1,2 1Clinical Center of Excellence for Body, Mind, and Health, GGz Breburg, 2Department Tranzo, Tilburg School of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Tilburg University, 3Department of Neurology, Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, the Netherlands Background: Since the advent of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurological disorders have less often been falsely labeled as conversion disorder (CD. However, misdiagnosis of a neurological disorder as CD still occurs, especially in cases with insidious onset. Misinterpretation of la belle indifférence may contribute to such misdiagnosis. Here, we describe a case of progressive supranuclear palsy/Richardson’s syndrome (PSPS misdiagnosed as a case of CD.Case: A 62-year-old woman consulted two different neurologists in 2012 because of falling spells since 2009 and was diagnosed with CD. She was referred to the Clinical Center of Excellence for Body, Mind, and Health for treatment of CD. After neurological examination, blood tests, and psychiatric examination, in which la belle indifférence and a history of incest were found, CD was confirmed. However, despite treatment for CD, the patient’s physical symptoms deteriorated over a year. After repeated physical and psychiatric examinations, neurocognitive assessment, and consultation with a third neurologist because of suspicion of neurological disease, the patient was diagnosed with PSPS.Conclusion: La belle indifférence may be a psychological sign in the context of CD, but it may also be an expression of lack of mimic due to Parkinsonism or of eye movement disorder in the context of neurological illness. A diagnosis of CD should not be considered definitive if no improvement occurs in terms of physical, mental, and cognitive symptoms despite appropriate therapy. In case of deterioration, neurological

  16. La belle indifférence revisited: a case report on progressive supranuclear palsy misdiagnosed as conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerkerk-Aanen, Petra J; de Vroege, Lars; Khasho, David; Foruz, Aziza; van Asseldonk, J Thies; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2017-01-01

    Since the advent of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurological disorders have less often been falsely labeled as conversion disorder (CD). However, misdiagnosis of a neurological disorder as CD still occurs, especially in cases with insidious onset. Misinterpretation of la belle indifférence may contribute to such misdiagnosis. Here, we describe a case of progressive supranuclear palsy/Richardson's syndrome (PSPS) misdiagnosed as a case of CD. A 62-year-old woman consulted two different neurologists in 2012 because of falling spells since 2009 and was diagnosed with CD. She was referred to the Clinical Center of Excellence for Body, Mind, and Health for treatment of CD. After neurological examination, blood tests, and psychiatric examination, in which la belle indifférence and a history of incest were found, CD was confirmed. However, despite treatment for CD, the patient's physical symptoms deteriorated over a year. After repeated physical and psychiatric examinations, neurocognitive assessment, and consultation with a third neurologist because of suspicion of neurological disease, the patient was diagnosed with PSPS. La belle indifférence may be a psychological sign in the context of CD, but it may also be an expression of lack of mimic due to Parkinsonism or of eye movement disorder in the context of neurological illness. A diagnosis of CD should not be considered definitive if no improvement occurs in terms of physical, mental, and cognitive symptoms despite appropriate therapy. In case of deterioration, neurological reexamination and reinterpretation of la belle indifférence should be considered.

  17. [What would you do when faced with a Muslim patient with a conversational disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gandolfi, A; Rodríguez Mir, J

    2017-09-07

    The purpose of this work is to present the approach to mental disorders in Moroccan patients from a sociocultural perspective. The anthropology of health and ethno-psychiatry will allow us to analyze the concepts of health and disease. From the Moroccan cosmovision we will analyze the alternative treatments and their association with other therapeutic models. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Conversion from depression to bipolar disorder in a cohort of young people in England, 1999-2011: A national record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony; Wotton, Clare J; Duffy, Anne; Hoang, Uy; Goldacre, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the conversion rate from unipolar depression (ICD10 codes F32-F33) to bipolar disorder (BP) (ICD10 codes F31) in an English national cohort. It was hypothesised that early-onset BP (age disorder, with a more rapid, and higher rate of conversion from depression to BP. This record linkage study used English national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) covering all NHS inpatient and day case admissions between 1999 and 2011. The overall rate of conversion from depression to BP for all ages was 5.65% (95% CI: 5.48-5.83) over a minimum 4-year follow-up period. The conversion rate from depression to BP increased in a linear manner with age from 10-14 years - 2.21% (95% C: 1.16-4.22) to 30-34 years - 7.06% (95% CI: 6.44-7.55) (F1,23=77.6, p=0.001, R(2)=0.77). The time to conversion was constant across the age range. The rate of conversion was higher in females (6.77%; 95% CI: 6.53-7.02) compared to males, (4.17%; 95% CI: 3.95-4.40) (χ(2)=194, pconversion rate from depression to bipolar disorder with age, and constant time for conversion across the age range does not support the notion that early-onset BP is a more severe form of the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Do Children with Social Communication Disorder Have Explicit Knowledge of Pragmatic Rules They Break? A Comparison of Conversational Pragmatic Ability and Metapragmatic Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine; Collins, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children who have social communication disorder (CwSCD) demonstrate persistent difficulties with language pragmatics in conversations and other verbal interactions. Speech-language interventions for these children often include promotion of metapragmatic awareness (MPA); that is, the ability to identify explicitly and reflect upon…

  20. Rates and predictors of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder after the first lifetime episode of depression--a prospective 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, J D; Andersen, P K; Kessing, L V

    2016-04-01

    In depression, non-remission, recurrence of depressive episodes after remission and conversion to bipolar disorder are crucial determinants of poor outcome. The present study aimed to determine the cumulative incidences and clinical predictors of these long-term outcomes after the first lifetime episode of depression. A total of 301 in- or out-patients aged 18-70 years with a validated diagnosis of a single depressive episode were assessed from 2005 to 2007. At 5 years of follow-up, 262 patients were reassessed by means of the life chart method and diagnostic interviews from 2011 to 2013. Cumulative incidences and the influence of clinical variables on the rates of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder, respectively, were estimated by survival analysis techniques. Within 5 years, 83.3% obtained remission, 31.5% experienced recurrence of depression and 8.6% converted to bipolar disorder (6.3% within the first 2 years). Non-remission increased with younger age, co-morbid anxiety and suicidal ideations. Recurrence increased with severity and treatment resistance of the first depression, and conversion to bipolar disorder with treatment resistance, a family history of affective disorder and co-morbid alcohol or drug abuse. The identified clinical characteristics of the first lifetime episode of depression should guide patients and clinicians for long-term individualized tailored treatment.

  1. The use of conversation analysis to study social accessibility of an online support group on eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommel, Wyke; Meijman, Frans J

    2011-06-01

    We conducted a conversation analysis of 21 threads initiated by newcomers of an online support group (OSG) on eating disorders, to examine the discursive process of entering such a group. The analysis revealed three important issues. First, many newcomers articulate that the step to join the group is extremely difficult. Second, a presentation of the self in terms of a diagnosis works as a legitimization for joining the forum. The data suggest that participants who do not fulfil the conditions for such a legitimization do not join the forum. Third, the option of acquiring a serious symptom as a solution to the legitimization problem is offered by one of the regular members. Hence, the newcomers' discourse reveals issues relevant to the accessibility for undiagnosed sufferers. We discuss these findings theoretically as a phenomenon of self-presentation in relation to community norms. The analysis generates the hypothesis that newcomers are confronted with implicit norms regarding membership legitimacy that they should obey in their self-presentation, although they may not be ready yet to actually do so. OSGs should find strategies to facilitate various possibilities for newcomers to present themselves to the group while becoming a member.

  2. Evidence for somatic gene conversion and deletion in bipolar disorder, Crohn's disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, type-1 diabetes, and type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2011-02-03

    During gene conversion, genetic information is transferred unidirectionally between highly homologous but non-allelic regions of DNA. While germ-line gene conversion has been implicated in the pathogenesis of some diseases, somatic gene conversion has remained technically difficult to investigate on a large scale. A novel analysis technique is proposed for detecting the signature of somatic gene conversion from SNP microarray data. The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium has gathered SNP microarray data for two control populations and cohorts for bipolar disorder (BD), cardiovascular disease (CAD), Crohn's disease (CD), hypertension (HT), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type-1 diabetes (T1D) and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Using the new analysis technique, the seven disease cohorts are analyzed to identify cohort-specific SNPs at which conversion is predicted. The quality of the predictions is assessed by identifying known disease associations for genes in the homologous duplicons, and comparing the frequency of such associations with background rates. Of 28 disease/locus pairs meeting stringent conditions, 22 show various degrees of disease association, compared with only 8 of 70 in a mock study designed to measure the background association rate (P conversion could be a significant causative factor in each of the seven diseases. The specific genes provide potential insights about disease mechanisms, and are strong candidates for further study.

  3. Comparisons of childhood trauma, alexithymia, and defensive styles in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures vs. epilepsy: Implications for the etiology of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marcia J; Dwivedi, Alok K; Privitera, Michael D; Isaacs, Kelly; Hughes, Cynthia; Bowman, Michelle

    2013-08-01

    It has been theorized that conversion disorder is the result of emotion that cannot be experienced consciously as feeling states or put into words (i.e., alexithymia), but there is little confirming empirical evidence. We sought to characterize subjects with conversion disorder compared to subjects with a distinct medical illness, using the model of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) vs. epilepsy (ES), on measures of childhood traumatic experience, alexithymia and maturity of psychological defensive strategies. All subjects admitted to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center were offered self-report questionnaires (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Response Evaluation Measure-71) at the outset of evaluation. Diagnosis of each subject was confirmed by video-EEG and we compared subjects with PNES to those with ES on these measures. 82 subjects had ES AND 96 had PNES. Those with PNES were significantly more likely to have experienced childhood trauma in all domains (p=.005 to p=.05), and were significantly more likely to have alexithymia (p=.0267). There was a significant difference in the capacity to identify feelings, and a trend towards significance in capacity to describe feelings. There were no differences in defensive styles between the two groups. PNES diagnosis was associated with female sex, higher alexithymia scores and higher rates of childhood trauma, but not with differences in defensive styles compared to ES. These findings add empirical evidence for theories regarding the cause of conversion disorder and may aid in the design of prospective treatment trials in patients with conversion disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of effective treatments: the case of an adolescent girl with anorexia nervosa in the context of a conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mandy; Madden, Sloane; Peters, Lorna

    2013-04-01

    The use of empirically supported treatment (EST) has been shown to enhance treatment outcome. The purpose of this case study was to suggest that ESTs further encourage effective reconceptualisation and the ongoing delivery of effective treatment, especially in the case of complex or atypical presentations or response to treatment. This report describes the case of an adolescent girl who underwent Maudsley family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) for a period of 12 months. Atypical response lead to an understanding of her presentation as representing a primary conversion disorder, within which AN symptoms were conceptualised as another somatic conversion of emotional distress. The report details her clinical presentation and management over the course of her illness. The case offers an important opportunity to explore the central role of the use of ESTs in guiding effective treatment delivery.

  5. Conversion of broadband IR radiation and structural disorder in lithium niobate single crystals with low photorefractive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Man Nen; Syuy, Alexander V.; Krishtop, Victor V.; Pogodina, Veronika A.; Ponomarchuk, Yulia V.; Sidorov, Nikolay V.; Gabain, Aleksei A.; Palatnikov, Mikhail N.; Litvinov, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    The conversion of broadband IR radiation when the noncritical phase matching condition is fulfilled in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals with stoichiometric (R = Li/Nb = 1) and congruent (R = 0.946) compositions, as well as in congruent single crystals doped with zinc has been investigated. It is shown that the spectrum parameters of converted radiation, such as the conversion efficiency, spectral width and position of maximum, depend on the ordering degree of structural units of the cation sublattice along the polar axis of crystal.

  6. A Case of Neurological Symptoms and Severe Urinary Retention on a Pediatric Ward: Is this Conversion Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Varinderjit; Roberts, Nasreen

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: a) Illustrer le rôle étiologique de l’abus sexuel et physique dans le développement d’un trouble de conversion chez l’enfant; b) souligner l’importance des soins en collaboration dans les cas de trouble de conversion; c) identifier les domaines ou besoins particuliers pour la recherche future en la matière. MÉTHODE: Nous discutons du cas d’une jeune fille de 15 ans qui a été hospitalisée en pédiatrie pour des plaintes neurologiques, principalement de rétention urinaire, inexpliquées sur le plan médical, La psychiatrie a été consultée après que toutes les investigations somatiques ont été menées. La patiente a été transférée en psychiatrie et nous présentons le déroulement de ce cas. La pédiatrie et la psychiatrie ont élaboré un plan de prise en charge en collaboration. RÉSULTATS: Initialement, la patiente présentait des tremblements, une grave rétention urinaire et une constipation. Après sa deuxième admission en pédiatrie, pour grave rétention urinaire, la jeune fille a révélé des abus sexuels et physiques chroniques et de la négligence. CONCLUSIONS: Les symptômes de conversion surviennent souvent dans des cas de graves stress psychologiques, notamment l’abus sexuel et physique. Ce cas souligne l’importance de la collaboration professionnelle interdisciplinaire dans la prise en charge des présentations complexes de symptômes inexpliqués et de stresseurs psychosociaux.

  7. Everyday social and conversation applications of theory-of-mind understanding by children with autism-spectrum disorders or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Garnett, Michelle; Kelly, Adrian; Attwood, Tony

    2009-02-01

    Children with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) often fail laboratory false-belief tests of theory of mind (ToM). Yet how this impacts on their everyday social behavior is less clear, partly owing to uncertainty over which specific everyday conversational and social skills require ToM understanding. A new caregiver-report scale of these everyday applications of ToM was developed and validated in two studies. Study 1 obtained parent ratings of 339 children (85 with autism; 230 with Asperger's; 24 typically-developing) on the new scale and results revealed (a) that the scale had good psychometric properties and (b) that children with ASD had significantly more everyday mindreading difficulties than typical developers. In Study 2, we directly tested links between laboratory ToM and everyday mindreading using teacher ratings on the new scale. The sample of 25 children included 15 with autism and 10 typical developers aged 5-12 years. Children in both groups who passed laboratory ToM tests had fewer everyday mindreading difficulties than those of the same diagnosis who failed. Yet, intriguingly, autistic ToM-passers still had more problems with everyday mindreading than younger typically-developing ToM-failers. The possible roles of family conversation and peer interaction, along with ToM, in everyday social functioning were considered.

  8. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  9. Conversational Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelisti, Anita L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines narcissistic communication and the ways it is exhibited in everyday conversation. Identifies the following behavioral referents: boasting, refocusing the topic of conversation on the self, exaggerating hand and body movements, using a loud tone of voice, and "glazing over" when others speak. Suggests that conversational…

  10. Contentious Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  11. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  12. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  13. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  14. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  15. Conversational Telugu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  16. The effect of lameness treatments and treatments for other health disorders on the weight gain and feed conversion in boars at a Danish test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; houe, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Lameness in finishers can cause economic losses to farmers and lameness affects the welfare of pigs. In order to study the economic losses, we investigated the effect of lameness on productivity, measured as the mean daily weight gain (MDWG) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR), and evaluated...

  17. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  18. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  19. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  20. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study

  1. Perspectives on functional and hyperkinetic movement disorders : Phenomenology & pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, S.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional movement disorders (FMD), previously known as conversion disorders or psychogenic movement disorders, are abnormal movements which cannot be attributed to other neurological disorders. FMD are frequently encountered in movement disorder outpatient clinics. Yet, most neurologists consider

  2. Teaching Children with Autism to Respond to Conversation Partners' Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lindsay C.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Successful conversation requires that the speaker's behavior is sensitive to nonvocal listener responses. We observed children with autism spectrum disorder during conversation probes in which a listener periodically displayed nonvocal cues that she was uninterested in the conversation. We used behavioral skills training to teach conversation…

  3. Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Bitter Melon Seed Oil-Corrected Lipid Disorders and Conversion of α-Eleostearic Acid into Rumenic Acid in C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yuan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα in BMSO-modulated lipid disorders and α-ESA metabolism. C57BL/6J wild (WD and PPARα knockout (KO mice were fed a high-fat diet containing BMSO (15% soybean oil + 15% BMSO, HB or not (30% soybean oil, HS for 5 weeks. The HB diet significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride concentrations and increased acyl-CoA oxidase activity in WD, but not in KO mice. However, regardless of genotype, body fat percentage was lowered along with upregulated protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and tyrosine hydroxylase, as well as signaling pathway of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the white adipose tissue of HB-treated groups compared to HS cohorts. In WD-HB and KO-HB groups, white adipose tissue had autophagy, apoptosis, inflammation, and browning characteristics. Without PPARα, in vivo reduction of α-ESA into rumenic acid was slightly but significantly lowered, along with remarkable reduction of hepatic retinol saturase (RetSat expression. We concluded that BMSO-mediated anti-steatosis depended on PPARα, whereas the anti-adiposity effect was PPARα-independent. In addition, PPARα-dependent enzymes may participate in α-ESA conversion, but only have a minor role.

  4. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  5. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  6. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  7. NGL data conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  8. Uranium conversion; Conversion de l`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the activities of the Comurhex company, created in 1971 and which became a 100% Cogema`s daughter company in 1992. The Comurhex company is in charge of the conversion of natural uranium into gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The two steps of the conversion operation are performed in the Malvesi and Pierrelatte (France) industrial sites and represent 31% (14000 t/year) of the uranium conversion capacity of western countries. The refining and UF{sub 4} production (Malvesi) and the UF{sub 6} fabrication (Pierrelatte) processes are described. Comurhex is also one of the few companies in the world which produces UF{sub 6} from the uranium of spent fuels. (J.S.)

  9. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  10. Conversational Responsiveness and Assertiveness in Language-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski-McClendon, Mary Kay; Newhoff, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    The conversational responsiveness and assertiveness of 10 language-disordered children (4:1 to 5:9 years old) was compared to that of 10 non-impaired younger children matched for language ability. Results indicated that the handicapped children responded to questions less often but were as assertive in conversation as normal children. (DB)

  11. The Conversation Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  12. Content for Conversation Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  13. Canning Canned Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Michael P.; Daigaku, Sanyo

    Ways to improve the role-playing conversations found in most second language textbooks are outlined. It is argued that the conversations are often restrictive, dull, and repetitive, and students respond to them in kind. The teacher can make the target language used more interesting by creating new characters, situations, settings, or objectives.…

  14. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  15. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  16. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms. PMID:22039428

  17. Predictability of conversation partners

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, Song et al. (2010) found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one's conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one's next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between close sensor nodes. We find t...

  18. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  19. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  20. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  1. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  2. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  3. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  4. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  5. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  6. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  7. Managing social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how companies can manage (monitor and control) social media conversations. Regardless of the companies’ presence in social media networks, they or their industry are constantly being discussed in social media. Therefore organisations should be present in social media, monitor and participate in conversations, in order to turn them into their benefit. There are software and services available to help in monitoring. Variety of tools and statistic de...

  8. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  9. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  10. Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.

  11. Introduction to Conversation Analysis with examples from audiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    In this brief presentation of Conversation Analysis (“CA”), we take up some of the communication problems associated with hearing loss and link them to conversation analytic concepts. We explain how attempts to control the conversation, embarrassment and miscommunication can be analyzed as intera......In this brief presentation of Conversation Analysis (“CA”), we take up some of the communication problems associated with hearing loss and link them to conversation analytic concepts. We explain how attempts to control the conversation, embarrassment and miscommunication can be analyzed...... as interactional achievements in the areas of turn-taking, repair and nonverbal actions. The chapter also explains which kinds of data are used in CA, how the participants’ perspective is analyzed and some of the theoretical assumptions underlying the analysis. Examples of transcribed interactional sequences...... with hearing loss illustrate how turn-taking, eye gaze and trouble in hearing/understanding (“repair”) are sensitive to this communication disorder....

  12. Conversion Deafness Presenting as Sudden Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Piao Wang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion deafness is a somatoform disorder characterized by hearing loss without an anatomic or pathophysiologic lesion. Clinically, discrepancies between behavior hearing thresholds and objective electrophysiologic examinations, such as impedance audiometry, otoacoustic emissions (OAE, and auditory brainstem response (ABR, will raise the suspicion of this disorder. It is judged to be due to psychological factors and that patients do not intentionally produce the symptom. Conversion deafness is sometimes reported in children but is extremely rare among adults. Two young adults with this disease are presented. These 2 patients were both under enormous stress from the national entrance examinations for universities. Pure tone audiometry showed bilateral hearing deterioration, but OAE and ABR were normal. The hearing of both patients recovered after treatment. The diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of this disorder are also discussed. It is important to discover the psychological stress in patients with conversion deafness. This report aims to increase awareness of this condition and avoid unnecessary steroid use in its treatment.

  13. Influencing Factors of Alexithymia in Patients with Separation and Conversion Disorder in a Hospital in Taizhou%台州市某医院分离转换性障碍患者述情障碍影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玲娟; 徐凌燕; 陈萧萧

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析台州市某医院分离转换性障碍患者述情障碍的影响因素.方法:采用多伦多述情障碍量表对226例分离转换性障碍患者进行问卷调查,采用单因素分析和Logistic多元回归分析法探讨分离转换性障碍患者述情障碍的影响因素.结果:分离转换性障碍患者述情障碍发生率为40.71%,述情障碍总分为(63.53±13.04)分.述情障碍组和非述情障碍组年龄、性格、人格特质、抑郁、焦虑比例比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Logistic多元回归分析显示,人格特质、性格、抑郁和焦虑为分离转换性障碍患者述情障碍的独立危险因素.结论:述情障碍在分离转换性障碍患者中常见,受人格特质、性格、抑郁和焦虑等因素影响,医护人员可将这些影响因素作为为突破口进行临床干预.%Objective:To explore the influencing factors of alexithymia in patients with separation and conversion disorder .Methods:About 226 patients with separation and conversion disorder were asked to fill the Toronto Alexithymia Scale .The single factor analysis and Logistic re-gression analysis were used to explore the factors of alexithymia in patients with separation and conversion disorder.Results: The incidence of alexithymia was 40.71%.The total score of alexithymia was (63.53 ±13.04).There is significant difference in age, character, personality, de-pression, anxiety in the alexithymia group and the non-alexithymia group(P<0.05).Logistic regression analysis showed that the personality, character, depression, anxiety were the independent risk factors of alexithymia in patients with separation and conversion disorder(P <0.05). Conclusion: The alexithymia was very common in patients with separation and conversion disorder, and it was influenced by many factors.The medical staff could start from the factors to improve the condition of alexithymia .

  14. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  15. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  16. Direct conversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  17. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    on - and support “positive deviants” (Pascal, Sternin and Sternin) – courageous individuals and groups (inmates as well as staff) who transform conversations into new actions and behavioral traits that become beckons of an improved future. In the following we explore concrete examples of efforts at improving......Some would say this article is an impossibility - the authors being a project manager from the Department of Prisons an (ex) inmate and a Designer doing an industrial PhD in the prisons. We hope that others may see this article as an embodiment of how taking part in new conversations...... and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...

  18. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  19. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  20. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  1. 分离(转换)性障碍患者疑病、偏执与自动思维的相关性研究%Correlation between hypochondria,paranoia and automatic thoughts of patients with dissociative (conversion)disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明辉; 刘纪洲; 周朝当

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between hypochondria,paranoia and automatic thoughts of patients with dissocia-tive (conversion)disorder,Method 32 patients with dissociative (conversion)disorder,they were assess by Hypochondria Scale (Hs),Paranoia Scale (Ps) of MMPI -2,The Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RS-ES),compare score between patient and norm,and correlation analysis between each other,Result the score of Hs,Ps were higher in patients with dissociative (conversion)disorder than in norm (t=5.99,4.66,P<0.01),result of the thoughts of patients,has protruding negative idea was 21 case,no protruding negative idea was 11 case,have highly negative correlation between paranoia and automatic thoughts (r=-0.697,P<0.01 ),have significance negative correlation between paranoia and hypochondria (r =-0.395 ,P<0.05 ),result of regression analysis,score of automatic thoughts reverse prediction to hypochondria the prediction degree was 48.6%,automatic thoughts prediction to paranoia the prediction degree was 14.5%,Conclusion the patients with dissociative (conversion)disorder mainly in conversion symptoms of the body was existence high paranoia and fixation psychological traits,mainly in mood derangement symptoms was existence high hypochondria and negative psychological traits.%目的:探讨分离(转换)性障碍患者疑病、偏执心理特质及与自动思维的相关。方法:对32例分离(转换)性障碍患者进行MMPI-2中疑病、偏执量表评定和自动思维问卷、自信心量表评定,得分与常模比较及进行相互间相关分析。结果:分离(转换)性障碍患者疑病、偏执得分高于常模(t=5.99,4.66,P<0.01),自动思维结果中,有突出消极观念21例、消极观念不突出11例,偏执与自动思维呈高度负相关(r=-0.697,P<0.01),偏执与疑病呈负相关(r=-0.395,P<0.05),回归分析结果显示,自动思维得分对

  2. Gender Differences in Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛媛

    2014-01-01

    Men and women applied language distinct from each other in many ways. The thesis gives an illustration of gender dif-ferences in conversation and different interpretive frames within which the discourse between men and women take place. More profoundly, it tries to explain them from perspective of socialization.

  3. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  4. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  5. Solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, George W.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience.

  6. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  7. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  8. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  9. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  10. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither sing...

  11. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  12. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  13. Tongue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  14. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  15. Virtual conversation partner for adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepagnier, Cheryl Y; Olsen, Dale E; Boteler, Laura; Bell, Corinne A

    2011-01-01

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is notable for severely impaired reciprocal social interaction skills relative to language and intellectual abilities, presenting a major barrier to social integration and vocational success. Evidence-based interventions to address these needs are lacking. We report on the development of a small, prototype conversation simulation to teach conversational skills to adolescents and adults with ASD and average to superior intellectual abilities. We also report on a test of the feasibility and acceptability of the simulation approach with a sample of the target population. The simulation engages the user in a virtual conversation with an on-screen partner whose reactions provide naturalistic feedback geared to the appropriateness of the learner's response choices. The prototype simulation, which provides for up to 12 potentially unique multi-turn conversations, was used over a period of 2 weeks by 16 adolescents and adults who then rated statements about the system on a linear scale of 1 (disagreement) to 5 (high agreement). The participants highly endorsed the majority of positive statements about the quality and credibility of the interaction and the virtual conversation partner. In contrast, agreement with positive statements about instructional features external to the conversation was moderate. Unexpectedly, most participants strongly agreed that using the simulation had been helpful to them. Further development and testing in the context of a controlled study with randomized assignment to control and experimental groups are needed to determine whether this approach is effective in improving real-world pragmatic language behavior of high-functioning adults with ASD.

  16. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and relationships may allow us to transcend the barriers of our formal positions. To us it is a testimony of the struggles and the good times we have shared while attempting to improve life in prisons. Also, this is an occasion for reflection on what we have learned from the process. The User Driven Innovation (in...... for guards. It has turned the focus of the organization towards the importance of relationship-building. In 2011 the Director General and the Prison Governors stated that building positive relations is the most important future task for Danish prisons both in regards to improving prison environments...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  17. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  18. Les conversions de cens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche entamée sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, la réflexion s’est dirigée vers la question de la conversion, c’est-à-dire du passage d’une forme à une autre dans la mesure des valeurs (argent contre nature, objets dont l’usage se transforme en s’échangeant, conversions monétaires. Un cycle de trois rencontres est prévu afin de débrouiller une question complexe qui devrait permettre au groupe d’éclairer la question de la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge. La...

  19. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  20. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  1. Natural gas conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  2. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    This chapter presents an overview of ocean energy conversion in respect of its significance as the renewable energy resources. It deals with the thermodynamic principles relating to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Besides, it provides an in...

  3. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  4. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  5. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  6. Special Features in Children's Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Merja

    In a study of features that seem to be typical of children's conversations, 10 Finnish preschool children's conversations were videotaped and audiotaped over a period of 10 hours. The children were taped in conversation, play, fairy tale, and eating situations. Among the findings are that all children enjoy playing with language, but some initiate…

  7. The Application of Conversational Implicature in Doctor-Patient Conversation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-patient conversation is the major way of communication between doctors and patients. A good conversa-tion helps to construct a harmonious doctor-patient relationship. This paper attempts to analyze the doctor-patient conversation by applying the Theory of Conversational Implicature. The theory is accepted as the cooperative principle consisting of four max-ims:quantity, quality, relation, manner. This paper will analyse how the four maxims work and the violating of the maxims in the doctor-patient conversation. Through linguistic study of the conversation, we try to find out the problems in the doctor-patient conversation and to provide some directive linguistic suggestions to doctors and patients.

  8. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  9. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  10. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  11. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin;

    that ensures phase matching over a broad spectral range in the BBO crystal. Since the tuning mechanism relies on all-passive components with extremely short response times the proposed method is well suited for short pulse, broad bandwidth laser sources like mode-locked lasers or super-continuum sources......We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    . The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  13. Communication in conversation in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile

    2010-07-01

    In stroke patients, it has been suggested that communication disorders could result from lexical and syntactic disorders in left hemisphere lesions and from pragmatics problems in right lesions. However, we have little information on patient behaviour in dyadic communication, especially in conversation. Here, we analyzed the various processes participating in communication difficulties at the rehabilitation phase (1-6 months) post-stroke, in order to define the main mechanisms of verbal and non-verbal communication (VC, NVC) disorders and their relationship with aphasic disorders. Sixty-three patients were recruited, who belonged to six groups, with left or right cortico-sub-cortical (L-CSC, R-CSC) or sub-cortical (L-SC, R-SC), frontal (Fro) or posterior fossa (PF) lesions. They were compared with an equivalent control group (gender, age, education level). We used the Lille Communication Test, which comprises three parts: participation to communication (greeting, attention, engagement), verbal communication (verbal comprehension, speech outflow, intelligibility, word production, syntax, verbal pragmatics and verbal feedback) and non-verbal communication (understanding gestures, affective expressivity, producing gestures, pragmatics and feedback). We also used the Functional Communication Profile and the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Decrease in participation was found in L-CSC, R-CSC and Fro patients. Verbal communication was essentially disrupted in L-SCS and L-SC groups, including by verbal pragmatic disorders, and to a lesser degree in frontal patients. Nonverbal communication was mainly affected in R-CSC patients, especially by pragmatic difficulties. L-CSC patients showed an increase in gesture production, compensating for aphasia. In conclusion, communication disorders were relatively complex and could not be summarised by syntactical and lexical difficulties in left stroke and pragmatic problems in right stroke. The former also showed severe

  14. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  15. Equipment for gas conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    Equipment is proposed for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv), possibly in a mixture with air, in order to produce an inorganic gas, which chiefly consists of H2 and COx. It consists of a reaction pipe made of an inorganic refractory ceramic and equipped along the wall circumference with heaters. The reaction pipe is filled with a combined, multilayer catalyst (Kt) carrier, made of gamma-A1203 which in the transverse cross section has a multipore reticular or fibrous structure. Replacement of the traditional steel (St) materials for the walls of the reaction pipe with ceramic materials reduces the output of the hydrocarbon which contaminates the surface (Pv) of the catalyst; the use of a multilayer carrier for the catalyst made of gamma-A1203 with a porous reticular or fibrous structure reduces the pressure losses in the reactor and facilitates the replacement of the spent catalyst. The equipment is designed for vapor conversion of natural gas, C3H8, and vapors of kerosene, naphtha and so on.

  16. Attention and postural control in patients with conversion paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, John F.; Kempe, C. Lianne A.; Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Beek, Peter J.; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Current theories of conversion disorder (CD) propose that motor symptoms are related to heightened self-monitoring and excessive cognitive control of movements. We tested this hypothesis using quantification of performance on a continuous perceptuo-motor task involving quiet standing. Methods: Twelv

  17. Attention and postural control in patients with conversion paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, John F.; Kempe, C. Lianne A.; Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Beek, Peter J.; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Current theories of conversion disorder (CD) propose that motor symptoms are related to heightened self-monitoring and excessive cognitive control of movements. We tested this hypothesis using quantification of performance on a continuous perceptuo-motor task involving quiet standing. Methods:

  18. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  19. Cooperative down-conversion of UV light in disordered scheelitelike Yb-doped NaGd(MoO4)2 and NaLa(MoO4)2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, K. A.; Osipova, Yu. N.; Lis, D. A.; Smirnov, V. A.; Zharikov, E. V.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    2017-07-01

    Concentration series of disordered scheelitelike Yb:NaGd(MoO4)2 and Yb:NaLa(MoO4)2 single crystals are grown by the Czochralski method. The actual concentrations of Yb3+ ions in the crystals are determined by optical-absorption spectroscopy. The luminescence of Yb3+ ions in these crystals in the region of 1 μm is studied under UV and IR excitation. In the case of UV excitation, this luminescence appears as a result of nonradiative excited state energy transfer from donor centers of unknown nature to ytterbium. The character of the concentration dependence of Yb3+ luminescence indicates that the energy transfer at high Yb concentrations occurs with active participation of a cooperative mechanism, according to which the excitation energy of one donor center is transferred simultaneously to two Yb3+ ions. In other words, the quantum yield of this transfer exceeds unity, which can be used to increase the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells.

  20. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  1. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

    2010-01-01

    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  2. Conversations About Responsible Nanoresearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølberg, Kamilla Lein; Strand, Roger

    2011-04-01

    There is currently a strong focus on responsible research in relation to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This study presents a series of conversations with nanoresearchers, with the 'European Commission recommendation on a code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research' (EC-CoC) as its point of departure. Six types of reactions to the document are developed, illustrating the diversity existing within the scientific community in responses towards this kind of new approaches to governance. Three broad notions of responsible nanoresearch are presented. The article concludes by arguing that while the suggestion put forward in the EC-CoC brings the concept of responsible nanoresearch a long way, one crucial element is to be wanted, namely responsible nanoresearch as increased awareness of moral choices.

  3. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference.Conversation with Meir Sternberg.Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  4. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  5. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  6. Bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... Fatigue or lack of energy Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt Loss of pleasure in activities once ...

  7. Review on Telephone Conversations Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咏梅

    2014-01-01

    Telephone conversation, one of the most common uses of human communication, has been a hot topic in linguistic field in modern times. This essay aims at reviewing the main theories and findings in telephone conversation analysis and provid-ing some insights of this aspect which can often be overlooked in our daily life. It is also hoped that this essay can help to pave a foundation for further in-depth study in telephone conversations.

  8. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  9. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conduct disorder is often linked to attention-deficit disorder . Conduct disorder also can be an early sign of ... child or teen has a history of conduct disorder behaviors. A physical examination and blood tests can help ...

  10. Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch ... is not there. Schizophrenia is one type of psychotic disorder. People with bipolar disorder may also have ...

  11. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  12. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  13. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  14. Civil Conversations Using Primary Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Laurel; Pereira, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Primary source documents can be a key element in conversation and deliberation. They lend authenticity to student consideration of issues facing people's democracy and stimulate student interest. In addition, conversation about a primary document leads to a much deeper understanding of that document and can raise authentic questions for further…

  15. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  16. Conversing Life: An Autoethnographic Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelson, Christopher N.; Burton, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography is a constructed account of a co-exploration into the nature and effects of a longitudinal dyadic conversation process from a relational constructionist perspective. The conversations, between me as participant autoethnographer and a co-participant, aimed at maximising personal learning for both. Through co-created contexts of…

  17. Cosmopolitanism - Conversation with Stuart Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Forty minute conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner, filmed and edited by Haim Bresheeth. Synopsis by Sarah Harrison. Conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner on the theme of Cosmopolitanism (to be shown at the Association of Social Anthropologists Silver Jubilee conference in 2006), in March 2006

  18. The Practicalities of Document Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps involved in the conversion of source documents to scanned digital image format. Topics addressed include document preparation, including photographs and oversized material; indexing procedures, including automatic indexing possibilities; scanning documents, including resolution and throughput; quality control; backfile conversion;…

  19. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  20. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  1. Psychogenic speech disorder--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Bratek, Agnieszka; Zawada, Karolina; Krysta, Krzysztof; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2015-09-01

    Conversion (dissociative) disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which somatic symptoms or deficits are present in the absence of a definable organic cause. The etiology of this disorder is not yet fully understood. The most characteristic presentations are: pseudosensory syndromes, pseudoseizures, psychogenic movement disorders and pseudoparalysis. Psychogenic speech disorder is a rare form of conversion (dissociative) disorder. The aim of present case study is to complete the knowledge on this subject. The article presents a case of a fifty year old woman who developed psychogenic disorder of speech after being degraded to a lower position at work. After excluding organic background of observed symptoms, the diagnosis of conversion (dissociative) disorder was stated and adequate therapy was implemented, within the capabilities of the Ward. Partial remission of presented symptoms was achieved as a result of psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Before stating the diagnosis of conversion (dissociative) disorder, possible somatic causes of the observed symptoms should be excluded. Special attention should be drawn to the importance of studying the psychological and family context of this case and the patient's difficulty to understand and accept that produced symptoms might be triggered by a psychogenic factor.

  2. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  3. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  4. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  5. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-24

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  6. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-01-01

    In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974) examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the author...

  7. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  8. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  9. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  10. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  11. Feature conversion for concurrent engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kraker, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Feature conversion for concurrent engineering integrates two modern product development paradigms. Concurrent engineering is a product development paradigm in which multiple engineering disciplines participate. It optimizes a product with respect to available resources and product quality, for which

  12. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  13. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  14. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  15. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  16. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  17. Conversational implicature in business negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀云

    2008-01-01

    Conversational implicature is a feature of language in use. This paper is trying to explore the conversational implicature phenomenonin business negotiation. From pragmatics view, it analyses the potential meaning of break off the Negotiation and carry on the negotiation in business negotiation. Through carefully selected examples, it manages to show how to behave politely in business negotiation. It's hoped that this paper can help those who are in such field to achieve successful negotiation.

  18. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Siegal; Luca Surian; Ayumi Matsuo; Alessandra Geraci; Laura Iozzi; Yuko Okumura; Shoji Itakura

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be...

  19. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  20. Prion protein and its conformational conversion: a structural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surewicz, Witold K; Apostol, Marcin I

    2011-01-01

    The key molecular event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases is the conformational conversion of a cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into a misfolded form, PrP(Sc). In contrast to PrP(C) that is monomeric and α-helical, PrP(Sc) is oligomeric in nature and rich in β-sheet structure. According to the "protein-only" model, PrP(Sc) itself represents the infectious prion agent responsible for transmissibility of prion disorders. While this model is supported by rapidly growing experimental data, detailed mechanistic and structural aspects of prion protein conversion remain enigmatic. In this chapter we describe recent advances in understanding biophysical and biochemical aspects of prion diseases, with a special focus on structural underpinnings of prion protein conversion, the structural basis of prion strains, and generation of prion infectivity in vitro from bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP.

  1. Translation of Conversational Implicature and the Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Grice introduced the theory of conversational implicature which is essential in translation, especially in conversation translation of fictions. Four most commonly-seen and effective strategies of translating the conversational implicature are going to discussed.

  2. Knowledge of conversion disorder in children by pediatricians in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-17

    Jan 17, 2015 ... of 0.2% while an Australian study, which represents the most accurate ... pediatric resident doctors, and 70 consultants pediatricians were the ... and Chi‑square test was used to determine the association of the various factors ...

  3. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  4. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  5. Schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of schizoaffective disorder is unknown. Changes in genes and chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters) may play a role. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ...

  6. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  7. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  8. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-05-08

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will (1) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, (2) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and (3) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Dissociative disorders in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Edward

    2013-10-01

    Despite the challenges of conducting research on dissociation and the dissociative disorders, our understanding has grown greatly over the past three decades, including our knowledge of the often overlooked sensorimotor manifestations of dissociation, more commonly referred to as somatoform dissociation. This article will first review the definitions and presentations of dissociation in general along with recent research on the concept of somatoform dissociation. Then, each of the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder will be discussed in further detail as well as how they might present in a medical setting. Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment will also be provided.

  10. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  11. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  12. Frequency conversion of structured light

    CERN Document Server

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent frequency conversion of structured light, optical beams in which the phase varies in each point of the transverse plane, from the near infrared (803nm) to the visible (527nm). The frequency conversion process makes use of sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate (ppLN) crystal with the help of a 1540-nm Gaussian pump beam. We perform far-field intensity measurements of the frequency-converted field, and verify the sought-after transformation of the characteristic intensity and phase profiles for various input modes. The coherence of the frequency-conversion process is confirmed using a mode-projection technique with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. The presented results could be of great relevance to novel applications in high-resolution microscopy and quantum information processing.

  13. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  14. La Conversation par le theatre (Conversation through Theater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoff, Marie-Jose

    1986-01-01

    A successful advanced college-level French conversation course using French theater as a basis for students to learn oral skills has six phases: an overview of the history of French theater, reading, adaptation of the text, rehearsal-readings, final rehearsals, and performance. (MSE)

  15. Wavelength conversion devices and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian; Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke;

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks are currently subject to an immense interest because of the extra capacity and flexibility they provide together with the possibilities for graceful system upgrades. For full network flexibility it is very attractive to be able to translate the chann...... wavelengths in an easy way and preferably without opto-electronic conversion. Here, we will first briefly look at advantages of employing optical wavelength converters in WDM networks and next review the optical wavelength conversion devices with emphasis on recent developments....

  16. Prions mediated neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W-J; Chen, W-W; Zhang, X

    2015-11-01

    Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that are devoid of nucleic acid and cause a group of rare and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders, affecting approximately 1 person per 1 million inhabitants annually worldwide. These disorders include Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), kuru, fatal insomnia (FI), and variable protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr), all of which involve a conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the abnormal scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) through a posttranslational process during which PrPc acquires high β-sheet content. This structural change is accompanied by profound changes in the physicochemical properties of PrPC, rendering the molecule resistant to proteolysis. The conformational change of PrPC can occur due to either spontaneous conversion, dominant mutations in the prion protein (PRNP) gene encoding PrPC, or infection with pathogenic isoform PrPsc from exogenous sources. There is general agreement that PrPC serves as a substrate for conversion to abnormal PrPSc. This latter multiplies exponentially and aggregates in the brain, forming deposits that are associated with the neurodegenerative changes. Although the understanding of the primary causes of prion-induced neurodegeneration is still limited, propagation of PrPSc and neurotoxic signaling seem to interplay in pathogenic process of prions. Here, we review recent findings that have provided fresh insights into this process, and present an overview of incidence, causes and spectrum of related disorders.

  17. [Practice guideline 'Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) and somatoform disorders': a step in the right direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline 'Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) and somatoform disorders' provides information on non-specific somatoform complaints, hypochondriasis, conversion disorders and a limited number of specific functional syndromes. Much attention is given in

  18. Conversation with Marcia Baxter Magolda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Gideon L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the reconstruction of conversations and e-mail correspondences with Dr. Marcia Baxter Magolda regarding students'"ways of knowing." Dr. Baxter Magolda reveals various ways in which students beginning college learn, offers examples of effective teaching, and exemplifies principles for promoting learning. (VWC)

  19. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    here-between in contact with Tecnica Ital.26:65-71, Jan/Feb.1961. said second electrode. (U.S. Patent Off. Off. Gaz. 773:260, Dec.5,1961). In Italian...DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT. Mikrochim. Acta p.457-466, 3168 S 1951. Huber, H. and Bensimon, J. SUR LA CONVERSION DIRECTE DE CHALEUR EN (In English

  20. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  1. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  2. Turbulence and energy conversion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report examines the role of fluid mechanics research (particularly turbulence research) in improving energy conversion systems. In this report two of the listed application areas are selected as examples: fluidization and cavitation. Research needs in general, and research possibilities for ECUT in particular, are examined.

  3. Teachers' Conversation with Partial Autobiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Naoko

    2002-01-01

    Reports a teachers' conversation group that was part of a course in a Japanese as a second language teacher education program. Explains the rationale for using this format and quotes part of a story one student wrote and two stories told by other students on a theme in the written story. Relates these two stories to histories of students'…

  4. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  5. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  6. Coaching Conversations: Enacting Instructional Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed coaching conversations and interviews of four coach/teacher partnerships for specific ways in which kindergarten and first-grade teachers, and coaches, conceptualized instructional scaffolding for guided reading. Interview transcripts were coded for coaches' and teachers' specific hypotheses/ ideas regarding instructional…

  7. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  8. A note on conversational interruptions A note on conversational interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F. Deyes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up a turn at a transition relevance place the turn holder will normally continue. In their seminal article, Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974 examine procedures for turn-taking in conversation. Sometimes, they note, a s peaker will select who has the next turn, but more frequently a "self-select" system operates, whereby the participants in a conversation themselves determine when they wish to speak. But how, ask Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson, do the interlocutors secure a turn in the ongoing flow of another speaker's utterance? To answer this question the authors introduce the notion of "transition relevance place", that is, a point in the turn-holder's utterance where another speaker is most likely to take up a turn. Clearly the most obvious transition relevance place occurs at the end of an utterance sentence, where a pause may be made. However, clause or thersyntactic boundaries also offer opportunities for other speakers to interrupt. As Sacks et al point out, if conversational participants do not take up

  9. Anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B; Eley, Thalia C; Milad, Mohammed R; Holmes, Andrew; Rapee, Ronald M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-04

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.

  10. Generation of diverse neural cell types through direct conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gayle; F; Petersen; Padraig; M; Strappe

    2016-01-01

    A characteristic of neurological disorders is the loss of critical populations of cells that the body is unable to replace,thus there has been much interest in identifying methods of generating clinically relevant numbers of cells to replace those that have been damaged or lost.The process of neural direct conversion,in which cells of one lineage are converted into cells of a neural lineage without first inducing pluripotency,shows great potential,with evidence of the generation of a range of functional neural cell types both in vitro and in vivo,through viral and non-viral delivery of exogenous factors,as well as chemical induction methods.Induced neural cells have been proposed as an attractive alternative to neural cells derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells,with prospective roles in the investigation of neurological disorders,including neurodegenerative disease modelling,drug screening,and cellular replacement for regenerative medicine applications,however further investigations into improving the efficacy and safety of these methods need to be performed before neural direct conversion becomes a clinically viable option.In this review,we describe the generation of diverse neural cell types via direct conversion of somatic cells,with comparison against stem cell-based approaches,as well as discussion of their potential research and clinical applications.

  11. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  12. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  13. Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is the basis for a condition called agoraphobia. A person who has agoraphobia finds it difficult to leave home (or another ... Disorders Education Program Last Updated: April 2014 Tags: agoraphobia, Alprazolam, antidepressants, anxiety disorders, behavior therapy, clonazepam, klonopin, ...

  14. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  15. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in ...

  16. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  17. Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  18. Menstrual Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Menstrual Disorders in Teens Page Content Article Body Within ... test Measurement of gonadotropins, prolactin and androgens How Menstrual Disorders are treated with Drug Therapy: After exclusion ...

  19. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  20. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  1. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  2. Catalytic conversions of methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezdin, S.Yu.; Dokuchaeva, T.G.; Sibarov, D.A.; Panfilova, N.N.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1987-07-10

    Catalysts with various amounts (from 2.0 to 6.0 mass %) of the active component were tested for estimation of the hydrogenating and dehydrogenating properties of palladium on alumina. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 5.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MPA. The yield of 4-MPA under the optical conditions found is 60-61% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion. Alumina-palladium catalyst with a palladium content of 3.0 mass % has the highest activity and selectivity in synthesis of 4-MHHPA. Under the optimal conditions found the yield of 4-MHHPA is 75-80% on the converted feed, with 100% conversion.

  3. Caring, conversing, and realizing values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Bert; Steffensen, Sune Vork; Martin, James E.

    2012-01-01

    of this issue, though, is the role of conversations in humans caring for each other and the ecosystems of which they are a part. Emergency medical care, parents and children playing, and students learning a second language, are among the contexts of caring considered. Also considered are ways in which symbol......Language serves many functions for humans, but three of the most important are coordination, learning, and friendship. All of those functions were well served by the conversations from which this special issue emerged, a conference, ‘‘Grounding language in perception and (inter) action’’, held...... at Gordon College in June 2009. The conference brought together researchers primarily from three research traditions, dynamical systems theory, distributed language, and ecological psychology, and each of these perspectives is reviewed and illustrated in this special issue. The particular focus...

  4. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  5. The effect of familiarity of conversation partners on conversation turns contributed by augmented and typical speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this current research was to determine the effect of familiarity of conversation partners on contributed conversation turns to dyadic conversation between individuals who use AAC and typically speaking conversation partners. Three groups (G1-G3) participated in this study. Each group contained seven participants, including an individual who used a speech-generating device (SGD) and familiar and unfamiliar conversation partners. Each 20-min dyadic conversation was video-recorded for analysis of contributed conversation turns. The findings of the current study showed that the asymmetries of contributed conversation turns exist in both familiar and unfamiliar dyadic conversation between AAC users and typically speaking conversation partners. In addition, the asymmetry in the familiar dyadic conversation did not differ from that in the unfamiliar dyadic conversation.

  6. A Conversation with Adam Heller

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, A.; Cairns, EJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. ...

  7. Explicit Polymorphism and CPS Conversion,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    programming language design , the concepts of polymorphism [14, 28, 39] and continuation-passing [38, 41, 43] are of particular interest. The use of...Principles of Programming Languages, January 1991. [9] Matthias Felleisen . The Calculi of X.-CS Conversion: A Syntactic Theory of Control and State in...Imperative Higher-Order Programming Languages. PhD thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1987. 18 [10] Matthias Felleisen and Daniel Friedman

  8. Religious Conversion, Models and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Boz, Tuba

    2012-01-01

    This papers examines the experiences of converts to Islam among Australian women in the milieu of polemic views and debates such as ‘Islam versus the west', which is most visible in the image of the ‘eastern' ‘oppressed' Muslim woman. Employing the experiences of Australian Muslim women converts in Melbourne, issues concerning identity politics, and the individuals and social dimensions of conversion are investigated. While there is an array of literature about Muslim women from various disci...

  9. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  10. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  11. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  12. The blind kidney: disorders affecting kidneys and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2013-12-01

    There are many disorders that can affect both the kidneys and the eyes. Awareness of the ocular manifestations of kidney disorders is important as it can guide the diagnosis and facilitate the choice of a specific treatment. Conversely, ophthalmologists need to be aware of potential renal manifestations in disorders presenting initially with visual failure. We review disorders affecting both of these organ systems, based upon cases from our clinical practice to highlight the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  13. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, M. S.; Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger’s syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, dis...

  14. Frequency Conversion Activation on the Mercury Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, A J; Beach, R J; Bibeau, C; Campbell, R; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Kent, R; Van Lue, D; Liao, Z; Landron, T; Payne, S A; Schaffers, K I; Sutton, S; Fei, Y; Chai, B

    2004-09-24

    High efficiency frequency conversion while operating at average power is critical for the Mercury laser. We will demonstrate average power frequency conversion of face-cooled DKDP and YCOB crystals using a sapphire heat spreader approach.

  15. Special Issue: Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Innan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. Several decades later than the discovery of crossing over, gene conversion was first recognized in fungi when non-Mendelian allelic distortion was observed. Gene conversion occurs when a double-strand break is repaired by using homologous sequences in the genome. In meiosis, there is a strong preference to use the orthologous region (allelic gene conversion, which causes non-Mendelian allelic distortion, but paralogous or duplicated regions can also be used for the repair (inter-locus gene conversion, also referred to as non-allelic and ectopic gene conversion. The focus of this special issue is the latter, interlocus gene conversion; the rate is lower than allelic gene conversion but it has more impact on phenotype because more drastic changes in DNA sequence are involved.

  16. Factitious Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your concerns. Try to avoid anger, judgment or confrontation. Offer support and caring and, if possible, help ... provider and start the conversation yourself. Here's some information to help you get ready for that talk. ...

  17. 31 CFR 800.205 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversion. 800.205 Section 800.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.205 Conversion. The term conversion means the exercise of a right...

  18. Alkaline Hydrolysis Conversion of Nitrocellulose Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The conversion of 1,125,000 pounds of bone-dry nitrocellulose fines into a liquid fertilizer was documented. Alkaline hydrolysis was the conversion... fertilizer . Fertilizer nutrient value was 1.3% nitrogen (N), 8.0% potassium (K2O) and 0.9% phosphorus (P2O5). Conversion met all applicable federal and state safety and environmental regulations.

  19. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    . The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  20. Conversational Knowledge Process for Social Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Toyoaki

    The conversational knowledge process is a collective activity for knowledge creation, management, and application where conversational communications are used as a primary means of interaction among participating actors. In this article, I survey a suite of communication tools that augment the conversational knowledge process in order to accelerate social problem solving.

  1. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  2. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  3. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....

  4. Modern faces of hysteria, or some of the dissociative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Alena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “hysteria” comes from the Greek word “hystera” (uterus and dates back to the time of Hippocrates, at least. Modern classifications differ regarding the area encompassed by the concepts of dissociation and conversion differ. Mental health professionals in the United States (DSM-5 use a standard classification of mental disorders codifying dissociative disorders as a distinct class of disorders, but subsumes conversion disorders under “somatoform disorders”. The history of hysteria is as long as the history of mankind. Apparently, both the essence and mechanisms of dissociative disorders remain unchanged despite the fact that many years have passed. According to Owczarek et al., dissociative symptoms are caused by the malfunctioning of defence mechanisms and anxiety. This article provides an overview of the available literature on the etiology and pathogenesis of dissociative disorders as well as disorders such as amnesia, dissociative fugue, trance and possession.

  5. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene conversion causes a non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information between similar sequences. Gene conversion can both homogenize genes and recruit point mutations thereby shaping the evolution of multigene families. In the rice genome, the large number of duplicated genes...... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...

  7. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  8. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  9. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  10. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  11. Photochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago.

  12. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  13. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  14. Chromatin structure regulates gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jason Cummings

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Homology-directed repair is a powerful mechanism for maintaining and altering genomic structure. We asked how chromatin structure contributes to the use of homologous sequences as donors for repair using the chicken B cell line DT40 as a model. In DT40, immunoglobulin genes undergo regulated sequence diversification by gene conversion templated by pseudogene donors. We found that the immunoglobulin Vlambda pseudogene array is characterized by histone modifications associated with active chromatin. We directly demonstrated the importance of chromatin structure for gene conversion, using a regulatable experimental system in which the heterochromatin protein HP1 (Drosophila melanogaster Su[var]205, expressed as a fusion to Escherichia coli lactose repressor, is tethered to polymerized lactose operators integrated within the pseudo-Vlambda donor array. Tethered HP1 diminished histone acetylation within the pseudo-Vlambda array, and altered the outcome of Vlambda diversification, so that nontemplated mutations rather than templated mutations predominated. Thus, chromatin structure regulates homology-directed repair. These results suggest that histone modifications may contribute to maintaining genomic stability by preventing recombination between repetitive sequences.

  15. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  16. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  17. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  18. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  19. Micturition disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Julie K

    2015-07-01

    Evaluation of dogs and cats with micturition disorders can be challenging. It is important to determine the duration, timing, and frequency of the disorder, as well as assessing for any additional medical problems, such as neurologic or orthopedic disease, that may be affecting micturition. Observation of the patient during voiding can be particularly helpful in determining the type of disorder. Treatment of micturition disorders is varied and outcome depends on an accurate diagnosis. Patient response is also highly variable, even with appropriate therapy, and owners' expectations must be set accordingly.

  20. Using Pivotal Response Training and Technology to Engage Preschoolers with Autism in Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate a significant delay in language development that impacts their ability to engage in robust conversations. In this article the authors discuss two specific elements of pivotal response training--motivation and self-initiations--for children with ASD. Specific…

  1. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  2. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  3. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  5. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  6. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  7. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  8. Video Format Conversion Chip Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of an IC, which is capable of cross-converting between various DTV standards, up to the HDTV resolution. A multi-phase FIR-based filtering algorithm is developed to perform the video scaling tasks. A dedicated fast SDRAM interface is designed in the system, providing an economical high-density storage for frame buffer. Meanwhile, film material pre-processing and frame/field rate up-conversion are also implemented in the memory control block. Finally, all the programmable parameters, such as the filter properties, can be set dynamically at run-time through an I2C interface, making the IC a very flexible system.This design has been verified through an FPGA emulation system. Subjective test of the output images indicates that the IC is a suitable and high quality solution to consumer applications.

  9. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    for identity work was introduced. The empirical starting point was progressive performativity and constructionistic process consultation with the intention to engage with a practical context, a company. The empirical study was based on a) individual interviews with three middle managers in a project......-based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...... project work and professional development, and the role of Department Heads. Theoretically, the study contributes to discussions on the need for legitimizing different mixtures of bureaucratic and post bureaucratic ideals. Methodological reflections are made in the discussion as well....

  10. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  11. Representing Conversations for Scalable Overhearing

    CERN Document Server

    Gutnik, G; 10.1613/jair.1829

    2011-01-01

    Open distributed multi-agent systems are gaining interest in the academic community and in industry. In such open settings, agents are often coordinated using standardized agent conversation protocols. The representation of such protocols (for analysis, validation, monitoring, etc) is an important aspect of multi-agent applications. Recently, Petri nets have been shown to be an interesting approach to such representation, and radically different approaches using Petri nets have been proposed. However, their relative strengths and weaknesses have not been examined. Moreover, their scalability and suitability for different tasks have not been addressed. This paper addresses both these challenges. First, we analyze existing Petri net representations in terms of their scalability and appropriateness for overhearing, an important task in monitoring open multi-agent systems. Then, building on the insights gained, we introduce a novel representation using Colored Petri nets that explicitly represent legal joint conv...

  12. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  13. Nouvelles conversations avec Jacques Fontanille

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cette interview réalisée de février à mai 2014 aborde les développements les plus récents de l’œuvre de Jacques Fontanille, sémioticien français qui est une des figures phares de la sémiotique européenne. Ici le sémioticien fait le point sur la sémiotique des pratiques et sur le concept de formes de vie, sujet de son dernier ouvrage encore inédit. Au cours de ces conversations, qui prolongent celles réalisées en 2006 (PORTELA, 2006), Fontanille parle de la situation actuelle de la ...

  14. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  15. Cyclothymic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swings (these are less severe than in bipolar disorder or major depression) Ongoing symptoms, with no more than 2 symptom-free months in a row Exams and Tests ... Treatments for this disorder include mood-stabilizing medicine, antidepressants, talk therapy, or ...

  16. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  17. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  18. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  19. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  20. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  1. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  2. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  3. The chemistry of energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dang Sheng

    2014-05-01

    What's in store: The sustainable development of our society requires the conversion and storage of renewable energy, and these should be scaled up to serve the global primary energy consumption. This special issue on "The Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage", assembled by guest editor Dangsheng Su, contains papers dealing with these aspects, and highlights important developments in the chemistry of energy conversion and storage during the last two years.

  4. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia;

    2016-01-01

    interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design......-taking, sequencing of conversation, repair strategies and procedures. Originality/value: This is the first study proposing a systematic measurement of the dialogue orientation of online conversations that takes into consideration the role of language and communicative actions. The proposed measurement offers...

  5. Schisming: The Collaborative Transformation from a Single Conversation to Multiple Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria

    1997-01-01

    This article examines schisming, a phenomenon that relates to how the number of members in a group is related to the interaction of the group. More specifically, schisming is the observation that in a conversation with at least four participants, the conversation may systematically split into two...... or more smaller conversations. In the data examined here, schisming is induced when, during a conversation, one person introduces a turn oriented to a subset of coparticipants who break away from the ongoing conversation and establish a new conversation while the rest of the group continues the original...

  6. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Janet; Claudino, Angélica M; Zucker, Nancy

    2010-02-13

    This Seminar adds to the previous Lancet Seminar about eating disorders, published in 2003, with an emphasis on the biological contributions to illness onset and maintenance. The diagnostic criteria are in the process of review, and the probable four new categories are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. These categories will also be broader than they were previously, which will affect the population prevalence; the present lifetime prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%. Eating disorders can be associated with profound and protracted physical and psychosocial morbidity. The causal factors underpinning eating disorders have been clarified by understanding about the central control of appetite. Cultural, social, and interpersonal elements can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Overall, apart from studies reporting pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder, advances in treatment for adults have been scarce, other than interest in new forms of treatment delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  10. Embodied Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provoost, Simon; Lau, Ho Ming; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen

    2017-05-09

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors. We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research. Given the large variety of applied methodologies, types of applications, and scientific disciplines involved in ECA research, we conducted a systematic scoping review. Scoping reviews aim to map key concepts and types of evidence underlying an area of research, and answer less-specific questions than traditional systematic reviews. Systematic searches for ECA applications in the treatment of mood, anxiety, psychotic, autism spectrum, and substance use disorders were conducted in databases in the fields of psychology and computer science, as well as in interdisciplinary databases. Studies were included if they conveyed primary research findings on an ECA application that targeted one of the disorders. We mapped each study's background information, how the different disorders were addressed, how ECAs and users could interact with one another, methodological aspects, and the study's aims and outcomes. This study included N=54 publications (N=49 studies). More than half of the studies (n=26) focused on autism treatment, and ECAs were used most often for social skills training (n=23). Applications ranged from simple reinforcement of social behaviors through emotional expressions to sophisticated multimodal conversational systems. Most applications (n=43) were still in the development and piloting phase, that is, not yet ready for routine practice evaluation or application. Few studies conducted controlled research into clinical effects of ECAs, such as a

  11. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of transport for global disorder.

  12. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Thomas; Okupnik, Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.

  13. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Thomas; Okupnik, Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.

  14. Diffusion and transport in locally disordered driven lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Wulf@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Okupnik, Alexander [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Schmelcher, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Schmelcher@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Zentrum für Optische Quantentechnologien, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We study the effect of disorder on the particle density evolution in a classical Hamiltonian driven lattice setup. If the disorder is localized within a finite sub-domain of the lattice, the emergence of strong tails in the density distribution which even increases towards larger positions is shown, thus yielding a highly non-Gaussian particle density evolution. As the key underlying mechanism, we identify the conversion between different components of the unperturbed systems mixed phase space which is induced by the disorder. Based on the introduction of individual conversion rates between chaotic and regular components, a theoretical model is developed which correctly predicts the scaling of the particle density. The effect of disorder on the transport properties is studied where a significant enhancement of the transport for cases of localized disorder is shown, thereby contrasting strongly the merely weak modification of the transport for global disorder.

  15. [Delusional disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2015-02-01

    Delusional disorders are divided in French nosography into three clinical disease entities: paranoid delusions, psychose hallucinatoire chronique, and paraphrenia. Their common characteristics are a late start, a chronic evolution, no cognitive impairment and no dissociation. Delusio- nal syndrome is often at the forefront with a predominant mechanism characterizing each disorder (interpretation for paranoid delusions, hallucination for psychose hallucinatoire chronique and imagination for paraphrenia). Although these disorders are less sensitive to the medication than schizophrenia, care is based on second generation antipsychotic treatment, in association with psychotherapy and social care. The aim of treatment is to alleviate delusion intensity to improve global functioning and to prevent violent incidents or suicide attempt.

  16. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  17. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  18. STEGANALYSIS USING COLOUR MODEL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  19. Steganalysis Using Colour Model Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  20. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  1. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  2. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James Scott; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Gessert, Timothy Arthur

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  3. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  4. Delusional Disorder in a Patient with Corpus Callosum Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M S; Saha, Rashmita; Doval, Nimisha

    2016-12-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum is rare and associated neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported are epilepsy, Asperger's syndrome, learning problems, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder and conversion symptoms. Schizophrenia is the most common psychiatric disorder reported among corpus callosum agenesis. We report a rare case of delusional disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and seizure disorder. The patient presented with delusions of persecution towards younger brother and mother, disturbed sleep and reduced appetite. She had a history of seizure disorder of ten years duration, which was controlled with carbamazepine and levetiracetam. Neurological examination was normal. On MRI, corpus callosum agenesis was detected. She was put on an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine to which her psychiatric symptoms responded completely.

  5. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  6. Parathyroid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  7. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21 (Down syndrome) . Other trisomies include trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) . Monosomy is another ... which there is an extra chromosome. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome): A chromosomal disorder that causes serious problems with ...

  8. Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder — both of which include some symptoms of schizophrenia — are: Bipolar type , which includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression Depressive type , which includes only major depressive episodes ...

  9. Bleeding disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can occur when certain factors are low or missing. Bleeding problems can range from mild to severe. Some bleeding disorders are present at birth and are passed through families (inherited). Others develop from: Illnesses such as vitamin ...

  10. Panic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recalling a past attack may trigger panic attacks. Exams and Tests Many people with panic disorder first ... of exercise Getting enough sleep Reducing or avoiding caffeine, certain cold medicines, and stimulants Support Groups You ...

  11. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for blood clots? Do You Know About Thalassemia? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... become hard, sticky, and shaped like a C. Thalassemia Red blood cell disorder that affects hemoglobin. Von ...

  12. TMJ Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the conditions fall into three main categories: Myofascial pain involves discomfort or pain in the muscles ... exist with TMJ disorders, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep disturbances or fibromyalgia, a painful condition that ...

  13. Phonological disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language problems. Other risk factors may include poverty and coming from a large family. Phonological disorders ... In a child developing normal speech patterns: By age 3, at least one half of what a child says should be ...

  14. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  15. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  16. Taste Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help scientists develop drugs targeting the gut taste receptors to treat obesity and diabetes. Where can I ... Smell Smell Disorders News Unraveling the enigma of salty taste detection: New findings could help identify successful ...

  17. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  18. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This kind of research can help guide the development of new means of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. Treatments and Therapies Adequate nutrition, reducing excessive exercise, and stopping purging behaviors are the foundations of treatment. Treatment plans are ...

  19. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to s...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task.......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...

  20. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  1. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  2. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506...

  3. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605... Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after December 11, 2001, agencies must convert the rate of basic pay of an...

  4. Optical angular momentum conversion in a nanoslit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimento, P.F.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; T Hooft, G.W.; Eliel, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate partial conversion of circularly polarized light into orbital angular momentum-carrying vortex light with opposite-handed circular polarization. This conversion is accomplished in a novel manner using the birefringent properties of a circular subwavelength slit in a thin metal film. O

  5. On conversational agents with mental states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Provoost, S.

    2015-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) have been put forward as a promising means for the training of social skills. The traditional approach to drive the behaviour of ECAs during human-agent dialogues is to use conversation trees. Although this approach is easy to use and very transparent, an import

  6. Metric Conversion and the School Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Arthur A.

    1976-01-01

    Cost of metric conversion in school shops is examined, and the author categories all the shops in the school and gives useful information on which shops are the easiest to convert, which are most complicated, where resistance is most likely to be met, and where conversion is most urgent. The math department is seen as catalyst. (Editor/HD)

  7. The Role of Conversation in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates recent literature in the area of classroom conversation and dialogue with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the role that classroom conversation and dialogue plays in learning. It also investigates literature on the constructivist, collaborative nature of technology education and suggests that to enhance our…

  8. Toward More Effective Conversations with Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    The classroom teachers' style of conversing with deaf children is as important as the communication mode in the students' development of linguistic competence in English. Emphasis on a conversational style with low repair and low control should lead to increased student initiative and fewer misunderstandings of teachers' comments. (VW)

  9. Effective Techniques for English Conversation Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Julia M.

    This book gathers ideas and practices in teaching English as a second language to serve as a reference for the leader of a conversation group. A variety of tested techniques is included for stimulating conversation among students with a basic command of English. The book begins with a discussion of what is involved in directed conversation…

  10. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  11. Rayleigh surface waves, phonon mode conversion, and thermal transport in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Leon; Knezevic, Irena

    We study the effects of phonon mode conversion and Rayleigh (surface) waves on thermal transport in nanostructures. We present a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in the elastic-solid approximation: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of the elastic or scalar wave equations combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique is similar to an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, captures phonon wave behavior, and scales well to nanostructures that are too large to simulate with many other techniques. By imposing fixed or free boundary conditions, we can selectively turn off mode conversion and Rayleigh waves to study their effects. In the example case of graphenelike nanoribbons with rough edges, we find that mode conversion among bulk modes has little effect on thermal transport, but that conversion between bulk and Rayleigh waves can significantly reduce thermal conductivity. With increasing surface disorder, Rayleigh waves readily become trapped by the disorder and draw energy away from the propagating bulk modes, which lowers thermal conductivity. We discuss the implications on the accuracy of popular phonon-surface scattering models that stem from scalar wave equations and cannot capture mode conversion to Rayleigh waves.

  12. The organization of digital conversation on MSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarxerxes Tiago Tácito Modesto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet has caused a revolution with regard to new forms of interaction between people, offering experiences of real-time communication in so-called virtual environments. Given this scenario, new textual genres emerge, making room for innumerous possibilities of analysis under various approaches. In this paper, we aim at analyzing digital conversations, trying to verify, at first, the extent to which they approach or move away from face-to-face conversations. We also seek to identify, describe and analyze some interactional strategies inherent in this new genre. We base our analyzes on Conversation Analysis theory and Interactional Sociolinguistics to define conversational strategies of the “spoken written text” on the Internet. The corpus used in this work consists of digital conversations coming from the MSN instant messaging software from Microsoft Corporation, chosen because of its wide use among people who use the internet for communication.

  13. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  14. Cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of the recently discovered cooperative internal conversion process is investigated theoretically. In the cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange investigated the coupling of bound-free electron and proton transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to proton exchange and an electron emission. General expression of the cross section of the process obtained in the one particle spherical nuclear shell model is presented. As a numerical example the cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange in $Al$ is dealt with. As a further generalization, cooperative internal conversion process by heavy charged particle exchange and as an example of it the cooperative internal conversion process by triton exchange is discussed. The process is also connected to the field of nuclear waste disposal.

  15. Quantum Frequency Conversion between Infrared and Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütz, Helge; Luo, Kai-Hong; Suche, Hubertus; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-02-01

    We report on the implementation of quantum frequency conversion between infrared and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths by using single-stage up-conversion in a periodically poled potassium-titanyl-phosphate waveguide. Because of the monolithic waveguide design, we manage to transfer a telecommunication-band input photon to the wavelength of the ionic dipole transition of Yb+ at 369.5 nm. The external (internal) conversion efficiency is around 5% (10%). The high-energy pump used in this converter introduces a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, which is a cause for noise in the UV mode. Using this process, we show that the converter preserves nonclassical correlations in the up-conversion process, rendering this miniaturized interface a source for quantum states of light in the UV.

  16. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  17. Nouvelles conversations avec Jacques Fontanille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Cristtus PORTELA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette interview réalisée de février à mai 2014 aborde les développements les plus récents de l’œuvre de Jacques Fontanille, sémioticien français qui est une des figures phares de la sémiotique européenne. Ici le sémioticien fait le point sur la sémiotique des pratiques et sur le concept de formes de vie, sujet de son dernier ouvrage encore inédit. Au cours de ces conversations, qui prolongent celles réalisées en 2006 (PORTELA, 2006, Fontanille parle de la situation actuelle de la sémiotique en France, du rapport entre sémiotique et sciences humaines et du rôle de l’intellectuel dans la société. Selon J. Fontanille, la sémiotique doit faire face aux problématiques théoriques transversales et répondre aux questions sociétales, sans se focaliser seulement sur les apories et les questions internes aux courants sémiotiques en tant que regroupements institutionnels. Ainsi, le plus grand défi de la sémiotique à l’heure actuelle serait de chercher de nouvelles voies pour se réinventer en tant que discipline à vocation prédictive et stratégique.

  18. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical ...

  19. An installation for vapor conversion of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, I.; Tabata, K.

    1983-01-28

    An installation is proposed for converting a mixture of hydrocarbon gases with steam in the presence of nickel, platinum, lead and cobalt catalysts (Kt) on a carrier of Si0/sub 2/, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, Ti0/sub 2/ and so on. The reaction tower (RK1) for conversion is made of an inorganic, heat resistant ceramic material (for instance, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/ ceramic), heaters are located inside the walls of the reaction tower, while on the outside the reaction conversion tower is equipped with an external tubular housing made of heat resistant materials or of inorganic heat resistant ceramic material. Here, there is a space between the external walls of the reaction conversion tower and the walls of the housing along the entire circumference of the reaction conversion tower which serves for preheating of the hydrocarbon gas and the steam before their input into the reaction conversion tower. The installation is designed for conversion of natural gas, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/ and other hydrocarbon gases and of liquid hydrocarbons (Uv) into synthesis gas. The design provides for even heating of the catalyst during reforming. The use of ceramic materials for the reaction conversion tower prevents sedimentation of coke on the walls of the reaction tower.

  20. Myoclonic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Eberhardt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Few movement disorders seem to make a straightforward approach to diagnosis and treatment more difficult and frustrating than myoclonus, due to its plethora of causes and its variable classifications. Nevertheless, in recent years, exciting advances have been made in the elucidation of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of many disorders presenting with myoclonus. Here, we provide a review of all of the important types of myoclonus encountered in pediatric and adult neurology, with an emphasis on the recent developments that have led to a deeper understanding of this intriguing phenomenon. An up-to-date list of the genetic basis of all major myoclonic disorders is presented. Randomized studies are scarce in myoclonus therapy, but helpful pragmatic approaches at diagnosis as well as treatment have been recently suggested.

  1. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas...

  2. Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5% or bulimia (15.4 % was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 % among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis.

  3. [Headache disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Takao; Kikui, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Primary headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache are prevalent and disabling neurological disorders. Although most headache disorders are largely treatable, they are under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many headache sufferers in Japan do not receive appropriate and effective health care; hence, the illness, which should be relieved, persists and acts as an individual and societal burden. One of the barriers most responsible for this is poor awareness of the disorders. For lifting the burden, health care must be improved. Education is an essential way to resolve these issues at multiple levels. We have a Japanese version of the international headache classification and diagnostic criteria II (ICHD-II) and guidelines for the management of chronic headaches. Utilization of these resources is key for the improvement of headache management in our country. Not only neurologists, but also neurosurgeons and other medical specialists are participating in headache care in Japan. The Japanese Headache Society and the Japanese Society for Neurology should play major roles in health care service, education programs, as well as clinical and basic research for headache disorders. The road map for realizing our aim on headache treatment is as follows: (1) increase the number of units concerning headache in lectures for medical students, implement training programs for residents and neurologists, and offer continuous medical educations for physicians and neurologists; (2) secure more funding for headache research; (3) propagate medical care for headache in primary care settings and regional fundamental hospitals; (4) reform the health care system for headache and incentivize appropriate compensation for headache care in public health insurance; and (5) spread appropriate information on medical and socio-ethical issues related to headache for the sufferers and citizens. The authors expect that many neurologists have an

  4. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  5. Conversion “V” Profiles in Torticollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahanshahi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that spasmodic torticollis represents a conversion reaction was examined by evaluating profiles of 61 patients on the hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Thirty-six per cent of the sample had normal profiles. A conversion “V” profile with scores above 70 was found in a minority (9% of the patients. The profile of the majority of the group was characterized by the presence of mild depression. It was concluded that a personality profile suggestive of conversion reaction is not typical of patients with spasmodic torticollis.

  6. Efficient microwave-induced optical frequency conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kosachiov, D V

    1999-01-01

    Frequency conversion process is studied in a medium of atoms with a $\\Lambda$ configuration of levels, where transition between two lower states is driven by a microwave field. In this system, conversion efficiency can be very high by virtue of the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Depending on intensity of the microwave field, two regimes of EIT are realized: ''dark-state'' EIT for the weak field, and Autler-Townes-type EIT for the strong one. We study both cases via analytical and numerical solution and find optimum conditions for the conversion.

  7. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  8. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  9. Fostering multiculturalism: the English Conversation Pairs Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B E; Elander, E

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to and personal interactions with people of diverse cultures foster an acceptance of multiculturalism. To this end, the English Conversation Pairs Program provides weekly conversation sessions between students who are native speakers of English (NSE) and students who speak English as a second language (ESL). Attitudes of twenty-two NSE students are surveyed before and after participation in the Conversation Pairs Program. This paper discusses (a) NSE students' perceptions of the program, (b) perceived changes in cultural sensitivity of NSE students, (c) activities which enhance and/or hamper program effectiveness, and (d) variables which influence program effectiveness.

  10. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, L. E-mail: weissman@nscl.msu.edu; Ames, F.; Aeysto, J.; Forstner, O.; Reisinger, K.; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-10-21

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  11. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Äystö, J; Forstner, O; Reisinger, K; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-01-01

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line and tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  12. Photoaggravated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Photoaggravated skin disorders are diseases that occur without UV radiation but are sometimes or frequently exacerbated by UV radiation. In conditions, such as lupus erythematosus, photoaggravation occurs in a majority of patients, whereas in conditions, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, only a subset of patients demonstrate photoaggravation. Polymorphous light eruption is a common photodermatosis in all skin types, making it important to differentiate photoaggravation of an underlying disorder, such as lupus erythematosus, from superimposed polymorphous light eruption. Disease-specific treatments should be instituted where possible. A key component of management of photoaggravated conditions is photoprotection with behavioral change, UV-protective clothing, and broad-spectrum sunscreen.

  13. Eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  14. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  15. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009122 The comparative study on plasma interleukin and soluble interleukin receptors between first-episode schizophrenic patients and first-episode depressive patients. SHI Tianyuan(师天元),et al.2nd Affili Hosp, Xinxiang Med Univ, Xinxiang 453002.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis 2009;35(1):26-29. Objective To explore the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and depressive disorder at cellular level.

  16. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  17. Penis Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or keep an erection Priapism - a painful erection that does not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during ...

  18. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor

  19. hydrokinetic energy conversion systems: prospects and challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate other useable ... the natural pathway of moving water and is more .... Green House Gas emissions and lower energy-.

  20. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.