WorldWideScience

Sample records for conversational analysis approach

  1. Review Essay: Conversation Analysis Versus Other Approaches to Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ten Have

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses a recent book by Robin WOOFFITT in which conversation analysis (CA is confronted with some other analytic approaches to "discourse." The author uses the term discourse analysis in a rather specific way, as a label for an analytic tradition that has become prominent in (social psychology in the UK. Two other traditions, critical discourse analysis and Foucauldian discourse analysis are also discussed later in the book. The major criticism raised in the review is that the book’s usefulness is limited by its restriction to approaches currently en vogue in Britain and its selective treatment of CA. In an Epilogue the issues raised in the book are discussed in a wider perspective. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060239

  2. Contrast and Critique of Two Approaches to Discourse Analysis: Conversation Analysis and Speech Act Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Han

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000 assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various approaches: speech act, pragmatics, conversation analysis, variation analysis, and critical discourse analysis. Each approach works in its different domain to discourse. For one dimension, it shares the same assumptions or general problems in discourse analysis with the other approaches: for instance, the explanation on how we organize language into units beyond sentence boundaries, or how language is used to convey information about the world, ourselves and human relationships (Schiffrin 1994: viii. For other dimensions, each approach holds its distinctive characteristics contributing to the vastness of discourse analysis. This paper will mainly discuss two approaches to discourse analysis- conversation analysis and speech act theory- and will attempt to point out some similarities as well as contrasting features between the two approaches, followed by a short reflection on their strengths and weaknesses in the essence of each approach. The organizational and discourse features in the exchanges among three teachers at the College of Finance and Customs in Vietnam will be analysed in terms of conversation analysis and speech act theory.

  3. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  4. Conversation Analysis--A Discourse Approach to Teaching Oral English Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a pedagocial approach to teaching oral English---Conversation Analysis. First, features of spoken language is described in comparison to written language. Second, Conversation Analysis theory is elaborated in terms of adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairs, sequences, openings and closings, and feedback. Third, under the…

  5. Contrast and Critique of Two Approaches to Discourse Analysis: Conversation Analysis and Speech Act Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nguyen Van

    2014-01-01

    Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000) assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various…

  6. Conversion analysis of a cylindrical biomass particle with a DEM-CFD coupling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohseni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a renewable energy source has attracted more attention nowadays due to ecological and economical benefits. The main objective of this work is studying the biomass conversion with employing a DEM-CFD coupling approach. In this model, the solid particulates are considered as discrete elements coupled via heat, mass and momentum transfer to the surrounding gas as continuous phase. That is, a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model is developed and applied to investigate the complex phenomena taking place during biomass conversion in a reactor. In this case, the physical and chemical processes as heat-up, drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion are taken into account based on the relevant homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. This platform predicts the motion of discrete particles based on the newton's equations of motion; and the thermodynamic state of each particle is extended according to the related algorithms. The thermodynamic state estimates the temperature and species distributions inside the particle due to external heat sources and chemical reactions. The reaction rates are described with Arrhenius model, and the reactions in the gas phase are modeled using Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR model with the standard k−ϵ turbulent model. The conductive and radiative heat transfer between particles as well as convective heat transfer between particles and gas phase are also observed. Due to layered behavior of biomass materials, the shape of particle is considered as cylindrical rather than spherical to predict more realistic results. In order to improve the numerical modeling of biomass conversion, a shrinkage model is also developed and validated with experimental data in literature.

  7. A Discourse Analysis Of Natural Conversations | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discourse analysis deals with linguistic analysis of naturally occuring connected spoken or written discourse. In this article we will use multidimensional approaches: descriptive, pragmatic and structural analysis of natural conversations between students who were conversing and discussing a variety of topics that were ...

  8. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  9. Reading comprehension interaction – a conversation analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose is to use current methods of conversation analysis to analyse a typical interaction in order to understand how the use of conversational techniques support reading comprehension. It explores how communicative activity plays out in terms of conversational features such as sequence organisation, response ...

  10. Discourse analysis: Conversational analysis of the internal conversation in Oracle Corporation Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Marwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the internal conversation which takes place in Oracle CorporationMalaysia. Through the study, it will be shown how conversational analysis is used toanalyze the transcription of a telephone conversation between Oracle staffs. The analysisof the transcriptions will apply a few basic concepts of conversational analysis; turntakingorganization, and the adjacency pair. The objective of the study is to find out howthe internal conversations takes place by focusing on the conversation itself, that is, theconversational structures spontaneously produced by people during talk ranging fromturn-taking strategies, how topics are introduced, conversation closings and so on. Bylooking in detail at such talk, we can gain a detailed understanding of how the staffs seethemselves in relation to the company that influence their daily lives.Keywords: conversational analysis, turn-taking, adjacency pairs

  11. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H; Vermaat, Jan E; Janse, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability), mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors) are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification). Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have determined historic

  12. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanneke van Asselen

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability, mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification. Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have

  13. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...... with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...

  14. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  15. (Applied Conversation Analysis as an approach for the study of language and gender: The case of services for female victims of violence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ostermann

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I show how (Applied Conversation Analysis might help us understand human actions in everyday situations. In order to do so, I make use of the results of an investigation of services provided to female victims of domestic violence. I comparatively analyze the discursive practices of professionals in two parallel institutions created to address violence against women in Brazil: a unit of an all-female police station (DDM and a feminist center of intervention on violence against women (CIV-Mulher or CIV in their interactions with female victims of domestic violence. The analysis of the interactional data shows that the police officers tend behave with more distance from and control over the victims. The feminists, on the other hand, seem to prioritize more cooperation with and closeness towards the women they serve. I also discuss how studies of this kind might help us broaden our understanding of the relationship between language and gender as well as of power relations.

  16. An Automated Approach to Examining Conversational Dynamics between People with Dementia and Their Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Christina; Conway, Erin R.; Angus, Daniel; Wiles, Janet; Baker, Rosemary; Chenery, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    The progressive neuropathology involved in dementia frequently causes a gradual decline in communication skills. Communication partners who are unaware of the specific communication problems faced by people with dementia (PWD) can inadvertently challenge their conversation partner, leading to distress and a reduced flow of information between speakers. Previous research has produced an extensive literature base recommending strategies to facilitate conversational engagement in dementia. However, empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of these strategies on conversational dynamics is sparse. This study uses a time-efficient computational discourse analysis tool called Discursis to examine the link between specific communication behaviours and content-based conversational engagement in 20 conversations between PWD living in residential aged-care facilities and care staff members. Conversations analysed here were baseline conversations recorded before staff members underwent communication training. Care staff members spontaneously exhibited a wide range of facilitative and non-facilitative communication behaviours, which were coded for analysis of conversation dynamics within these baseline conversations. A hybrid approach combining manual coding and automated Discursis metric analysis provides two sets of novel insights. Firstly, this study revealed nine communication behaviours that, if used by the care staff member in a given turn, significantly increased the appearance of subsequent content-based engagement in the conversation by PWD. Secondly, the current findings reveal alignment between human- and computer-generated labelling of communication behaviour for 8 out of the total 22 behaviours under investigation. The approach demonstrated in this study provides an empirical procedure for the detailed evaluation of content-based conversational engagement associated with specific communication behaviours. PMID:26658135

  17. An Automated Approach to Examining Conversational Dynamics between People with Dementia and Their Carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Christina; Conway, Erin R; Angus, Daniel; Wiles, Janet; Baker, Rosemary; Chenery, Helen J

    2015-01-01

    The progressive neuropathology involved in dementia frequently causes a gradual decline in communication skills. Communication partners who are unaware of the specific communication problems faced by people with dementia (PWD) can inadvertently challenge their conversation partner, leading to distress and a reduced flow of information between speakers. Previous research has produced an extensive literature base recommending strategies to facilitate conversational engagement in dementia. However, empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of these strategies on conversational dynamics is sparse. This study uses a time-efficient computational discourse analysis tool called Discursis to examine the link between specific communication behaviours and content-based conversational engagement in 20 conversations between PWD living in residential aged-care facilities and care staff members. Conversations analysed here were baseline conversations recorded before staff members underwent communication training. Care staff members spontaneously exhibited a wide range of facilitative and non-facilitative communication behaviours, which were coded for analysis of conversation dynamics within these baseline conversations. A hybrid approach combining manual coding and automated Discursis metric analysis provides two sets of novel insights. Firstly, this study revealed nine communication behaviours that, if used by the care staff member in a given turn, significantly increased the appearance of subsequent content-based engagement in the conversation by PWD. Secondly, the current findings reveal alignment between human- and computer-generated labelling of communication behaviour for 8 out of the total 22 behaviours under investigation. The approach demonstrated in this study provides an empirical procedure for the detailed evaluation of content-based conversational engagement associated with specific communication behaviours.

  18. An Automated Approach to Examining Conversational Dynamics between People with Dementia and Their Carers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Atay

    Full Text Available The progressive neuropathology involved in dementia frequently causes a gradual decline in communication skills. Communication partners who are unaware of the specific communication problems faced by people with dementia (PWD can inadvertently challenge their conversation partner, leading to distress and a reduced flow of information between speakers. Previous research has produced an extensive literature base recommending strategies to facilitate conversational engagement in dementia. However, empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of these strategies on conversational dynamics is sparse. This study uses a time-efficient computational discourse analysis tool called Discursis to examine the link between specific communication behaviours and content-based conversational engagement in 20 conversations between PWD living in residential aged-care facilities and care staff members. Conversations analysed here were baseline conversations recorded before staff members underwent communication training. Care staff members spontaneously exhibited a wide range of facilitative and non-facilitative communication behaviours, which were coded for analysis of conversation dynamics within these baseline conversations. A hybrid approach combining manual coding and automated Discursis metric analysis provides two sets of novel insights. Firstly, this study revealed nine communication behaviours that, if used by the care staff member in a given turn, significantly increased the appearance of subsequent content-based engagement in the conversation by PWD. Secondly, the current findings reveal alignment between human- and computer-generated labelling of communication behaviour for 8 out of the total 22 behaviours under investigation. The approach demonstrated in this study provides an empirical procedure for the detailed evaluation of content-based conversational engagement associated with specific communication behaviours.

  19. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle

  20. The role of the community conversation approach in facilitating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic. Although unpublished studies showed that the number of AIDS related deaths has fallen by 39% between 2005 and 2013 in sub-Saharan Africa, the region still accounted for 74% of all the people dying from AIDS-related causes. While the community conversation approach ...

  1. Exploring aphasic grammar. 1: A single case analysis of conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeke, Suzanne; Wilkinson, Ray; Maxim, Jane

    2003-03-01

    This paper uses the methodology and analytical findings of conversation analysis to investigate the notion that aphasic grammar may be understood at least partly in the context of the demands of turns at talk in conversation. An investigation of the conversation of an English-speaking person with aphasia reveals two distinct grammatical phenomena, and it is suggested that their use may be interactionally motivated by the need to take a relatively unproblematic turn at talk despite the constraints of non-fluent aphasia. The grammatical patterns that are revealed by this analysis look considerably different from those elicited by standard methods of data sampling. The possibility that interactional grammatical phenomena are not visible in the language data elicited by clinical assessments is raised. This question is addressed via an in-depth comparison of the same speaker's interactional and elicited grammar in a linked article. It is suggested that the tool of conversation analysis provides researchers with a new and fruitful approach to the study of grammatical abilities in aphasia.

  2. Hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Eva M; Gallagher, Joseph J; Liu, Chong; Su, Yude; Resasco, Joaquin; Yu, Yi; Sun, Yujie; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Michelle C Y; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-09-15

    Natural photosynthesis harnesses solar energy to convert CO2 and water to value-added chemical products for sustaining life. We present a hybrid bioinorganic approach to solar-to-chemical conversion in which sustainable electrical and/or solar input drives production of hydrogen from water splitting using biocompatible inorganic catalysts. The hydrogen is then used by living cells as a source of reducing equivalents for conversion of CO2 to the value-added chemical product methane. Using platinum or an earth-abundant substitute, α-NiS, as biocompatible hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts and Methanosarcina barkeri as a biocatalyst for CO2 fixation, we demonstrate robust and efficient electrochemical CO2 to CH4 conversion at up to 86% overall Faradaic efficiency for ≥ 7 d. Introduction of indium phosphide photocathodes and titanium dioxide photoanodes affords a fully solar-driven system for methane generation from water and CO2, establishing that compatible inorganic and biological components can synergistically couple light-harvesting and catalytic functions for solar-to-chemical conversion.

  3. Thermoelectric conversion of heat fluxes: analytical and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amokrane, Mounir; Nogarede, Bertrand

    2012-08-01

    When considering electric energy harvesting from waste heat, two different solutions of direct conversion are possible: pyroelectric and thermoelectric conversions. This paper presents a study of the thermoelectric conversion by two different approaches: analytical and experimental. Furthermore, a brief historical description of the discovery and early years of development of thermoelectricity is presented. The essential objective of this work is to develop a numerical tool that can estimate the output quantities of a thermoelectric converter, without knowing all its features. For this, two analytical models were developed, based on electrical and thermal phenomena occurring within the active element. The results obtained by this model were compared successfully with experiments carried out on an industrial thermoelectric element. Considering the centimetric size of the device (16 cm2 area), the electrical power recovered by this conversion varies from 16 to 80 mW for a temperature difference between 2 and 18 °C and according to the load value. In addition, both models transcribe the behavior of the active element with an accuracy of about 10%. In agreement with this, the output voltages reached are of the same magnitude for the models and the experimental values and vary from 0.1 to 0.8 V depending on the load connected and the type of convection. Another issue which is discussed for the two cases is that an optimal recovered energy is obtained for a given electric load taking into account the physical characteristics of the considered thermoelectric element. Finally, a conversion efficiency calculation has shown that it is possible to reach 45% of the Carnot efficiency. This denotes the interest to perform load matching to optimize the output power.

  4. Fast Pairwise Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: A Dispersion Relation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Collective pair conversion νeν¯ e↔νxν¯ x by forward scattering, where x =μ or τ , may be generic for supernova neutrino transport. Depending on the local angular intensity of the electron lepton number carried by neutrinos, the conversion rate can be "fast," i.e., of the order of √{2 }GF(nνe-nν¯e)≫Δ matm2/2 E . We present a novel approach to understand these phenomena: a dispersion relation for the frequency and wave number (Ω ,K ) of disturbances in the mean field of νeνx flavor coherence. Runaway solutions occur in "dispersion gaps," i.e., in "forbidden" intervals of Ω and/or K where propagating plane waves do not exist. We stress that the actual solutions also depend on the initial and/or boundary conditions, which need to be further investigated.

  5. Whole-Genome Analysis of Gene Conversion Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Hao; Zhang, Yu; Hardison, Ross; Miller, Webb

    Gene conversion events are often overlooked in analyses of genome evolution. In a conversion event, an interval of DNA sequence (not necessarily containing a gene) overwrites a highly similar sequence. The event creates relationships among genomic intervals that can confound attempts to identify orthologs and to transfer functional annotation between genomes. Here we examine 1,112,202 paralogous pairs of human genomic intervals, and detect conversion events in about 13.5% of them. Properties of the putative gene conversions are analyzed, such as the lengths of the paralogous pairs and the spacing between their sources and targets. Our approach is illustrated using conversion events in the beta-globin gene cluster.

  6. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-21

    This analysis report, ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'', is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the ERMYN (Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada) biosphere model for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, its input parameters, and the application of the model to perform the dose assessment for the repository. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of the two reports that develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and lists its input parameters. Model input parameters are developed and described in detail in five analysis report (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976], BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239], and BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]). The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors (DFs) for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). The volcanic ash exposure scenario is hereafter referred to as the volcanic ash scenario. For the volcanic ash scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in

  7. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this

  8. CONTENT ANALYSIS, DISCOURSE ANALYSIS, AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL METHODOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tiago Peixoto Gonçalves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical essay aims to reflect on three models of text interpretation used in qualitative research, which is often confused in its concepts and methodologies (Content Analysis, Discourse Analysis, and Conversation Analysis. After the presentation of the concepts, the essay proposes a preliminary discussion on conceptual and theoretical methodological differences perceived between them. A review of the literature was performed to support the conceptual and theoretical methodological discussion. It could be verified that the models have differences related to the type of strategy used in the treatment of texts, the type of approach, and the appropriate theoretical position.

  9. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  10. Energy conversion approaches and materials for high-efficiency photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Martin A.; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    The past five years have seen significant cost reductions in photovoltaics and a correspondingly strong increase in uptake, with photovoltaics now positioned to provide one of the lowest-cost options for future electricity generation. What is becoming clear as the industry develops is that area-related costs, such as costs of encapsulation and field-installation, are increasingly important components of the total costs of photovoltaic electricity generation, with this trend expected to continue. Improved energy-conversion efficiency directly reduces such costs, with increased manufacturing volume likely to drive down the additional costs associated with implementing higher efficiencies. This suggests the industry will evolve beyond the standard single-junction solar cells that currently dominate commercial production, where energy-conversion efficiencies are fundamentally constrained by Shockley-Queisser limits to practical values below 30%. This Review assesses the overall prospects for a range of approaches that can potentially exceed these limits, based on ultimate efficiency prospects, material requirements and developmental outlook.

  11. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  12. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  13. Vocabulary Explanations in CLIL Classrooms: A Conversation Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a conversation analysis methodology to examine how lexical Focus on Form is interactionally accomplished in teachers' vocabulary explanations in secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. Recent conversation-analytic work has focused on the interactional organisation of vocabulary explanations in…

  14. TDD Conversations: A Context for Language Sampling and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harold A.; Barton, Lyle E.

    1988-01-01

    Five hearing-impaired high-school students used telephone communication devices for the deaf (TDDs) to converse with each other and with the researchers. Results indicated that TDD conversational exchanges can be used as a language sampling context, and the Burton analysis system provides empirical information regarding the categories/patterns of…

  15. Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis.

  16. THE KNOWLEDGE CONVERSION SECI PROCESS AS INNOVATION INDICATOR ANALYSIS FACTOR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elaine da Silva; Marta Lígia Pomim Valentim

    2013-01-01

    .... We made an analysis in the 80 variables distributed through seven GII pillars, trying to identify the direct, indirect or null incidences of the knowledge conversion way described by the SECI Process...

  17. Analysis and Assessment of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conversations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Trausan-Matu, S. (2008). Analysis and Assessment of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conversations. Workshop presentation at the symposium Learning networks for professional. November, 14, 2008, Heerlen, Nederland: Open Universiteit Nederland.

  18. Investigating interactional competencies in Parkinson's disease: the potential benefits of a conversation analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Barnes, Rebecca; Britten, Nicky; Wilkinson, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Around 70% of people who develop Parkinson's disease (PD) experience speech and voice changes. Clinicians often find that when asked about their primary communication concerns, PD clients will talk about the difficulties they have 'getting into' conversations. This is an important area for clients and it has implications for quality of life and clinical management. To review the extant literature on PD and communication impairments in order to reveal key topic areas, the range of methodologies applied, and any gaps in knowledge relating to PD and social interaction and how these might be usefully addressed. A systematic search of a number of key databases and available grey literatures regarding PD and communication impairment was conducted (including motor speech changes, intelligibility, cognitive/language changes) to obtain a sense of key areas and methodologies applied. Research applying conversation analysis in the field of communication disability was also reviewed to illustrate the value of this methodology in uncovering common interactional difficulties, and in revealing the use of strategic collaborative competencies in naturally occurring conversation. In addition, available speech and language therapy assessment and intervention approaches to PD were examined with a view to their effectiveness in promoting individualized intervention planning and advice-giving for everyday interaction. A great deal has been written about the deficits underpinning communication changes in PD and the impact of communication disability on the self and others as measured in a clinical setting. Less is known about what happens for this client group in everyday conversations outside of the clinic. Current speech and language therapy assessments and interventions focus on the individual and are largely impairment based or focused on compensatory speaker-oriented techniques. A conversation analysis approach would complement basic research on what actually happens in everyday

  19. Conversational Analysis as an Analytical Tool for Face-to-Face and Online Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng-Chee; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Some learning scientists are beginning to investigate social and cultural aspects of learning by examining the interactions between a learner and the environment as well as with other people in the learning environment. This article proposes conversational analysis (CA) as a tool to analyze interactions between learners and instructors in…

  20. Learning to converse through dialogic speech acts. An approach to the development of interactional skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gesuato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to the development of oral interactional skills, field-tested with intermediate-level University students of English as a foreign language based on the provision of specific input and training. Its aim was to build a repertoire of communicative strategies and automatize conversa­tional behaviour in the production and reaction to speech acts (apologies, thanks, complaints, compliments, offers and requests. The approach shows how conversational skills can be developed by exposing learners to model interactions, guiding them in the analysis of dialogues’ formal-functional properties, and engaging them in activities motivating their autonomy.

  1. A Family Systems Nursing Approach for Families Following a Stroke: Family Health Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlund, Ulrika; Bäckström, Britt; Saveman, Britt-Inger; Lindh, Viveca; Sundin, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Stroke in midlife is a life altering, challenging experience for the whole family thereby necessitating a family approach to intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of 17 family members living in Sweden, including seven adult stroke patients (six males; one female) under the age of 65 who participated in a series of three nurse-led family conversations that were offered in each family's home. These Family Health Conversations (FamHC) were guided by the conceptual lens of Family System Nursing. Individual, semi-structured, evaluative interviews conducted with each participant one month after the FamHC were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The FamHC were described by family members as a unique conversation that they had not previously experienced in health care contexts. Family members described possibilities for relational sharing and meaningful conversations as well as changes in family functioning that support the suitability of FamHC for family stroke care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Linear Transformation Approaches to Many-to-One Voice Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Chie Hayashida; Tomoki Toda; Yamato Ohtani; Hiroshi Saruwatari; Kiyohiro Shikano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present linear transformation algorithms for many-to-one voice conversion (VC). Many-to-one VC is a technique for converting an arbitrary source speaker’s voice into the target speaker’s voice. A conversion model previously developed between many prestored source speakers and the target speaker is adapted into a new source speaker in an unsupervised manner. In this study, we implement several well-known model adaptation techniques based on linear transformation for many-to-o...

  3. Electrostrictive conversion enhancement of polymer composites using a nonlinear approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomar, Daniel [LGEF, INSA-Lyon, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621, Lyon (France); Lallart, Mickael, E-mail: mickael.lallart@insa-lyon.f [LGEF, INSA-Lyon, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621, Lyon (France); Cottinet, Pierre-Jean [LGEF, INSA-Lyon, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621, Lyon (France)

    2011-01-17

    Recent trends in electromechanical conversion demonstrated the advantages of using electrostrictive polymers for actuation or energy harvesting. However, their conversion abilities are lower than usual electroactive materials, such as piezoelectrics. The purpose of this Letter is to propose a solution for artificially increasing the coupling factor of electrostrictive materials. Based on an intermittent switching on an electrical circuit that leads to a voltage increase as well as a reduced phase between voltage and velocity, it is shown that such a process allows increasing the converted energy by 1200% and a gain up to 4 in terms of transferred electrical energy.

  4. Electrostrictive conversion enhancement of polymer composites using a nonlinear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends in electromechanical conversion demonstrated the advantages of using electrostrictive polymers for actuation or energy harvesting. However, their conversion abilities are lower than usual electroactive materials, such as piezoelectrics. The purpose of this Letter is to propose a solution for artificially increasing the coupling factor of electrostrictive materials. Based on an intermittent switching on an electrical circuit that leads to a voltage increase as well as a reduced phase between voltage and velocity, it is shown that such a process allows increasing the converted energy by 1200% and a gain up to 4 in terms of transferred electrical energy.

  5. The principles of electronic and electromechanic power conversion a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Braham

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the principles of power electronics and electromechanical power conversion through a unique top down systems approach, The Principles of Electromechanical Power Conversion takes the role and system context of power conversion functions as the starting point. Following this approach, the text defines the building blocks of the system and describes the theory of how they exchange power with each other. The authors introduce a modern, simple approach to machines, which makes the principles of field oriented control and space vector theory approachable to undergraduate students as well as

  6. Teachers' English Proficiency and Classroom Language Use: A Conversation Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Canh, Le; Renandya, Willy A.

    2017-01-01

    How does teachers' target language proficiency correlate with their ability to use the target language effectively in order to provide optimal learning opportunities in the language classroom? Adopting a conversation analysis approach, this study examines the extent to which teachers' use of the target language in the classroom creates learning…

  7. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Liron, Yuvalal; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available. PMID:28141861

  8. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gaziv

    Full Text Available Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available.

  9. Computational approaches to the chemical conversion of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Daojian; Negreiros, Fabio R.; Apra, Edoardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The conversion of CO2 into fuels and chemicals is viewed as an attractive route for controlling the atmospheric concentration of this greenhouse gas and recycling it, but its industrial application is limited by the low selectivity and activity of the current catalysts. Theoretical modeling, in particular density-functional theory (DFT) simulations, provides a powerful and effective tool to discover chemical reaction mechanisms and design new catalysts for the chemical conversion of CO2, overcoming the repetitious and time/labor consuming trial-and-error experimental processes. In this article we give a comprehensive survey of recent advances on mechanism determination by DFT calculations for the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 into CO, CH4, CH3OH, and HCOOH, and CO2 methanation, as well as the photo- and electrochemical reduction of CO2. DFT-guided design procedures of new catalytic systems are also reviewed, and challenges and perspectives in this field are outlined.

  10. Conversation Analysis of Boke-tsukkomi Exchange in Japanese Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Tsutsumi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses and discusses what Japanese comical exchange called boke-tsukkomi is like and how it draws laughter. Conversation analysis and incongruity resolution are used as methods for the examination of the boke-tsukkomi examples. This paper will lend itself to further research on the dyadic exchange in the cross cultural context.

  11. Using Conversation Analysis to Improve an Augmented Communication Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, Tom; Mak, Pim

    2014-01-01

    An ALS (amyotrofic lateral sclerosis) patient could only move her eyes and interacted through a MyTobii AAC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication) tool with eye-tracking and speech synthesizing technology. Conversation analysis of 75 minutes of video-recorded talk-in-interaction with her

  12. Conversation Analysis in Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lloret, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The use of Conversation Analysis (CA) in the study of technology-mediated interactions is a recent methodological addition to qualitative research in the field of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL). The expansion of CA in Second Language Acquisition research, coupled with the need for qualitative techniques to explore how people interact…

  13. Recursive Frame Analysis: A Practitioner's Tool for Mapping Therapeutic Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA), both a practical therapeutic tool and an advanced qualitative research method that maps the structure of therapeutic conversation, is introduced with a clinical case vignette. We present and illustrate a means of mapping metaphorical themes that contextualize the performance taking place in the room, recursively…

  14. Using conversation analysis in data-driven aviation training with large-scale qualitative datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuccio, William A.; Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to a growing body of work related to the Conversation Analytic Role-play Method (CARM) by studying the primary flight instruction environment to create training interventions related to radio communications and flight instruction practices. Framed in the context...... of conversation analysis, an approach to the detailed analysis of naturally occurring interaction, the large-scale, long-duration qualitative audio/video data collection and coding methodology is discussed, followed by trends identified in the ongoing study. The concept of CARM “trainables” are discussed...

  15. Conversational informatics a data-intensive approach with emphasis on nonverbal communication

    CERN Document Server

    Nishida, Toyoaki; Ohmoto, Yoshimasa; Mohammad, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    This book covers an approach to conversational informatics which encompasses science and technology for understanding and augmenting conversation in the network age. A major challenge in engineering is to develop a technology for conveying not just messages but also underlying wisdom. Relevant theories and practices in cognitive linguistics and communication science, as well as techniques developed in computational linguistics and artificial intelligence, are discussed.

  16. Analysis of Applicability of Oil Shale for in situ Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Martemyanov, Sergey Mikhailovich; Bukharkin, Andrey Andreevich; Koryashov, Iliya Aleksandrovich; Ivanov, Aleksey Alekseevich

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few substantial oil shale industries in the world, mainly because of the high cost of oilshale development relative to coal, oil and natural gas. Innovative approaches to oil shale processing could change this situation. Underground (or in situ) conversion could become a very useful technology, once an efficient way is found to prepare oil shale deposits for heating and to transfer heat into them. A new electrophysical method, which uses electrical treeing breakdown and resis...

  17. Artificial photosynthesis: biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, K; Graetzel, M

    2010-06-01

    Using sun as the energy source, natural photosynthesis carries out a number of useful reactions such as oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and fixation of CO(2) in the form of sugars. These are achieved through a series of light-induced multi-electron-transfer reactions involving chlorophylls in a special arrangement and several other species including specific enzymes. Artificial photosynthesis attempts to reconstruct these key processes in simpler model systems such that solar energy and abundant natural resources can be used to generate high energy fuels and restrict the amount of CO(2) in the atmosphere. Details of few model catalytic systems that lead to clean oxidation of water to H(2) and O(2), photoelectrochemical solar cells for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, solar cells for total decomposition of water and catalytic systems for fixation of CO(2) to fuels such as methanol and methane are reviewed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Planning Document for an NBSR Conversion Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond D. J.; Baek J.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2013-09-25

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR). The NBSR is a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a planning document for the conversion Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to, and approved by, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before the reactor could be converted.This report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis herein is on the SAR chapters that require significant changes as a result of conversion, primarily Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis. The document provides information on the proposed design for the LEU fuel elements and identifies what information is still missing. This document is intended to assist ongoing fuel development efforts, and to provide a platform for the development of the final conversion SAR. This report contributes directly to the reactor conversion pillar of the GTRI program, but also acts as a boundary condition for the fuel development and fuel fabrication pillars.

  19. ‘Positioning’ in the conversation analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Kjærbeck, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    of ‘positioning’ is used at all levels of analysis in the former, there appears to be no such analytical concept in EM/CA. The aim of this article is to inquire if EM/CA tools for the analysis of identities and relations in talk might be considered interesting from the perspective of positioning theory. To do so...

  20. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  1. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hanson, A. L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, L-Y [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cuadra, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  2. New approaches to photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. Ismat; Lin, Hong-Ying; Miao, Yinghong; Schulz, Meghan E.

    2008-04-01

    In response to skyrocketing fuel costs and evidence of climate change, real technological progress is needed towards harnessing the clean power from the sun to drive human progress. Here we present two approaches to harnessing solar energy currently under investigation in our group. One involves novel photovoltaic cells using different sized quantum dots. Another uses proven photocatalysts to directly electrolyze water, producing hydrogen. The technological background will be discussed, as well as current state of the art and future research direction.

  3. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  4. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...... will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration....

  5. Proposal for an augmentative and alternative communication conversational analysis protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ciceri Cesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to propose an assessment of communication that includes the conversational analysis of children who have cerebral palsy, with complex communication needs and their interlocutors. Methods: a propositional study type of a speech language and hearing science assessment tool whose methodological flowchart was divided into five phases. Results: the final version of the protocol consisted of fifty-four items divided into three parts: (a communicative means, acts of speech, topic maintenance and dialogue turn-taking, common to the dyads; (b acts of child speech, use of resource, thematic maintenance and dialogue turn-taking and (c speaker speech acts, encouragement of the use of the communication resource, theme maintenance and dialogue turn-taking. All assessment items receive a score by the assessment record according to presented linguistic behavior. Conclusion: this study showed the development and creation of a conversation evaluation protocol for children with cerebral palsy and their interlocutors. It can be used to evaluate the means, the communicative acts and adjacent-pairs observed in conversational contexts, leading the initial clinical speech language and hearing assessment process to the introduction, maintenance and general use of the Augmentative and Alternative Communication with different interlocutors and environments.

  6. Conversion of biowastes to biomaterial: An innovative waste management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Ronan, Karly

    2017-09-01

    The study suggests that biowastes (eggshells and urine) can be potentially used as precursors to produce hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial in a simple chemical process. A batch reactor was used in this work to produce HAp powder from eggshells and synthetic urine (SU). Fine powder of calcined eggshells was dissolved in water to produce aqueous calcium hydroxide. The solution was then mixed with concentrated SU in stoichiometric amounts corresponding to HAp (Ca/P molar ratio∼1.67). The initial pH of the solution was alkaline (pH∼8.5) and particles formed rapidly with slight mixing. Stirring the turbid solution for a longer period (72h) did not show any visual change, but the particle size decreased slightly. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 5, the solution was initially clear, but particle formation was apparent after 48h stirring. It was noticed that at a slow stirring speed (100rpm), film formation occurred on the solution, whereas at a higher stirring speed (500rpm) no such film formation was observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the particles (formed at 500rpm) were an amorphous calcium phosphate (CaP). Alkaline treatment at 80°C for 2h converted the amorphous CaP into HAp. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of the particles (formed at 500rpm) suggested that they are calcium-deficient HAp (Ca/P molar ratio 1.58). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-10-15

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

  8. Using Telephone Conversations to Develop Awareness of Pragmatic Skills: An Activity-Theory-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Saihua

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates ESL learners' awareness of pragmatic skills utilizing an activity-theory driven approach to perform an inquiry task into problem-solving service call conversations (PSSCs) between native speakers (NS) and non-native speakers of English (NNSs). Eight high-intermediate ESL learners, from five different language backgrounds,…

  9. An Analysis of Conversational Implicature in the Interview Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Natsir, Ines Seri Pinta Uli Butar Butar and

    2016-01-01

    The study was deal with the types of conversational implicature occur in the utterances of all of the characters in The Interview Movie. The objectives of the study were to identify and classify the types of conversational implicature and explain the reason why it becomes the dominant type that occur in the movie. The data was analyzed by identifying the utterances found in the movie script. The findings shows that the two types of conversational implicature were occurred in the movie. The ch...

  10. Video Gaming as Practical Accomplishment: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Stuart; Greiffenhagen, Christian; Laurier, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Accounts of video game play developed from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic (EMCA) perspective remain relatively scarce. This study collects together an emerging, if scattered, body of research which focuses on the material, practical "work" of video game players. The study offers an example-driven explication of an EMCA perspective on video game play phenomena. The materials are arranged as a "tactical zoom." We start very much "outside" the game, beginning with a wide view of how massive-multiplayer online games are played within dedicated gaming spaces; here, we find multiple players, machines, and many different sorts of activities going on (besides playing the game). Still remaining somewhat distanced from the play of the game itself, we then take a closer look at the players themselves by examining a notionally simpler setting involving pairs taking part in a football game at a games console. As we draw closer to the technical details of play, we narrow our focus further still to examine a player and spectator situated "at the screen" but jointly analyzing play as the player competes in an online first-person shooter. Finally, we go "inside" the game entirely and look at the conduct of avatars on-screen via screen recordings of a massively multiplayer online game. Having worked through specific examples, we provide an elaboration of a selection of core topics of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis that is used to situate some of the unstated orientations in the presentation of data fragments. In this way, recurrent issues raised in the fragments are shown as coherent, interconnected phenomena. In closing, we suggest caution regarding the way game play phenomena have been analyzed in this study, while remarking on challenges present for the development of further EMCA-oriented research on video game play. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Relational interaction in occupational therapy: Conversation analysis of positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiste, Elina

    2018-01-01

    The therapeutic relationship is an important factor for good therapy outcomes. The primary mediator of a beneficial therapy relationship is clinician-client interaction. However, few studies identify the observable interactional attributes of good quality relational interactions, e.g. offering the client positive feedback. The present paper aims to expand current understanding of relational interaction by analyzing the real-time interactional practices therapists use for offering positive feedback, an important value in occupational therapy. The analysis is based on the conversation analysis of 15 video-recorded occupational therapy encounters in psychiatric outpatient clinics. Two types of positive feedback were identified. In aligning feedback, therapists encouraged and complimented clients' positive perspectives on their own achievements in adopting certain behaviour, encouraging and supporting their progress. In redirecting feedback, therapists shifted the perspective from clients' negative experiences to their positive experiences. This shift was interactionally successful if they laid the foundation for the shift in perspective and attuned their expressions to the clients' emotional states. Occupational therapists routinely provide their clients with positive feedback. Awareness of the interactional attributes related to positive feedback is critically important for successful relational interaction.

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  14. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  15. Exploring community participation in project design: application of the community conversation approach to improve maternal and newborn health in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Masoso, Chisala; Mwanza, Bisalom; Chirwa, Cindy; Mwaba, Lasidah; Siwale, Zumbe; Lamisa, Barbara; Musatwe, Dennis; Chilengi, Roma

    2017-03-23

    The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has adopted an approach entitled Community Conversation (CC) to improve community engagement in addressing health challenges. CCs are based on Paulo Freire's transformative communication approach, in which communities pose problems and critically examine their everyday life experiences through discussion. We adopted this approach to engage communities in maternal and newborn health discussions in three rural districts of Zambia, with the aim of developing community-generated interventions. Sixty (60) CCs were held in three target districts, covering a total of 20 health facilities. Communities were purposively selected in each district to capture a range of rural and peri-urban areas at varying distances from health facilities. Conversations were held four times in each community between May and September 2014. All conversations were digitally recorded and later transcribed. NVivo version 10 was used for data analysis. The major barriers to accessing maternal health services included geography, limited infrastructure, lack of knowledge, shortage of human resources and essential commodities, and insufficient involvement of male partners. From the demand side, a lack of information and misconceptions, and, from the supply side, inadequately trained health workers with poor attitudes, negatively affected access to maternal health services in target districts either directly or indirectly. At least 17 of 20 communities suggested solutions to these challenges, including targeted community sensitisation on the importance of safe motherhood, family planning and prevention of teenage pregnancy. Community members and key stakeholders committed time and resources to address these challenges with minimal external support. We successfully applied the CC approach to explore maternal health challenges in three rural districts of Zambia. CCs functioned as an advocacy platform to facilitate direct engagement with key decision makers

  16. An Analysis of How Carl Rogers Enacted Client-Centered Conversation with Gloria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Scott A.; Campbell, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzed Carl Rogers's session with Gloria in "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy" to determine how Rogers's conversational style functioned to enact his core conditions of empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard. Rogers's conversational style was found to be congruent with his espoused theory as well as a…

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATION STRUCTURE OF LEARNERS OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sofwan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Learners of English as a foreign language need to develop skills in conversation as part of their discourse competence. It is important that they learn the structure of the conversation for them to be able to produce a well-communicative language when speaking to other people. The theory of conversation analysis is used to analyze the organization and the features of the conversation of learners of English as a foreign language, including exchange structure, turn-taking strategies, adjacency pairs, repair, and sequences within the conversation. The recorded casual conversation among learners is transcribed and analyzed. It is expected that this study helps learners understand the importance of conversation organization and contribute to the development of the learners‘ communication skills and to the enhancement of their discourse competence.

  18. The conversion of exposures due to radon into the effective dose: the epidemiological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, T.R. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The risks and dose conversion coefficients for residential and occupational exposures due to radon were determined with applying the epidemiological risk models to ICRP representative populations. The dose conversion coefficient for residential radon was estimated with a value of 1.6 mSv year{sup -1} per 100 Bq m{sup -3} (3.6 mSv per WLM), which is significantly lower than the corresponding value derived from the biokinetic and dosimetric models. The dose conversion coefficient for occupational exposures with applying the risk models for miners was estimated with a value of 14 mSv per WLM, which is in good accordance with the results of the dosimetric models. To resolve the discrepancy regarding residential radon, the ICRP approaches for the determination of risks and doses were reviewed. It could be shown that ICRP overestimates the risk for lung cancer caused by residential radon. This can be attributed to a wrong population weighting of the radon-induced risks in its epidemiological approach. With the approach in this work, the average risks for lung cancer were determined, taking into account the age-specific risk contributions of all individuals in the population. As a result, a lower risk coefficient for residential radon was obtained. The results from the ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models for both, the occupationally exposed working age population and the whole population exposed to residential radon, can be brought in better accordance with the corresponding results of the epidemiological approach, if the respective relative radiation detriments and a radiation-weighting factor for alpha particles of about ten are used. (orig.)

  19. A functional-pragmatic analysis of conversation management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... They regulate the structure of the conversations by linking the successive turns and maintain discourse coherence. In this article, we adopt a ... The pragmatic markers also enable speakers to take and maintain floor control as well as to request for elaboration.

  20. Potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer: an individualized approach to conversion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Donatella; Leone, Francesco; D'Avanzo, Francesca; Ribero, Dario; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Aglietta, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In recent years, the survival of patients with metastatic disease has improved due to the developments in both medical and surgical care. Patients with technically unresectable metastatic disease could benefit from a multidisciplinary approach for their possible shift toward a technically resectable condition; the choice of the most effective systemic treatment is then crucial to allow conversion to resectability. Systemic conversion therapy may include chemotherapy agents' combinations (fluoropyrimidine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin), with or without targeted agents (cetuximab, panitumumab, bevacizumab). The choice of the best treatment option has to be evaluated by taking into account each patient's baseline characteristics, biological and pathological information and surgical strategy. In particular, the role of some biologic characteristics of the disease, namely the mutational status of EGFR-pathway oncogenes, is emerging as an important predictive factor of response to anti-EGFR targeted agents. Patients presenting with colorectal cancer metastases should be evaluated for multimodal management with curative intent as the appropriate chemotherapy regimen may induce tumor shrinkage, conversion to resectability and improved survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocean Current Energy Conversion System in Wallacea Region Using Variable Speed Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Current Energy Conversion System (OCECS is a promising green energy resource in this globe. The Thermohaline circulation data indicates that the Wallacea region has the potential of ocean current energy resources. This paper is aimed to propose research and development of OCECSs to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Firstly, four types of green energy conversion systems extracted from ocean are reviewed. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Secondly, the potential of OCECS in the Wallacea region is described. Third, many types of turbines used for OCECS are reviewed and the turbine type for OCECS is selected to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Fourth, control strategy is proposed.From the work reported in this paper it is concluded that it is appropriate to implement OCECSs using axial flow water turbines in the Wallacea region, and that to maximize energy conversion variable speed control approach is selected together with control of mechanism to move the turbine vertically as well as to rotate the turbine in yaw direction. 

  2. Discussing Health Care Expenses in the Oncology Clinic: Analysis of Cost Conversations in Outpatient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wynn G; Zafar, S Yousuf; Hesson, Ashley; Davis, J Kelly; Kirby, Christine; Barnett, Jamison A; Ubel, Peter A

    2017-11-01

    ASCO identified oncologist-patient conversations about cancer costs as an important component of high-quality care. However, limited data exist characterizing the content of these conversations. We sought to provide novel insight into oncologist-patient cost conversations by determining the content of cost conversations in breast cancer clinic visits. We performed content analysis of transcribed dialogue from 677 outpatient appointments for breast cancer management. Encounters featured 677 patients with breast cancer visiting 56 oncologists nationwide from 2010 to 2013. Cost conversations were identified in 22% of visits (95% CI, 19 to 25) and had a median duration of 33 seconds (interquartile range, 19 to 62). Fifty-nine percent of cost conversations were initiated by oncologists (95% CI, 51 to 67), who most commonly brought up costs for antineoplastic agents. By contrast, patients most frequently brought up costs for diagnostic tests. Thirty-eight percent of cost conversations mentioned cost-reducing strategies (95% CI, 30 to 46), which most commonly sought to lower patient costs for endocrine therapies and symptom-alleviating treatments. The three most commonly discussed cost-reducing strategies were: switching to a lower-cost therapy/diagnostic, changing logistics of the intervention, and facilitating copay assistance. We identified cost conversations in approximately one in five breast cancer visits. Cost conversations were mostly oncologist initiated, lasted Cost-reducing strategies were mentioned in more than one third of cost conversations and often involved switching antineoplastic agents for lower-cost alternatives or altering logistics of diagnostic tests.

  3. Ultra-capacitors in power conversion systems analysis, modeling and design in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Grbovic, Petar J

    2014-01-01

    Divided into five parts, this book is focused on ultra-capacitors and their applications in power conversion systems. It discusses ultra-capacitor analysis, modelling and module design from a macroscopic (application) perspective. It also describes power conversion applications, interface dc-dc converter design and entire conversion system design. Part One covers the background of energy storage technologies, with particular attention on state-of-the-art ultra-capacitor energy storage technologies. In Chapter four of this part, power conversion systems with integrated energy storage is discus

  4. Energy Conversion Loops for Flux-Switching PM Machine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction and synchronous machines have traditionally been the first choice of automotive manufacturers for electric/hybrid vehicles. However, these conventional machines are not able anymore to meet the increasing demands for a higher energy density due to space limitation in cars. Flux-switching PM (FSPM machines with their high energy density are very suitable to answer this demand. In this paper, the energy conversion loop technique is implemented on FSPM for the first time. The energy conversion technique is a powerful tool for the visualization of machine characteristics, both linear and nonlinear. Further, the technique provides insight into the torque production mechanism. A stepwise explanation is given on how to create these loops for FSPM along with the machine operation.

  5. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance...

  6. A Conversation Analysis-Informed Test of L2 Aural Pragmatic Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, F. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Speech act theory-based, second language pragmatics testing (SLPT) raises test-validation issues owing to a lack of correspondence with empirical conversational data. On the assumption that conversation analysis (CA) provides a more accurate account of language use, it is suggested that CA serve as a more empirically valid basis for SLPT…

  7. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance simulation with Angelov HEMT model in Agilent Advanced Design System (ADS) and by chip measurement results.

  8. An Approach for trapped Ba + ion-photon entanglement and quantum frequency conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, James; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia; ARL/JQI Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    Networking remotely situated trapped ion quantum memories involves the extraction, propagation and detection of photons which are entangled with internal qubit states of an ion. Given the cumulative losses of these processes it is important to have a high-probability method to extract the photon. Even with high probability photon extraction, extending the networking range is challenging as the flying qubit's wavelength is severely attenuated when propagated in optical fiber. In this case, quantum frequency conversion has been proposed as an approach to extend the networking range. Here, we compare several methods of ion-photon entanglement generation, including strong and weak excitation methods, showing the fidelity and entanglement probability vary as a function of the photon collection optic's numerical aperture. We project that the highest photon generation probability (approximately 95%) in 138Ba + is achieved via shelving to a long-lived, low-lying D-state with a projected fidelity of approximately 89%. We then outline an approach for quantum frequency conversion of the extracted photon, with a view to hybrid or long-distance networking, useful for extending the range of ion-based quantum networks and hybrid quantum networks compromised of different types of quantum memories.

  9. Workplace English: Approach and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes two approaches to teaching vocational English as a second language: (1) describing work activities in terms of processes and procedures and (2) describing work activities in terms of specific human behaviors. Suggests a goal analysis as an initial step before deciding which approach to take in any training project. (SED)

  10. Sensitivity of the Drift-Diffusion Approach in Estimating the Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Fallahpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous theoretical approaches to estimating the power conversion efficiency (PCE of organic solar cells (OSCs, ranging from the empirical approach to calculations based on general considerations of thermodynamics. Depending on the level of abstraction and model assumptions, the accuracy of PCE estimation and complexity of the calculation can change dramatically. In particular, PCE estimation with a drift-diffusion approach (widely investigated in the literature, strongly depends on the assumptions made for the physical models and optoelectrical properties of semiconducting materials. This has led to a huge deviation as well as complications in the analysis of simulated results aiming to understand the factors limiting the performance of OSCs. In this work, we intend to highlight the complex relation between mobility, exciton dynamics, nanoscale dimension, and loss mechanisms in one framework. Our systematic analysis represents key information on the sensitivity of the drift-diffusion approach, to estimate how physical parameters and physical processes bind the PCE of the device under the influence of structure, contact, and material layer properties. The obtained results ultimately led to recommendations for putting effort into certain properties to get the most out of avoidable losses, presented the impact and importance of modification of material properties, and in particular, recommended to what degree the design of new material could improve OSC performance.

  11. Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Markus; Liegl, Gregor; Jank, Robert; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-06-10

    Conversion Disorders (CD) are prevalent functional disorders. Although the pathogenesis is still not completely understood, an interaction of genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors is quite likely. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic overview on imaging studies on CDs and investigate neuronal areas involved in Motor Conversion Disorders (MCD). A systematic literature search was conducted on CD. Subsequently a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies on MCD was implemented using an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE). We calculated differences between patients and healthy controls as well as between affected versus unaffected sides in addition to an overall analysis in order to identify neuronal areas related to MCD. Patients with MCD differ from healthy controls in the amygdala, superior temporal lobe, retrosplenial area, primary motor cortex, insula, red nucleus, thalamus, anterior as well as dorsolateral prefrontal and frontal cortex. When comparing affected versus unaffected sides, temporal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, supramarginal gyrus, dorsal temporal lobe, anterior insula, primary somatosensory cortex, superior frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal as well as frontal cortex show significant differences. Neuronal areas seem to be involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance or as a result of MCD. Areas that are important for motor-planning, motor-selection or autonomic response seem to be especially relevant. Our results support the emotional unawareness theory but also underline the need of more support by conduction imaging studies on both CD and MCD.

  12. User Centered Design as a Framework for Applying Conversation Analysis in Hearing Aid Consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Matthews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent issues in applying CA results to change in institutional practices concern the degree to which the CA researcher is involved and what aspects of the change process CA researchers is involved in. This paper presents a methodology from innovation studies called User Centered Design (Buur...... and Bagger, 1999) and, more recently, Participatory Innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008) which is uniquely compatible with conversation analysis. Designers following this approach study how a ‘user’ of goods or services interacts with products and other interaction partners in order to derive ideas...... for innovation. Although this methodological convergence of disciplines is rooted in different traditions, it augurs well for successful cooperation. This paper reports on such a collaboration carried out within a federally funded research center for innovation. We present principles of the interdisciplinary...

  13. Conversation analysis and the study of social institutions: methodological, socio-cultural and epistemic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Roca-Cuberes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to show how conversation analysis, a sociological discipline, approaches the study of social institutions. Social institutions are conceived as the crystallization of members’ communicative, interactional practices. Two institutional domains – psychiatric interviews and broadcast news interviews – and a specific interactional practice – ‘formulations’ – are examined in this study. The results show that (1 in psychiatric interviews the psychiatrist uses formulations to transform the patients’ avowals and establish a psychiatric problem. (2 In broadcast news interviews, formulations might help the interviewer to clarify or transform the statements of the interviewee, or challenge his assertions. The comparison of formulations in two different institutional settings serves the purpose of (1 demonstrating how communicative conduct is adapted in particular settings in ways that invoke and configure distinct social institutions and (2 inspect the knowledge, practices, logic, etc., mobilized by members of the epistemic communities of psychiatry and journalism.

  14. Conversation Analysis at Century's End: Practices of Talk-in-Interaction, Their Distributions, and Their Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, John

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the development of conversation analysis (CA) and the recognition it has earned in a number of disciplines, including communication. Suggests that, during the next period of development, CA methods will become more quantitative. (Author/VWL)

  15. Teaching and Learning English in Thailand and the Integration of Conversation Analysis (CA) into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Bunthan; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of English language teaching and learning, specifically as it pertains to teaching English conversational skills in Thailand. The paper examines the shortcomings of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach, the current dominant pedagogical approach in the nation, and explores how the integration of…

  16. Exploring community participation in project design: application of the community conversation approach to improve maternal and newborn health in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Mutale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP has adopted an approach entitled Community Conversation (CC to improve community engagement in addressing health challenges. CCs are based on Paulo Freire’s transformative communication approach, in which communities pose problems and critically examine their everyday life experiences through discussion. We adopted this approach to engage communities in maternal and newborn health discussions in three rural districts of Zambia, with the aim of developing community-generated interventions. Methods Sixty (60 CCs were held in three target districts, covering a total of 20 health facilities. Communities were purposively selected in each district to capture a range of rural and peri-urban areas at varying distances from health facilities. Conversations were held four times in each community between May and September 2014. All conversations were digitally recorded and later transcribed. NVivo version 10 was used for data analysis. Results and Discussion The major barriers to accessing maternal health services included geography, limited infrastructure, lack of knowledge, shortage of human resources and essential commodities, and insufficient involvement of male partners. From the demand side, a lack of information and misconceptions, and, from the supply side, inadequately trained health workers with poor attitudes, negatively affected access to maternal health services in target districts either directly or indirectly. At least 17 of 20 communities suggested solutions to these challenges, including targeted community sensitisation on the importance of safe motherhood, family planning and prevention of teenage pregnancy. Community members and key stakeholders committed time and resources to address these challenges with minimal external support. Conclusion We successfully applied the CC approach to explore maternal health challenges in three rural districts of Zambia. CCs functioned

  17. First Encounters with Patients after Attempted Suicide: A Conversation and Interaction Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Frei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main risk factor for suicide is the attempt to do. It boosts the risk of further attempts and heightens the risk of subsequent suicide considerably. We know the rate of suicide attempters willing to attend even an aftercare appointment to be  low. It is also known that if attempters do seek help, from the first encounter on the quality of the therapeutic alliance plays an important role in the formation of the patient's decision to continue the therapeutic relationship. Clinically, this implies the urgency to offer these patients a helping and trustful relationship from the beginning, since we might only get this one chance to reach and engage them in a helping relationship. But what are good encounters with such patients? How are positively experienced encounters characterized and how to pursue such questions on the basis of empirical material? The aim of this investigation into clinicians’ ways of interacting with these patients is to elicit characteristics of interaction from positively and negatively experienced encounters. Conversation and interaction analysis provide valuable access to these questions, because they allow a detailed investigation into the turn-by-turn unfolding of interaction. They demonstrate how the interactants mutually present themselves and how communicative moves are productive or not. Results of such an investigation into four such first-encounters are presented. Out of a pool of 40 videotaped first-encounters, held at the Bern University Hospital, two of the best and two of the worst encounters in patients’ rating were selected, transcribed, and analyzed. It was found that the interviewers of the positively experienced encounters were attentively and empathically present throughout the entire conversation. While giving patients ample opportunity to autonomously develop the story of their suicide-attempt, clinicians where nevertheless structuring and focusing the conversation and assisting the development of

  18. Mathematical Analysis, A Straightforward Approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mathematical Analysis, A Straightforward Approach. K Rama Murthy. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 96-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0096-0096 ...

  19. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  20. Drivers of Wetland Conversion: a Global Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.; Verburg, P.H.; Vermaat, J.E.; Janse, J.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis

  1. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  2. Descriptive Analysis on Flouting and Hedging of Conversational Maxims in the “Post Grad” Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiti Rokhmania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on analyzing flouting and hedging of conversational maxim of utterances used by the main characters in “Post Grad” movie. Conversational maxims are the rules of cooperative principle categorized into four categories; Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. If these maxims are used in conversations, the conversations can go smoothly. However, people often break the maxims overtly (flouting maxim and sometimes break the maxims secretly (hedging maxims when they make a conversation. This research is conducted using descriptive qualitative method based on the theory known as Grice’s Maxims. The data are in form of utterances used by the characters in “Post Grad” movie. The data analysis reveals some finding covering the formulated research question. The maxims are flouted when the speaker breaks some conversational maxims when using the utterances in the form of rhetorical strategies, such as tautology, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, and rhetorical question. On the other hand, conversational maxims are also hedged when the information is not totally accurate or unclearly stated but seems informative, well-founded, and relevant.

  3. Real analysis a constructive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bridger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

  4. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  5. Saying I Know You – Conversational Analysis On Internet-Chatting By Dating Couples –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Chijiiwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In casual conversations, Japanese people do not refer to their intimacies saying “We are close this much.” It is difficult to create special scales for intimacies because the term of “Intimacy” is too abstract and vague. However, don’t Japanese people really scale their intimacies during their conversations? In this study, the researcher aimed to describe strategies of intimacies in Japanese using method of Conversational Analysis onto dating couple’s casual internet chat data and analyzed “how people show their intimacies to opponent through the conversations.” For conclusion we can say; Japanese people tend to say “I know you” in indirect way to emphasize the opponent’s “the illusion of transparency”.

  6. Effective field theory approach to parton-hadron conversion in high energy QCD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus

    1995-01-01

    A QCD based effective action is constructed to describe the dynamics of confinement and symmetry breaking in the process of parton-hadron conversion. The deconfined quark and gluon degrees of freedom of the perturbative QCD vacuum are coupled to color singlet collective fields representing the non-perturbative vacuum with broken scale and chiral symmetry. The effective action recovers QCD with its scale and chiral symmetry properties at short space-time distances, but yields at large distances (r > 1 fm) to the formation of symmetry breaking gluon and quark condensates. The approach is applied to the evolution of a fragmenting q\\bar q pair with its generated gluon distribution, starting from a large hard scale Q^2. The modification of the gluon distribution arising from the coupling to the non-perturbative collective field results eventually in a complete condensation of gluons. Color flux tube configurations of the gluons in between the q\\bar q pair are obtained as solutions of the equations of motion. With ...

  7. Patient-provider conversations about sterilization: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Katrina; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-03-01

    Although female sterilization is the second most commonly used contraceptive method in the US, research suggests that providers may serve as barriers to desired sterilization. We conducted a modified grounded theory analysis of audio-recorded contraceptive counseling visits with 52 women who specified on a previsit survey that they wanted no future children and a supplemental analysis of visits with 14 women who wanted or were unsure about future children in which sterilization was mentioned. Sterilization was discussed in only 19 of the 52 visits, primarily with patients who were older women with children. Although some framed sterilization positively, many clinicians discouraged patients from pursuing sterilization, encouraging them instead to use long-acting reversible methods and framing the permanence of sterilization as undesirable. In the 33 remaining sessions, sterilization was not mentioned, and clinicians largely failed to solicit patients' future reproductive intentions. We found no clear patterns regarding discussion of sterilization in the 14 supplemental cases. Clinicians did not discuss sterilization with all patients for whom it might have been appropriate and thus missed opportunities to discuss sterilization as part of the full range of appropriate methods. When they did discuss sterilization, they only infrequently presented the method in positive ways and more commonly encouraged patients to choose a long-acting reversible method instead. Clinicians may want to reflect on their counseling practices around sterilization to ensure that counseling is centered on patient preferences, rather than driven by their own assumptions about the desirability of reversibility. Clinicians often fail to discuss sterilization as a contraceptive option with potentially appropriate candidates and, when they do, often discourage its selection. Clinicians should consider assessing reproductive intentions to ensure that potentially relevant methods are included in

  8. [Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the

  9. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  10. FOLFOXIRI Plus Bevacizumab as Conversion Therapy for Patients With Initially Unresectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Gianluca; Petrelli, Fausto; Ghidini, Michele; Russo, Alessandro; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Barni, Sandro

    2017-07-13

    .2 months (95% CI, 26.5-33.7 months) in 6 trials with data available, and progression-free survival was 12.4 months (95% CI, 10.0-14.3 months) in 9 trials with data available. In meta-regression analysis, variables significantly associated with conversion surgery were disease limited to the liver and a higher median number of cycles (close to 12). For patients with surgically unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer, FOLFOXIRI-Bev is associated with a significant overall response rate. Such an effective regimen leads to a probability of surgical conversion of distant metastases approaching 40%, with more than one-fourth of patients having an R0 resection.

  11. Starting a Conversation about Critical Frame Analysis: Reflections on Dealing with Methodology in Feminist Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, M. van der; Verloo, M.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    With this article we are contributing to a conversation about Critical Frame Analysis (CFA) as a feminist research method. CFA was developed within the context of two collaborative and comparative research studies of gender equality policies in the European context, MAGEEQ (www.mageeq.net) and QUING

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS AND IMPLICATURES IN UNDERSTANDING TOEFL SHORT CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Tri Cahyaningati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Listening comprehension is found to be among the most difficult tasks for the learners due to several reasons. Mostly, test-takers find difficulty in interpreting the intended meaning of the utterances in the TOEFL examination. To understand the intended meaning which is implied in and beyond the utterance itself, the test takers must have background knowledge of the context of the utterances. Based on the problems faced by the test takers above, this study gives some solutions in understanding the short conversation in TOEFL so they can draw conclusion of the intended meanings. The writer uses illocutionary acts and implicatures in analyzing the problems found in TOEFL short conversation. Based on the analysis, this study concludes that TOEFL short conversations consist of four illocutionary acts classifications of five. There are Directive, Expressive, Assertive and Commisive. Most of the illocutionary acts found in TOEFL short conversations are directive, assertive and expressive. Meanwhile, Commisive is sometimes found in TOEFL short conversations. This study also gets the data of the implicatures on the utterance in TOEFL short conversations. There are some implicatures that can help the test takers in understanding the intended meaning of the utterance in TOEFL short conversations. Thus to understand the intended meaning on the utterances, the test takers can interpret the meaning by applying the illocutionary act theory and the implicatures. The illocutionary will help the test taker to identify the types of the utterance and then can understand the intended meaning of the utterance. The implicatures will explain what a speaker can imply, suggest, or mean, as different from what the speaker literally says

  13. Initiating decision-making conversations in palliative care: an ethnographic discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Groleau, Danielle; Légaré, France; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Marchand, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about end-of-life care remain challenging for health care providers. The tendency to delay conversations about care options represents a barrier that impedes the ability of terminally-ill patients to participate in decision-making. Family physicians with a palliative care practice are often responsible for discussing end-of-life care preferences with patients, yet there is a paucity of research directly observing these interactions. In this study, we sought to explore how patients and family physicians initiated decision-making conversations in the context of a community hospital-based palliative care service. This qualitative study combined discourse analysis with ethnographic methods. The field research lasted one year, and data were generated through participant observation and audio-recordings of consultations. A total of 101 consultations were observed longitudinally between 18 patients, 6 family physicians and 2 pivot nurses. Data analysis consisted in exploring the different types of discourses initiating decision-making conversations and how these discourses were affected by the organizational context in which they took place. The organization of care had an impact on decision-making conversations. The timing and origin of referrals to palliative care shaped whether patients were still able to participate in decision-making, and the decisions that remained to be made. The type of decisions to be made also shaped how conversations were initiated. Family physicians introduced decision-making conversations about issues needing immediate attention, such as symptom management, by directly addressing or eliciting patients' complaints. When decisions involved discussing impending death, decision-making conversations were initiated either indirectly, by prompting the patients to express their understanding of the disease and its progression, or directly, by providing a justification for broaching a difficult topic. Decision-making conversations and

  14. The caring relationship in hospice care: an analysis based on the ethics of the caring conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Gert; Dekkers, Wim; Leget, Carlo; Vogelaar, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Good nursing is more than exercising a specific set of skills. It involves the personal identity of the nurse. The aim of this article is to answer two questions: (1) what kind of person should the hospice nurse be? and (2) how should the hospice nurse engage in caring conversations? To answer these questions we analyse a nurse's story that is intended to be a profile of an exemplary hospice nurse. This story was constructed from an analysis of five semistructured interviews with hospice nurses, based on the 'ethics of the caring conversation', which is inspired by the ethical perspective of Paul Ricoeur. The research questions concentrate on the norms of respect, responsibility and reciprocity, which are integral parts of the 'ethics of the caring conversation'.

  15. Dynamic social network analysis using conversational dynamics in social networking and microblogging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Gabriel; Savell, Robert; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    In many security environments, the textual content of communications may be unavailable. In these instances, it is often desirable to infer the status of the network and its component entities from patterns of communication flow. Conversational dynamics among entities in the network may provide insight into important aspects of the underlying social network such as the formational dynamics of group structures, the active state of these groups, individuals' roles within groups, and the likelihood of individual participation in conversations. To gain insight into the use of conversational dynamics to facilitate Dynamic Social Network Analysis, we explore the use of interevent timings to associate entities in the Twitter social networking and micro-blogging environment. Specifically, we use message timings to establish inter-nodal relationships among participants. In addition, we demonstrate a new visualization technique for tracking levels of coordination or synchronization within the community via measures of socio-temporal coherence of the participants.

  16. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Betavoltaic Energy Conversion : Measurement and Analysis by M Litz, W Ray, J Russo, S Kelley, and J Smith Approved for public...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion ...Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion : Measurement and Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Assessing Qualities of Moral Classroom Conversations in the Domain of Citizenship Education: A Virtue Ethical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Frank; Denessen, Eddie; Hermans, Chris; Vermeer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    It may be argued that, from a virtue-ethical perspective, three aspects of a teacher's role in moral classroom conversations are of primary importance: (1) encouraging students to be morally reasonable, (2) stimulating the students' emotional involvement, and (3) guiding students toward a normative ideal of virtue. This study sets out to explore…

  18. Statistical analysis of the electric energy production from photovoltaic conversion using mobile and fixed constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugała, Artur; Bednarek, Karol; Kasprzyk, Leszek; Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the most representative - from the three-year measurement time period - characteristics of daily and monthly electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion using modules installed in a fixed and 2-axis tracking construction. Results are presented for selected summer, autumn, spring and winter days. Analyzed measuring stand is located on the roof of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Poznan University of Technology building. The basic parameters of the statistical analysis like mean value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, median, range, or coefficient of variation were used. It was found that the asymmetry factor can be useful in the analysis of the daily electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion. In order to determine the repeatability of monthly electricity production, occurring between the summer, and summer and winter months, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used as a statistical solution. In order to analyze the repeatability of daily peak hours, describing the largest value of the hourly electricity production, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied as an extension of the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the analysis of the electric energy distribution from a prepared monitoring system it was found that traditional forecasting methods of the electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion, like multiple regression models, should not be the preferred methods of the analysis.

  19. Evaluation of the performance of high temperature conversion reactors for compound-specific oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2017-05-01

    In this study conversion conditions for oxygen gas chromatography high temperature conversion (HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) are characterised using qualitative mass spectrometry (IonTrap). It is shown that physical and chemical properties of a given reactor design impact HTC and thus the ability to accurately measure oxygen isotope ratios. Commercially available and custom-built tube-in-tube reactors were used to elucidate (i) by-product formation (carbon dioxide, water, small organic molecules), (ii) 2nd sources of oxygen (leakage, metal oxides, ceramic material), and (iii) required reactor conditions (conditioning, reduction, stability). The suitability of the available HTC approach for compound-specific isotope analysis of oxygen in volatile organic molecules like methyl tert-butyl ether is assessed. Main problems impeding accurate analysis are non-quantitative HTC and significant carbon dioxide by-product formation. An evaluation strategy combining mass spectrometric analysis of HTC products and IRMS (18)O/(16)O monitoring for future method development is proposed.

  20. Upstreaming and Normalizing Advance Care Planning Conversations-A Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Paul, Maryjo; DiFranco, Evelina

    2017-04-12

    As a society, we simply don't talk about this universal experience called dying and death; in fact, we ignore it until we have to face it. Thus, it is often in a crisis experience when we have to make decisions while we are laden with uncertainty and intense emotions. Sixty percent of people say making sure their family is not burdened by tough decisions is extremely important, yet 56% of them have not held a conversation about its context. Instead of waiting to make end-of-life decisions, let us begin to think about what matters most while we are living, what we value most, and how we translate these values into conversations about what is important. As a public health concern, if we can upstream the advance care planning discussion into usual health promotion activities, perhaps, as a society, we can begin to normalize and reshape how we make decisions about the last chapters of our lives.

  1. Electrical energy conversion and transport an interactive computer-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karady, George G

    2013-01-01

    Provides relevant material for engineering students and practicing engineers who want to learn the basics of electrical power transmission, generation, and usage This Second Edition of Electrical Energy Conversion and Transport is thoroughly updated to address the recent environmental effects of electric power generation and transmission, which have become more important in conjunction with the deregulation of the industry. The maintenance and development of the electrical energy generation and transport industry requires well-trained engineers who are able to use mode

  2. Acidic ionic liquids as sustainable approach of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass conversion without additional catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, André M da Costa; Bogel-Łukasik, Rafał

    2015-03-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) for biomass processing has attracted considerable attention recently as it provides distinct features for pre-treated biomass and fractionated materials in comparison to conventional processes. Process intensification through integration of dissolution, fractionation, hydrolysis and/or conversion in one pot should be accomplished to maximise economic and technological feasibility. The possibility of using alternative ILs capable not only of dissolving and deconstructing selectively biomass but also of catalysing reactions simultaneously are a potential solution of this problem. In this Review a critical overview of the state of the art and perspectives of the hydrolysis and conversion of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass using acidic ILs using no additional catalyst are provided. The efficiency of the process is mainly considered with regard to the hydrolysis and conversion yields obtained and the selectivity of each reaction. The process conditions can be easily tuned to obtain sugars and/or platform chemicals, such as furans and organic acids. On the other hand, product recovery from the IL and its purity are the main challenges for the acceptance of this technology as a feasible alternative to conventional processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  4. Systems analysis research for energy conversion and utilization technologies (ECUT). FY 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J.; Gunn, M.E.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-11-01

    This Annual Report highlights ECUT accomplishments in the Systems Analysis Project for FY 1985. The Systems Analysis Project was established in 1980 along with the ECUT Division. The Systems Analysis mission is to identify, analyze, and assess R and D needs and research program strategies for advanced conservation technologies. The PNL Systems Analysis staff conducts topical research, provides technical studies, and plans program activities in three areas related to energy conversion and utilization technologies: (1) technology assessment, (2) engineering analysis, and (3) project evaluation and review. This report summarizes the technical results and accomplishments of the FY 1985 projects. They relate mostly to tribology, improved ctalysts, regenerative heat exchangers, robotics and electronics industries, and bioprocessing.

  5. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE KNOWLEDGE CREATION AND CONVERSION MODEL AND THE COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO COSTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Contemporaneously, and with the successive paradigmatic revolutions inherent to management since the XVII century, we are witnessing a new era marked by the structural rupture in the way organizations are perceived. Market globalization, cemented by quick technological evolutions, associated with economic, cultural, political and social transformations characterize a reality where uncertainty is the only certainty for organizations and managers. Knowledge management has been interpreted by managers and academics as a viable alternative in a logic of creation and conversation of sustainable competitive advantages. However, there are several barriers to the implementation and development of knowledge management programs in organizations, with organizational culture being one of the most preponderant. In this sense, and in this article, we will analyze and compare The Knowledge Creation and Conversion Model proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 and Quinn and Rohrbaugh's Competing Values Framework (1983, since both have convergent conceptual lines that can assist managers in different sectors to guide their organization in a perspective of productivity, quality and market competitiveness.

  6. The N400 effect during speaker-switch – Towards a conversational approach of measuring neural correlates of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Goregliad Fjaellingsdal

    2016-11-01

    400 can effectively be used to study neural correlates of language in conversational approaches including speaker-switches.

  7. Experimental approaches to the interaction of the prion protein with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans: Modulators of the pathogenic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jerson L; Vieira, Tuane C R G; Gomes, Mariana P B; Rangel, Luciana P; Scapin, Sandra M N; Cordeiro, Yraima

    2011-03-01

    The concept that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused only by proteins has changed the traditional paradigm that disease transmission is due solely to an agent that carries genetic information. The central hypothesis for prion diseases proposes that the conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a misfolded, β-sheet-rich isoform (PrP(Sc)) accounts for the development of (TSE). There is substantial evidence that the infectious material consists chiefly of a protein, PrP(Sc), with no genomic coding material, unlike a virus particle, which has both. However, prions seem to have other partners that chaperone their activities in converting the PrP(C) into the disease-causing isoform. Nucleic acids (NAs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the most probable accomplices of prion conversion. Here, we review the recent experimental approaches that have been employed to characterize the interaction of prion proteins with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans. A PrP recognizes many nucleic acids and GAGs with high affinities, and this seems to be related to a pathophysiological role for this interaction. A PrP binds nucleic acids and GAGs with structural selectivity, and some PrP:NA complexes can become proteinase K-resistant, undergoing amyloid oligomerization and conversion to a β-sheet-rich structure. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous polyanions (such as NAs and GAGs) may accelerate the rate of prion disease progression by acting as scaffolds or lattices that mediate the interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) molecules. In addition to a still-possible hypothesis that nucleic acids and GAGs, especially those from the host, may modulate the conversion, the recent structural characterization of the complexes has raised the possibility of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Fast linking approach for CMYK to CMYK conversion preserving black separation in ICC color management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao

    2003-12-01

    In the linking step of the standard ICC color management workflow for CMYK to CMYK conversion, a CMM takes an AToBn tag (n = 0, 1, or 2) from a source ICC profile to convert a color from the source color space to PCS (profile connection space), and then takes a BToAn tag from the destination ICC profile to convert the color from PCS to the destination color space. This approach may give satisfactory result perceptually or colorimetrically. However, it does not preserve the K channel for CMYK to CMYK conversion, which is often required in graphic art"s market. The problem is that the structure of a BtoAn tag is designed to convert colors from PCS to a device color space ignoring the K values from the source color space. Different approaches have been developed to control K in CMYK to CMYK printing, yet none of them well fits into the "Profile - PCS - Profile" model in the ICC color management system. A traditional approach is to transform the source CMYK to the destination CMYK by 1-D TRC curves and GCR/UCR tables. This method is so simple that it cannot accurately transform colors perceptually or colorimetrically. Another method is to build a 4-D CMYK to CMYK closed-loop lookup table (LUT) (or a deviceLink ICC profile) for the color transformation. However, this approach does not fit into opened color management workflows for it ties the source and the destination color spaces in the color characterization step. A specialized CMM may preserve K for a limit number of colors by mapping those CMYK colors to some carefully chosen PCS colors in both the AToBi tag and the BToAi tag. A more complete solution is to move to smart linking in which gamut mapping is performed in the real-time linking at a CMM. This method seems to solve all problems existed in the CMYK to CMYK conversion. However, it introduces new problems: 1) gamut mapping at real-time linking is often unacceptable slow; 2) gamut mapping may not be optimized or may be unreliable; 3) manual adjustment for

  9. Analysis on Energy Conversion of Screw Centrifugal Pump in Impeller Domain Based on Profile Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Quan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the power capability of impeller and energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump, the methods of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation by computational fluid dynamics theory (CFD were adopted, specifically discussing the conditions of internal flow such as velocity, pressure, and concentration. When the medium is sand-water two-phase flow and dividing the rim of the lines and wheel lines of screw centrifugal pump to segments to analyze energy conversion capabilities which along the impeller profile lines with the dynamic head and hydrostatic head changer, the results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by helical segment, and the helical segment of the front of the impeller has played the role of multilevel increasing energy; the sand-water two phases move at different speeds because the different force field and the impeller propeller and centrifugal effect. As liquid phase is the primary phase, the energy conversion is mainly up to the change of liquid energy, the solid phase flows under the wrapped action of liquid, and solid energy is carried out through liquid indirectly.

  10. A conversation analysis of the function of silence in writing conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mirzaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the recent issues in English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL writing instruction has been the quest for a more effective way to give feedback to L2 learners’ writing drafts. Although teacher- learner writing conferences have been increasingly used for providing ample opportunity for negotiating revisions, relatively little attention has been given to actual teacher-learner conversation. Drawing on sociocultural theory, which holds that all cognitive developments are results of ‘social interactions’, and drawing on conversation analysis as an analytical tool, this study attempts to explore the different functions of ‘silence’ in writing conferences during teacher-learner conversation. The data comes from transcripts of six 1-hour writing conferences video-recorded in a graduate program with 7 candidates in Iran. During the writing conferences, learners’ drafts were discussed. Findings of the study demonstrated that teacher’s silence can play a key role in the management of turns in writing conferences, thereby providing the parties with various opportunities for accomplishing intersubjectivity: the teacher used silence to rethink the information provided during writing conferences, and the learner exploited silence to revise the writing draft. The current study, reporting a range of functions of silence in writing conferences, offers an extension to the existing literature and draws language teachers’, specifically writing instructors’, attention to different functions of silence in writing conferences.

  11. The UTRC wind energy conversion system performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines (WECSPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.

  12. Comparative analysis of 12 different kits for bisulfite conversion of circulating cell-free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm Ørntoft, Mai-Britt; Jensen, Sarah Østrup; Hansen, Thomas Birkballe; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg

    2017-08-01

    Blood circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming popular in the search of promising predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Among these biomarkers, cfDNA methylation markers have especially gained considerable attention. A significant challenge in the utilization of cfDNA methylation markers is the limited amount of cfDNA available for analyses; reportedly, bisulfite conversion (BSC) reduce cfDNA amounts even further. Nevertheless, few efforts have focused on ensuring high cfDNA conversion efficiency and recovery after BSC. To compare cfDNA recovery of different BSC methods, we compared 12 different commercially available BSC kits. We tested whether DNA recovery was affected by the molecular weight and/or quantity of input DNA. We also tested BSC efficiency for each kit. We found that recovery varied for DNA fragments of different lengths: certain kits recovered short fragments better than others, and only 3 kits recovered DNA fragments of BSC, a linear relation was found between input and recovery amount. Overall, mean recovery ranged between 9 and 32%, with BSC efficiency of 97-99.9%. When plasma cfDNA was used as input for BSC, recovery varied from 22% for the poorest and 66% for the best performing kits, while conversion efficiency ranged from 96 to 100% among different kits. In conclusion, clear performance differences exist between commercially available BSC kits, both in terms of DNA recovery and conversion efficiency. The choice of BSC kit can substantially impact the amount of converted cfDNA available for downstream analysis, which is critical in a cfDNA methylation marker setting.

  13. Application of Two Methods: Think-Aloud Protocol and Conversation Analysis in Teaching Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a Think Aloud Protocol study and conversation analysis implemented as strategies by inexperienced translators who translated an extract of an audiovisual message from French into German. We observed and analysed the case in which were recorded the students in order to externalize the process of translating. The author of this paper wants to show how they used different understanding and search strategies during the act of translation. The results can serve as hypotheses for the teaching of translation.

  14. [The correlation factor analysis for conversion of clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, C F; Qian, H R; Peng, L J; Mao, L L; Huang, X; Xia, D Y; Lei, X; Qi, X K

    2016-06-01

    .000). Lesions longer than three vertebral segments were dominant in patients converted to NMO (P=0.000). The logistic regression analysis revealed that factors correlated with conversion from CIS to MS were the initial CIS manifestation of multifocal lesions (OR=4.775, P=0.002), positive CSF-OB (OR=7.794, P=0.002) and VEP abnormality (OR=7.251, P=0.001). Factors correlated with conversion from CIS to NMO were female in gender (OR=12.536, P=0.019), positive serum AQP4-Ab (OR=36.410, P=0.002), lesions longer than three vertebral segments (OR=93.602, P=0.001), abnormal VEP and SEP (OR=18.448, P=0.002; OR=12.731, P=0.016). Factors correlated with the conversion from CIS to MS are initial CIS manifestation of multifocal lesions, positive CSF-OB and abnormal VEP, while those correlated with the conversion from CIS to NMO are female in gender, positive serum AQP4-Ab, initial CIS manifestation with optic nerve, lesions involved more than three vertebral segments and abnormal VEP and SEP.

  15. Intercultural Communication Online: Conversation Analysis and the Investigation of Asynchronous Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Gibson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper works through the methodological issues involved in treating "culture" and "interculturality" as interactionally demonstrable and observable phenomena in written online asynchronous discourse. In particular, the paper explores the ways that conversation analysis (CA and its focus on sequentiality and membership categorization analysis might aid the analysis of culture as a textural interactional achievement. The paper argues that, while there are some clear differences between sequential talk and written asynchronous discourse, there are still interesting ways in which CA's analytic foci may be worked through in relation to online discourse. Both the concern with sequentiality and with membership categories may well help us to see how the construction of visible and recognizable intercultural discourse practices are accomplished through written modes in online forums. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901493

  16. INJECTION MOLDING AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN METAL TO PLASTIC CONVERSION OF BOLTED FLANGE JOINT BY CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Blaško

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many metal parts in various applications are being replaced by plastic parts. There are several reasons for that depending on actual application - minimize part cost, enhance corrosion resistance, integrating more components into one part etc. Most important steps of metal to plastic conversion are material selection and design of plastic part. Plastic part has to withstand the same load as metal part. To fulfill this requirement fiber reinforced engineering plastics are often used. Also it is convenient to substitute heavy wall sections with ribbed structure to increase load-carrying ability of part and decrease cycle time, eliminate voids, sink marks etc. Mechanical properties of such part could be highly affected by fiber orientation. Results of fiber orientation from injection molding filling analysis can be used in stress analysis for better prediction of part response to mechanical load. Such coupled analysis is performed here in this case study on bolted flange joint.

  17. Four-dimensional conversion for spiritual leadership development: A missiological approach for African churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalemba Mwambazambi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of a four-dimensional conversion and/or transformation strives in helping the leadership of an organisation, especially such as the church, with practical ways that may lead to the development of an effective leadership by observing the four important aspects of human spirituality as elaborated on in the article. The spiritual, intellectual, moral and socio-political dimensions of the transformation can be catered for so that the complete inner being of humans, as well as their social and political attitudes and behaviours, can equally be transformed to maximum spiritual, personal and socio-political profitability. Mutombo-Mukendi demonstrates that the need for a spiritual leadership that can contribute to an effective transformation of Africa is dire, both for the church and the larger community. The real challenge is how to develop such leadership. This article provides intentional and practical ways that may lead to the development of the needed leadership. Four-dimensional transformation of people can be planned and carried out both in the church arena and in the surrounding communities. Skills development and transfer can also take place when skilled people from the church work with unskilled people from the community.

  18. A Supervised Approach to Predict the Hierarchical Structure of Conversation Threads for Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available User-generated texts such as comments in social media are rich sources of information. In general, the reply structure of comments is not publicly accessible on the web. Websites present comments as a list in chronological order. This way, some information is lost. A solution for this problem is to reconstruct the thread structure (RTS automatically. RTS predicts a semantic tree for the reply structure, useful for understanding users’ behaviours and facilitating follow of the actual conversation streams. This paper works on RTS task in blogs, online news agencies, and news websites. These types of websites cover various types of articles reflecting the real-world events. People with different views participate in arguments by writing comments. Comments express opinions, sentiments, or ideas about articles. The reply structure of threads in these types of websites is basically different from threads in the forums, chats, and emails. To perform RTS, we define a set of textual and nontextual features. Then, we use supervised learning to combine these features. The proposed method is evaluated on five different datasets. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared with baselines. The results reveal higher accuracy for our method in comparison with baselines in all datasets.

  19. Biomimetic synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853: An approach for conversion of selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori

    2016-10-01

    A facile and green method for the reduction of selenite was developed using a Gram-negative bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa, under aerobic conditions. During the process of bacterial conversion, the elemental selenium nanoparticles were produced. These nanoparticles were systematically characterized using various analytical techniques including UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, DLS, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. The generation of selenium nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of red colour in the culture broth and broad absorption peaks in the UV-vis. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical, polydisperse, ranged from 47 to 165 nm and the average particle size was about 95.9 nm. The selected-area electron diffraction, XRD patterns; and Raman spectroscopy established the amorphous nature of the fabricated nanoparticles. The IR data demonstrated the bacterial protein mediated selenite reduction and capping of the produced nanoparticles. The selenium removal was assessed at different selenite concentrations using ICP-OES and the results showed that the tested bacterial strain exhibited significant selenite reduction activity. The results demonstrate the possible application of P. aeruginosa for bioremediation of waters polluted with toxic and soluble selenite. Moreover, the potential metal reduction capability of the bacterial strain can function as green method for aerobic generation of selenium nanospheres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Selecting an Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approach for selecting statistical analyses to inform causal analysis. Describes methods for determining whether test site conditions differ from reference expectations. Describes an approach for estimating stressor-response relationships.

  1. Classifying Enterprise Architecture Analysis Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckl, Sabine; Matthes, Florian; Schweda, Christian M.

    Enterprise architecture (EA) management forms a commonly accepted means to enhance the alignment of business and IT, and to support the managed evolution of the enterprise. One major challenge of EA management is to provide decision support by analyzing as-is states of the architecture as well as assessing planned future states. Thus, different kinds of analysis regarding the EA exist, each relying on certain conditions and demands for models, methods, and techniques.

  2. Organizational Capability Deployment Analysis for Technology Conversion into Processes, Products and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Daniela Hamanaka Gusberti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Organizational Capabilities as the basic components of business models that emerged under the New Product Development Process and Technological Management. In the context of the new Technology Based Companies Development, it adopts a qualitative research in order to identify, analyze and underpin the organizational capability deployment in a process of technology conversion into product and service. The analysis was carried out considering concepts from literature review, in a technology based enterprise started by an academic spin-off company. The analysis enabled the elicitation of a Business Model and the discussion of their components, and correspondent evolution hypothesis. The paper provides an example of capability deployment accordingly the established theory illustrated by a case study. The study not just enumerate the needed partners, resources, customer channels, it enabled the description of their connection, representing the logic behind the decision made to develop the conceptual model. This detailed representation of the model allows better addressed discussions.

  3. Partial Bell-State Analysis with Parametric down Conversion in the Wigner Function Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the Wigner function formalism to partial Bell-state analysis using polarization entanglement produced in parametric down conversion. Two-photon statistics at a beam-splitter are reproduced by a wave-like description with zeropoint fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. In particular, the fermionic behaviour of two photons in the singlet state is explained from the invariance on the correlation properties of two light beams going through a balanced beam-splitter. Moreover, we show that a Bell-state measurement introduces some fundamental noise at the idle channels of the analyzers. As a consequence, the consideration of more independent sets of vacuum modes entering the crystal appears as a need for a complete Bell-state analysis.

  4. Laughter annotations in conversational speech corpora - possibilities and limitations for phonetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Trouvain, Jürgen

    Existing laughter annotations provided with several publicly available conversational speech corpora (both multiparty and dyadic conversations) were investigated and compared. We discuss the possibilities and limitations of these rather coarse and shallow laughter annotations. There are definition

  5. Geo-spatial multi-criteria analysis for wave energy conversion system deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Ana; Pacheco, Miguel [Data Centre, Instituto Hidrografico, Portuguese Navy, Rua das Trinas 49, 1249-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Jorge, Raquel; Lopes, M.F.P.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-01-15

    The growing requirements for renewable energy production lead to the development of a new series of systems, including wave energy conversion systems. Due to their sensitivity and the impact of the aggressive marine environment, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a major and very important task. Several factors, such as technological limitations, environmental conditions, administrative and logistic conditions, have to be taken into account in order to support the decision for best location. This paper describes a geo-spatial multi-criteria analysis methodology, based on geographic information systems technology, for identification of the best location to deploy a wave energy farm. This methodology is not conversion system dependent and therefore can be easily customized for different systems and implementation conditions. Selection factors can include, for example, ocean depth, sea bottom type, existing underwater cables, marine protected areas, ports location, shoreline, power grid location, military exercise areas, climatology of wave significant height, period and power. A case study demonstrating this methodology is presented, for an area offshore the Portuguese southwest coast. The system output allows a clear differential identification of the best spots for implementing a wave energy farm. It is not just a simple Boolean result showing valid and invalid locations, but a layer with a valued suitability for farm deployment. (author)

  6. Meta-analysis of neutralizing antibody conversion with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) across multiple indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Markus; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Aurora, Sheena K; Zafonte, Ross; Abu-Shakra, Susan; Boodhoo, Terry; Miller-Messana, Mary Ann; Demos, George; James, Lynn; Beddingfield, Frederick; VanDenburgh, Amanda; Chapman, Mary Ann; Brin, Mitchell F

    2010-10-15

    This meta-analysis evaluated the frequency of neutralizing antibody (nAb) conversion with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®; Allergan) across five studied indications. The analysis was based on large, controlled or prospective, open-label trials (durations 4 months to ≥2 years). Serum samples were analyzed for nAbs using the Mouse Protection Assay. Subjects who were antibody negative at baseline and had at least one analyzable postbaseline antibody assay result were included. The 16 clinical studies included 3,006 subjects; of these, 2,240 met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Subjects received 1-15 treatments (mean 3.8 treatments) with onabotulinumtoxinA. Total doses per treatment cycle ranged from 10 or 20 units in glabellar lines to 20-500 units in cervical dystonia. The numbers of subjects who converted from an antibody-negative status at baseline to antibody-positive status at any post-treatment time point were: cervical dystonia 4/312 (1.28%), glabellar lines 2/718 (0.28%), overactive bladder 0/22 (0%), post-stroke spasticity 1/317 (0.32%), and primary axillary hyperhidrosis 4/871 (0.46%). Across all indications, 11/2,240 subjects (0.49%) converted from antibody negative at baseline to positive at one or more post-treatment time points, but only three subjects became clinically unresponsive to onabotulinumtoxinA at some point following a positive assay. Based on these large trials, the frequency of antibody conversion after onabotulinumtoxinA treatment is very low, and infrequently leads to loss of efficacy. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. An analytical approach for predicting the energy capture and conversion by impulsively-excited bistable vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Zhang, Chunlin; Li, Bing; Wang, K. W.

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive energies are abundant throughout the natural and built environments, for instance as stimulated by wind gusts, foot-steps, or vehicle-road interactions. In the interest of maximizing the sustainability of society's technological developments, one idea is to capture these high-amplitude and abrupt energies and convert them into usable electrical power such as for sensors which otherwise rely on less sustainable power supplies. In this spirit, the considerable sensitivity to impulse-type events previously uncovered for bistable oscillators has motivated recent experimental and numerical studies on the power generation performance of bistable vibration energy harvesters. To lead to an effective and efficient predictive tool and design guide, this research develops a new analytical approach to estimate the electroelastic response and power generation of a bistable energy harvester when excited by an impulse. Comparison with values determined by direct simulation of the governing equations shows that the analytically predicted net converted energies are very accurate for a wide range of impulse strengths. Extensive experimental investigations are undertaken to validate the analytical approach and it is seen that the predicted estimates of the impulsive energy conversion are in excellent agreement with the measurements, and the detailed structural dynamics are correctly reproduced. As a result, the analytical approach represents a significant leap forward in the understanding of how to effectively leverage bistable structures as energy harvesting devices and introduces new means to elucidate the transient and far-from-equilibrium dynamics of nonlinear systems more generally.

  8. Efficacy of Intravenous and Oral Sotalol in Pharmacologic Conversion of Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, David J; Saul, J Philip; Somberg, John C; Molnar, Janos

    2017-01-01

    The role of sotalol is well established for the maintenance of sinus rhythm after successful conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, its role in pharmacologic conversion of AF is poorly defined. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of sotalol to that of other antiarrhythmic agents for AF conversion. Standard methods of meta-analysis were employed. Full-text publications of clinical trials in English that compared the efficacy of sotalol to that of other antiarrhythmics or placebo/no treatment were eligible for inclusion. A systematic review revealed 10 eligible publications. Sotalol was superior to placebo and/or no antiarrhythmic therapy in AF conversion, with a relative success of 24 (95% CI 4.7-119, p amiodarone in terms of conversion efficacy. In one study, sotalol was less effective than high-dose ibutilide (2 mg), with a relative success of 0.248 (95% CI 0.128-0.481, p amiodarone for pharmacologic conversion of AF. Only ibutilide at a high dose showed a greater conversion rate of AF. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. RADYBAN: A tool for reliability analysis of dynamic fault trees through conversion into dynamic Bayesian networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bellini 25g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: stefania@mfn.unipmn.it; Portinale, L. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bellini 25g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: portinal@mfn.unipmn.it; Bobbio, A. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bellini 25g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: bobbio@mfn.unipmn.it; Codetta-Raiteri, D. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Bellini 25g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: raiteri@mfn.unipmn.it

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we present RADYBAN (Reliability Analysis with DYnamic BAyesian Networks), a software tool which allows to analyze a dynamic fault tree relying on its conversion into a dynamic Bayesian network. The tool implements a modular algorithm for automatically translating a dynamic fault tree into the corresponding dynamic Bayesian network and exploits classical algorithms for the inference on dynamic Bayesian networks, in order to compute reliability measures. After having described the basic features of the tool, we show how it operates on a real world example and we compare the unreliability results it generates with those returned by other methodologies, in order to verify the correctness and the consistency of the results obtained.

  10. Feasibility analysis of two-phase MHD energy conversion for liquid metal cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Qiao [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)], E-mail: qiao@engr.orst.edu; Schubring, DuWayne L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Reactor Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    A two-phase MHD energy conversion unit is proposed to a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. Using supercritical CO{sub 2} as the working fluid in the gas cycle without considering friction and heat losses, the optimized cycles efficiency is obtained, which is about 5% higher than that of the gas turbine Brayton cycle with the same regenerator/compressor configurations. Based on a simple MHD power analysis and the two-phase homogeneous flow model, the important system operational conditions were estimated. The results suggest that a liquid lead pump of at least 20% of the MHD power output is needed in order to convert the 400 MW reactor heat into electricity at the specified thermal efficiency, unless a mixture foam flow of void fraction greater than 80% is achievable at very high mixture velocity.

  11. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis and Its Influence on the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kexiang; Ding, Enjie; Wangyang, Peihua; Wang, Qingkang

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the silicon hexagonal nanoconical hole (SiHNH) arrays based solar cells is systematically analyzed according to Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Modal Transmission Line (MTL) theory. An ultimate efficiency of the optimized SiHNH arrays based solar cell is up to 31.92% in consideration of the absorption spectrum, 4.52% higher than that of silicon hexagonal nanoconical frustum (SiHNF) arrays. The absorption enhancement of the SiHNH arrays is due to its lower reflectance and more supported guided-mode resonances, and the enhanced ultimate efficiency is insensitive to bottom diameter (D(bot)) of nanoconical hole and the incident angle. The result provides an additional guideline for the nanostructure surface texturing fabrication design for photovoltaic applications.

  12. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing compounds via gas chromatography-chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC)-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renpenning, Julian; Kümmel, Steffen; Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Gehre, Matthias

    2015-09-15

    The traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) approach toward compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of hydrogen for heteroatom-bearing (i.e., N, Cl, S) compounds has been afflicted by fractionation bias due to formation of byproducts HCN, HCl, and H2S. This study presents a chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) approach for organic compounds containing nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Following peak separation along a gas chromatographic (GC) column, the use of thermally stable ceramic Cr/HTC reactors at 1100-1500 °C and chemical sequestration of N, Cl, and S by chromium result in quantitative conversion of compound-specific organic hydrogen to H2 analyte gas. The overall hydrogen isotope analysis via GC-Cr/HTC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) achieved a precision of better than ± 5 mUr along the VSMOW-SLAP scale. The accuracy of GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS was validated with organic reference materials (RM) in comparison with online EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS and offline dual-inlet IRMS. The utility and reliability of the GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS system were documented during the routine measurement of more than 500 heteroatom-bearing organic samples spanning a δ(2)H range of -181 mUr to 629 mUr.

  13. The organization of digital conversation on MSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarxerxes Tiago Tácito Modesto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet has caused a revolution with regard to new forms of interaction between people, offering experiences of real-time communication in so-called virtual environments. Given this scenario, new textual genres emerge, making room for innumerous possibilities of analysis under various approaches. In this paper, we aim at analyzing digital conversations, trying to verify, at first, the extent to which they approach or move away from face-to-face conversations. We also seek to identify, describe and analyze some interactional strategies inherent in this new genre. We base our analyzes on Conversation Analysis theory and Interactional Sociolinguistics to define conversational strategies of the “spoken written text” on the Internet. The corpus used in this work consists of digital conversations coming from the MSN instant messaging software from Microsoft Corporation, chosen because of its wide use among people who use the internet for communication.

  14. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose from carbon-supported hydrogenolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Glauco F. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (IQSC), University of São Paulo (USP), C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ramos, Luiz A. [Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (IQSC), University of São Paulo (USP), C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Barrett, Dean H. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curvelo, Antonio Aprígio S. [Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (IQSC), University of São Paulo (USP), C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6179, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rodella, Cristiane B., E-mail: cristiane.rodella@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), C.P. 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method to determine the catalytic conversion of cellulose using TGA has been developed. • TGA is able to differentiate between carbon from cellulose and carbon from the catalyst. • Building an analytical curve from TGA results enables the accurate determination of cellulose conversion. - Abstract: The ability to determine the quantity of solid reactant that has been transformed after a catalytic reaction is fundamental in accurately defining the conversion of the catalyst. This quantity is also central when investigating the recyclability of a solid catalyst as well as process control in an industrial catalytic application. However, when using carbon-supported catalysts for the conversion of cellulose this value is difficult to obtain using only a gravimetric method. The difficulty lies in weighing errors caused by loss of the solid mixture (catalyst and non-converted cellulose) after the reaction and/or moisture adsorption by the substrate. These errors are then propagated into the conversion calculation giving erroneous results. Thus, a quantitative method using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been developed to determine the quantity of cellulose after a catalytic reaction by using a tungsten carbide catalyst supported on activated carbon. Stepped separation of TGA curves was used for quantitative analysis where three thermal events were identified: moisture loss, cellulose decomposition and CO/CO{sub 2} formation. An analytical curve was derived and applied to quantify the residual cellulose after catalytic reactions which were performed at various temperatures and reaction times. The catalytic conversion was calculated and compared to the standard gravimetric method. Results showed that catalytic cellulose conversion can be determined using TGA and exhibits lower uncertainty (±2%) when compared to gravimetric determination (±5%). Therefore, it is a simple and relatively inexpensive method to determine

  15. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  16. Introduction to Real Analysis An Educational Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bauldry, William C

    2011-01-01

    An accessible introduction to real analysis and its connection to elementary calculus Bridging the gap between the development and history of real analysis, Introduction to Real Analysis: An Educational Approach presents a comprehensive introduction to real analysis while also offering a survey of the field. With its balance of historical background, key calculus methods, and hands-on applications, this book provides readers with a solid foundation and fundamental understanding of real analysis. The book begins with an outline of basic calculus, including a close examination of problems illust

  17. Combining Conversation Analysis and Nexus Analysis to analyse sociomaterial and affective practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    configuration (i.e. as use of materials in situation) or experience (as an ahistoric assemblage). Feelings are emphasized in an other approach that has gained prominence; the so-called affective turn (Blackman & Venn 2010) that highlights the embodied and non-conscious side of people’s experience...

  18. Conversational Maxims from the Cognitive Approach: some cases of Indirect Speech in the Spanish Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Trenc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest investigations in the field of psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics advocate principles of efficient communication in accordance with ethical, logical and psychological dimensions of language use. As a consequence, new theories of interpersonal verbal transactions as a part of cognitive activity (Lee, Nowak y Pinker, 2008; Pinker y Lee, 2010 or politeness theory aimed at the speakers who are negotiating the best linguistic options in order to achieve the desired social purpose (Brown, Levinson, 1987, consider communication as fulfillment of principles of cooperation. The purpose of the paper is to propose alternative criteria for the discourse analysis of phenomena from indirect speech to the present socio-pragmatic cooperative principle (Grice, 1975. The criteria follow psycholinguistic and strategic parameters, such as deniability and cancelability, which are negotiated during an indirect speech act and can be applied to the speech act at the speaker’s decision. The paper presents an application of the cancelability parameter to examples of “off-record” indirect speech in Spanish and also refers to some significant data from a research on English Language in order to advocate a psycholinguistic model as a framework which can be used in order to define the “off-record” indirect speech with more reliability and precision.

  19. Innocence and Nostalgia in Conversation Analysis: The Dynamic Relations of Tape and Transcript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Ashmore

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of some of the methodological practices of Conversation Analysis (CA; in particular, tape recording and transcription. The paper starts from the observation that, in the CA literature, these practices, and the analytic objects they create (the tape and the transcript, are accorded different treatment: simply put, for CA the tape is a "realist" object, while the transcript is a "constructivist" one. The significance of this difference is explored through an analysis of the dynamics of CA practice. We argue that the "constructivist transcript" is premised on an understanding of CA as predominantly concerned with maximising its "analytic utility": a concern of one distinct temporal stage of CA work: that of the "innocent" apprehension of objects in the "first time through". The "realist tape", in contrast, is based on a different aspect of the work of CA: its quest for greater "evidential utility", achieved by the "nostalgic" revisiting of previously produced objects for purposes of checking them against each other; work done in the "next time through". We further argue that both the ontology and the epistemology of CA's objects are changed in any next time encounter. We conclude with a cautionary speculation on the currently-projected, transcript-free, digital future of CA. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000335

  20. Web Conversations About Complementary and Alternative Medicines and Cancer: Content and Sentiment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocut, Mauro; Truccolo, Ivana; Antonini, Marialuisa; Rinaldi, Fabio; Omero, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; De Paoli, Paolo; Tasso, Carlo

    2016-06-16

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients is widespread and mostly self-administrated. Today, one of the most relevant topics is the nondisclosure of CAM use to doctors. This general lack of communication exposes patients to dangerous behaviors and to less reliable information channels, such as the Web. The Italian context scarcely differs from this trend. Today, we are able to mine and analyze systematically the unstructured information available in the Web, to get an insight of people's opinions, beliefs, and rumors concerning health topics. Our aim was to analyze Italian Web conversations about CAM, identifying the most relevant Web sources, therapies, and diseases and measure the related sentiment. Data have been collected using the Web Intelligence tool ifMONITOR. The workflow consisted of 6 phases: (1) eligibility criteria definition for the ifMONITOR search profile; (2) creation of a CAM terminology database; (3) generic Web search and automatic filtering, the results have been manually revised to refine the search profile, and stored in the ifMONITOR database; (4) automatic classification using the CAM database terms; (5) selection of the final sample and manual sentiment analysis using a 1-5 score range; (6) manual indexing of the Web sources and CAM therapies type retrieved. Descriptive univariate statistics were computed for each item: absolute frequency, percentage, central tendency (mean sentiment score [MSS]), and variability (standard variation σ). Overall, 212 Web sources, 423 Web documents, and 868 opinions have been retrieved. The overall sentiment measured tends to a good score (3.6 of 5). Quite a high polarization in the opinions of the conversation partaking emerged from standard variation analysis (σ≥1). In total, 126 of 212 (59.4%) Web sources retrieved were nonhealth-related. Facebook (89; 21%) and Yahoo Answers (41; 9.7%) were the most relevant. In total, 94 CAM therapies have been retrieved. Most

  1. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  2. An Ethnografic Approach to Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    The overall purpose in the ethnographic approach to video analysis is to become aware of implicit knowledge in those being observed. That is, knowledge that cannot be acquired through interviews. In music therapy this approach can be used to analyse patterns of interaction between client and ther......The overall purpose in the ethnographic approach to video analysis is to become aware of implicit knowledge in those being observed. That is, knowledge that cannot be acquired through interviews. In music therapy this approach can be used to analyse patterns of interaction between client......, followed by a discussion of their significance for the therapeutic interaction. Literature: Holck, U, Oldfield, A. and Plahl, C. (2005) Video Micro Analysis in Music Therapy Research, a Research Workshop. In: Aldridge, D., Fachner, J. & Erkkilä, J. (Eds) Many Faces of Music Therapy - Proceedings of the 6th...... European Music Therapy Congress, June 16-20, 2004 Jyväskylä, Finland. P. 1094-1110. eBook available at MusicTherapyToday.com Vol.6. Issue 4 (November 2005). Holck, U. (2007). An Ethnographic Descriptive Approach to Video Micro Analysis. In: T. Wosch & T. Wigram (Eds.) Microanalysis in music therapy...

  3. Eliciting patient preferences in shared decision-making (SDM): Comparing conversation analysis and SDM measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Ofstad, Eirik Hugaas; Svennevig, Jan

    2017-11-01

    To explore how physicians bring up patient preferences, and how it aligns with assessments of shared decision-making. Qualitative conversation analysis of physicians formulating hypotheses about the patient's treatment preference was compared with quantitative scores on SDM and 'patient preferences' using OPTION(5) and MAPPIN'SDM. Physicians occasionally formulate hypotheses about patients' preferences and then present a treatment option on the basis of that ("if you think X+we can do Y"). This practice may promote SDM in that the decisions are treated as contingent on patient preferences. However, the way these hypotheses are formulated, simultaneously constrains the patient's freedom of choice and exerts a pressure to accept the physician's recommendation. These opposing effects may in part explain cases where different assessment instruments yield large variations in SDM measures. Eliciting patient preferences is a complex phenomenon that can be difficult to reduce into an accurate number. Detailed analysis can shed light on how patient preferences are elicited, and its consequences for patient involvement. Comparing CA and SDM measurements can contribute to specifying communicative actions that SDM scores are based on. Our findings have implications for SDM communication skills training and further development of SDM measurements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, S.L.; Rattin, E.J.; Siegel, B.

    1977-03-01

    An investigation of terrestrial applications for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy is summarized. The specific objectives of the study were: (a) to survey and evaluate near-term (1976--1985) civilian photovoltaic applications in the United States; (b) to evaluate the most promising major missions for the mid-term period (1986--2000) and to determine the conditions under which photovoltaic technology can compete in those applications at array prices consistent with ERDA goals; (c) to address critical external issues and identify the sensitivity of photovoltaic system technical requirements to such factors; and (d) to quantify the societal costs of alternative energy sources and identify equalizing incentives. The study was divided into six separate but interrelated tasks: Task 1, Analysis of Near-Term Applications; Task 2, Analysis of Major Mid-Term Missions; Task 3, Review and Updating of the ERDA Technology Implementation Plan; Task 4, Critical External Issues; Task 5, The Impact of Incentives; and Task 6, The Societal Costs of Conventional Power Generation. The emphasis of the study was on the first two of these tasks, the other four serving to provide supplementary information.

  5. A critical methodological review of discourse and conversation analysis studies of family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseliou, Eleftheria

    2013-12-01

    Discourse (DA) and conversation (CA) analysis, two qualitative research methods, have been recently suggested as potentially promising for the study of family therapy due to common epistemological adherences and their potential for an in situ study of therapeutic dialog. However, to date, there is no systematic methodological review of the few existing DA and CA studies of family therapy. This study aims at addressing this lack by critically reviewing published DA and CA studies of family therapy on methodological grounds. Twenty-eight articles in total are reviewed in relation to certain methodological axes identified in the relevant literature. These include choice of method, framing of research question(s), data/sampling, type of analysis, epistemological perspective, content/type of knowledge claims, and attendance to criteria for good quality practice. It is argued that the reviewed studies show "glimpses" of the methods' potential for family therapy research despite the identification of certain "shortcomings" regarding their methodological rigor. These include unclearly framed research questions and the predominance of case study designs. They also include inconsistencies between choice of method, stated or unstated epistemological orientations and knowledge claims, and limited attendance to criteria for good quality practice. In conclusion, it is argued that DA and CA can add to the existing quantitative and qualitative methods for family therapy research. They can both offer unique ways for a detailed study of the actual therapeutic dialog, provided that future attempts strive for a methodologically rigorous practice and against their uncritical deployment. © FPI, Inc.

  6. Optical digital to analog conversion performance analysis for indoor set-up conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesch, Aleš; Alves, Luis Nero; Wilfert, Otakar; Ribeiro, Carlos Gaspar

    2017-10-01

    In visible light communication (VLC) the optical digital to analog conversion (ODAC) approach was proposed as a suitable driving technique able to overcome light-emitting diode's (LED) non-linear characteristic. This concept is analogous to an electrical digital-to-analog converter (EDAC). In other words, digital bits are binary weighted to represent an analog signal. The method supports elementary on-off based modulations able to exploit the essence of LED's non-linear characteristic allowing simultaneous lighting and communication. In the ODAC concept the reconstruction error does not simply rely upon the converter bit depth as in case of EDAC. It rather depends on communication system set-up and geometrical relation between emitter and receiver as well. The paper describes simulation results presenting the ODAC's error performance taking into account: the optical channel, the LED's half power angle (HPA) and the receiver field of view (FOV). The set-up under consideration examines indoor conditions for a square room with 4 m length and 3 m height, operating with one dominant wavelength (blue) and having walls with a reflection coefficient of 0.8. The achieved results reveal that reconstruction error increases for higher data rates as a result of interference due to multipath propagation.

  7. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  8. GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions. Results In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs. Conclusion GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of

  9. New and Advanced Conversion Technologies: Analysis of Cogeneration, Combined and Integrated Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Korobitsyn, Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    1998-01-01

    Identification and development of new energy conversion technologies and systems for distributed power generation applications are the objectives of the New Energy Conversion Technologies (NECT) programme, being realized by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem). The part of the

  10. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  11. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  12. Analysis of the experience of using a pedagogic conversational agent for reading comprehension in the school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tamayo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 183 1012 USAL 8 2 1193 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} Technologies are key in society, and they are in continuous progress. In the educational context, an increase of using new technologies for education can be identified in the last years. One of these new technologies is Pedagogic Conversational Agents. That is, computer systems that interact with the students in spoken or written natural language. They can adopt the role of teacher, student or pal. In the 2011/2012 academic year, we used a Pedagogic Conversational Agent called Dr. Roland in class to solve Maths problems. 38 students and 3 teachers were involved in the experience. In this paper, an analysis of the experience and how to integrate agents in the school is presented. Ten recommendations as a guide for teachers, researchers and developers interested in using this type of educational software are proposed from the analysis. Some of these recommendations are to combine the use of computers with other devices such as tablets that make the use of the system by several students easier, to involve the parents to foster the use of the agent at home, and to validate each step of the advances made with teachers, parents and students so that they are adapted to their needs.

  13. What necessitates the conversion to open cholecystectomy? A retrospective analysis of 5164 consecutive laparoscopic operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Genc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC has become the gold standard for the surgical treatment of gallbladder disease, but conversion to open cholecystectomy is still inevitable in certain cases. Knowledge of the rate and impact of the underlying reasons for conversion could help surgeons during preoperative assessment and improve the informed consent of patients. We decided to review the rate and causes of conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy. METHOD: This study included all laparoscopic cholecystectomies due to gallstone disease undertaken from May 1999 to June 2010. The exclusion criteria were malignancy and/or existence of gallbladder polyps detected pathologically. Patient demographics, indications for cholecystectomy, concomitant diseases, and histories of previous abdominal surgery were collected. The rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy, the underlying reasons for conversion, and postoperative complications were also analyzed. RESULTS: Of 5382 patients for whom LC was attempted, 5164 were included this study. The overall rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy was 3.16% (163 patients. There were 84 male and 79 female patients; the mean age was 52.04 years (range: 26-85. The conversion rates in male and female patients were 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively (p<0.001. The most common reasons for conversion were severe adhesions caused by tissue inflammation (97 patients and fibrosis of Calot's triangle (12 patients. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was found to be 16.3% in patients who were converted to open surgery. CONCLUSION: Male gender was found to be the only statistically significant risk factor for conversion in our series. LC can be safely performed with a conversion rate of less than 5% in all patient groups.

  14. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  15. PA13 The arts and end of life conversations: an innovative approach to health promotion in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shyla; Rosenberg, John; Mills, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Dying in Australia has been recognised as amongst the most institutionalised in the world. Discussion of death and dying is largely taboo in contemporary society, resulting in a lack of formal advance care planning or personal reflection on end-of-life considerations. To address this problem, a pilot study was developed as an innovative health promotion activity, drawing upon the Arts. To explore how an arts medium might influence public discussion on end of life issues in the community. An action research approach was used to collect survey data from a community sample attending a Canberra marketplace. 54 participants completed a 14 item questionnaire, after viewing a photographic exhibition that provided international narratives on death and dying. Qualitative descriptors were elicited from participants to describe their reactions to viewing the exhibition, and quantitative data were analysed for frequency. Most participants agreed the exhibition effectively engaged members of the public in conversations about death and dying. After viewing the exhibition, they were more inclined to consider or prepare a legal will, enduring or medical power of attorney, or an advance care plan (ACP). From this pilot study, there are preliminary but encouraging data to suggest that the Arts are an effective medium for health promoting approaches. We propose further use of Arts-based activities in communities to promote public discussions about death and dying. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. A green approach to ethyl acetate: Quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Gaofeng

    2012-11-07

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  18. Analysis of the Jamaican Slowpoke-2 Research Reactor for the Conversion from HEU to LEU Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, F.; Dennis, Haile T.

    2014-01-01

    The Jamaican SLOWPOKE-2 (JM-1) is a 20 kW research reactor manufactured by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited that has been operating for 30 years at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus in Kingston, Jamaica. The University, with IAEA assistance under the GTRI/RERTR program, is currently in the process of converting from HEU to LEU. Full-reactor neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses were performed, using MCNP5 and PLTEMP/ANL v4.1 respectively, on both the existing HEU and proposed LEU core configurations. Although conversion will result in the full nominal reactor power increasing from 20 kW to approximately 22 kW, in order to maintain the 1012 n·cm-2 s-1 flux in the inner irradiation channels, and maximum fuel temperature to increase from ~82°C to ~113°C, the analysis illustrates that increased safety margins will be obtained. No significant reactor behavior changes are expected and the characteristic SLOWPOKE-2 reactor inherent safety features will be preserved.

  19. A conversation analysis of verbal interactions and social processes in interpreter-mediated primary care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Robin Dawson; Reynolds, Jennifer F; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K

    2015-08-01

    Language asymmetry between patients with limited English proficiency and health care providers increases the complexity of patient-provider communication. In this research, we used conversation analysis to examine the content and processes of five triadic clinical communication encounters between Spanish-speaking adult patients, English-speaking nurse practitioners, and clinic-based interpreters. Data collection included audio-recordings of the triadic clinical encounters and self-administered post-encounter surveys of the nurse practitioners and interpreters. Our findings revealed communication trouble spots that, when directly addressed by the interactants, facilitated processes of negotiating relationships, and coming to a mutual understanding. Exemplars labeled Making Assumptions; Colloquialisms as Signaling Potential for Trouble; Repairing a Mis-Statement; and Turn-Taking, Silences, and Laughter illustrated how the parties identified and navigated such trouble spots. The final exemplar, Attaining Intersubjectivity, represented a successful multi-lingual triadic communication. While the role of the interpreter often is seen as a conduit of information from one language to another, in practice they also enacted roles of communication collaborators and coconstructors. Future interdisciplinary research can include closer examination of occurrences of communication trouble spots and further exploration of how interpretermediated communication is conceptualized and problematized in diverse clinical settings, to promote language interpretation policies and practices that contribute to reducing health disparities among limited-English-proficient populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rish, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented.

  1. Multivariate analysis: A statistical approach for computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michu, Sachin; Kaushik, Vandana

    2014-10-01

    Multivariate analysis is a type of multivariate statistical approach commonly used in, automotive diagnosis, education evaluating clusters in finance etc and more recently in the health-related professions. The objective of the paper is to provide a detailed exploratory discussion about factor analysis (FA) in image retrieval method and correlation analysis (CA) of network traffic. Image retrieval methods aim to retrieve relevant images from a collected database, based on their content. The problem is made more difficult due to the high dimension of the variable space in which the images are represented. Multivariate correlation analysis proposes an anomaly detection and analysis method based on the correlation coefficient matrix. Anomaly behaviors in the network include the various attacks on the network like DDOs attacks and network scanning.

  2. Analysis of 62 hybrid assembled human Y chromosomes exposes rapid structural changes and high rates of gene conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria; Skov, Laurits; Maretty, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    and the potentially large role of gene conversion. Here we perform an evolutionary analysis of 62 Y-chromosomes of Danish descent sequenced using a wide range of library insert sizes and high coverage, thus allowing large regions of these chromosomes to be well assembled. These include 17 father-son pairs, which we...... with the chimpanzee Y chromosome. We analyzed 2.7 Mb of large inverted repeats (palindromes) for variation patterns among the two palindrome arms and identified 603 mutation and 416 gene conversions events. We find clear evidence for GC-biased gene conversion in the palindromes (and a balancing AT mutation bias...... that such events can consist of complex combinations of simultaneous insertions and deletions of long stretches of the Y chromosome....

  3. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy: A pooled analysis of 2 phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Michael R; French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-03-22

    To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%-26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%-40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Gas Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of Organic Acids in the Bio-Catalytic Conversion Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Hyoun; Cho, Hye Sung

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method for the quantification of acrylic acid (AA), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in the bio-catalytic conversion process has been developed by gas chromatography. A simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure was used in the sample preparation. Organic acid additives such as trifluoroacetic acid were used to improve the extraction efficiency in the LLE procedure. Under optimum analysis conditions, all analytes were satisfactorily separated with no interference. In standard calibration, all correlation coefficients (r(2)) were better than or equal to 0.994. In culture media, the intra-batch precision (% relative standard deviation) and recovery (%) as the average value of the quality control samples were 2.3 and 102.4%, respectively. In addition, the inter-batch precision and recovery as the average value of the quality control samples were 5.0 and 104.0%, respectively. In phosphate buffer, the intra-batch precision and recovery as the average value of the quality control samples were 2.7 and 101.6%, respectively. In addition, the inter-batch precision and recovery as the average value of the quality control samples were 2.9 and 101.7%, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N ratio: 3) and limit of quantification (S/N ratio: 10) were 1.0 and 3.5 µg/mL, 3.0 and 10.0 µg/mL, and 9.0 and 30.0 µg/mL, respectively, for AA, 1,3-PD and 3-HP. Consequently, this method was demonstrated to be acceptable for the quantitative analysis of AA, 1,3-PD and 3-HP in culture media and phosphate buffer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Systematic approach for dysfunctional analysis in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, A; Levrat, E; Pétin, J-F; Noël, A; Aigle, D; Peiffert, D; Graff, P

    2012-12-01

    We previously presented a systematic and structured approach to acquire an accurate functional model of the patient's process in radiotherapy. This approach relied on new functional structuring patterns, derived from system engineering and knowledge engineering. Additionally, we propose a complementary methodical process for the dysfunctional analysis of the obtained functional model. The procedure is based on joint implementation of two qualitative methods named "Failure modes and effects analysis" (FMEA) and "Hazard and operability" (HazOp). All the technical, the human and the organizational dimensions of the patient's process are pooled in a unique, exhaustive and detailed dysfunctional analysis. The application of this systematic approach within a particular institution can precisely identify the risks incurred by patients in care, but also highlight the logical sequence between precursor events and incidents. The dysfunctional analysis presented in this document will be used for the development still in process of quantified risk models. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Getting Beyond Conversation Analysis: Critical and Pedagogical Implications for TESOL/Bilingual Curriculum for Diverse Learners in the Age of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amri, Maijid N.

    2011-01-01

    TESOL/bilingual curriculum is becoming a broader and more open field, implementing different areas and fields of study to meet and satisfy the needs of diverse ESL/bilingual learners in this age of globalization. One area of study which can be implemented and has pedagogical and critical implications is conversation analysis. The analysis of conversation can be used to educate diverse ESL learners, for example, about the sensitivity of English conversation structures and the fact that the wel...

  7. Phone Conversation while Processing Information: Chronometric Analysis of Load Effects in Everyday-media Multitasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Steinborn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a pilot study that examined the effect of cell-phone conversation on cognition using a continuous multitasking paradigm. Current theorizing argues that phone conversation affects behavior (e.g., driving by interfering at a level of cognitive processes (not peripheral activity and by implying an attentional-failure account. Within the framework of an intermittent spare–utilized capacity threading model, we examined the effect of aspects of (secondary-task phone conversation on (primary-task continuous arithmetic performance, asking whether phone use makes components of automatic and controlled information-processing (i.e., easy vs. hard mental arithmetic run more slowly, or alternatively, makes processing run less reliably albeit with the same processing speed. The results can be summarized as follows: While neither expecting a text message nor expecting an impending phone call had any detrimental effects on performance, active phone conversation was clearly detrimental to primary-task performance. Crucially, the decrement imposed by secondary-task (conversation was not due to a constant slowdown but is better be characterized by an occasional breakdown of information processing, which differentially affected automatic and controlled components of primary-task processing. In conclusion, these findings support the notion that phone conversation makes individuals not constantly slower but more vulnerable to commit attention failure, and in this way, hampers stability of (primary-task information processing.

  8. Phone Conversation while Processing Information: Chronometric Analysis of Load Effects in Everyday-media Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Michael B; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This is a pilot study that examined the effect of cell-phone conversation on cognition using a continuous multitasking paradigm. Current theorizing argues that phone conversation affects behavior (e.g., driving) by interfering at a level of cognitive processes (not peripheral activity) and by implying an attentional-failure account. Within the framework of an intermittent spare-utilized capacity threading model, we examined the effect of aspects of (secondary-task) phone conversation on (primary-task) continuous arithmetic performance, asking whether phone use makes components of automatic and controlled information-processing (i.e., easy vs. hard mental arithmetic) run more slowly, or alternatively, makes processing run less reliably albeit with the same processing speed. The results can be summarized as follows: While neither expecting a text message nor expecting an impending phone call had any detrimental effects on performance, active phone conversation was clearly detrimental to primary-task performance. Crucially, the decrement imposed by secondary-task (conversation) was not due to a constant slowdown but is better be characterized by an occasional breakdown of information processing, which differentially affected automatic and controlled components of primary-task processing. In conclusion, these findings support the notion that phone conversation makes individuals not constantly slower but more vulnerable to commit attention failure, and in this way, hampers stability of (primary-task) information processing.

  9. Phone Conversation while Processing Information: Chronometric Analysis of Load Effects in Everyday-media Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Michael B.; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This is a pilot study that examined the effect of cell-phone conversation on cognition using a continuous multitasking paradigm. Current theorizing argues that phone conversation affects behavior (e.g., driving) by interfering at a level of cognitive processes (not peripheral activity) and by implying an attentional-failure account. Within the framework of an intermittent spare–utilized capacity threading model, we examined the effect of aspects of (secondary-task) phone conversation on (primary-task) continuous arithmetic performance, asking whether phone use makes components of automatic and controlled information-processing (i.e., easy vs. hard mental arithmetic) run more slowly, or alternatively, makes processing run less reliably albeit with the same processing speed. The results can be summarized as follows: While neither expecting a text message nor expecting an impending phone call had any detrimental effects on performance, active phone conversation was clearly detrimental to primary-task performance. Crucially, the decrement imposed by secondary-task (conversation) was not due to a constant slowdown but is better be characterized by an occasional breakdown of information processing, which differentially affected automatic and controlled components of primary-task processing. In conclusion, these findings support the notion that phone conversation makes individuals not constantly slower but more vulnerable to commit attention failure, and in this way, hampers stability of (primary-task) information processing. PMID:28634458

  10. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  11. Rhythm and Blues - Amalie's 152nd session: From psychoanalysis to conversation and metaphor analysis - and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz, Michael B; Spiekermann, Jane; Kächele, Horst

    2015-06-01

    Conversation analysis and psychotherapy process research is an evolving field promising new insights for therapeutic practice. As the specimen case of Amalie, especially her 152nd session, has been investigated using various methods - of which we give a short overview - we offer a new analysis of session 152 based on a new transcription which allows for more detailed listening to the prosodic properties of this analytic dyad. Our findings show a) how analyst and patient co-create their common conversational object called psychoanalysis; b) how a lot of up-to-now not described analytical tools are applied, that can be described as "practices"; c) how a "dance of insight" is enacted by both participants in a common creation making patterns of interaction visible from "both sides"; d) how participants create metaphors as conversational and cognitive tools to reduce the enormous complexity of the analytic exchange and for other purposes; e) that prosodic rhythmicity and other prosodic features are best integrated in a threefold model for analytic conversation consisting of "interaction engine", "talking to" and "talking about" the patient. The study is presented as hypothesis-generating research based on verbal, not statistical data. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  13. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  14. Pitch synchronous transform warping in voice conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Vích, R. (Robert); Vondra, M. (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new voice conversion algorithm is presented, which transforms the utterance of a source speaker into the utterance of a target speaker. The voice conversion approach is based on pitch synchronous speech analysis, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), nonlinear spectral warping with spectrum interpolation and pitch synchronous speech synthesis with overlapping using the speech production model. The DCT speech model contains also information about the phase properties of the modeled ...

  15. Budget impact analysis of conversion from cyclosporine to sirolimus as immunosuppressive medication in renal transplantation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroutan N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Foroutan,1 Hamid R Rasekh,1 Jamshid Salamzadeh,1 Hamid R Jamshidi,1 Mohsen Nafar2 1Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Management, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Kidney Transplantation, Urinary Nephrology Research Center (UNRC, Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine budget impact of conversion from cyclosporine (CsA to sirolimus (SRL in renal transplant therapy (RTT from the perspective of insurance organizations in Iran. Methods: An Excel-based model was developed to determine cost of RTT, comparing current CsA based therapy to an mTOR inhibitor-based therapy regimen. Total cost included both cost of immunosuppressive agents and relative adverse events. The inputs were derived from database of Ministry of Health and insurance organizations, hospital and pharmacy based registries, and available literature that were varied through a one-way sensitivity analysis. According to the model, there were almost 17,000 patients receiving RTT in Iran, out of which about 2,200 patients underwent the operation within the study year. The model was constructed based on the results of a local RCT, in which test and control groups received CsA, SRL, and steroids over the first 3 months posttransplantation and, from the fourth month on, CsA, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, and steroids were used in the CsA group and SRL, MMF, and steroids were administered in the SRL group, respectively. Results: The estimated cost of RTT with CsA was US$4,850,000 versus US$4,300,000 receiving SRL. These costs corresponded to the cost saving of almost US$550,000 for the payers. Conclusion: To evaluate the financial consequence of adding mTOR inhibitors to the insurers’ formulary, in the present study, a budget impact analysis was conducted on sirolimus. Fewer cases of costly adverse events along with

  16. Grammatical Conversion of Descriptive Narrative - an application of discourse analysis in conceptual modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Calway

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Fact-oriented conceptual modelling begins with the search for facts about a universe of discourse (UoD. These facts may be obtained from many sources, including information systems reports, tables, manuals and descriptive narrative both verbal and written. This paper presents some initial findings that support the use of discourse analysis techniques as an approach to developing elementary fact based sentences for information systems conceptual schema development from written text. Although this discussion paper only considers the NIAM (fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling method, the IS087 report from which the research case study is taken describes other conceptual methods for which the research contained in this paper could be applicable (e.g. Entity Relationship analysis. The case study could be modelled exactly in the form in which the text is initially found, but grammatical analysis focuses consideration on alternative, potentially better, expressions of a sentence, a theme which is described and demonstrated. As a result of having applied grammatical sentence simplification with co-ordinate clause splitting, each sentence could be expressed as a complete, finite, independent collection of declarative simple statements. The outcome from the application of the techniques described provides at a minimum a discourse analysis of descriptive narrative which will have retained its meaning and contextual integrity while at the same time providing a simplified and independent clause representation for input to the fact-oriented conceptual schema modelling procedure.

  17. SNP_tools: A compact tool package for analysis and conversion of genotype data for MS-Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bowang; Wilkening, Stefan; Drechsel, Marion; Hemminki, Kari

    2009-10-23

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is a major activity in biomedical research. Scientists prefer to have a facile access to the results which may require conversions between data formats. First hand SNP data is often entered in or saved in the MS-Excel format, but this software lacks genetic and epidemiological related functions. A general tool to do basic genetic and epidemiological analysis and data conversion for MS-Excel is needed. The SNP_tools package is prepared as an add-in for MS-Excel. The code is written in Visual Basic for Application, embedded in the Microsoft Office package. This add-in is an easy to use tool for users with basic computer knowledge (and requirements for basic statistical analysis). Our implementation for Microsoft Excel 2000-2007 in Microsoft Windows 2000, XP, Vista and Windows 7 beta can handle files in different formats and converts them into other formats. It is a free software.

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY IN ENGLISH CONVERSATION CLUB (ECC PROGRAM AT THE 3rd SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadhly Farhy Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on students’ speaking ability who had followed the EnglishConversation Club (ECC program especially for the third semester of English Department. Thepurpose of this study was to analyze the students’ speaking ability at the 3rd semester in the EnglishConversation Club FKIP UNILAK Pekanbaru. The type of the research was mixed method in typeof explanatory design. The number of participant was 53 students. The researcher used twoinstruments, those were test and interview. In analyzing the data, it used in descriptive statistics.The result of the analysis showed that the average score of 3rd semester students’ speaking abilitywas 45.42. It can be concluded that the students’ speaking ability was categorized into failed . Thescore of Standard Deviation was 7.02, Variance was 49.30, and Range was 36 points . It meansthat the students’ speaking ability was homogeneous. According to the Z-Score, it can be seen that49.06% students’ ability was higher than average and 50.94% students ability was below theaverage. In conclusion, the students’ ability in learning speaking English was failed, it had beenaffected by some factors, those were lack of vocabulary, grammar and motivation. It was supportedby the interview, eventhough the students’ perception to English Conversation Club (ECCprogram was positive, but in fact, the students’ frequency to speak English was seldom, they wereless practice speaking English everyday.Keywords : Speaking , English Conversation Club (ECC

  19. When Do We Smile? Analysis and Modeling of the Nonverbal Context of Listener Smiles in Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, I.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will look into reactive models for embodied conversational agents for generating smiling behavior. One trigger for smiling behaviour is smiling of the human interlocutor which is used in reactive models based on mimicry. However, other features might be useful as well. In order to

  20. Conversion to organic arable farming in The Netherlands: A dynamic linear programming analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acs, S.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies show that organic farming is more profitable than conventional farming. However, in reality not many farmers convert to organic farming. Policy makers and farmers do not have clear insight into factors which hamper or stimulate the conversion to organic farming. The objective of this

  1. The caring relationship in hospice care: an analysis based on the ethics of the caring conversation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, G.J.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Leget, C.J.W.; Vogelaar, P.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Good nursing is more than exercising a specific set of skills. It involves the personal identity of the nurse. The aim of this article is to answer two questions: (1) what kind of person should the hospice nurse be? and (2) how should the hospice nurse engage in caring conversations? To answer these

  2. Conversion economics of forest biomaterials: risk and financial analysis of CNC manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla Abbati de Assis; Carl Houtman; Richard Phillips; E.M. Ted Bilek; Orlando J. Rojas; Lokendra Pal; Maria Soledad Peresin; Hasan Jameel; Ronalds Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) presents opportunities for a wide range of new products. Techno-economic assessments can provide insightful information for the effi cient design of conversion processes, drive cost-saving efforts, and reduce fi nancial risks. In this study, we conducted techno-economic assessments for CNC production using information...

  3. NUCLEI SHAPE ANALYSIS, A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nettel-Aguirre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The method presented in our paper suggests the use of Functional Data Analysis (FDA techniques in an attempt to characterise the nuclei of two types of cells: Cancer and non-cancer, based on their 2 dimensional profiles. The characteristics of the profile itself, as traced by its X and Y coordinates, their first and second derivatives, their variability and use in characterization are the main focus of this approach which is not constrained to star shaped nuclei. Findings: Principal components created from the coordinates relate to shape with significant differences between nuclei type. Characterisations for each type of profile were found.

  4. Conversion Discriminative Analysis on Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Cortical Features from MR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwen Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions, and further differentiate MCI patients from normal states. Four cortical features, namely, gray matter volume, cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature, were explored for discriminative analysis among three groups including the stable MCI (sMCI, the converted MCI (cMCI, and the normal control (NC groups. In this study, 158 subjects (72 NC, 46 sMCI, and 40 cMCI were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. A sparse-constrained regression model based on the l2-1-norm was introduced to reduce the feature dimensionality and retrieve essential features for the discrimination of the three groups by using a support vector machine (SVM. An optimized strategy of feature addition based on the weight of each feature was adopted for the SVM classifier in order to achieve the best classification performance. The baseline cortical features combined with the longitudinal measurements for 2 years of follow-up data yielded prominent classification results. In particular, the cortical thickness produced a classification with 98.84% accuracy, 97.5% sensitivity, and 100% specificity for the sMCI–cMCI comparison; 92.37% accuracy, 84.78% sensitivity, and 97.22% specificity for the cMCI–NC comparison; and 93.75% accuracy, 92.5% sensitivity, and 94.44% specificity for the sMCI–NC comparison. The best performances obtained by the SVM classifier using the essential features were 5–40% more than those using all of the retained features. The feasibility of the cortical features for the recognition of anatomical patterns was certified; thus, the proposed method has the potential to improve the clinical diagnosis of sub-types of MCI and

  5. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  6. Physiotherapeutic approach to diagnosis: Gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hincapié

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical therapy involves the study of the movement of man as a fundamental factor in his development, in addition to allowing for the movement of different body segments and changes in different body positions, movement is a fundamental element for the interaction between people and the execution of activities related to people’s lives. For this reason, physical therapists should be interested not only in intervention plans, but also in understanding the importance of initiating such interventions with adequate diagnosis of the health condition in question, of the movement of their subjects, and in their adequate professional performance. Consistent with this approach, this article attempts to highlight the importance of the analysis of movement as a fundamental element of the physical therapy diagnosis, utilizing a review of the topic which includes an analysis of gait from its kinematic components, as a pattern of movement essential to humans.

  7. The prescription talk – an approach to teach patient-physician conversation about drug prescription to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser, Katarina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication communication from physicians to patients often is poor, by this among others enhancing the risk of non-adherence. In this context, a neglect regarding the prescription talk has been complained.Aim of the project: In a newly developed elective medical students work on physician-patient conversations dealing with drug prescription. Essential aspects related to an effective and safe drug treatment are combined with steps of shared decision-making. Together with a tutor, students develop a (model conversation guide that might be tailored according to individual needs and views.Description/Methods: In a one-week course 3rd-5th year medical students treat a paper case according to problem-based learning. This is accompanied by a one-hour lecture and literature provided on an online learning platform (ILIAS. During a workshop, aspects of drug treatment and patient participation are integrated into a guide for a prescription talk. At the end of the week the students are invited to apply the (if need be individualized guide in a simulated physician-patient communication with an actor. The conversation is evaluated using a checklist based upon the (model conversation guide.Results: Informal and formalized feedback indicate high acceptance and satisfaction of participants with this elective. The checklist turned out to be of acceptable to good reliability with mostly selective items. Portfolio entries and written evaluation suggest that participants’ positions and attitudes are influenced.

  8. [Comprehensive analysis of up-conversion luminescence saturation phenomena of ErYb:oxyfluoride vitroceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Song, Zeng-fu

    2005-02-01

    The saturation phenomenon of the up-conversion luminescence of erbium ytterbium co-doped oxyfluoride vitroceramics (ErYb:FOV), when excited by a 966 nm diode-laser, was investigated comprehensively in the present article. A new kind of "characteristic saturation phenomenon", which results from energy diffusion, was found, i. e. the slope of logI-logP curve, the double logarithmic variation of up-conversion luminescence intensity I upon laser power P, is increased evidently toward regular multi-photon relation with the increase of laser facula. The "typical saturation phenomenon" resulting from ground state population's exhaustion has huge influence as well, which causes these logI-logP curves to bend gradually with the increase in laser power. Interestingly, this "typical saturation phenomenon" can be decreased obviously and even vanishes when the pumping laser power density is decreased enough.

  9. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    The successful performance of the CWP is of crucial importance to the overall OTEC system; the pipe itself is considered the most critical part of the entire operation. Because of the importance the CWP, a project for the analysis and design of CWP's was begun in the fall of 1978. The goals of this project were to study a variety of concepts for delivering cold water to an OTEC plant, to analyze and rank these concepts based on their relative cost and risk, and to develop preliminary design for those concepts which seemed most promising. Two representative platforms and sites were chosen: a spar buoy of a Gibbs and Cox design to be moored at a site off Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, and a barge designed by APL/Johns Hopkins University, grazing about a site approximately 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil. The approach was to concentrate on the most promising concepts and on those which were either of general interest or espoused by others (e.g., steel and concrete concepts). Much of the overall attention, therefore, focused on analyzing rigid and compliant wall design, while stockade (except for the special case of the FRP stockade) and bottom-mounted concepts received less attention. A total of 67 CWP concepts were initially generated and subjected to a screening process. Of these, 16 were carried through design analysis, costing, and ranking. Study results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  10. Analysis of Relationship between Social Media Conversation and Mainstream Coverage to Mobilize Social Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Sakulsri Srisaracam

    2017-01-01

    Social media has become an important source of information for the public and the media profession. Some social issues raised on social media are picked up by journalists to report on other platforms. This relationship between social media and mainstream media can sometimes drive public debate or stimulate social movements. The question to examine is in what situations can social media conversations raise awareness and stimulate change on public issues. This study addresses the communication ...

  11. Using conversation analysis in data-driven aviation training with large-scale qualitative datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuccio, William A.; Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to a growing body of work related to the Conversation Analytic Role-play Method (CARM) by studying the primary flight instruction environment to create training interventions related to radio communications and flight instruction practices. Framed in the context of conversa...... with examples. The study shows that large-scale qualitative datasets may be leveraged to produce valuable data-driven training interventions....

  12. Gender-markers in Japanese Quotations : An analysis of naturally-occurring conversations of college students

    OpenAIRE

    陳, 一吟; 松村, 瑞子

    2012-01-01

    When people quote speech or thought of themselves or of other people, they do not quote it directly, but describe it on their own words (Clark & Gerrig 1990;Kamata 2000). This paper analyzes the usage of gender-markers in Japanese quotations. Analyzed materials are quotations found in naturally occurring conversations of Japanese college students. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data have reached the following two results. First, male markers are used frequently by both male and ...

  13. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Li, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton...... series of wind power and power load are used to investigate the mitigation effect of the integrated energy system. At last, the effect of wind power and power demand on the output of Power to Gas (P2G) and gas-fired power generation (GPG) has also been investigated....

  14. Performance analysis of 60-min to 1-min integration time rain rate conversion models in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yun-Yann; Singh, Mandeep Singh Jit; Thiruchelvam, Vinesh

    2018-01-01

    Utilizing the frequency band above 10 GHz is in focus nowadays as a result of the fast expansion of radio communication systems in Malaysia. However, rain fade is the critical factor in attenuation of signal propagation for frequencies above 10 GHz. Malaysia is located in a tropical and equatorial region with high rain intensity throughout the year, and this study will review rain distribution and evaluate the performance of 60-min to 1-min integration time rain rate conversion methods for Malaysia. Several conversion methods such as Segal, Chebil & Rahman, Burgeono, Emiliani, Lavergnat and Gole (LG), Simplified Moupfouma, Joo et al., fourth order polynomial fit and logarithmic model have been chosen to evaluate the performance to predict 1-min rain rate for 10 sites in Malaysia. After the completion of this research, the results show that Chebil & Rahman model, Lavergnat & Gole model, Fourth order polynomial fit and Logarithmic model have shown the best performances in 60-min to 1-min rain rate conversion over 10 sites. In conclusion, it is proven that there is no single model which can claim to perform the best across 10 sites. By averaging RMSE and SC-RMSE over 10 sites, Chebil and Rahman model is the best method.

  15. One dimensional full wave analysis of slow-to-fast mode conversion in lower hybrid frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guo-Zhang; Gao, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    The linear conversion from the slow wave to the fast wave in the lower hybrid range of frequencies is analyzed numerically by using the set of field equations describing waves in a cold plane-stratified plasma. The equations are solved as a two-point boundary value problem, where the polarizations of each mode are set consistently in the boundary conditions. The scattering coefficients and the field patterns are obtained for various density profiles. It is shown that, for large density scale length, the results agree well with the traditional cognitions. In contrast, the reflected component and the probable transmitted-converted component from the conversion region, which are neglected in the usual calculations, become significant when the scale length is smaller than the wavelength of the mode. The inclusion of these new components will improve the accuracy of the simulated propagation and deposition for the injected rf power when the conversion process is involved within a sharp-varying density profile. Meanwhile, the accessibility of the incident slow wave for the low frequency case is also affected by the scale length of the density profile.

  16. Experiment and ANSYS simulation analysis for metal aluminum solid and fluid conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-Y.; Guo, P.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Jiang, S.-M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, study on metal aluminum solid and fluid conversion was carried out by using crucible resistance furnace, and observing the phenomenon of metal aluminum solid and fluid conversion. In the experiment, the same shape aluminum block was kept under the same heating rate and heated by the resistance furnace. The experimental results show that the melting point of metal aluminum is between 650°C and 660°C, and after the melting point, the metal aluminum began to melt when it maintained for a long period of time, however, when the temperature is higher than the melting point, the aluminum will melt very quickly. In addition, in ANSYS simulation, the solid aluminum melted completely at 670°C in 5430 seconds, much longer than the actual experiment, it due to the heating rate was faster, not in an ideal experimental environment and there is heat exchange with the outside world and convection, at the same time, the aluminum block may contain impurities, so the actual melting time could be shorter than the simulation. In this paper, it was explored for the liquid and solid conversion in depth, and had a certain actual value.

  17. Systematic Analysis of the Effects of Mode Conversion on Thermal Radiation from Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Akihiro; Yamada, Shoichi

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we systematically calculate the polarization in soft X-rays emitted from magnetized neutron stars, which are expected to be observed by next-generation X-ray satellites. Magnetars are one of the targets for these observations. This is because thermal radiation is normally observed in the soft X-ray band, and it is thought to be linearly polarized because of different opacities for two polarization modes of photons in the magnetized atmosphere of neutron stars and the dielectric properties of the vacuum in strong magnetic fields. In their study, Taverna et al. illustrated how strong magnetic fields influence the behavior of the polarization observables for radiation propagating in vacuo without addressing a precise, physical emission model. In this paper, we pay attention to the conversion of photon polarization modes that can occur in the presence of an atmospheric layer above the neutron star surface, computing the polarization angle and fraction and systematically changing the magnetic field strength, radii of the emission region, temperature, mass, and radii of the neutron stars. We confirmed that if plasma is present, the effects of mode conversion cannot be neglected when the magnetic field is relatively weak, B∼ {10}13 {{G}}. Our results indicate that strongly magnetized (B≳ {10}14 {{G}}) neutron stars are suitable to detect polarizations, but not-so-strongly magnetized (B∼ {10}13 {{G}}) neutron stars will be the ones to confirm the mode conversion.

  18. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here.

  19. Exploratory factor analysis with small sample sizes: a comparison of three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunho

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has emerged in the field of animal behavior as a useful tool for determining and assessing latent behavioral constructs. Because the small sample size problem often occurs in this field, a traditional approach, unweighted least squares, has been considered the most feasible choice for EFA. Two new approaches were recently introduced in the statistical literature as viable alternatives to EFA when sample size is small: regularized exploratory factor analysis and generalized exploratory factor analysis. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the relative performance of these three approaches in terms of factor recovery under various experimental conditions of sample size, degree of overdetermination, and level of communality. In this study, overdetermination and sample size are the meaningful conditions in differentiating the performance of the three approaches in factor recovery. Specifically, when there are a relatively large number of factors, regularized exploratory factor analysis tends to recover the correct factor structure better than the other two approaches. Conversely, when few factors are retained, unweighted least squares tends to recover the factor structure better. Finally, generalized exploratory factor analysis exhibits very poor performance in factor recovery compared to the other approaches. This tendency is particularly prominent as sample size increases. Thus, generalized exploratory factor analysis may not be a good alternative to EFA. Regularized exploratory factor analysis is recommended over unweighted least squares unless small expected number of factors is ensured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.

  1. Depth estimation algorithm based on data-driven approach and depth cues for stereo conversion in three-dimensional displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Mingyan; Li, Fei

    2016-12-01

    With the advances in three-dimensional (3-D) display technology, stereo conversion has attracted much attention as it can alleviate the problem of stereoscopic content shortage. In two-dimensional (2-D) to 3-D conversion, the most difficult and challenging problem is depth estimation from a single image. In order to recover a perceptually plausible depth map from a single image, a depth estimation algorithm based on a data-driven method and depth cues is presented. Based on the human visual system mechanism, which is sensitive to the foreground object, this study classifies the image into one of two classes, i.e., nonobject image and object image, and then leverages different strategies on the basis of image type. The proposed strategies efficiently extract the depth information from different images. Moreover, depth image-based rendering technology is utilized to generate stereoscopic views by combining 2-D images with their depth maps. The proposed method is also suitable for 2-D to 3-D video conversion. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed depth estimation algorithm is very effective for generating stereoscopic content and producing visually pleasing and realistic 3-D views.

  2. Refined finite element modelling for the vibration analysis of large rotating machines: Application to the gas turbine modular helium reactor power conversion unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescure, D.; Lazarus, A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting refined finite element modelling used for dynamic analysis of large rotating machines. The first part shows an equivalence between several levels of modelling: firstly, models made of beam elements and rigid disc with gyroscopic coupling representing the position of the rotating shaft in an inertial frame; secondly full three-dimensional (3D) or 3D shell models of the rotor and the blades represented in the rotating frame and finally two-dimensional (2D) Fourier model for both rotor and stator. Simple cases are studied to better understand the results given by analysis performed using a rotating frame and the equivalence with the standard calculations with beam elements. Complete analysis of rotating machines can be performed with models in the frames best adapted for each part of the structure. The effects of several defects are analysed and compared with this approach. In the last part of the paper, the modelling approach is applied to the analysis of the large rotating shaft part of the power conversion unit of the GT-MHR nuclear reactor.

  3. Refined finite element modelling for the vibration analysis of large rotating machines: Application to the gas turbine modular helium reactor power conversion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combescure, D.; Lazarus, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT/DYN, Dynam Anal Lab, Saclay, (France); Lazarus, A. [Ecole Polytech, Mecan Solides Lab, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting refined finite element modelling used for dynamic analysis of large rotating machines. The first part shows an equivalence between several levels of modelling: firstly, models made of beam elements and rigid disc with gyroscopic coupling representing the position of the rotating shaft in an inertial frame; secondly full three-dimensional (3D) or 3D shell models of the rotor and the blades represented in the rotating frame and finally two-dimensional (2D) Fourier model for both rotor and stator. Simple cases are studied to better understand the results given by analysis performed using a rotating frame and the equivalence with the standard calculations with beam elements. Complete analysis of rotating machines can be performed with models in the frames best adapted for each part of the structure. The effects of several defects are analysed and compared with this approach. In the last part of the paper, the modelling approach is applied to the analysis of the large rotating shaft part of the power conversion unit of the GT-MHR nuclear reactor. (authors)

  4. An Approach to Operational Analysis: Doctrinal Task Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    SESSION AUGUST 2-4, 2016 – NOVI, MICHIGAN AN APPROACH TO OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS: DOCTRINAL TASK DECOMPOSITION Major Matthew A. Horning U.S...Engineering and Technology Symposium (GVSETS) An Approach To Operational Analysis: Doctrinal Task Decomposition UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution...NCO from any branch, such as logistics, can describe Armor doctrine to the TRADOC standards. DOCTRINAL TASK ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK This approach to

  5. Conversation therapy for aphasia: a qualitative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Savage, Meghan C; Worrall, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A diverse literature addresses elements of conversation therapy in aphasia including intervention rooted in conversation analysis, partner training, group therapy and behavioural intervention. Currently there is no resource for clinicians or researchers that defines and organizes this information into a coherent synopsis describing various conversation therapy practices. To organize information from varied sources into a descriptive overview of conversation therapy for aphasia. Academic search engines were employed to identify research articles published between 1950 and September 2013 reporting on conversation therapy for aphasia. Thirty articles met criteria for review and were identified as primary sources for the qualitative review. Using qualitative methodology, relevant data were extracted from articles and categories were identified to create a descriptive taxonomy of conversation therapy for aphasia. Conversation interventions were divided into descriptive categories including: treatment participants (person with aphasia, partner, dyad), primary guiding orientation (conversation analysis, social model, behavioural, relationship centred), service delivery (individual, group), focus of intervention (generic/individualized; problem/solution oriented; compensatory), training methods (explicit/implicit; external/embedded), activities or tasks, and outcomes measured. Finally, articles were categorized by research design. There was marked variation in conversation therapy approaches and outcome measures reported and a notable gap in information about one-on-one conversation therapy for individuals with aphasia. This review provides a description of various conversation therapy approaches and identified gaps in the existing literature. Valid measures of natural conversation, research on one-on-one conversation approaches for individuals with aphasia, and a systematic body of evidence consisting of high quality research are needed. © 2014 Royal College of Speech

  6. An Overview of Focal Approaches of Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahedi, Maryam; Abdullah, Faiz Sathi; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to present detailed accounts of central approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis. It focuses on the work of three prominent scholars such as Fairclough's critical approach, Wodak's discourse-historical approach and Van Dijk's socio-cognitive approach. This study concludes that a combination of these three approaches can be…

  7. Model analysis of the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the expanding plumes of subsonic aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellhoff, M.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie; Sausen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    A box model and two different one-dimensional models are used to investigate the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the dispersing plume of a subsonic aircraft flying at cruise altitude. The effect of varying daytime of release as well as the impact of changing dispersion time is studied with special respect to the aircraft induced O{sub 3} production. Effective emission amounts for consideration in mesoscale and global models are calculated. Simulations with modified photolysis rates are performed to show the sensitivity of the photochemistry to the occurrence of cirrus clouds. (author) 8 refs.

  8. A statistical analysis of wind speed data used in installation of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavak Akpinar, E. [Firat University, Elazig (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Akpinar, S. [Firat University, Elazig (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2005-03-01

    Wind speed is the most important parameter in the design and study of wind energy conversion systems. In this study, statistical methods were used to analyze the wind speed data of Keban-Elazig in the east region of Turkey. Measured hourly time series of wind speed data were obtained from the State Meteorological Station in Keban-Elazig over a five-year period from 1998 to 2002. The probability density distributions are derived from the time series data and the distributional parameters are identified. Two probability density functions are fitted to the measured probability distributions on a yearly basis. (author)

  9. Motion-Compensated Coding and Frame-Rate Up-Conversion: Models and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dar, Yehuda; Bruckstein, Alfred M.

    2014-01-01

    Block-based motion estimation (ME) and compensation (MC) techniques are widely used in modern video processing algorithms and compression systems. The great variety of video applications and devices results in numerous compression specifications. Specifically, there is a diversity of frame-rates and bit-rates. In this paper, we study the effect of frame-rate and compression bit-rate on block-based ME and MC as commonly utilized in inter-frame coding and frame-rate up conversion (FRUC). This j...

  10. Hierarchical approaches to analysis of natural textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsiv, Vadim R.; Malyshev, Igor A.; Novikova, Tatiana A.

    2004-09-01

    The surface textures of natural objects often have the visible fractal-like properties. A similar pattern of texture could be found looking at the forests in the aerial photographs or at the trees in the outdoor scenes when the image spatial resolution was changed. Or the texture patterns are different at different spatial resolution levels in the aerial photographs of villages. It creates the difficulties in image segmentation and object recognition because the levels of spatial resolution necessary to get the homogeneously and correctly labeled texture regions differ for different types of landscape. E.g. if the spatial resolution was sufficient for distinguishing between the textures of agricultural fields, water, and asphalt, the texture labeled areas of forest or suburbs are hardly fragmented, because the texture peculiarities corresponding to two stable levels of texture spatial resolution will be visible in this case. A hierarchical texture analysis could solve this problem, and we did it in two different ways: we performed the texture segmentation simultaneously for several levels of image spatial resolution, or we subjected the texture labeled image of highest spatial resolution to a recurring texture segmentation using the texture cells of larger sizes. The both approaches turned out to be rather fruitful for the aerial photographs as well as for the outdoor images. They generalize and support the hierarchical image analysis technique presented in another our paper. Some of the methods applied were borrowed from the living vision systems.

  11. Degree of Conversion of Self-etch Adhesives: In Situ Micro-Raman Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, C O; Cadenaro, M; Frassetto, A; Fontanive, L; Di Lenarda, R; Breschi, L

    2016-01-01

    Degree of conversion (DC) affects the physicochemical properties of dental adhesives. The aim of this study was to measure the DC within the hybrid layer of four one-step self-etch adhesives using Raman microspectroscopy. The hypothesis tested was that there was no difference among the tested adhesives. The selected one-step self-etch adhesives (Clearfil S3 Bond Plus, I-BOND, G-BOND, and Adper Easy Bond) were applied on human dentin disks and polymerized in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. Specimens were transversally cut to expose the bonded interfaces to the micro-Raman beam, and Raman spectra were collected along the dentin/adhesive interface. Measurements were performed at 1-μm intervals. The relative intensities of bands associated with the C=C bond (at 1640 cm-1) and an internal stable peak (1610 cm-1) were determined to calculate the degree of conversion within the hybrid layer. Data were statistically analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Bartlett tests and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The DC ranked as follows: G-BOND (93%±6%) ≥ Adper Easy Bond (92%±6%) ≥ I-BOND (89%±7%) > Clearfil S3 Bond Plus (80%±14%) (pself-etch adhesives showed a clinically acceptable DC that was material dependent.

  12. Applications of soft X-rays in the surface analysis of conversion or passivation films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A.; Charbonnier, M.; Gaillard, F.; Romand, M.; Bador, R.

    Capabilities of low-energy electron-induced X-ray spectroscopy (LEEIXS) for providing detailed qualitative and quantitative information about the first 10 to 1000 Å of a solid surface are described. Trace detection of low Z elements such as B and F in thin films formed on titanium substrates is illustrated. These impurities are incorporated from the electrolytes (H 3BO 3 and H 2SiF 6 solutions respectively) during anodization. The characterization of thin films formed on titanium by chemical conversion in phosphate/fluoride solution is also reported. Chemical bonding information is obtained from the fine structure of the Ti L 2,3 X-ray emission bands. Results prove unambiguously that the main component of the conversion films is not a TiO 2 oxide but rather a TiF 4-like fluoride. In addition LEEIXS has been used for obtaining O and P elemental depth profiles through an anodic film grown on niobium in phosphoric baths. Such an investigation was performed in conjunction with an external step by step chemical etching of the specimen surface. Lastly, the application of LEEIXS to the surface characterization of stainless steels prior and after a passivation treatment is described.

  13. Transmission analysis of ultrasonic Lamb mode conversion in a plate with partial-thickness notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    Mode conversions of Lamb waves can occur upon encountering damage or defect such as a notch, leading to newly-converted modes apart from wave reflection and transmission. In this paper, the transmission of the fundamental Lamb modes symmetrical S0 and anti-symmetrical A0 with anti-symmetrical notches were investigated in steel plates within the relatively short propagation distance. The group velocity and modal energy of the converted modes were analyzed using simulations and experiments. Two-dimensional finite difference time domain (2D-FDTD) method was employed to calculate the scattering field and extract numerical trends for simulation study and experimental confirmation. Both simulations and experiments revealed that the apparent group velocities of the converted modes in the transmitted signals subject to the notch positions. To describe the mode conversion degree and evaluate the notch severity, wave packets of the originally-transmitted modes and newly-converted modes were separated and corresponding mode energy percentages were analyzed at different notch severities. Frequency-sweeping measurements illustrated that the modal energy percentages varied monotonically over the notch-depth increase with a statistically consistency (R=1.00, P<0.0004). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  15. Tourism Destinations Network Analysis, Social Network Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is becoming one of the world's largest economical sources, and is expected to become the world's first industry by 2020. Previous studies have focused on several aspects of this industry including sociology, geography, tourism management and development, but have paid less attention to analytical and quantitative approaches. This study introduces some network analysis techniques and measures aiming at studying the structural characteristics of tourism networks. More specifically, it presents a methodology to analyze tourism destinations network. We apply the methodology to analyze mazandaran’s Tourism destination network, one of the most famous tourism areas of Iran.

  16. Integration of Kinetic Analysis of Reaction Curve with a Proper Classical Approach for Enzymatic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For enzymatic analysis to quantify a substrate or enzyme, kinetic analysis of reaction curve can be integrated with a proper classical approach. For their integration, they should have consistent slopes and intercepts of linear response and an overlapped region of analyte quantities measurable under optimized conditions. To quantify a substrate after optimizations of tool enzyme activity and reaction duration, the equilibrium method works when the reaction is completed within the reaction duration; otherwise, kinetic analysis of reaction curve applies providing at least seven data with sufficient consumption of substrate. To quantify an enzyme after optimizations of initial substrate concentration and reaction duration, the classical initial rate method works when an estimated initial rate locates within the linear range; otherwise, kinetic analysis of reaction curve applies after the conversion of the quantification index with optimized parameters. This integration strategy has ideal linear ranges and practical efficiency for quantifying an enzyme at moderate substrate levels and for quantifying a substrate at moderate cost on tool enzyme; it has promise to simultaneous assays of multiple enzymes in one reaction vessel each time and ,thus, potential applications to concurrently quantify multiple serum enzymes, screen inhibitors against multiple enzyme targets, and detect multiple serum components by enzymeimmunoassay.

  17. Combining Conversation Analysis and Reflective Practice in the LSP Classroom: Putting Transcripts of Business Simulations under the Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Clifton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversation analysis (CA has undoubtedly established its credentials as a method for studying (workplace interaction yet, despite this observation, the insights that CA offers to LSP instructors have not been fully exploited in the classroom. This paper firstly suggests that combining CA and reflective practice can lead to a synergy that would be beneficial to teaching practice and, secondly, this paper describes how this synergy can be implemented in a classroom context for students of business communication. Findings indicate that combining CA and reflective practice can be a viable pedagogic proposition.

  18. Multicriteria approach to data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio Vieira Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of making Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA more acceptable to the managers' community, the Weights Restrictions approaches were born. They allow DEA to not dispose of any data and permit the Decision Maker (DM to have some management over the method. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a Weights Restrictions DEA model that incorporates the DM preference. In order to perform that, we employed the MACBETH methodology as a tool to find out the bounds of the weights to be used in a Weights Restrictions approach named Virtual Weights Restrictions. Our proposal achieved an outcome that has an expressive correlation with three widely used decision-aids methodologies: the ELECTRE III, the SMART and the PROMETHEE I and II. In addition, our approach was able to join the most significant outcomes of all the above three Multicriteria decision-aids methodologies in one unique outcome.Com o objetivo de fazer a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA mais aceitável pela comunidade gerencial, as abordagens de Restrição aos Pesos foram criadas. Estas abordagens fazem com que a DEA não descarte nenhum dado e permitem que o Decisor (DM tenha alguma gerência sobre o método. O objetivo deste artigo é sugerir um modelo de restrição aos pesos que incorpore as preferências do DM. Para realizar isto, nós empregamos a metodologia MACBETH como ferramenta para descobrir os limites dos pesos a serem utilizados na abordagem de restrição aos pesos chamada "Restrição aos Pesos Virtuais". Nossa proposta alcançou um resultado que apresenta uma correlação expressiva com três metodologias de apoio à decisão amplamente utilizadas: o ELECTRE III, o SMART e o PROMETHEE I e II. Adicionalmente, nossa abordagem foi capaz de reunir os resultados mais significativos de todas estas três metodologias de apoio à decisão em um único resultado.

  19. Media effects, interpersonal communication and beyond: An experimental approach to study conversations about the media and their role in news reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise SOMMER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at discussing the challenges and opportunities of laboratory experiments for communicationstudies. An experimental approach to research on TV news effects is presented. It focuses on interpersonal communication about a newscast and simulates the social context of media use and media effects. Based upon two research domains, (1 The role of interpersonal communication in media effects and (2 TV news reception, five hypotheses are derived which are tested in an innovative experimental design integrating survey and observation methods in a combination of media effects study and small group experiment. The influence of conversations on news memory and evaluation is assessed by treating conversations as independent variable in the experiment. In a video observation, the mechanisms of interpersonal communication about the media are identified. A moderating influence of conversations, specifically an enhanced news recall, is revealed. Additionally, the characteristics of the social processing of the media content can be described and applied as possible explanations for the effects of the experimental treatment. Consequently, the advantages of integrative research designs are explicated.

  20. Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion: the energetic cost of charge separation from molecular-excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, James R

    2013-08-13

    This review starts with a brief overview of the technological potential of molecular-based solar cell technologies. It then goes on to focus on the core scientific challenge associated with using molecular light-absorbing materials for solar energy conversion, namely the separation of short-lived, molecular-excited states into sufficiently long-lived, energetic, separated charges capable of generating an external photocurrent. Comparisons are made between different molecular-based solar cell technologies, with particular focus on the function of dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells as well as parallels with the function of photosynthetic reaction centres. The core theme of this review is that generating charge carriers with sufficient lifetime and a high quantum yield from molecular-excited states comes at a significant energetic cost-such that the energy stored in these charge-separated states is typically substantially less than the energy of the initially generated excited state. The role of this energetic loss in limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion by such devices is emphasized, and strategies to minimize this energy loss are compared and contrasted.

  1. A one-step conversion from gastric banding to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is as safe as a two-step conversion: A comparative analysis of 885 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debergh, Isabelle; Defoort, Barbara; De Visschere, Marieke; Flahou, Silke; Van Cauwenberge, Sebastiaan; Mulier, Jan P; Dillemans, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    To achieve additional weight loss or to resolve band-related problems, a laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) can be converted to a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). There is limited data on the feasibility and safety of routinely performing a single-step conversion. We assessed the efficacy of this revisional approach in a large cohort of patients operated in a high-volume bariatric institution. Between October 2004 and December 2015, a total of 885 patients who underwent LAGB removal with RYGB were identified from a prospectively collected database. In all cases, a single-stage conversion procedure was planned. The feasibility of this approach and peri-operative outcomes of these patients were evaluated and analyzed. A single-step approach was successfully achieved in 738 (83.4%) of the 885 patients. During the study period, there was a significant increase in performing the conversion from LAGB to RYGB single-staged. No mortality or anastomotic leakage was observed in both groups. Only 45 patients (5.1%) had a 30-d complication: most commonly hemorrhage (N = 20/45), with no significant difference between the groups. Converting a LAGB to RYGB can be performed with a very low morbidity and zero-mortality in a high-volume revisional bariatric center. With increasing experience and full standardization of the conversion, the vast majority of operations can be performed as a single-stage procedure. Only a migrated band remains a formal contraindication for a one-step approach.

  2. Exergy analysis for resource conversion of the Chinese Society 1993 under the material product system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q. [National Laboratory for Complex Systems and Turbulence, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The resource exergy conversion in Chinese society in 1993 under the material product system (MPS) was investigated. Major resources that entered the society were divided into subgroups and analyzed in detail. The end use was broken down into ten end-use sectors: the forestry industry, food industry, iron and steel industry, nonferrous metal industry, chemical industry, textile industry, transportation, households, commerce, other industry. The total exergy input was 62.9EJ, which was 53.3GJ/cap. The total exergy output contained 11.66EJ or 9.88GJ/cap, which was 19% of the total exergy input. One RMB (Chinese Renminbi) yuan ($ 0.17) corresponded to 3.37MJ resource exergy output. (author)

  3. Chemical state analysis of conversion coatings by SR-XPS and TEY-XANES

    CERN Document Server

    Noro, H; Nagoshi, M

    2002-01-01

    Chromate coatings on galvanized steel have been studied by Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques that include X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Total-Electron-Yield X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (TEY-XANES). Non-destructive depth profiling of the coatings by SR-XPS reveals the enhancement of Cr sup 6 sup + in the outer surface. TEY-XANES spectroscopy based on simple specimen current measurement is demonstrated as an effective technique for analyzing chemical states of conversion coatings on general bulk substrates. The sampling depth of this technique, which exceeds several tens of nanometer, is determined by the penetration length of Auger electrons excited by X-ray and the inelastic mean free path of secondary electrons excited by inelastically scattered Auger electrons. The chemical states of phosphoric acid added chromate coatings are studied using this technique. The phosphoric acid is taken into the chromate coatings as partially changed into zinc and chromium phosphates, and the r...

  4. Transcription of Gail Jefferson, Boston University Conference on Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, 9 June 1977

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    for the original film recording to be digitised. Jefferson later developed elements of her 1977 talk into the paper ‘On the poetics of ordinary talk’ (Jefferson. G. 1996, in Text and Performance Quarterly, 16,1:1-61). An indication of the significance of the talk is given in that paper’s abstract, where Jefferson...... notes that, “The 1977 talk was specifically directed to loosening up people’s sense of the sort of work done in the field of Conversation Analysis” (p.1). Jefferson describes the 1996 paper as “a more considered and elaborated version of that talk” (p.1). She notes also that at the time of the talk...

  5. The style of academic e-mails and conventional letters: contrastive analysis of four conversational routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde Ancarno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a corpus-based study which investigates the genre of academic email and more specifically its pragmatic dimension. Four conversational routines (thank yous, apologies, requests, offers are analysed and compared in two channels: academic e-mails and conventional print letters. In addition, data from both native and non-native speakers of English is considered, which sheds light on some of the differences found in the academic e-mail writing of learners of English. The findings indicate that academic e-mail is a relatively formal type of correspondence which is still largely influenced, as is to be expected, by the genre of the academic letter, and that as a genre, academic e-mail is in the process of formation or semi-formation. Finally, native speakers of English are found to be more informal than non-native speakers of English in academic e-mails.

  6. Approaches for the analysis of chlorinated lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Yi; Albert, Carolyn J; Ford, David A

    2013-12-15

    Leukocytes are key cellular mediators of human diseases through their role in inflammation. Identifying unique molecules produced by leukocytes may provide new biomarkers and mechanistic insights into the role of leukocytes in disease. Chlorinated lipids are generated as a result of myeloperoxidase-containing leukocyte-derived hypochlorous acid targeting the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens. The initial product of this reaction is α-chlorofatty aldehyde. α-Chlorofatty aldehyde is both oxidized to α-chlorofatty acid and reduced to α-chlorofatty alcohol by cellular metabolism. This review focuses on the separation techniques and quantitative analysis for these chlorinated lipids. For α-chlorofatty acid, the negative charge of carboxylic acids is exploited to detect the chlorinated lipid species of these acids by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. In contrast, α-chlorofatty aldehyde and α-chlorofatty alcohol are converted to pentafluorobenzyl oxime and pentafluorobenzoyl ester derivatives, which are detected by negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. These two detection methods coupled with the use of stable isotope internal standards and either liquid chromatography or gas chromatography provide highly sensitive analytical approaches to measure these novel lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  8. SNP_tools: A compact tool package for analysis and conversion of genotype data for MS-Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drechsel Marion

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is a major activity in biomedical research. Scientists prefer to have a facile access to the results which may require conversions between data formats. First hand SNP data is often entered in or saved in the MS-Excel format, but this software lacks genetic and epidemiological related functions. A general tool to do basic genetic and epidemiological analysis and data conversion for MS-Excel is needed. Findings The SNP_tools package is prepared as an add-in for MS-Excel. The code is written in Visual Basic for Application, embedded in the Microsoft Office package. This add-in is an easy to use tool for users with basic computer knowledge (and requirements for basic statistical analysis. Conclusion Our implementation for Microsoft Excel 2000-2007 in Microsoft Windows 2000, XP, Vista and Windows 7 beta can handle files in different formats and converts them into other formats. It is a free software.

  9. ENDOR analysis of H-addition radicals and their conversion in irradiated crystals of tryptamine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, H.; Sagstuen, E.

    1983-03-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the dominant radiation-induced room-temperature radical in single crystals of tryptaminexHC1 is formed by a net H addition to C7 of the indole ring. In the present work, it is demonstrated that this species is the precursor for two other indole H-addition radicals. By storage at room temperature, the C7 adduct slowly converts into the C4 adduct. The formation of the C4 adduct could easily be followed by ENDOR. The ENDOR spectra are characterized by hyperfine coupling to six protons bonded to the indole moiety. Upon annealing the crystal above 70 /sup 0/C, the C7 adduct is more rapidly converted into the C4 adduct, but then the annealing also induces a simultaneous conversion into the C2 adduct. This species also is characterized by six proton hyperfine interactions in the strong-coupling region. The C7 add..-->..C2 add process could be reversed by exposure to UV light at room temperature, whereas the C7 add..-->..C4 add process is irreversible upon this procedure. Semiempirical molecular orbital calculations support the interpretations made. The mechanisms of the different processes is discussed in light of the crystal and molecular structure of the compound, and related to similar processes in other compounds, e.g., the purine and pyrimidine bases.

  10. Diffusion and Gas Conversion Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Loads via AC Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert U. Payne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance measurements were conducted under practical load conditions in solid oxide fuel cells of differing sizes. For a 2 cm2 button cell, impedance spectra data were separately measured for the anode, cathode, and total cell. Improved equivalent circuit models are proposed and applied to simulate each of measured impedance data. Circuit elements related to the chemical and physical processes have been added to the total-cell model to account for an extra relaxation process in the spectra not measured at either electrode. The processes to which elements are attributed have been deduced by varying cell temperature, load current, and hydrogen concentration. Spectra data were also obtained for a planar stack of five 61 cm2 cells and the individual cells therein, which were fitted to a simplified equivalent circuit model of the total button cell. Similar to the button cell, the planar cells and stack exhibit a pronounced low-frequency relaxation process, which has been attributed to concentration losses, that is, the combined effects of diffusion and gas conversion. The simplified total-cell model approximates well the dynamic behavior of the SOFC cells and the whole stack.

  11. ‘Third generation’ conversations – A partnership approach to embedding research and learning skills development in the first year. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Taib

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This Practice Report offers a strategic approach to making research and learning skills explicit within the curriculum of first year core units, by enabling a systematic process of pedagogical conversations between teaching faculty, learning skills advisers and librarians. It reports on a collaborative project between staff of Monash Library and academic staff of the faculties of Business and Economics and Information Technology. It offers tools and protocols for the review and renewal of curricula and co-curricula practice within a partnership model, informed by the Research Skills Development (RSD Framework. It takes into account teaching and learning approaches, intervention and support strategies, assessment, and feedback mechanisms.  It also responds to emerging trends in higher education delivery such as blended learning and the flipped classroom model (Baker, 2000.

  12. Analysis of landing gear noise during approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merino Martinez, R.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    Airframe noise is becoming increasingly important during approach, even reaching higher noise levels than the engines in some cases. More people are a_ected due to low ight altitudes and _xed tra_c routing associated with typical approaches. For most air- craft types, the landing gear system is a

  13. Structural and chemical analysis of process residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Jørgensen, Henning; Laursen, Kristian Holst

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol production is now being implemented in large-scale industrial production. Applying hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for the conversion process, a residue containing substantial amounts of lignin...

  14. Understanding the influence of temperature change and cosolvent addition on conversion rate of enzymatic suspension reactions based on regime analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, A; Zhu, L; Wong, Y W; Straathof, A J; Jongejan, J A; Heijnen, J J

    1999-01-20

    It is a commonly held belief that enzymatic conversions of substrate in aqueous suspensions can be speeded up by raising the temperature or adding organic solvents to promote dissolution of the substrate. To quantify the impact of such changes, we studied the alpha-chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of dimethyl benzylmethylmalonate as a model system. It was found that, upon addition of organic cosolvents, longer process times were actually required, even though the substrate solubility increased severalfold as expected. Upon raising the temperature from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C, on the other hand, both the substrate solubility, the substrate dissolution rate, and the enzymatic reaction rate increased, leading to shorter process times. A dissolution-reaction model incorporating the kinetics of enzyme deactivation could be developed. A simple relation for the prediction of the overall process time was established by evaluating the time constants for the subprocesses: substrate dissolution; enzymatic conversion; and enzyme deactivation. Using regime analysis, rules of thumb for the optimization of an enzymatic suspension reaction were derived. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Making sense of progressive non-fluent aphasia: an analysis of conversational speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibb, Jonathan A; Woollams, Anna M; Hodges, John R; Patterson, Karalyn

    2009-10-01

    The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and executive function. The degree to which speech was affected was independent of the severity of the other cognitive deficits. A partial dissociation was also observed between slow speech with simplified grammar on the one hand, and grammatical and speech sound errors on the other. Overlap between these sets of impairments was however, the rule rather than the exception, producing continuous variation within a single consistent syndrome. The distribution of atrophy was remarkably variable, with frontal, temporal and medial temporal areas affected, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The study suggests that PNFA is a coherent, well-defined syndrome and that varieties such as logopaenic progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech may be seen as points in a space of continuous variation within progressive non-fluent aphasia.

  16. Automatic malware analysis an emulator based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Malicious software (i.e., malware) has become a severe threat to interconnected computer systems for decades and has caused billions of dollars damages each year. A large volume of new malware samples are discovered daily. Even worse, malware is rapidly evolving becoming more sophisticated and evasive to strike against current malware analysis and defense systems. Automatic Malware Analysis presents a virtualized malware analysis framework that addresses common challenges in malware analysis. In regards to this new analysis framework, a series of analysis techniques for automatic malware analy

  17. Analysis approaches and interventions with occupational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze approaches and interventions with occupational performance in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, articles published in the past 10?years were searched. The key terms used were ?occupational performance AND stroke? and ?occupational performance AND CVA?. A total 252 articles were identified, and 79 articles were selected. All interventions were classified according to their approaches according to 6 theories. All inter...

  18. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  19. Conversations between scientists and the public in radio phone-ins: an experimental approach to analyse public perception of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzagora Matteo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available “Il ciclotrone” is the weekly science programme of “Radio Popolare - Popolare Network”, the most important independent news radio network in Italy, based in Milan. During the last 12 years, once or twice a month listeners have been able to directly ask questions to the guest scientists in the studios, or to express their point of view on some controversial scientific issue. Among mass-media, the radio has several characteristics which tend to enhance the sense of friendliness and belonging - essential to any true communication. Phone-ins at Radio Popolare are not filtered; regular and occasional listeners are used to communicate with or through the radio, and in doing so they contribute to the sense of spontaneity which characterise the programmes. During “Il ciclotrone”, very often the ''anchor'' tends to disappear, and phone-ins become a lively conversation between the scientists and the public (whose members seldom agree with each other. In this presentation, phone-ins on science - over the years they involved internationally famous scientists (such as Lewontin, Damasio, Amaldi, Rotblat, Di Chiara, …, and less well-known but reputed Italian researchers - are analysed in terms of their capabilities of providing a tool to understand public perception of science. Moreover, the authors believe that science journalism shouldn't only inform or educate the public on the work of scientists, but also inform or educate the scientists on how their work is perceived. Indeed, scientists seldom have a chance to hear the criticism (positive or negative of a large, unselected audience and to have a first-hand grasp of public feelings concerning their work.

  20. Analysis of LOCA Scenarios in the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cheng, L. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Diamond, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-30

    An analysis has been done of hypothetical loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCAs) in the research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The purpose of the analysis is to determine if the peak clad temperature remains below the Safety Limit, which is the blister temperature for the fuel. The configuration of the NBSR considered in the analysis is that projected for the future when changes will be made so that shutdown pumps do not operate when a LOCA signal is detected. The analysis was done for the present core with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and with the proposed low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel that would be used when the NBSR is converted from one to the other. The analysis consists of two parts. The first examines how the water would drain from the primary system following a break and the possibility for the loss of coolant from within the fuel element flow channels. This work is performed using the TRACE system thermal-hydraulic code. The second looks at the fuel clad temperature as a function of time given that the water may have drained from many of the flow channels and the water in the vessel is in a quasi-equilibrium state. The temperature behavior is investigated using the three-dimensional heat conduction code HEATING7.3. The results in all scenarios considered for both HEU and LEU fuel show that the peak clad temperature remains below the blister temperature.

  1. Experimental Test and Simulations on a Linear Generator-Based Prototype of a Wave Energy Conversion System Designed with a Reliability-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Boscaino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a reliability-oriented design of a linear generator-based prototype of a wave energy conversion (WEC, useful for the production of hydrogen in a sheltered water area like Mediterranean Sea. The hydrogen production has been confirmed by a lot of experimental testing and simulations. The system design is aimed to enhance the robustness and reliability and is based on an analysis of the main WEC failures reported in literature. The results of this analysis led to some improvements that are applied to a WEC system prototype for hydrogen production and storage. The proposed WEC system includes the electrical linear generator, the power conversion system, and a sea-water electrolyzer. A modular architecture is conceived to provide ease of extension of the power capability of the marine plant. The experimental results developed on the permanent magnet linear electric generator have allowed identification of the stator winding typology and, consequently, ability to size the power electronics system. The produced hydrogen has supplied a low-power fuel cell stack directly connected to the hydrogen output from the electrolyzer. The small-scale prototype is designed to be installed, in the near future, into the Mediterranean Sea. As shown by experimental and simulation results, the small-scale prototype is suitable for hydrogen production and storage from sea water in this area.

  2. Theoretical analysis of mode conversion electron heating experiments in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonoli, P.T.; OShea, P.J. [MIT PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Brambilla, M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hubbard, A.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y.; Wukitch, S. [MIT PSFC, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A computer code is used for analysis of the electron heating and current drive at 80 and 40 MHz via mode converted ion Bernstein waves in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The results will be tested experimentally. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Machine learning approaches in medical image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning approaches are increasingly successful in image-based diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. This paper highlights new research directions and discusses three main challenges related to machine learning in medical imaging: coping with variation in imaging protocols......, learning from weak labels, and interpretation and evaluation of results....

  4. Using social media for support and feedback by mental health service users: thematic analysis of a twitter conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Doyle, Michael; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-02-19

    Internet based social media websites represent a growing space for interpersonal interaction. Research has been conducted in relation to the potential role of social media in the support of individuals with physical health conditions. However, limited research exists exploring such utilisation by individuals with experience of mental health problems. It could be proposed that access to wider support networks and knowledge could be beneficial for all users, although this positive interpretation has been challenged. The present study focusses on a specific discussion as a case study to assess the role of the website www.twitter.com as a medium for interpersonal communication by individuals with experience of mental disorder and possible source of feedback to mental health service providers. An electronic search was performed to identify material contributing to an online conversation entitled #dearmentalhealthprofessionals. Output from the search strategy was combined in such a way that repeated material was eliminated and all individual material anonymised. The remaining textual material was reviewed and combined in a thematic analysis to identify common themes of discussion. 515 unique communications were identified relating to the specified conversation. The majority of the material related to four overarching thematic headings: The impact of diagnosis on personal identity and as a facilitator for accessing care; Balance of power between professional and service user; Therapeutic relationship and developing professional communication; and Support provision through medication, crisis planning, service provision and the wider society. Remaining material was identified as being direct expression of thanks, self-referential in its content relating to the on-going conversation or providing a link to external resources and further discussion. The present study demonstrates the utility of online social media as both a discursive space in which individuals with experience

  5. Group Analysis in Practice: Narrative Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Phoenix

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Working in groups is increasingly regarded as fruitful for the process of analyzing qualitative data. It has been reported to build research skills, make the analytic process visible, reduce inequalities and social distance particularly between researchers and participants, and broaden and intensify engagement with the material. This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on group qualitative data analysis by presenting a worked example of a group data analysis of a short extract from an interview on serial migration from the Caribbean to the UK. It describes the group's working practices and the different analytic resources drawn upon to conduct a narrative analysis. We demonstrate the ways in which an initial line-by-line analysis followed by analysis of larger extracts generated insights that would have been less available to individual researchers. Additionally, we discuss the positioning of group members in relation to the data and reflect on the porous boundary between primary and secondary analysis of qualitative data. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160294

  6. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of fluorine-, chlorine-, bromine- and iodine-bearing organics using gas chromatography-chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renpenning, Julian; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Gehre, Matthias

    2017-07-15

    The conventional high-temperature conversion (HTC) approach towards hydrogen compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of halogen-bearing (F, Cl, Br, I) organics suffers from incomplete H2 yields and associated hydrogen isotope fractionation due to generation of HF, HCl, HBr, and HI byproducts. Moreover, the traditional off-line combustion of highly halogenated compounds results in incomplete recovery of water as an intermediary compound for hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and hence also leads to isotope fractionation. This study presents an optimized chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) approach for hydrogen CSIA of various fluorinated, chlorinated, brominated and iodinated organic compounds. The Cr/HTC approach is fast, economical, and not affected by low H2 yields and associated isotope fractionation. The performance of the modified gas chromatography/chromium-based high-temperature conversion (GC-Cr/HTC) system was monitored and optimized using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Quantitative conversion of organic hydrogen into H2 analyte gas was achieved for all halogen-bearing compounds. The corresponding accuracy of CSIA was validated using (i) manual dual-inlet (DI)-IRMS after off-line conversion into H2 , and (ii) elemental analyzer (EA)-Cr/HTC-IRMS (on-line conversion). The overall hydrogen isotope analysis of F-, Cl-, Br- and I-bearing organics via GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS achieved a precision σ ≤ 3 mUr and an accuracy within ±5 mUr along the VSMOW-SLAP scale compared with the measured isotope compositions resulting from both validation methods, off-line and on-line. The same analytical performance as for single-compound GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS was achieved compound-specifically for mixtures of halogenated organics following GC separation to baseline resolution. GC-Cr/HTC technology can be implemented in existing analytical equipment using commercially available materials to provide a versatile tool for hydrogen CSIA of halogenated and non

  7. Alternate approaches to vibration and shock analysis using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R. E.; Menichello, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A method that derives an approximate equivalent static load to a base excitation shock analysis is described. The transient analysis in the current level of NASTRAN, level 16, does not directly provide for either input acceleration forcing functions or enforced boundary displacement. In the suggested alternate analysis format, equivalent force input functions are applied to the constrained locations by using the artifice of placing a large mass, with respect to the total system mass, at the desired acceleration input points. This shortcut static analysis approach is presented to approximate the expensive and time consuming dynamics analysis approach to the base excitation shock analysis.

  8. Analysis of biodiesel conversion using thin layer chromatography and nonlinear calibration curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Brask, Jesper; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    chromatography (TLC) for this purpose, where the detection was based on either flame ionization detector (FID) or a modified staining procedure. The suggested staining method gave no background and appeared well suited for quantitative analysis. The relevant calibrations are presented, and the general principles...... were separated and quantified. Relation of the BD contents measured by TLC and GC gave the values of 1.03 ± 0.07 (TLC-staining) and 0.95 ± 0.04 (TLC–FID), indicating applicability of the TLC-methods....

  9. Preliminary flashing multiphase flow analysis with application to letdown valves in coal-conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, L. J.; Khan, A. A.

    1982-09-01

    As part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's technical support to large coal liquefaction projects, attempts have been made to (1) develop the methodology for characterizing and predicting multicomponent, multiphase, non-Newtonian flow behavior within letdown valves and devices, and (2) analyze the fluid flow in the entire letdown region of the process. An engineering model that can be used in the analysis of multicomponent, multiphase, flashing, flowing systems has been developed. A preliminary version of a user-oriented computer code for this model has been developed and is fully described.

  10. Modal analysis of the electromechanical conversion in piezoelectric ceramic spherical shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronov, Boris; Brown, David A; Yan, Xiang; Bachand, Corey L

    2011-08-01

    The current study considers piezoelectric ceramic electromechanical transducers utilizing axisymmetric vibrations of complete and incomplete spherical shells. Analysis is focused on generating the modes of vibration that can be employed in the design of multimode unidirectional electroacoustic transducers for underwater applications and on determining the electrode configurations that achieve optimal electromechanical coupling for the different modes of vibration considered. Analytical expressions are presented for the modal and intermodal equivalent parameters characterizing the energy state of the shell vibration. Results of calculation and experimental verification of the resonance frequencies and effective coupling coefficients for different modes of vibration of the complete and incomplete spherical shells are in good agreement.

  11. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  12. Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Volume IV. Supplementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, S. L.; Breisacher, P.; Munjal, P. K.; Neiss, J. A.

    1977-03-01

    A discussion is presented of the most significant problems associated with the production and deployment of photovoltaic arrays. The principal chemical compounds to be used in the manufacture of silicon, gallium arsenide, and cadmium sulfide photovoltaic arrays are discussed with respect to physical and chemical properties, sources of the raw materials required to extract or synthesize these materials, the methods of manufacture, storage and handling in large quantities, transportation restrictions, spills, leaks, ignition and explosion. A discussion of safety hazards associated with the finished products is followed by an analysis of the toxicological properties of all raw, refined, and finished chemical species involved. The principal tool used in the evaluation of incentive strategies was a new Public Utility Financial Analysis and Planning Model which is described in some detail. After adaptation to match the characteristics of photovoltaic plants, it was used in the comparative evaluation of six different incentive strategies. The candidate strategies, the rationale for their selection, and the results of the comparative evaluation are presented. An account is given of an attempt to assess the full non-internalized costs of coal-fired power generation. A detailed description is given of the various damage elements and their associated societal costs for coal production, coal transportation, and coal-fired power generation. (MHR)

  13. Mechatronic modeling of a 750kW fixed-speed wind energy conversion system using the Bond Graph Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaouch, Zakaria; Zekraoui, Mustapha; Bengourram, Jamaa; Kouider, Nourreeddine; Mabrouki, Mustapha

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we would like to focus on modeling main parts of the wind turbines (blades, gearbox, tower, generator and pitching system) from a mechatronics viewpoint using the Bond-Graph Approach (BGA). Then, these parts are combined together in order to simulate the complete system. Moreover, the real dynamic behavior of the wind turbine is taken into account and with the new model; final load simulation is more realistic offering benefits and reliable system performance. This model can be used to develop control algorithms to reduce fatigue loads and enhance power production. Different simulations are carried-out in order to validate the proposed wind turbine model, using real data provided in the open literature (blade profile and gearbox parameters for a 750 kW wind turbine). Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Constructivist Approach to Distance Learning for Counterterrorist Intelligence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO DISTANCE LEARNING FOR COUNTERTERRORIST INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS Tamitha Carpenter, Daniel Fu, Phillip Michalak, Laurie...Learning for Counterterrorist Intelligence Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO DISTANCE LEARNING FOR COUNTERTERRORIST INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS Tamitha

  15. Conversion-Integration of MSFC Nonlinear Signal Diagnostic Analysis Algorithms for Realtime Execution of MSFC's MPP Prototype System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1996-01-01

    NASA's advanced propulsion system Small Scale Magnetic Disturbances/Advanced Technology Development (SSME/ATD) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves large numbers of health monitoring measurements. To enhance engine safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurement signals are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce the risk of catastrophic system failures and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. During the development of SSME, ASRI participated in the research and development of several advanced non- linear signal diagnostic methods for health monitoring and failure prediction in turbomachinery components. However, due to the intensive computational requirement associated with such advanced analysis tasks, current SSME dynamic data analysis and diagnostic evaluation is performed off-line following flight or ground test with a typical diagnostic turnaround time of one to two days. The objective of MSFC's MPP Prototype System is to eliminate such 'diagnostic lag time' by achieving signal processing and analysis in real-time. Such an on-line diagnostic system can provide sufficient lead time to initiate corrective action and also to enable efficient scheduling of inspection, maintenance and repair activities. The major objective of this project was to convert and implement a number of advanced nonlinear diagnostic DSP algorithms in a format consistent with that required for integration into the Vanderbilt Multigraph Architecture (MGA) Model Based Programming environment. This effort will allow the real-time execution of these algorithms using the MSFC MPP Prototype System. ASRI has completed the software conversion and integration of a sequence of nonlinear signal analysis techniques specified in the SOW for real

  16. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. N.; Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    Multi-channel LANDSAT data are collected in several passes over agricultural areas during the growing season. How empirical Bayes modeling can be used to develop crop identification and discrimination techniques that account for spatial correlation in such data is considered. The approach models the unobservable parameters and the data separately, hoping to take advantage of the fact that the bulk of spatial correlation lies in the parameter process. The problem is then framed in terms of estimating posterior probabilities of crop types for each spatial area. Some empirical Bayes spatial estimation methods are used to estimate the logits of these probabilities.

  17. Automating annotation of information-giving for analysis of clinical conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Elijah; Laws, M Barton; Wilson, Ira B; Penstein Rosé, Carolyn

    2014-02-01

    Coding of clinical communication for fine-grained features such as speech acts has produced a substantial literature. However, annotation by humans is laborious and expensive, limiting application of these methods. We aimed to show that through machine learning, computers could code certain categories of speech acts with sufficient reliability to make useful distinctions among clinical encounters. The data were transcripts of 415 routine outpatient visits of HIV patients which had previously been coded for speech acts using the Generalized Medical Interaction Analysis System (GMIAS); 50 had also been coded for larger scale features using the Comprehensive Analysis of the Structure of Encounters System (CASES). We aggregated selected speech acts into information-giving and requesting, then trained the machine to automatically annotate using logistic regression classification. We evaluated reliability by per-speech act accuracy. We used multiple regression to predict patient reports of communication quality from post-visit surveys using the patient and provider information-giving to information-requesting ratio (briefly, information-giving ratio) and patient gender. Automated coding produces moderate reliability with human coding (accuracy 71.2%, κ=0.57), with high correlation between machine and human prediction of the information-giving ratio (r=0.96). The regression significantly predicted four of five patient-reported measures of communication quality (r=0.263-0.344). The information-giving ratio is a useful and intuitive measure for predicting patient perception of provider-patient communication quality. These predictions can be made with automated annotation, which is a practical option for studying large collections of clinical encounters with objectivity, consistency, and low cost, providing greater opportunity for training and reflection for care providers.

  18. Tanzania: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Approach | Ngaruko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using survey data from Kibondo district, west Tanzania, we use hierarchical cluster analysis to classify borrower farmers according to their borrowing behaviour into four distinctive clusters. The appreciation of the existence of heterogeneous farmer clusters is vital in forging credit delivery policies that are not only ...

  19. The fuzzy approach to statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppi, Renato; Gil, Maria A.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2006-01-01

    For the last decades, research studies have been developed in which a coalition of Fuzzy Sets Theory and Statistics has been established with different purposes. These namely are: (i) to introduce new data analysis problems in which the objective involves either fuzzy relationships or fuzzy terms;

  20. Insight on Tafel slopes from a microkinetic analysis of aqueous electrocatalysis for energy conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-09-08

    Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ ≈ 0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report.

  1. Improved microbial conversion of de-oiled Jatropha waste into biohydrogen via inoculum pretreatment: process optimization by experimental design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study various pretreatment methods of sewage sludge inoculum and the statistical process optimization of de-oiled jatropha waste have been reported. Peak hydrogen production rate (HPR and hydrogen yield (HY of 0.36 L H2/L-d and 20 mL H2/g Volatile Solid (VS were obtained when heat shock pretreatment (95 oC, 30 min was employed. Afterwards, an experimental design was applied to find the optimal conditions for H2 production using heat-pretreated seed culture. The optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature were determined by using response surface methodology as 205 g/L, 6.53 and 55.1 oC, respectively. Under these circumstances, the highest HPR of 1.36 L H2/L-d was predicted. Verification tests proved the reliability of the statistical approach. As a result of the heat pretreatment and fermentation optimization, a significant (~ 4 folds increase in HPR was achieved. PCR-DGGE results revealed that Clostridium sp. were majorly present under the optimal conditions.

  2. Study on Conversion of Municipal Plastic Wastes into Liquid Fuel Compounds, Analysis of Crdi Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Kumar, R. Ravi; Kumarappa, S.; Antony, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The rate of economic evolution is untenable unless we save or stops misusing the fossil fuels like coal, crude oil or fossil fuels. So we are in need of start count on the alternate or renewable energy sources. In this experimental analysis an attempt has been made to investigate the conversion of municipal plastic wastes like milk covers and water bottles are selected as feed stocks to get oil using pyrolysis method, the performance analysis on CRDI diesel engine and to assess emission characteristics like HC, CO, NOX and smoke by using blends of Diesel-Plastic liquid fuels. The plastic fuel is done with the pH test using pH meter after the purification process and brought to the normal by adding KOH and NaOH. Blends of 0 to 100% plastic liquid fuel-diesel mixture have been tested for performance and emission aspect as well. The experimental results shows the efficiently convert weight of municipal waste plastics into 65% of useful liquid hydrocarbon fuels without emitting much pollutants.

  3. A Critical Analysis of an Innovative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Burner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates an innovative approach that has as its aim to ensure that more students complete secondary education. The national program, called Competence for Diversity, puts emphasis on children with minority language background, that is, children with another first language(s than the Norwegian national languages. In this article, we report on how educators participating in this program understand the term diversity and how they work to enhance diversity in their local contexts. The study applied mixed methods, where questionnaires (n = 86 and interviews (n = 40 were used to collect data. In addition, document analyses were performed. The results suggest that there is a significant gap between the educators’ and the educational authorities’ understanding of diversity as outlined in official documents. We claim that there is a need to define diversity, rather than implicating and addressing “the Others” when launching and implementing a national program on diversity.

  4. Analysis of Two Quantitative Ultrasound Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleki-Seya, Pauline; Han, Aiguo; Andre, Michael P; Erdman, John W; O'Brien, William D

    2017-09-01

    There are two well-known ultrasonic approaches to extract sets of quantitative parameters: Lizzi-Feleppa (LF) parameters: slope, intercept, and midband; and quantitative ultrasound (QUS)-derived parameters: effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC). In this study, the relation between the LF and QUS-derived parameters is studied theoretically and experimentally on ex vivo mouse livers. As expected from the theory, LF slope is correlated to ESD ([Formula: see text]), and from experimental data, LF midband is correlated to EAC ([Formula: see text]). However, LF intercept is not correlated to ESD ([Formula: see text]) nor EAC ([Formula: see text]). The unexpected correlation observed between LF slope and EAC ([Formula: see text]) results likely from the high correlation between ESD and EAC due to the inversion process. For a liver fat percentage estimation, an important potential medical application, the parameters presenting the better correlation are EAC ([Formula: see text]) and LF midband ([Formula: see text]).

  5. User-driven conversations about dialysis through Facebook: A qualitative thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salim; Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Afzal, Arfan R; Tam-Tham, Helen; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most popular social networking sites in the world, Facebook has strong potential to enable peer support and the user-driven sharing of health information. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the wall posts of a public Facebook group focused on dialysis to identify some of the major themes discussed. We searched Facebook using the word 'dialysis'. A Facebook group (Dialysis Discussion Uncensored) with the highest number of members was selected amongst publicly available forums related to dialysis and operated in English (http://www.facebook.com/groups/DialysisUncensored). Two researchers independently extracted information on features of the group including purpose, group members and the user-generated posts on the group wall. Posts were further analysed to develop major themes. Characteristics of a Facebook group based on its participants and activities are presented. Three themes are described with representative quotations. In a period of 2 weeks, we found 1257 wall posts with total of 31 636 likes and 15 972 comments. All messages were in English, and the majority of the participants were dialysis patients. However, we observed the participation of family members and care providers as well. Posts were categorized into three major themes: sharing information, seeking and providing emotional and social support and sharing experience. Findings of this study provide an example of how a social networking platform can enable patients and their families to share information and to encourage peer-based support for managing dialysis-related experiences. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Analysis of multi-mode to single-mode conversion at 635 nm and 1550 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Bogatzki, Angelina; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Hofmann, Jens; Schröder, Henning

    2016-03-01

    We propose two low-cost and robust optical fiber systems based on the photonic lantern (PL) technology for operating at 635 nm and 1550 nm. The PL is an emerging technology that couples light from a multi-mode (MM) fiber to several single-mode (SM) fibers via a low-loss adiabatic transition. This bundle of SM fibers is observed as a MM fiber system whose spatial modes are the degenerate supermodes of the bundle. The adiabatic transition allows that those supermodes evolve into the modes of the MM fiber. Simulations of the MM fiber end structure and its taper transition have been performed via functional mode solver tools in order to understand the modal evolution in PLs. The modelled design consists of 7 SM fibers inserted into a low-index capillary. The material and geometry of the PLs are chosen such that the supermodes match to the spatial modes of the desired step-index MM fiber in a moderate loss transmission. The dispersion of materials is also considered. These parameters are studied in two PL systems in order to reach a spectral transmission from 450 nm to 1600 nm. Additionally, an analysis of the geometry and losses due to the mismatching of modes is presented. PLs are typically used in the fields of astrophotonics and space photonics. Recently, they are demonstrated as mode converters in telecommunications, especially focusing on spatial division multiplexing. In this study, we show the use of PLs as a promising interconnecting tool for the development of miniaturized spectrometers operating in a broad wavelength range.

  7. Using an Integrated Participatory Modeling Approach to Assess Water Management Options and Support Community Conversations on Maui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushil S. Mistry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated analysis of water distribution on Maui and the cross-sectoral impacts of policies and regulations aimed at rejuvenating and sustaining the deep-rooted culture on the island. Since the water diversion system was implemented in 1876 on the island of Maui, there has been contention among local interest groups over the right way to manage and allocate this precious resource. There is also concern over the availability of the precious resource in the long term, as the demand for water is expected to exceed the potential supply of water on Maui by 2020. This paper analyzes various long run scenarios of policy options presently being discussed on Maui. By collaborating with local experts, business leaders, and community members, to develop a tool that facilitates policy formulation and evaluation, informed decisions can then be made by the local community to ensure sustainable development.

  8. Design, simulation, analysis and optimization of transportation system for a biomass to ethanol conversion plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravula, Poorna P.

    The US Department of Energy has set an ambitious goal of replacing 30% of current petroleum consumption with biomass and its products by the year 2030. To achieve this goal, various systems capable of handling biomass at this magnitude have to be designed and built. The transportation system for a cotton gin was studied and modeled with the current management policy (FIFO) used by the gin to gain understanding of a logistic system where the processing plant (gin) pays for the transportation of the feedstock. Alternate management policies for transporting cotton modules showed significant time savings of 24% in days-to-haul. To design a logistics system and management strategy that will minimize the cost of biomass delivery (round bales of switchgrass), a seven-county region in southern Piedmont region of Virginia was selected as the location for a 50 Mg/h bioprocessing plant which operates 24 h/day, 7 days/week. Some of the equipment are not be commercially available and need to be developed. The transport equipment (trucks, loaders and unloaders) was defined and the operational parameters estimated. One hundred and fifty-five secondary storage locations (SSLs) along with a 3.2-km procurement area for each SSL were determined for the region. The travel time from each SSL to the plant was calculated based on a network flow analysis. Seven different policies (strategies) for scheduling loaders were studied. The two key variables were maximum number of trucks required and the maximum at-plant inventory. Five policies were based on "Shortest Travel Time - Longest Travel Time" allocation and two policies were based on "Sector-based" allocation. Policies generating schedules with minimum truck requirement and at-plant storage were simulated. A discrete event simulation model for the logistic system was constructed and the productive operating times for system equipment and inventory was computed. Lowest delivered cost was 14.68/Mg with truck cost averaging 8.44/Mg and

  9. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    the following referred to as UDI) effort was launched in 2008 as an attempt to improve prison life by inviting inmates to participate in organizational development together with staff. The effort has improved prisons by decreasing tension between inmates and guards and by creating more meaningful jobs...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  10. Preliminary Neutronics Design and Analysis of D2O Cooled High Conversion PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D2O-cooled PWRs loaded with MOX fuel and focuses essentially on the Pu breeding potential of such reactors as well as on an important safety parameter, the void coefficient, which has to be negative. It is well known that fast reactors have a better neutron economy and are better suited than thermal reactors to breed fissile material from neutron capture in fertile material. Such fast reactors (e.g. sodium-cooled reactors) usually rely on technologies that are very different from those of existing water-cooled reactors and are probably more expensive. This report investigates another possibility to obtain a fast neutron reactor while still relying mostly on a PWR technology by: (1) Tightening the lattice pitch to reduce the water-to-fuel volume ratio compared to that of a standard PWR. Water-to-fuel volume ratios of between 0.45 and 1 have been considered in this study while a value of about 2 is typical of standard PWRs, (2) Using D2O instead of H2O as a coolant. Indeed, because of its different neutron physics properties, the use of D2O hardens the neutron spectrum to an extent impossible with H2O when used in a tight-pitch lattice. The neutron spectra thus obtained are not as fast as those in sodium-cooled reactor but they can still be characterized as fast compared to that of standard PWR neutron spectra. In the phase space investigated in this study we did not find any configurations that would have, at the same time, a positive Pu mass balance (more Pu at the end than at the beginning of the irradiation) and a negative void coefficient. At this stage, the use of radial blankets has only been briefly addressed whereas the impact of axial blankets has been well defined. For example, with a D2O-to-fuel volume ratio of 0.45 and a core driver height of about 60 cm, the fissile Pu mass balance between the fresh fuel and the irradiated fuel (50 GWd/t) would be about -7.5% (i.e. there are 7.5% fewer fissile Pu

  11. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  12. Sediment Analysis Using a Structured Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Arias-Madrid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm designed for the analysis of a sedimentary sample of unconsolidated material and seeks to identify very quickly the main features that occur in a sediment and thus classify them fast and efficiently. For this purpose, it requires that the weight of each particle size to be entered in the program and using the method of Moments, which is based on four equations representing the mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, is found the attributes of the sample in few seconds. With the program these calculations are performed in an effective and more accurately way, obtaining also the explanations of the results of the features such as grain size, sorting, symmetry and origin, which helps to improve the study of sediments and in general the study of sedimentary rocks.

  13. Chromatographic and electrophoretic approaches in ink analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, J A; Smith, F P

    1999-10-15

    Inks are manufactured from a wide variety of substances that exhibit very different chemical behaviors. Inks designed for use in different writing instruments or printing methods have quite dissimilar components. Since the 1950s chromatographic and electrophoretic methods have played important roles in the analysis of inks, where compositional information may have bearing on the investigation of counterfeiting, fraud, forgery, and other crimes. Techniques such as paper chromatography and electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and the relatively new technique of capillary electrophoresis have all been explored as possible avenues for the separation of components of inks. This paper reviews the components of different types of inks and applications of the above separation methods are reviewed.

  14. Analysis of computational approaches for motif discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tompa Martin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, we performed an assessment of 13 popular computational tools for discovery of transcription factor binding sites (M. Tompa, N. Li, et al., "Assessing Computational Tools for the Discovery of Transcription Factor Binding Sites", Nature Biotechnology, Jan. 2005. This paper contains follow-up analysis of the assessment results, and raises and discusses some important issues concerning the state of the art in motif discovery methods: 1. We categorize the objective functions used by existing tools, and design experiments to evaluate whether any of these objective functions is the right one to optimize. 2. We examine various features of the data sets that were used in the assessment, such as sequence length and motif degeneracy, and identify which features make data sets hard for current motif discovery tools. 3. We identify an important feature that has not yet been used by existing tools and propose a new objective function that incorporates this feature.

  15. Evaluating Emergency Physicians: Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos, Javier; Farion, Ken; Michalowski, Wojtek; Patrick, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an evaluation tool to assess performance of Emergency Physicians according to such criteria as resource utilization, patient throughput and the quality of care. Evaluation is conducted using a mathematical programming model known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Use of this model does not require the subjective assignment of weights associated with each criterion – a feature typical of methodologies that rely on composite scores. The DEA model presented in this paper was developed using a hypothetical data set describing a representative set of profiles of Emergency Physicians. The solution to the model relates the performance of each Emergency Physician in relation to the others and to a benchmark. We discuss how such an evaluation tool can be used in practice. PMID:24551348

  16. Evaluating emergency physicians: data envelopment analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos, Javier; Farion, Ken; Michalowski, Wojtek; Patrick, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an evaluation tool to assess performance of Emergency Physicians according to such criteria as resource utilization, patient throughput and the quality of care. Evaluation is conducted using a mathematical programming model known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Use of this model does not require the subjective assignment of weights associated with each criterion - a feature typical of methodologies that rely on composite scores. The DEA model presented in this paper was developed using a hypothetical data set describing a representative set of profiles of Emergency Physicians. The solution to the model relates the performance of each Emergency Physician in relation to the others and to a benchmark. We discuss how such an evaluation tool can be used in practice.

  17. Towards a More Holistic Stakeholder Analysis Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedereviciute, Kristina; Valentini, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    in finding stakeholders on new environments (social media), where connectivity and relationships play a key role. The argument stems from the need to assess stakeholder presence beyond the dyadic ties. Consequently, the combination of the Stakeholder Salience Model (SSM) and social network analysis (SNA......) is proposed as a more holistic solution for stakeholder identification including those from social media. A process of finding “unknown” but important stakeholders from social media was identified incorporating the content search and the principles of SNA. Consequently, stakeholders from social media...... are identified based on the dimensions of connectivity and the content shared. Accordingly, the study introduces four groups of important actors from social media: unconcerned lurkers, unconcerned influencers, concerned lurkers and concerned influencers and integrates them into the existing Stakeholder Salience...

  18. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinmiao; Li, Jing; Wu, Yukeng

    2015-01-01

    Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG) and support vector machines (SVM) are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti) approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search method. From

  19. Statistical and machine learning approaches for network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Explore the multidisciplinary nature of complex networks through machine learning techniques Statistical and Machine Learning Approaches for Network Analysis provides an accessible framework for structurally analyzing graphs by bringing together known and novel approaches on graph classes and graph measures for classification. By providing different approaches based on experimental data, the book uniquely sets itself apart from the current literature by exploring the application of machine learning techniques to various types of complex networks. Comprised of chapters written by internation

  20. Simulation Approach to Mission Risk and Reliability Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop and demonstrate an integrated total-system risk and reliability analysis approach that is based on dynamic, probabilistic simulation. This...

  1. Meta-analysis a structural equation modeling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2015-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo

  2. A TIERED APPROACH TO PERFORMING UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN CONDUCTING EXPOSURE ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WHO/IPCS draft Guidance Document on Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty in Exposure Assessment provides guidance on recommended strategies for conducting uncertainty analysis as part of human exposure analysis. Specifically, a tiered approach to uncertainty analysis ...

  3. Sensitivity based reduced approaches for structural reliability analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    captured by a safety-factor based approach due to the intricate nonlinear relationships between the system parameters and the natural frequencies. For these reasons a scientific and systematic approach is required to predict the probability of failure of a structure at the design stage. Probabilistic structural reliability analysis ...

  4. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...... gradually evolved into second-person inquiry. We argue that enacting second-person reflective conversations renders alternative strategies for handling uncertainties through articulation of the tacit assumptions within particular empirical situations. Finally, we argue that reflective conversations should...... a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  5. Energy Conversion and Transmission Characteristics Analysis of Ice Storage Air Conditioning System Driven by Distributed Photovoltaic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the investment and operation cost of distributed PV energy system, ice storage technology was introduced to substitute batteries for solar energy storage. Firstly, the ice storage air conditioning system (ISACS driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES was proposed and the feasibility studies have been investigated in this paper. And then, the theoretical model has been established and experimental work has been done to analyze the energy coupling and transferring characteristics in light-electricity-cold conversion process. In addition, the structure optimization analysis was investigated. Results revealed that energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker with only 17.38% energy utilization efficiency and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES were 5.44% and 67.30%, respectively. So the immersed evaporator and cointegrated exchanger were adopted for higher energy utilization efficiency and better financial rewards in structure optimization. The COP and exergy efficiency of ice maker can be increased to 1.48 and 81.24%, respectively, after optimization and the energy utilization efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES could be improved 2.88 times. Moreover, ISACS has the out-of-the-box function of ordinary air conditioning system. In conclusion, ISACS driven by DPES will have good application prospects in tropical regions without power grid.

  6. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  7. Solar energy conversion: an analysis of impacts on desert ecosystems. Final report, June 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, D.C.

    1978-05-01

    A research program is proposed to determine the response of desert ecosystems to the operation of various solar conversion systems. Existing solar powered irrigation pumping systems are described, as well as the 5 MW solar thermal test system at Albuquerque, the proposed 10 MW central receiver system at Barstow, and photovoltaic solar dispersed power systems. The theoretical ecological impacts of solar conversion system are described. Three major impact categories are discussed in detail: shading, wind deflection, and physical disturbance. Research needs necessary to evaluate biotic and abiotic changes in the desert ecosystem are delineated, and specific monitoring and manipulation programs for existing and proposed solar conversion sites are proposed.

  8. Soil Carbon Losses after Rainforest Conversion to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations: Processes and Sensitivity of Soil Fertility Indicators Assessed by a New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, T.; Maranguit, D.; Murtilaksono, K.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest conversion to agricultural land leads to strong decrease of soil organic matter (SOM). Nonetheless, the magnitude of SOM losses and their impacts on soil fertility in oil palm and rubber plantations remain unclear, despite the large scale extension of such land-use types. We quantified SOM losses, and estimated soil erosion and changes in SOM turnover using SOM δ13C values in forest, oil palm plantations, extensive rubber plantations and rubber monocultures on Sumatra Island (Indonesia). Further, we assessed the response of biological (basal respiration, microbial biomass, acid phosphatase) and chemical fertility indicators (light fraction, DOC, total N, available P) to SOM losses. We used a new approach based on (non-)linear regressions between SOM losses and the indices standardized to natural ecosystem. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber (41%). The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35±8 cm) and rubber (33±10 cm) plantations. The SOM 13C enrichment used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOM turnover under oil palm after forest conversion. The negative impact of land-use changes on all measured indicators increased in the following sequence: forest > extensive rubber > rubber > oil palm. The basal respiration, microbial biomass and nutrients were comparatively resistant to SOM losses, whereas the light fraction was lost faster than the SOM. The resistance of the microbial activity to SOM losses is an indication that the microbial functions sustain SOM losses. However, responses of basal respiration and microbial biomass to SOM losses were non-linear. Below 2.7 % C content, the relationship was reversed. The basal respiration decreased faster than the SOM, resulting in a stronger drop of microbial activity under oil palm compared to rubber despite small difference in C content

  9. Comparative analysis of pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass derived biochars produced via hydrothermal conversion and pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Matthew D; Kumar, Sandeep; Lee, James W

    2014-12-15

    Biochars were produced from pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass through hydrothermal conversion (HTC) at 300 °C and comparatively by slow pyrolysis over a temperature range of 300, 400, and 500 °C. These biochars were characterized by FT-IR, cation exchange capacity (CEC) assay, methylene blue adsorption, as well as proximate and elemental analysis. The experimental results demonstrated higher retained oxygen content in biochars produced at lower pyrolysis temperatures and through HTC, which also correlated to the higher CEC of respective biochars. Furthermore, all types of biochar studied herein were capable of adsorption of methylene blue from solution and the adsorption did not appear to strongly correlate with CEC, indicating that the methylene blue adsorption appears to be dependent more upon the non-electrostatic molecular interactions such as the likely dispersive π-π interactions between the graphene-like sheets of the biochar with the aromatic ring structure of the dye, than the electrostatic CEC. A direct comparison of hydrothermal and pyrolysis converted biochars reveals that biochars produced through HTC have much higher CEC than the biochars produced by slow pyrolysis. Analysis by FT-IR reveals a higher retention of oxygen functional groups in HTC biochars; additionally, there is an apparent trend of increasing aromaticity of the pyrolysis biochars when produced at higher temperatures. The CEC value of the HTC biochar appears correlated with its oxygen functional group content as indicated by the FT-IR measurements and its O:C ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Media and Men's Health: A Content Analysis of Twitter Conversations During the 2013 Movember Campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Caroline A; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2017-11-01

    The Movember Foundation raises awareness and funds for men's health issues such as prostate and testicular cancers in conjunction with a moustache contest. The 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom shared the same goal of creating conversations about men's health that lead to increased awareness and understanding of the health risks men face. Our objective was to explore Twitter conversations to identify whether the 2013 Movember campaigns sparked global conversations about prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and other men's health issues. We conducted a content analysis of 12,666 tweets posted during the 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom (4,222 tweets from each country) to investigate whether tweets were health-related or non-health-related and to determine what topics dominated conversations. Few tweets ( n = 84, 0.7% of 12,666 tweets) provided content-rich or actionable health information that would lead to awareness and understanding of men's health risks. While moustache growing and grooming was the most popular topic in U.S. tweets, conversations about community engagement were most common in Canadian and U.K. tweets. Significantly more tweets co-opted the Movember campaign to market products or contests in the United States than Canada and the United Kingdom ( p content analysis of Twitter suggest that the 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom sparked few conversations about prostate and testicular cancers that could potentially lead to greater awareness and understanding of important men's health issues.

  11. A Key Event Path Analysis Approach for Integrated Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By studying the key event paths of probabilistic event structure graphs (PESGs, a key event path analysis approach for integrated system models is proposed. According to translation rules concluded from integrated system architecture descriptions, the corresponding PESGs are constructed from the colored Petri Net (CPN models. Then the definitions of cycle event paths, sequence event paths, and key event paths are given. Whereafter based on the statistic results after the simulation of CPN models, key event paths are found out by the sensitive analysis approach. This approach focuses on the logic structures of CPN models, which is reliable and could be the basis of structured analysis for discrete event systems. An example of radar model is given to characterize the application of this approach, and the results are worthy of trust.

  12. Application of multilevel analysis approach in management theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morteza Ghayour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Any phenomenon can be considered and analyzed in terms of different perspectives. In multilevel theorists view, structure or structures of the studied phenomenon are used to consider or to analyze it, completely. Level of analysis indicates the purpose of a researcher or theorist that is intended to be explained or justified, like individual, group or organizational levels and then they are generalized. Contrary to multilevel approach, the conventional approach of theorizing considers micro level or macro level. It cannot perform a simultaneous micro–macro level analysis. A multilevel approach characterized by inter-level and multilevel organizational view to organizational phenomena is an attempt to expand the boundaries of knowledge and provide a new plan. This study uses documentary studies to analyze the multi-level approach of theorizing, multilevel models and multilevel analysis.

  13. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tavano

    Full Text Available Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs. SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech, it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  14. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Alessandro; Pesarin, Anna; Murino, Vittorio; Cristani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs). SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech), it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  15. [Current approaches to analysis of narcotic drugs in biological substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A E; Kardonskiĭ, D A; Eganov, A A; Grishin, D A; Salomatin, E M

    2007-01-01

    A method of analysis of basic narcotic drugs in urine is described. It consists in isolation by solid phase extraction, derivation and identification by gas chromatography with mass-selective detector. The approaches applied in the above method can be used for analysis of narcotic drugs undetectable by preliminary investigations as well as for urine examination for pharmacological or other biologically active substances.

  16. Solar energy conversion through the interaction of plasmons with tunnel junctions. Part A: Solar cell analysis. Part B: Photoconductor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, P. E.; Schwartz, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A solar cell utilizing guided optical waves and tunnel junctions was analyzed to determine its feasibility. From this analysis, it appears that the limits imposed upon conventional multiple cell systems also limit this solar cell. Due to this limitation, it appears that the relative simplicity of the conventional multiple cell systems over the solar cell make the conventional multiple cell systems the more promising candidate for improvement. It was discovered that some superlattice structures studied could be incorporated into an infrared photodetector. This photoconductor appears to be promising as a high speed, sensitive (high D sup star sub BLIP) detector in the wavelength range from 15 to over 100 micrometers.

  17. Converse Piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectricity results from a coupling between responses to mechanical and electric perturbations and leads to changes in the polarization due to strain or stress or, alternatively, the occurrence of strain as a function of an applied external, electrostatic field (i.e., converse piezoelectricity). Theoretical studies of those properties for extended systems require accordingly that their dipole moment or polarization can be calculated. However, whereas the definition of the operator for the dipole moment for any finite system is trivial, it is only within the last 2 decades that the expressions for the equivalent operator in the independent-particle approximation for the infinite and periodic system have been presented. Here, we demonstrate that the so called branch dependence of the polarization for the infinite, periodic system is related to physical observables in contrast to what often is assumed. This is related to the finding that converse piezoelectric properties depend both on the surfaces of the samples of interest even for samples with size well above the thermodynamic limit. However, we shall demonstrate that these properties can be calculated without explicitly taking the surfaces into account. Both the foundations and results for real system shall be presented.

  18. Computer and Internet Addiction: Analysis and Classification of Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaretskaya O.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of modern research works on the problem of computer and Internet addiction is carried out. The main features of different approaches are outlined. The attempt is made to systematize researches conducted and to classify scientific approaches to the problem of Internet addiction. The author distinguishes nosological, cognitive-behavioral, socio-psychological and dialectical approaches. She justifies the need to use an approach that corresponds to the essence, goals and tasks of social psychology in the field of research as the problem of Internet addiction, and the dependent behavior in general. In the opinion of the author, this dialectical approach integrates the experience of research within the framework of the socio-psychological approach and focuses on the observed inconsistencies in the phenomenon of Internet addiction – the compensatory nature of Internet activity, when people who are interested in the Internet are in a dysfunctional life situation.

  19. Parametric and experimental analysis using a power flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    A structural power flow approach for the analysis of structure-borne transmission of vibrations is used to analyze the influence of structural parameters on transmitted power. The parametric analysis is also performed using the Statistical Energy Analysis approach and the results are compared with those obtained using the power flow approach. The advantages of structural power flow analysis are demonstrated by comparing the type of results that are obtained by the two analytical methods. Also, to demonstrate that the power flow results represent a direct physical parameter that can be measured on a typical structure, an experimental study of structural power flow is presented. This experimental study presents results for an L shaped beam for which an available solution was already obtained. Various methods to measure vibrational power flow are compared to study their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Pre-heated dual-cured resin cements: analysis of the degree of conversion and ultimate tensile strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Álvares França

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC and ultimate tensile strength (UTS of dual-cured resin cements heated to 50º C prior to and during polymerization. Disc- and hourglass-shaped specimens of Rely X ARC (RX and Variolink II (VII were obtained using addition silicon molds. The products were manipulated at 25º C or 50º C and were subjected to 3 curing conditions: light-activation through a glass slide or through a pre-cured 2-mm thick resin composite disc, or they were allowed to self-cure (SC. All specimens were dark-stored dry for 15 days. For DC analysis, the resin cements were placed into the mold located on the center of a horizontal diamond on the attenuated total reflectance element in the optical bench of a Fourier Transformed Infrared spectrometer. Infrared spectra (n = 6 were collected between 1680 and 1500 cm-1, and DC was calculated by standard methods using changes in ratios of aliphatic-to-aromatic C=C absorption peaks from uncured and cured states. For UTS test, specimens (n = 10 were tested in tension in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. DC and UTS data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test (α= 5%. Both products showed higher DC at 50º C than at 25º C in all curing conditions. No significant difference in UTS was noted between most light-activated groups at 25º C and those at 50º C. VII SC groups showed higher UTS at 50º C than at 25º C (p < 0.05. Increased temperature led to higher DC, but its effects on resin cement UTS depended on the curing condition.

  1. Multivariate analysis of 2-DE protein patterns - Practical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Susanne; Grove, H.

    2007-01-01

    Practical approaches to the use of multivariate data analysis of 2-DE protein patterns are demonstrated by three independent strategies for the image analysis and the multivariate analysis on the same set of 2-DE data. Four wheat varieties were selected on the basis of their baking quality. Two...... of the varieties were of strong baking quality and hard wheat kernel and two were of weak baking quality and soft kernel. Gliadins at different stages of grain development were analyzed by the application of multivariate data analysis on images of 2-DEs. Patterns related to the wheat varieties, harvest times......, although different subsets of protein spots were selected. The explorative approach of using multivariate data analysis and variable selection in the analyses of 2-DEs seems to be promising as a fast, reliable and convenient way of screening and transforming many gel images into spot quantities....

  2. Speech Acts and Conversational Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Michael L.

    This book unites speech act theory and conversation analysis to advance a theory of conversational competence, called the Dynamic Speech Act Theory (DSAT). In contrast to traditional speech act theory that focuses almost exclusively on intuitive assessments of isolated, constructed examples, this theory is predicated on the assumption that speech…

  3. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR 3D NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Emamgholian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  4. a Novel Approach for 3d Neighbourhood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholian, S.; Taleai, M.; Shojaei, D.

    2017-09-01

    Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS) analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  5. Advanced approaches to failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vykydal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores advanced approaches to the FMEA method (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis which take into account the costs associated with occurrence of failures during the manufacture of a product. Different approaches are demonstrated using an example FMEA application to production of drawn wire. Their purpose is to determine risk levels, while taking account of the above-mentioned costs. Finally, the resulting priority levels are compared for developing actions mitigating the risks.

  6. Qualitative Analysis of Foundry Industry: A DMAIC Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgala, Sumit; Kaushisha, Deepak; Rathia, Vijayesh

    2015-01-01

    DMAIC approach is a business strategy used to improve business profitability and efficiency of all operation to meet customer needs and expectations. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to apply DMAIC (Define, Measure, analysis, improve, control) approach. The emphasis was laid down towards reduction in the defects (Blow holes, Misrun, Slag inclusion, Rough surface) occurred in the sand castings by controlling the parameters with DMAIC technique. The results achieved shows ...

  7. A global optimization approach to multi-polarity sentiment analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Li

    Full Text Available Following the rapid development of social media, sentiment analysis has become an important social media mining technique. The performance of automatic sentiment analysis primarily depends on feature selection and sentiment classification. While information gain (IG and support vector machines (SVM are two important techniques, few studies have optimized both approaches in sentiment analysis. The effectiveness of applying a global optimization approach to sentiment analysis remains unclear. We propose a global optimization-based sentiment analysis (PSOGO-Senti approach to improve sentiment analysis with IG for feature selection and SVM as the learning engine. The PSOGO-Senti approach utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain a global optimal combination of feature dimensions and parameters in the SVM. We evaluate the PSOGO-Senti model on two datasets from different fields. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti model can improve binary and multi-polarity Chinese sentiment analysis. We compared the optimal feature subset selected by PSOGO-Senti with the features in the sentiment dictionary. The results of this comparison indicated that PSOGO-Senti can effectively remove redundant and noisy features and can select a domain-specific feature subset with a higher-explanatory power for a particular sentiment analysis task. The experimental results showed that the PSOGO-Senti approach is effective and robust for sentiment analysis tasks in different domains. By comparing the improvements of two-polarity, three-polarity and five-polarity sentiment analysis results, we found that the five-polarity sentiment analysis delivered the largest improvement. The improvement of the two-polarity sentiment analysis was the smallest. We conclude that the PSOGO-Senti achieves higher improvement for a more complicated sentiment analysis task. We also compared the results of PSOGO-Senti with those of the genetic algorithm (GA and grid

  8. Fetal ECG extraction using independent component analysis by Jade approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Guzmán, Jader; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.; Lasprilla, Gloria Isabel Bautista; Kotas, Marian

    2017-11-01

    Fetal ECG monitoring is a useful method to assess the fetus health and detect abnormal conditions. In this paper we propose an approach to extract fetal ECG from abdomen and chest signals using independent component analysis based on the joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices approach. The JADE approach avoids redundancy, what reduces matrix dimension and computational costs. Signals were filtered with a high pass filter to eliminate low frequency noise. Several levels of decomposition were tested until the fetal ECG was recognized in one of the separated sources output. The proposed method shows fast and good performance.

  9. Ensemble approach to the analysis of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Garlaschelli, D.; Fink, T. M. A.; Caldarelli, G.

    2007-07-01

    We present an approach to the analysis of weighted networks, by providing a straightforward generalization of any network measure defined on unweighted networks, such as the average degree of the nearest neighbors, the clustering coefficient, the “betweenness,” the distance between two nodes, and the diameter of a network. All these measures are well established for unweighted networks but have hitherto proven difficult to define for weighted networks. Our approach is based on the translation of a weighted network into an ensemble of edges. Further introducing this approach we demonstrate its advantages by applying the clustering coefficient constructed in this way to two real-world weighted networks.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Defects in Silicon. [to predict energy conversion efficiency of silicon samples for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesh, R.; Smith, J. M.; Qidwai, H. A.; Bruce, T.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation and prediction of the conversion efficiency for a variety of silicon samples with differences in structural defects, such as grain boundaries, twin boundaries, precipitate particles, dislocations, etc. are discussed. Quantitative characterization of these structural defects, which were revealed by etching the surface of silicon samples, is performed by using an image analyzer. Due to different crystal growth and fabrication techniques the various types of silicon contain a variety of trace impurity elements and structural defects. The two most important criteria in evaluating the various silicon types for solar cell applications are cost and conversion efficiency.

  11. Discrete event simulation versus conventional system reliability analysis approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) environments are rapidly developing and appear to be promising tools for building reliability and risk analysis models of safety-critical systems and human operators. If properly developed, they are an alternative to the conventional human reliability analysis models...... and systems analysis methods such as fault and event trees and Bayesian networks. As one part, the paper describes briefly the author’s experience in applying DES models to the analysis of safety-critical systems in different domains. The other part of the paper is devoted to comparing conventional approaches...

  12. Data analysis of asymmetric structures advanced approaches in computational statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    Data Analysis of Asymmetric Structures provides a comprehensive presentation of a variety of models and theories for the analysis of asymmetry and its applications and provides a wealth of new approaches in every section. It meets both the practical and theoretical needs of research professionals across a wide range of disciplines and  considers data analysis in fields such as psychology, sociology, social science, ecology, and marketing. In seven comprehensive chapters this guide details theories, methods, and models for the analysis of asymmetric structures in a variety of disciplines and presents future opportunities and challenges affecting research developments and business applications.

  13. A Discourse-Analysis Based Critical Approach to Contextual Interpretation of Heteroglossic Situation in the Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edirisingha Arachchige Gamini Fonseka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of dialogism propounded by Mikhail Bakhtin, all discourse in the novel is a product of a process of dialogic imagination. Yet heteroglossic situation in the novel differs from general narration, as it involves interaction among two or more characters speaking in their respective voices to represent different aspects of reality in a form of dramatisation. Authors depict certain situations in the reported speech as they can be portrayed in terms of straightforward accounts and certain situations in dialogue as they need dramatization in order to enable readers to realize the actual conflicts or interactions they wish to simulate. Dialogue engendered through the participation of two or several characters is considered heteroglossic situation because of the heterogeneity of the language shades and voices in which they express themselves. While reading a novel for both language development and literary perception, the heteroglossic situations sometimes create problems for the readers as they need more pragmatic knowledge to understand the actual conversations and the messages conveyed through them. There a discourse analysis-based critical approach becomes crucial as it is required to deal with the identities and asymmetrical power relations the characters maintain throughout their conversations, other than the speech acts they carry out, the social atmospheres they help to engender, the messages they help to communicate, and the concepts they help to foreground in relation to their contexts. In regard to this, this paper attempts to develop a discourse analysis-based critical approach to the contextual interpretation of heteroglossic situation in the novel.

  14. The input-output relationship approach to structural identifiability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Daniel J; Evans, Neil D; Chappell, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Analysis of the identifiability of a given model system is an essential prerequisite to the determination of model parameters from physical data. However, the tools available for the analysis of non-linear systems can be limited both in applicability and by computational intractability for any but the simplest of models. The input-output relation of a model summarises the input-output structure of the whole system and as such provides the potential for an alternative approach to this analysis. However for this approach to be valid it is necessary to determine whether the monomials of a differential polynomial are linearly independent. A simple test for this property is presented in this work. The derivation and analysis of this relation can be implemented symbolically within Maple. These techniques are applied to analyse classical models from biomedical systems modelling and those of enzyme catalysed reaction schemes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of alternative approach to determining of customers' profitability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodák

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes alternative approach to analysis of customers profitability based just on volume of purchased goods. By including average distance of customers' distributional places as additional criteria for profitability analysis and using cluster analysis as a method for ranking customers is proven that assessing of customers' profitability can be more accurate.This approach to evaluation of customers' profitability changes order of customers listed acordingly to profit they generate. In fact it shows that in business terms is room for improvement and harmonisation of relationship among some business partners in certain cases. Recalculation of business conditions which comes from detailed analysis can bring either increase of competitiveness by price reduction or increase of incomes by rising price of goods.

  16. Potential use and the energy conversion efficiency analysis of fermentation effluents from photo and dark fermentative bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Yameng; Zhang, Huan; He, Chao; Zhang, Quanguo

    2017-12-01

    Effluent of bio-hydrogen production system also can be adopted to produce methane for further fermentation, cogeneration of hydrogen and methane will significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency. Platanus Orientalis leaves were taken as the raw material for photo- and dark-fermentation bio-hydrogen production. The resulting concentrations of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and ethanol in the photo- and dark-fermentation effluents were 2966mg/L and 624mg/L, 422mg/L and 1624mg/L, 1365mg/L and 558mg/L, and 866mg/L and 1352mg/L, respectively. Subsequently, we calculated the energy conversion efficiency according to the organic contents of the effluents and their energy output when used as raw material for methane production. The overall energy conversion efficiencies increased by 15.17% and 22.28%, respectively, when using the effluents of photo and dark fermentation. This two-step bio-hydrogen and methane production system can significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic biological treatment plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Analysis Of Functional Stability Of The Triphased Asynchronous Generator Used In Conversion Systems Of A Eolian Energy Into Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion VONCILA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the influence of the main perturbation agent over the functional stability of the triphased asynchronous generator (for the two alternative: with coiled and short circuit rotor, used for the conversion systems from a eolian energy into electric energy.

  18. Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Conversion process analysis. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

    1979-07-12

    A comprehensive engineering system study was conducted to assess various thermochemical processes suitable for converting biomass to methanol. A summary of the conversion process study results is presented here, delineating the technical and economic feasibilities of producing methanol fuel from biomass utilizing the currently available technologies. (MHR)

  19. A Content Analysis of Themes That Emerge from School Principals' Web2.0 Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Rory

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze the self initiated conversations held by school principals on web2.o platforms, such as blogs, through the lens of current leadership standards. The online writings of thirteen school principals were analyzed using grounded theory techniques (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) to elucidate emerging…

  20. Extending Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Approach for Reliability Analysis at the Software Architecture Design Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; de Lemos, Rogerio; Gacek, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Several reliability engineering approaches have been proposed to identify and recover from failures. A well-known and mature approach is the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method that is usually utilized together with Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to analyze and diagnose the causes of failures.

  1. Coordinate-based versus structural approaches to brain image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, J-F; Rivière, D; Coulon, O; Poupon, C; Cachia, A; Cointepas, Y; Poline, J-B; Le Bihan, D; Régis, J; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, D

    2004-02-01

    A basic issue in neurosciences is to look for possible relationships between brain architecture and cognitive models. The lack of architectural information in magnetic resonance images, however, has led the neuroimaging community to develop brain mapping strategies based on various coordinate systems without accurate architectural content. Therefore, the relationships between architectural and functional brain organizations are difficult to study when analyzing neuroimaging experiments. This paper advocates that the design of new brain image analysis methods inspired by the structural strategies often used in computer vision may provide better ways to address these relationships. The key point underlying this new framework is the conversion of the raw images into structural representations before analysis. These representations are made up of data-driven elementary features like activated clusters, cortical folds or fiber bundles. Two classes of methods are introduced. Inference of structural models via matching across a set of individuals is described first. This inference problem is illustrated by the group analysis of functional statistical parametric maps (SPMs). Then, the matching of new individual data with a priori known structural models is described, using the recognition of the cortical sulci as a prototypical example.

  2. Exploratory analysis of real personal emergency response call conversations: considerations for personal emergency response spoken dialogue systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Victoria; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-11-14

    The purpose of this study was to derive data from real, recorded, personal emergency response call conversations to help improve the artificial intelligence and decision making capability of a spoken dialogue system in a smart personal emergency response system. The main study objectives were to: develop a model of personal emergency response; determine categories for the model's features; identify and calculate measures from call conversations (verbal ability, conversational structure, timing); and examine conversational patterns and relationships between measures and model features applicable for improving the system's ability to automatically identify call model categories and predict a target response. This study was exploratory and used mixed methods. Personal emergency response calls were pre-classified according to call model categories identified qualitatively from response call transcripts. The relationships between six verbal ability measures, three conversational structure measures, two timing measures and three independent factors: caller type, risk level, and speaker type, were examined statistically. Emergency medical response services were the preferred response for the majority of medium and high risk calls for both caller types. Older adult callers mainly requested non-emergency medical service responders during medium risk situations. By measuring the number of spoken words-per-minute and turn-length-in-words for the first spoken utterance of a call, older adult and care provider callers could be identified with moderate accuracy. Average call taker response time was calculated using the number-of-speaker-turns and time-in-seconds measures. Care providers and older adults used different conversational strategies when responding to call takers. The words 'ambulance' and 'paramedic' may hold different latent connotations for different callers. The data derived from the real personal emergency response recordings may help a spoken dialogue system

  3. Chemotherapy plus targeted drugs in conversion therapy for potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Sun, Yinan; Zhao, Ben; Zhang, Huixian; Yu, Qianqian; Yuan, Xianglin

    2016-08-23

    To evaluate the safety and efficiency of the conversion therapy: chemotherapy plus anti-epidermal growth factor Receptor (EGFR) or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) with different rat sarcoma (RAS) status in patients with potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and the association between RAS mutation and clinical outcome in CRLM patients treated with anti-EGFR or anti-VEGFR MoAbs was investigated. Searches were performed for data recorded between January 2005 and August 2015 in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE. Objective response rates (ORR), conversion resection rates (CRR), R0 resection rates (R0R) and rate ratios (RR) were used to assess the strength of the association between different RAS status, MoAbs and conversion efficiency. In the conversion therapy, ORR and RR were associated with patients with wild type RAS and different MoAbs. Patients treated with MoAbs: anti-VEGFR or anti-EGFR drugs, resulted in higher ORR, (RR=1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-1.84, P therapy, (RR=0.91, 95%CI: 0.76-1.08, Ptherapy, (RR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.16-2.01, P conversion efficiency for patients with potentially resectable CRLM patients, and anti-EGFR therapies maybe more effective than anti-VEGFR therapies. RAS status is a potential predictive marker of the clinical benefit resulting from treatment with anti-EGFR MoAbs therapy in CRLM patients and anti-EGFR MoAbs therapy could displayed greater efficiency only in patients with wild type RAS.

  4. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter’s streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. Results While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. Conclusions These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. PMID:27956376

  5. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-12-12

    As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter's streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes.

  6. Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyoung Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF, and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude-Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.

  7. Comparative Performance Analysis of a Hyper-Temporal Ndvi Analysis Approach and a Landscape-Ecological Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Scarrott, R. G.; Ha, N. T. T.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    Both agricultural area expansion and intensification are necessary to cope with the growing demand for food, and the growing threat of food insecurity which is rapidly engulfing poor and under-privileged sections of the global population. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to have the ability to accurately estimate crop area and spatial distribution. Remote sensing has become a valuable tool for estimating and mapping cropland areas, useful in food security monitoring. This work contributes to addressing this broad issue, focusing on the comparative performance analysis of two mapping approaches (i) a hyper-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis approach and (ii) a Landscape-ecological approach. The hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach utilized SPOT 10-day NDVI imagery from April 1998-December 2008, whilst the Landscape-ecological approach used multitemporal Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery acquired intermittently between 1992 and 2002. Pixels in the time-series NDVI dataset were clustered using an ISODATA clustering algorithm adapted to determine the optimal number of pixel clusters to successfully generalize hyper-temporal datasets. Clusters were then characterized with crop cycle information, and flooding information to produce an NDVI unit map of rice classes with flood regime and NDVI profile information. A Landscape-ecological map was generated using a combination of digitized homogenous map units in the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery, a Land use map 2005 of the Mekong delta, and supplementary datasets on the regions terrain, geo-morphology and flooding depths. The output maps were validated using reported crop statistics, and regression analyses were used to ascertain the relationship between land use area estimated from maps, and those reported in district crop statistics. The regression analysis showed that the hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach explained 74% and 76% of the variability in reported crop statistics in two rice crop and three

  8. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A HYPER-TEMPORAL NDVI ANALYSIS APPROACH AND A LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL MAPPING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Both agricultural area expansion and intensification are necessary to cope with the growing demand for food, and the growing threat of food insecurity which is rapidly engulfing poor and under-privileged sections of the global population. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to have the ability to accurately estimate crop area and spatial distribution. Remote sensing has become a valuable tool for estimating and mapping cropland areas, useful in food security monitoring. This work contributes to addressing this broad issue, focusing on the comparative performance analysis of two mapping approaches (i a hyper-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI analysis approach and (ii a Landscape-ecological approach. The hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach utilized SPOT 10-day NDVI imagery from April 1998–December 2008, whilst the Landscape-ecological approach used multitemporal Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery acquired intermittently between 1992 and 2002. Pixels in the time-series NDVI dataset were clustered using an ISODATA clustering algorithm adapted to determine the optimal number of pixel clusters to successfully generalize hyper-temporal datasets. Clusters were then characterized with crop cycle information, and flooding information to produce an NDVI unit map of rice classes with flood regime and NDVI profile information. A Landscape-ecological map was generated using a combination of digitized homogenous map units in the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery, a Land use map 2005 of the Mekong delta, and supplementary datasets on the regions terrain, geo-morphology and flooding depths. The output maps were validated using reported crop statistics, and regression analyses were used to ascertain the relationship between land use area estimated from maps, and those reported in district crop statistics. The regression analysis showed that the hyper-temporal NDVI analysis approach explained 74% and 76% of the variability in reported crop statistics in two

  9. Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2007-01-01

    To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

  10. An approach to cardiac arrhythmia analysis using hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, D A; Stern, R M; Cano, G G; Briller, S A

    1990-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to ECG arrhythmia analysis based on "hidden Markov modeling" (HMM), a technique successfully used since the mid-1970's to model speech waveforms for automatic speech recognition. Many ventricular arrhythmias can be classified by detecting and analyzing QRS complexes and determining R-R intervals. Classification of supraventricular arrhythmias, however, often requires detection of the P wave in addition to the QRS complex. The hidden Markov modeling approach combines structural and statistical knowledge of the ECG signal in a single parametric model. Model parameters are estimated from training data using an iterative, maximum likelihood reestimation algorithm. Initial results suggest that this approach may provide improved supraventricular arrhythmia analysis through accurate representation of the entire beat including the P wave.

  11. Intelligent assembly time analysis, using a digital knowledge based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Y.; Curran, R.; Butterfield, J.; Burke, R.; Welch, B.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of effective time analysis methods fast and accurately in the era of digital manufacturing has become a significant challenge for aerospace manufacturers hoping to build and maintain a competitive advantage. This paper proposes a structure oriented, knowledge-based approach for

  12. Semiotic Approach to the Analysis of Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkcan, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    Semiotics, which is used for the analysis of a number of communication languages, helps describe the specific operational rules by determining the sub-systems included in the field it examines. Considering that art is a communication language, this approach could be used in analyzing children's products in art education. The present study aiming…

  13. The Process Writing Approach: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Sandmel, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The process approach to writing instruction is one of the most popular methods for teaching writing. The authors conducted meta-analysis of 29 experimental and quasi-experimental studies conducted with students in Grades 1-12 to examine if process writing instruction improves the quality of students' writing and motivation to write. For students…

  14. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  15. Grounded theory approach in sermon analysis of sermons on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, I am going to discuss the place of grounded theory in qualitative research and the application of Charmaz's approach to it in homiletics. The process of sermon analysis in its different phases will be discussed as well as the interaction of this bottom-up theory with existing homiletic theories in relation to the ...

  16. A pathway-centric approach to rare variant association analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tom G; Timpson, Nicholas J; Campbell, Colin; Gaunt, Tom R

    2017-01-01

    Current endeavours in rare variant analysis are typically underpowered when investigating association signals from individual genes. We undertook an approach to rare variant analysis which utilises biological pathway information to analyse functionally relevant genes together. Conventional filtering approaches for rare variant analysis are based on variant consequence and are therefore confined to coding regions of the genome. Therefore, we undertook a novel approach to this process by obtaining functional annotations from the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) tool, which allowed potentially deleterious variants from intronic regions of genes to be incorporated into analyses. This work was undertaken using whole-genome sequencing data from the UK10K project. Rare variants from the KEGG pathway for arginine and proline metabolism were collectively associated with systolic blood pressure (P=3.32x10−5) based on analyses using the optimal sequence kernel association test. Variants along this pathway also showed evidence of replication using imputed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort (P=0.02). Subsequent analyses found that the strength of evidence diminished when analysing genes in this pathway individually, suggesting that they would have been overlooked in a conventional gene-based analysis. Future studies that adopt similar approaches to investigate polygenic effects should yield value in better understanding the genetic architecture of complex disease. PMID:27577545

  17. A combined approach of complex eigenvalue analysis and design of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes an approach to investigate the influencing factors of the brake pad on the disc brake squeal by integrating finite element simulations with statistical regression techniques. Complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) has been widely used to predict unstable frequencies in brake systems models. The finite ...

  18. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in agricultural and food markets. We provide a framework that may help researchers to evaluate and improve structural models of market power. Starting with the specification of the approaches in question, we compare published empirical studies of market power with respect to the choice of the applied approach......, functional forms, estimation methods and derived estimates of the degree of market power. Thereafter, we use our framework to evaluate several structural models based on PTA and GIM to measure oligopsony power in the Ukrainian dairy industry. The PTA-based results suggest that the estimated parameters......This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power...

  19. Energy Conversion in Laser Propulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of energy conversion in laser propulsion is reported and compared to experimental studies of a laboratory scale propulsion device that absorbs laser energy and converts that energy to propellant kinetic energy...

  20. EAP, Business English and Swales' approach to genre analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Vicente, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    One of the most influential genre scholars is John Swales. His 1990 book Genre Analysis is a point of reference in the field and he is considered one of the most widely respected and cited researchers. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how John Swales' approach to genre analysis, which was originally designed to research English in academic and research settings, can al so be used for the textual analysis of occupational genres. The theory he develops in his latest two books (1990, 20...

  1. A new modeling approach for water resources policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Fahmy, Hussam

    1999-01-01

    Water resources policy analysis deals with the protection of people from the harmful effects of water and assurance of a consistent, adequate supply of usable water. Population and regulatory pressures, political and economic instabilities, and climatic variations can all be expected to further stress water supply resources. Developing policy for managing water systems for human needs in such an environment is difficult, slow, and very costly. The approach to water resources policy analysis developed in this paper is that of the rational decision maker who lays out goals and uses logical processes to explore the best way to reach those goals. The decision maker may be an individual or a group. The emphasis in this paper is on how water resources decisions ought to be analyzed and made. In establishing this framework we are proposing integration of object-oriented modeling approach with systems analysis. Our concern here is with how the water policy analysis process should be structured to best address a policy choice, and with the object- oriented model that will aid understanding and prediction. The proposed approach is illustrated in the paper by the case study of water resources policy analysis for Egypt.

  2. IDHEAS – A NEW APPROACH FOR HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. W. Parry; J.A Forester; V.N. Dang; S. M. L. Hendrickson; M. Presley; E. Lois; J. Xing

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method, IDHEAS (Integrated Decision-Tree Human Event Analysis System) that has been developed jointly by the US NRC and EPRI as an improved approach to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) that is based on an understanding of the cognitive mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that affect operator responses. The paper describes the various elements of the method, namely the performance of a detailed cognitive task analysis that is documented in a crew response tree (CRT), and the development of the associated time-line to identify the critical tasks, i.e. those whose failure results in a human failure event (HFE), and an approach to quantification that is based on explanations of why the HFE might occur.

  3. An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Sutoyo

    Full Text Available Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%.

  4. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Lazard, Allison J.; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2016-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptiv...

  5. Analysis of the performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems funded by the DOE small grants program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Joshua [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis on the CO2 conversion processes of methane dry reforming for hydrogen production and CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyi; Liu, Liping

    2017-12-01

    Based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization, the thermodynamic analysis on the CO2 conversion processes of dry reforming of methane for H2 and CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether was carried out. The composition of the reaction system was determined on the basis of reaction mechanism. The effects of reaction temperature, pressure and raw material composition on the equilibrium conversion and the selectivity of products were analyzed. The results show that high temperature, low pressure, CO2/CH4 molar ratio of 1.0-1.5 and appropriate amount of oxygen are beneficial to the dry reforming of methane. For CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether, low temperature, high pressure, the appropriate H2/CO2 and the proper CO addition in feed are favorable. The calculated results are compared with the relevant studies, indicating that industrial catalytic technology needs further improvement.

  7. Effect of mixing on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce: a quantitative analysis of conversion and power consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiman Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When scaling up lignocellulose-based ethanol production, the desire to increase the final ethanol titer after fermentation can introduce problems. A high concentration of water-insoluble solids (WIS is needed in the enzymatic hydrolysis step, resulting in increased viscosity, which can cause mass and heat transfer problems because of poor mixing of the material. In the present study, the effects of mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce were investigated using a stirred tank reactor operated with different impeller speeds and enzyme loadings. In addition, the results were related to the power input needed to operate the impeller at different speeds, taking into account the changes in rheology throughout the process. Results A marked difference in hydrolysis rate at different impeller speeds was found. For example, the conversion was twice as high after 48 hours at 500 rpm compared with 25 rpm. This difference remained throughout the 96 hours of hydrolysis. Substantial amounts of energy were required to achieve only minor increases in conversion during the later stages of the process. Conclusions Impeller speed strongly affected both the hydrolysis rate of the pretreated spruce and needed power input. Similar conversions could be obtained at different energy input by altering the mixing (that is, energy input, enzyme load and residence time, an important issue to consider when designing large-scale plants.

  8. Towards practical multiscale approach for analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyeda, Arturo; Fish, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel multiscale approach for analysis of reinforced concrete structural elements that overcomes two major hurdles in utilization of multiscale technologies in practice: (1) coupling between material and structural scales due to consideration of large representative volume elements (RVE), and (2) computational complexity of solving complex nonlinear multiscale problems. The former is accomplished using a variant of computational continua framework that accounts for sizeable reinforced concrete RVEs by adjusting the location of quadrature points. The latter is accomplished by means of reduced order homogenization customized for structural elements. The proposed multiscale approach has been verified against direct numerical simulations and validated against experimental results.

  9. LoMA-B: a simple and versatile lab-on-a-chip system based on single-channel bisulfite conversion for DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaeyun; Park, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Tae Yoon; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Yong

    2015-09-07

    Miniaturized lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems have been developed for genetic and epigenetic analyses in clinical applications because of advantages such as reduced sample size and reagent consumption, rapid processing speed, simplicity, and enhanced sensitivity. Despite tremendous efforts made towards developing LOC systems for use in the clinical setting, the development of LOC systems to analyze DNA methylation, which is an emerging epigenetic marker causing the abnormal silencing of genes including tumor suppressor genes, is still challenging because of the gold standard methods involving a bisulfite conversion step. Existing bisulfite conversion-based techniques are not suitable for clinical use due to their long processing time, labor intensiveness, and the purification steps involved. Here, we present a lab-on-a-chip system for DNA methylation analysis based on bisulfite conversion (LoMA-B), which couples a sample pre-processing module for on-chip bisulfite conversion and a label-free, real-time detection module for rapid analysis of DNA methylation status using an isothermal DNA amplification/detection technique. The methylation status of the RARβ gene in human genomic DNA extracted from MCF-7 cells was analyzed by the LoMA-B system within 80 min (except 16 h for sensor preparation) compared to conventional MS-PCR within 24 h. Furthermore, the LoMA-B system is highly sensitive and can detect as little as 1% methylated DNA in a methylated/unmethylated cell mixture. Therefore, the LoMA-B system is an efficient diagnostic tool for the simple, versatile, and quantitative evaluation of DNA methylation patterns for clinical applications.

  10. Systematic approaches to data analysis from the Critical Decision Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce how to analyse the qualitative data from the Critical Decision Method. At first, characterizing the method provides the meaningful introduction into the issue. This method used in naturalistic decision making research is one of the cognitive task analysis methods, it is based on the retrospective semistructured interview about critical incident from the work and it may be applied in various domains such as emergency services, military, transport, sport or industry. Researchers can make two types of methodological adaptation. Within-method adaptations modify the way of conducting the interviews and cross-method adaptations combine this method with other related methods. There are many decsriptions of conducting the interview, but the descriptions how the data should be analysed are rare. Some researchers use conventional approaches like content analysis, grounded theory or individual procedures with reference to the objectives of research project. Wong (2004 describes two approaches to data analysis proposed for this method of data collection, which are described and reviewed in the details. They enable systematic work with a large amount of data. The structured approach organizes the data according to an a priori analysis framework and it is suitable for clearly defined object of research. Each incident is studied separately. At first, the decision chart showing the main decision points and then the incident summary are made. These decision points are used to identify the relevant statements from the transcript, which are analysed in terms of the Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Finally, the results from all the analysed incidents are integrated. The limitation of the structured approach is it may not reveal some interesting concepts. The emergent themes approach helps to identify these concepts while maintaining a systematic framework for analysis and it is used for exploratory research design. It

  11. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  12. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  13. Multiobjective engineering design optimization problems: a sensitivity analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Brito Augusto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two new approaches for the sensitivity analysis of multiobjective design optimization problems whose performance functions are highly susceptible to small variations in the design variables and/or design environment parameters. In both methods, the less sensitive design alternatives are preferred over others during the multiobjective optimization process. While taking the first approach, the designer chooses the design variable and/or parameter that causes uncertainties. The designer then associates a robustness index with each design alternative and adds each index as an objective function in the optimization problem. For the second approach, the designer must know, a priori, the interval of variation in the design variables or in the design environment parameters, because the designer will be accepting the interval of variation in the objective functions. The second method does not require any law of probability distribution of uncontrollable variations. Finally, the authors give two illustrative examples to highlight the contributions of the paper.

  14. Convergence Analysis of a Class of Computational Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational intelligence approaches is a relatively new interdisciplinary field of research with many promising application areas. Although the computational intelligence approaches have gained huge popularity, it is difficult to analyze the convergence. In this paper, a computational model is built up for a class of computational intelligence approaches represented by the canonical forms of generic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and particle swarm optimization in order to describe the common features of these algorithms. And then, two quantification indices, that is, the variation rate and the progress rate, are defined, respectively, to indicate the variety and the optimality of the solution sets generated in the search process of the model. Moreover, we give four types of probabilistic convergence for the solution set updating sequences, and their relations are discussed. Finally, the sufficient conditions are derived for the almost sure weak convergence and the almost sure strong convergence of the model by introducing the martingale theory into the Markov chain analysis.

  15. Some exploratory considerations of scale effects on the potential performance of wood energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, A. J., Jr.; Smith, B. A.; Tombaugh, L. W.

    1982-06-01

    Scale effects on the potential performance of wood energy conversion systems whose products might compete in many of the same diverse and dispersed markets as comparable products from fossil fuels are explored. The analytical approach is derived from the average total cost formulation of micro-economics which is configured to account for the factors of total cost rate for wood production, transportation, and conversion in systems with a given conversion efficiency and capacity. The exploratory systems analysis includes: systems elements and cost formulation; area production and associated transportation; point production and associated transportation; conversion system capacity effects; conversion plant learning curve effects; subsystem disaggregation, staging, and production rate effects, and conversion plant financing effects.

  16. Exploratory analysis of spatial and temporal data a systematic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Andrienko, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Exploratory data analysis (EDA) is about detecting and describing patterns, trends, and relations in data, motivated by certain purposes of investigation. As something relevant is detected in data, new questions arise, causing specific parts to be viewed in more detail. So EDA has a significant appeal: it involves hypothesis generation rather than mere hypothesis testing. The authors describe in detail and systemize approaches, techniques, and methods for exploring spatial and temporal data in particular. They start by developing a general view of data structures and characteristics and then build on top of this a general task typology, distinguishing between elementary and synoptic tasks. This typology is then applied to the description of existing approaches and technologies, resulting not just in recommendations for choosing methods but in a set of generic procedures for data exploration. Professionals practicing analysis will profit from tested solutions - illustrated in many examples - for reuse in the c...

  17. Accounting for Errors in Model Analysis Theory: A Numerical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Steven R.; Lindell, Rebecca S.

    2004-09-01

    By studying the patterns of a group of individuals' responses to a series of multiple-choice questions, researchers can utilize Model Analysis Theory to create a probability distribution of mental models for a student population. The eigenanalysis of this distribution yields information about what mental models the students possess, as well as how consistently they utilize said mental models. Although the theory considers the probabilistic distribution to be fundamental, there exists opportunities for random errors to occur. In this paper we will discuss a numerical approach for mathematically accounting for these random errors. As an example of this methodology, analysis of data obtained from the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory will be presented. Limitations and applicability of this numerical approach will be discussed.

  18. Data Analysis A Model Comparison Approach, Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Charles M; Ryan, Carey S

    2008-01-01

    This completely rewritten classic text features many new examples, insights and topics including mediational, categorical, and multilevel models. Substantially reorganized, this edition provides a briefer, more streamlined examination of data analysis. Noted for its model-comparison approach and unified framework based on the general linear model, the book provides readers with a greater understanding of a variety of statistical procedures. This consistent framework, including consistent vocabulary and notation, is used throughout to develop fewer but more powerful model building techniques. T

  19. Total-System Approach To Design And Analysis Of Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderaime, V.

    1995-01-01

    Paper presents overview and study of, and comprehensive approach to, multidisciplinary engineering design and analysis of structures. Emphasizes issues related to design of semistatic structures in environments in which spacecraft launched, underlying concepts applicable to other structures within unique terrestrial, marine, or flight environments. Purpose of study to understand interactions among traditionally separate engineering design disciplines with view toward optimizing not only structure but also overall design process.

  20. A novel approach for system change pathway analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Walaa Ibrahim Gabr

    2016-01-01

    This paper is directed toward presenting a novel approach based on “consolidity charts” for the analysis of natural and man-made systems during their change pathway or course of life. The physical significance of the consolidity chart (region) is that it marks the boundary of all system interactive behavior resulting from all exhaustive internal and external influences. For instance, at a specific event state, the corresponding consolidity region describes all the plausible points of normaliz...

  1. Defect induced guided waves mode conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Pawel; Malinowski, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with analysis of guided waves mode conversion phenomenon in fiber reinforced composite materials. Mode conversion phenomenon may take place when propagating elastic guided waves interact with discontinuities in the composite waveguide. The examples of such discontinuities are sudden thickness change or delamination between layers in composite material. In this paper, analysis of mode conversion phenomenon is based on full wave-field signals. In the full wave-field approach signals representing propagation of elastic waves are gathered from dense mesh of points that span over investigated area of composite part. This allow to animate the guided wave propagation. The reported analysis is based on signals resulting from numerical calculations and experimental measurements. In both cases defect in the form of delamination is considered. In the case of numerical research, Spectral Element Method (SEM) is utilized, in which a mesh is composed of 3D elements. Numerical model includes also piezoelectric transducer. Full wave-field experimental measurements are conducted by using piezoelectric transducer for guided wave excitation and Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) for sensing.

  2. Longitudinal analysis of vaginal microbiome dynamics in women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis: recognition of the conversion process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet A Lambert

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV affects ∼ 30% of women of reproductive age, has a high rate of recurrence, and is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections, including HIV-1. Little is known of the daily changes in the vaginal bacterial composition as it progresses from treatment to recurrence, or whether any of these might be useful in its prediction or an understanding of its causes. We used phylogenetic branch-inclusive quantitative PCR (PB-qPCR and Lactobacillus blocked/unblocked qPCR (Lb-qPCR to characterize longitudinal changes in the vaginal microbiota in sequential vaginal self-swabs from five women with recurrent BV, from diagnosis through remission to recurrence. Both patients with acute BV samples dominated by G. vaginalis recurred during the study with similar profiles, whereas the three patients with acute BV samples dominated by other anaerobes did not recur or recurred to an intermediate Nugent score. L. iners dominated remission phases, with intermittent days of abnormal microbial profiles typically associated with menses. The exception was a newly discovered phenomenon, a sustained period of abnormal profiles, termed conversion, which preceded symptomatic acute BV. Species known to have antagonistic activity towards Lactobacillus were detected in pre-conversion samples, possibly contributing to the decline in Lactobacillus. Lb-qPCR scores define two categories of response in the initial post-treatment visit samples; scores 8 may predict delayed or no recurrence. Amsel criteria or Nugent scores did not have this potential predictive capability. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate the prognostic potential of detecting conversion and poor Lb-qPCR scores at the post-treatment visit of recurrent BV patients.

  3. System Performance Projections for TPV Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PF Baldasaro; MW Dashiell; JE Oppenlander; JL Vell; P Fourspring; K Rahner; LR Danielson; S Burger; E Brown

    2004-06-09

    TPV technology has advanced rapidly in the last five years, with diode conversion efficiency approaching >30%, and filter efficiency of {approx}80%. These achievements have enabled repeatable testing of 20% efficient small systems, demonstrating the potential of TPV energy conversion. Near term technology gains support a 25% efficient technology demonstration in the two year timeframe. However, testing of full size systems, which includes efficiency degradation mechanisms, such as: nonuniform diode illumination, diode and filter variability, temperature non-uniformities, conduction/convection losses, and lifetime reliability processes needs to be performed. A preliminary analysis of these differential effects has been completed, and indicates a near term integrated system efficiency of {approx}15% is possible using current technology, with long term growth to 18-20%. This report addresses the system performance issues.

  4. Comparative evaluation of thermal oxidative decomposition for oil-plant residues via thermogravimetric analysis: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal oxidative decomposition characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of rape straw (RS), rapeseed meal (RM), camellia seed shell (CS), and camellia seed meal (CM) were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG-DTG-DSC curves demonstrated that the combustion of oil-plant residues proceeded in three stages, including dehydration, release and combustion of organic volatiles, and chars oxidation. As revealed by combustion characteristic parameters, the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustion performance of residues were quite distinct from each other, and were improved by increasing heating rate. The kinetic parameters were determined by Coats-Redfern approach. The results showed that the most possible combustion mechanisms were order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was clearly observed. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS) at peak temperatures were calculated through the activated complex theory. With the combustion proceeding, the variation trends of ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS for RS (RM) similar to those for CS (CM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Unifying Approach to Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Analysis: Problem-Oriented Role of Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Harry L.; Woo, Jannie

    1984-01-01

    Proposes an approach to teaching analytical chemistry and chemical analysis in which a problem to be resolved is the focus of a course. Indicates that this problem-oriented approach is intended to complement detailed discussions of fundamental and applied aspects of chemical determinations and not replace such discussions. (JN)

  6. Analysis and calculation of electronic properties and light absorption of defective sulfur-doped silicon and theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He; Chen, Changshui

    2015-04-23

    Most material properties can be traced to electronic structures. Black silicon produced from SF6 or sulfur powder via irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses displays decreased infrared absorption after annealing, with almost no corresponding change in visible light absorption. The high-intensity laser pulses destroy the original crystal structure, and the doping element changes the material performance. In this work, the structural and electronic properties of several sulfur-doped silicon systems are investigated using first principle calculations. Depending on the sulfur concentration (level of doping) and the behavior of the sulfur atoms in the silicon lattice, different states or an absence of states are exhibited, compared with the undoped system. Moreover, the visible-infrared light absorption intensities are structure specific. The results of our theoretical calculations show that the conversion efficiency of sulfur-doped silicon solar cells depends on the sulfur concentrations. Additionally, two types of defect configurations exhibit light absorption characteristics that differ from the other configurations. These two structures produce a rapid increase in the theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency in the range of the specific chemical potential studied. By controlling the positions of the atomic sulfur and the sulfur concentration in the preparation process, an efficient photovoltaic (PV) material may be obtainable.

  7. Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis Ali Ismet KANLI Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 34320, Avcilar Campus, Istanbul-Turkey, E-mail: kanli@istanbul.edu.tr Abstract: A two-step surface wave analysis method is proposed including both the MASW (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves) and Micro-tremor based techniques. This is an integrated approach and the MASW survey data are gathered to obtain the shear wave velocity-depth information up to at least 30 meters by using a special type active seismic source called as SR-II or Kangaroo. In the second step, the microtremor data which are based on surface waves from seismic noise at each site are used to determine the shear-wave velocity-depth profiles. In the second step of the process, the multichannel analysis of surface waves data are given as constraints in the microtremor inversion process. This proposed algorithm allows us to calculate shear wave velocity-depth information with all geotechnical parameters from near surface to bedrock depths very fast and efficiently.

  8. Muhammed Esed’de Dini Değişimin Psikolojik Analizi The Psychological Analysis Of Religious Conversion In Muhammad Asad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffet KARTOPU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At this work on Which religious conversion in Muhammad Asad isstudied, in terms of religious conversion models, first of all the conceptof religious conversion, the Works in this topic and the place of religiousconversion concept in Psychology of Religion are mentioned. Then, abrief life story of Asad is mentioned, by dealing with the religiousconversion in Asad in a theoretical approach, the motives of religiousconversion, the developmental factors in religious conversion, the stagesof religious conversion and the figures of religious conversion arestudied. The religious conversion in Asad is analyzed in terms ofconversion models accepted in Psychology of Religion taking his ownWorks as a base. In this sence, while the motives of religious conversionin Asad are considered by the approaches of Snow & Phillips, Glock andGillespie, the developmental factors in religious conversion areconsidered by Erikson’s thoughts. The stages of religious conversion isconsidered by gradual classification of Lofland & Stark, Clark, Batson &Ventis and Köse. Lofland and Skonovd’s types are used while analyzingthe figures of conversion.When considered the effects of psychological factors on thereligious conversion of Asad, we see that beginning from his earlyadolescence his willing to understanding and his need to mentalsatisfaction are explicit. Asad is in need of reviewing the main pointsimposed by his cultere. He is disturbed by the ambiguities in societyand his own life and he looks for answers to the universal meaning oflife and questions ‘what is right? what is wrong?’. As a result of hisseeking, he accepts Islam as his religion and he gains a feeling ofbelonging, admission and a change of rearranging himself radically. Byaccepting Islam he feels that all his seekings finish and his desire ofdepending on a certain intellectua orbit and being a part of fellowscommunity come true. Dini değişim modelleri açısından Muhammed Esed’de dini de

  9. A novel quantitative approach to concept analysis: the internomological network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Paul F; Larsen, Kai R; Sakraida, Teresa J; Pedro, Leli

    2012-01-01

    When a construct such as patients' "transition to self-management" of chronic illness is studied by researchers across multiple disciplines, the meaning of key terms can become confused. This results from inherent problems in language where a term can have multiple meanings (polysemy) and different words can mean the same thing (synonymy). The aim of this study was to test a novel quantitative method for clarifying the meaning of constructs by examining the similarity of published contexts in which they are used. Published terms related to the concept transition to self-management of chronic illness were analyzed using the internomological network (INN), a type of latent semantic analysis performed to calculate the mathematical relationships between constructs based on the contexts in which researchers use each term. This novel approach was tested by comparing results with those from concept analysis, a best-practice qualitative approach to clarifying meanings of terms. By comparing results of the 2 methods, the best synonyms of transition to self-management, as well as key antecedent, attribute, and consequence terms, were identified. Results from INN analysis were consistent with those from concept analysis. The potential synonyms self-management, transition, and adaptation had the greatest utility. Adaptation was the clearest overall synonym but had lower cross-disciplinary use. The terms coping and readiness had more circumscribed meanings. The INN analysis confirmed key features of transition to self-management and suggested related concepts not found by the previous review. The INN analysis is a promising novel methodology that allows researchers to quantify the semantic relationships between constructs. The method works across disciplinary boundaries and may help to integrate the diverse literature on self-management of chronic illness.

  10. A global sensitivity analysis approach for morphogenesis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Sonja E M; Navarro Jimenez, Maria I; Merks, Roeland M H; Blom, Joke G

    2015-11-21

    Morphogenesis is a developmental process in which cells organize into shapes and patterns. Complex, non-linear and multi-factorial models with images as output are commonly used to study morphogenesis. It is difficult to understand the relation between the uncertainty in the input and the output of such 'black-box' models, giving rise to the need for sensitivity analysis tools. In this paper, we introduce a workflow for a global sensitivity analysis approach to study the impact of single parameters and the interactions between them on the output of morphogenesis models. To demonstrate the workflow, we used a published, well-studied model of vascular morphogenesis. The parameters of this cellular Potts model (CPM) represent cell properties and behaviors that drive the mechanisms of angiogenic sprouting. The global sensitivity analysis correctly identified the dominant parameters in the model, consistent with previous studies. Additionally, the analysis provided information on the relative impact of single parameters and of interactions between them. This is very relevant because interactions of parameters impede the experimental verification of the predicted effect of single parameters. The parameter interactions, although of low impact, provided also new insights in the mechanisms of in silico sprouting. Finally, the analysis indicated that the model could be reduced by one parameter. We propose global sensitivity analysis as an alternative approach to study the mechanisms of morphogenesis. Comparison of the ranking of the impact of the model parameters to knowledge derived from experimental data and from manipulation experiments can help to falsify models and to find the operand mechanisms in morphogenesis. The workflow is applicable to all 'black-box' models, including high-throughput in vitro models in which output measures are affected by a set of experimental perturbations.

  11. A global sensitivity analysis approach for morphogenesis models

    KAUST Repository

    Boas, Sonja E. M.

    2015-11-21

    Background Morphogenesis is a developmental process in which cells organize into shapes and patterns. Complex, non-linear and multi-factorial models with images as output are commonly used to study morphogenesis. It is difficult to understand the relation between the uncertainty in the input and the output of such ‘black-box’ models, giving rise to the need for sensitivity analysis tools. In this paper, we introduce a workflow for a global sensitivity analysis approach to study the impact of single parameters and the interactions between them on the output of morphogenesis models. Results To demonstrate the workflow, we used a published, well-studied model of vascular morphogenesis. The parameters of this cellular Potts model (CPM) represent cell properties and behaviors that drive the mechanisms of angiogenic sprouting. The global sensitivity analysis correctly identified the dominant parameters in the model, consistent with previous studies. Additionally, the analysis provided information on the relative impact of single parameters and of interactions between them. This is very relevant because interactions of parameters impede the experimental verification of the predicted effect of single parameters. The parameter interactions, although of low impact, provided also new insights in the mechanisms of in silico sprouting. Finally, the analysis indicated that the model could be reduced by one parameter. Conclusions We propose global sensitivity analysis as an alternative approach to study the mechanisms of morphogenesis. Comparison of the ranking of the impact of the model parameters to knowledge derived from experimental data and from manipulation experiments can help to falsify models and to find the operand mechanisms in morphogenesis. The workflow is applicable to all ‘black-box’ models, including high-throughput in vitro models in which output measures are affected by a set of experimental perturbations.

  12. A Factor Analysis Approach for Clustering Patient Reported Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Hun; Thor, Maria; Olsson, Caroline; Skokic, Viktor; Jörnsten, Rebecka; Alsadius, David; Pettersson, Niclas; Steineck, Gunnar; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-10-17

    In the field of radiation oncology, the use of extensive patient reported outcomes is increasingly common to measure adverse side effects after radiotherapy in cancer patients. Factor analysis has the potential to identify an optimal number of latent factors (i.e., symptom groups). However, the ultimate goal of treatment response modeling is to understand the relationship between treatment variables such as radiation dose and symptom groups resulting from FA. Hence, it is crucial to identify clinically more relevant symptom groups and improved response variables from those symptom groups for a quantitative analysis. The goal of this study is to design a computational method for finding clinically relevant symptom groups from PROs and to test associations between symptom groups and radiation dose. We propose a novel approach where exploratory factor analysis is followed by confirmatory factor analysis to determine the relevant number of symptom groups. We also propose to use a combination of symptoms in a symptom group identified as a new response variable in linear regression analysis to investigate the relationship between the symptom group and dose-volume variables. We analyzed patient-reported gastrointestinal symptom profiles from 3 datasets in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The final structural model of each dataset was validated using the other two datasets and compared to four other existing FA methods. Our systematic EFA-CFA approach provided clinically more relevant solutions than other methods, resulting in new clinically relevant outcome variables that enabled a quantitative analysis. As a result, statistically significant correlations were found between some dose-volume variables to relevant anatomic structures and symptom groups identified by FA. Our proposed method can aid in the process of understanding PROs and provide a basis for improving our understanding of radiation-induced side effects.

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique for quantitative analysis of aqueous solution using matrix conversion based on plant fiber spunlaced nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenghan; Niu, Guanghui; Shi, Qi; Lin, Qingyu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect concentrations of chromium and nickel in aqueous solution in the form of matrix conversion using plant fiber spunlaced nonwovens as a solid-phase support, which can effectively avoid the inherent difficulties such as splashing, a quenching effect, and a shorter plasma lifetime during the liquid LIBS analysis. Drops of the sample solution were transferred to the plant fiber spunlaced nonwovens surface and uniformly diffused from the center to the whole area of the substrate. Owing to good hydrophilicity, the plant fiber spunlaced nonwovens can hold more of the liquid sample, and the surface of this material never wrinkles after being dried in a drying oven, which can effectively reduce the deviation during the LIBS analysis. In addition, the plant fiber spunlaced nonwovens used in the present work are relatively convenient and low cost. Also, the procedure of analysis was simple and fast, which are the unique features of LIBS technology. Therefore, this method has potential applications for practical and in situ analyses. To achieve sensitive elemental detection, the optimal delay time in this experiment was investigated. Under the optimized condition, the limits of detection for Cr and Ni are 0.7 and 5.7  μg·mL(-1), respectively. The results obtained in the present study show that the matrix conversion method is a feasible option for analyzing heavy metals in aqueous solutions by LIBS technology.

  14. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  15. Mass-energy balance analysis for estimation of light energy conversion in an integrated system of biological H2 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Gavrisheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated an integrated system of biological H2 production, which includes the accumulation of biomass of autotrophic microalgae, dark fermentation of biomass, and photofermentation of the dark fermentation effluent. Particular emphasis was placed on the estimation of the conversion efficiency of light into hydrogen energy at each stage of this system. For this purpose, the mass and energy balance regularities were applied. The efficiency of the energy transformation from light into the microalgal biomass did not exceed 5%. The efficiency of the energy transformation from biomass to biological H2 during the dark fermentation stage stood at about 0.3%. The photofermentation stage using the model fermentation effluent could improve this estimation to 11%, resulting in an overall efficiency 0.55%. Evidently, this scheme is counterproductive for light energy bioconversion due to numerous intermediate steps even if the best published data would be taken into account.

  16. Cut moments approach in the analysis of DIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlorz, D.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Teryaev, O. V.; Kotlorz, A.

    2017-07-01

    We review the main results on the generalization of the DGLAP evolution equations within the cut Mellin moments (CMM) approach, which allows one to overcome the problem of kinematic constraints in Bjorken x . CMM obtained by multiple integrations as well as multiple differentiations of the original parton distribution also satisfy the DGLAP equations with the simply transformed evolution kernel. The CMM approach provides novel tools to test QCD; here we present one of them. Using appropriate classes of CMM, we construct the generalized Bjorken sum rule that allows us to determine the Bjorken sum rule value from the experimental data in a restricted kinematic range of x . We apply our analysis to COMPASS data on the spin structure function g1.

  17. A Systematic Approach for Engagement Analysis Under Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Leddo, John; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    An overload condition can lead to high stress for an operator and further cause substantial drops in performance. On the other extreme, in automated systems, an operator may become underloaded; in which case, it is difficult for the operator to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, a disengaged operation may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss a systematic approach monitor for extremes of cognitive workload and engagement in multitasking environments. Inferences of cognitive workload ar engagement are based on subjective evaluations, objective performance measures, physiological signals, and task analysis results. The systematic approach developed In this paper aggregates these types of information collected under the multitasking environment and can provide a real-time assessment or engagement.

  18. Data analysis with the DIANA meta-scheduling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anjum, A; Willers, I

    2008-01-01

    The concepts, design and evaluation of the Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) meta-scheduling approach for solving the challenges of data analysis being faced by CERN experiments are discussed in this paper. Our results suggest that data analysis can be made robust by employing fault tolerant and decentralized meta-scheduling algorithms supported in our DIANA meta-scheduler. The DIANA meta-scheduler supports data intensive bulk scheduling, is network aware and follows a policy centric meta-scheduling. In this paper, we demonstrate that a decentralized and dynamic meta-scheduling approach is an effective strategy to cope with increasing numbers of users, jobs and datasets. We present 'quality of service' related statistics for physics analysis through the application of a policy centric fair-share scheduling model. The DIANA meta-schedulers create a peer-to-peer hierarchy of schedulers to accomplish resource management that changes with evolving loads and is dynamic and adapts to the volatile nature of t...

  19. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H

    2016-03-01

    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  20. AN APPROACH TO CELL NUCLEI COUNTING IN HISTOLOGICAL IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lukashevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a method of automatical counting the number of cell nuclei in histological images is studied. This operation is commonly used in the diagnostics of various diseases and morphological analysis of cells. In this connection, the procedure of automatical count the number of cell nuclei is a key step in the systems of medical imaging microscopic analysis of histological preparations. The main aim of our work was to develop an efficient scheme of automatic counting cell nuclei based on advanced image processing methods: directional filtering, adaptive image binarization and mathematical morphology. Unlike prior research, the presented approach does not provide segmentation of cell nuclei in the image, but only requires to detect them and count their number. This avoids complex algorithmic calculations and provides good accuracy of counting cell nuclei.The paper describes a series of experiments conducted to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method using the available online database of medical test histological images. Critical parameters defined algorithms, configurable at each stage of image analysis. For each parameter we have defined value ranges, and then realized a selection of optimal values for every parameter and a mutual combination of them. It is based on generally accepted quantitative measures of precision and recall. The results were compared with the state-of-art investigations in this field and demonstrated an acceptable level of accuracy of the proposed method. The software prototype developed during the study can be regarded as an automatic tool for analysis of cell nuclei. The presented approach can be adapted to various problems of analysis of cell nuclei of various organs.

  1. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  2. Theoretical assessment of image analysis: statistical vs structural approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2003-05-01

    Statistical and structural methods are two major approaches commonly used in image analysis and have demonstrated considerable success. The former is based on statistical properties and stochastic models of the image and the latter utilizes geometric and topological models. In this study, Markov random field (MRF) theory/model based image segmentation and Fuzzy Connectedness (FC) theory/Fuzzy connected objeect delineation are chosen as the representatives for these two approaches, respectively. The comparative study is focused on their theoretical foundations and main operative procedures. The MRF is defined on a lattice and the associated neighborhood system and is based on the Markov property. The FC method is defined on a fuzzy digital space and is based on fuzzy relations. Locally, MRF is characterized by potentials of cliques, and FC is described by fuzzy adjacency and affinity relations. Globally, MRF is characterized by Gibbs distribution, and FC is described by fuzzy connectedness. The task of MRF model based image segmentation is toe seek a realization of the embedded MRF through a two-level operation: partitioning and labeling. The task of FC object delineation is to extract a fuzzy object from a given scene, through a two-step operation: recognition and delineation. Theoretical foundations which underly statistical and structural approaches and the principles of the main operative procedures in image segmentation by these two approaches demonstrate more similarities than differences between them. Two approaches can also complement each other, particularly in seed selection, scale formation, affinity and object membership function design for FC and neighbor set selection and clique potential design for MRF.

  3. An Automatic Contextual Analysis and Clustering Classifiers Ensemble approach to Sentiment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Sharuee, Murtadha Talib; Liu, Fei; Pratama, Mahardhika

    2017-01-01

    Products reviews are one of the major resources to determine the public sentiment. The existing literature on reviews sentiment analysis mainly utilizes supervised paradigm, which needs labeled data to be trained on and suffers from domain-dependency. This article addresses these issues by describes a completely automatic approach for sentiment analysis based on unsupervised ensemble learning. The method consists of two phases. The first phase is contextual analysis, which has five processes,...

  4. Diffusion of Latent Semantic Analysis as a Research Tool: A Social Network Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tonta, Yaşar; DARVISH, HAMID

    2010-01-01

    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a relatively new research tool with a wide range of applications in different fields ranging from discourse analysis to cognitive science, from information retrieval to machine learning and so on. In this paper, we chart the develop- ment and diffusion of LSA as a research tool using social network analysis (SNA) approach that reveals the social structure of a discipline in terms of collaboration among scientists. Using Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science (WoS), ...

  5. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  6. Impact of the conversation map tools in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Fang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and type 2 diabetes is the most common type accounting for 90% of all diabetes cases. Health education is considered as the first choice to control blood glucose levels. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of health education tool "Conversation Map" in diabetes patients to control blood glucose. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and China Science Periodical Database up to December, 2015. We assessed the results using the inverse variance method to pool diabetes relative indicators, and assessed the heterogeneity of the results using I-square. We collected 22 trials in our meta-analysis, which included 3360 patients. The results showed that the fasting blood-glucose level was significantly reduced in the type 2 diabetes group patients educated with "Conversation Map" when compared to their respective control groups (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.70 to -1.76, P levels (WMD: -0.63, 95% CI: -1.08 to -0.17, P diabetes, and significantly reduced patients' blood glucose related index.

  7. Citation analysis: A social and dynamic approach to knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge organization (KO) and bibliometrics have traditionally been seen as separate subfields of library and information science, but bibliometric techniques make it possible to identify candidate terms for thesauri and to organize knowledge by relating scientific papers and authors to each...... be considered superior for all purposes. The main difference between traditional knowledge organization systems (KOSs) and maps based on citation analysis is that the first group represents intellectual KOSs, whereas the second represents social KOSs. For this reason bibliometric maps cannot be expected ever...... a distinct approach to KO which is characterized by its social, historical and dynamic nature, its close dependence on scholarly literature and its explicit kind of literary warrant. The two main methods, co-citation analysis and bibliographic coupling represent different things and thus neither can...

  8. Cognitive approaches for patterns analysis and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Ogiela, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    In this paper will be presented new opportunities for developing innovative solutions for semantic pattern classification and visual cryptography, which will base on cognitive and bio-inspired approaches. Such techniques can be used for evaluation of the meaning of analyzed patterns or encrypted information, and allow to involve such meaning into the classification task or encryption process. It also allows using some crypto-biometric solutions to extend personalized cryptography methodologies based on visual pattern analysis. In particular application of cognitive information systems for semantic analysis of different patterns will be presented, and also a novel application of such systems for visual secret sharing will be described. Visual shares for divided information can be created based on threshold procedure, which may be dependent on personal abilities to recognize some image details visible on divided images.

  9. A Morphogenetic Design Approach with Embedded Structural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Holst, Malene Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores a morphogenetic design approach with embedded structural analysis for architectural design. A material system based on a combined space truss and membrane system has been derived as a growth system with inspiration from natural growth of plants. The structural system...... is capable of adding new elements based on a structural analysis of the existing components and their internal stress levels. A GA decision-making procedure that control the generation of the growth cycles is introduced. This evaluation and generation loop is capable of successfully making decisions based...... on several, and often conflicting, inputs formulated from architectural requirements. An experiment with a tri-pyramid component has been considered, but many other space truss systems could be explored in the same manner and result in highly performative outcomes. not only with respect to the structural...

  10. A New Approach for the Stability Analysis of Wave Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Xuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new approach to investigate the stability of controlled tree-shaped wave networks and subtrees of complex wave networks. It is motivated by regarding the network as branching out from a single edge. We present the recursive relations of the Laplacian transforms of adjacent edges of the system in its branching order, which form the characteristic equation. In the stability analysis, we estimate the infimums of the recursive expressions in the inverse order based on the spectral analysis. It is a feasible way to check whether the system is exponentially stable under any control strategy or parameter choice. As an application we design the control law and study the stability of a 12-edge tree-shaped wave network.

  11. An algebraic approach to analysis of recursive and concurrent programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terepeta, Michal Tomasz

    This thesis focuses on formal techniques based on static program analysis, model checking and abstract interpretation that offer means for reasoning about software, verification of its properties and discovering potential bugs. First, we investigate an algebraic approach to static analysis...... the soundness or completeness results. Moreover, we present a new application of pushdown systems in the context of an aspect-oriented process calculus. The addition of aspect-oriented features makes it possible for a process to exhibit a recursive structure. We show how one can faithfully model and analyze...... such a language. We also introduce an abstract domain that symbolically represents the messages sent between the concurrently executing processes. It stores prefixes or suffixes of communication traces including various constraints imposed on the messages. Since the problem has exponential complexity, we also...

  12. Contribuições da Análise Conversacional ao estudo do traumatismo craneo-encefálico: relato de um caso Contributions of Conversation Analysis to the study of traumatic brain injury: a single case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Agnes Guernet Steiner

    2008-03-01

    results of this analysis with formal language tests. It discusses the contributions of this approach to develop intervention. While formal tests did not indicate the presence of language difficulties, the Conversation Analysis allowed, through the analysis of the sequence of turns and of the mutual reactions of both the interlocutors, the identification of communicative problems and the observation of how the speakers dealt with them. The results of this study revealed that Conversation Analysis is a sensitive approach to capture the linguistic-cognitive deficits caused by traumatic brain injury, providing concrete elements to be used in therapy in order to emphasize, in an organized way, the kind of discourse most used in daily life.

  13. Communication skills training in surgical residency: a needs assessment and metacognition analysis of a difficult conversation objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Claxton, René N; Marshall, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be used to evaluate the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills. The aim of this study was to describe general surgery resident performance on a "difficult conversation" OSCE. In this prospective study, junior and senior residents participated in a 2-station OSCE. Junior stations involved discussing operative risks and benefits and breaking bad news. Senior stations involved discussing goals of care and discussing transition to comfort measures only status. Residents completed post-OSCE checklist and Likert-based self-evaluations of experience, comfort, and confidence. Trained standardized patients (SPs) evaluated residents using communication skill-based checklists and Likert-based assessments. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between self-assessment and SP assessment. Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted between junior and senior resident variables, using α = 0.05. There were 27 junior residents (age 28.1 ± 1.9 years [29.6% female]) and 27 senior residents (age 32.1 ± 2.5 years [26.9% female]). The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by junior residents was -0.32 on the risks and benefits case and 0.07 on the breaking bad news case. The correlation of self-assessment and SP assessment of overall communication skills by senior residents was 0.30 on the goals of care case and 0.26 on the comfort measures only case. SP assessments showed that junior residents had higher overall communication skills than senior residents (p = 0.03). Senior residents perceived that having difficult conversations was more level appropriate (p skills are correlated, and that skills-based training is needed across all residency levels. This well-received method may be used to observe, document, and provide resident feedback for these important skills. © 2014 Published by

  14. Phishing Detection: Analysis of Visual Similarity Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the major problems faced by cyber-world and leads to financial losses for both industries and individuals. Detection of phishing attack with high accuracy has always been a challenging issue. At present, visual similarities based techniques are very useful for detecting phishing websites efficiently. Phishing website looks very similar in appearance to its corresponding legitimate website to deceive users into believing that they are browsing the correct website. Visual similarity based phishing detection techniques utilise the feature set like text content, text format, HTML tags, Cascading Style Sheet (CSS, image, and so forth, to make the decision. These approaches compare the suspicious website with the corresponding legitimate website by using various features and if the similarity is greater than the predefined threshold value then it is declared phishing. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of phishing attacks, their exploitation, some of the recent visual similarity based approaches for phishing detection, and its comparative study. Our survey provides a better understanding of the problem, current solution space, and scope of future research to deal with phishing attacks efficiently using visual similarity based approaches.

  15. An integrated sampling and analysis approach for improved biodiversity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWan, Amielle A.; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    Successful biodiversity conservation requires high quality monitoring data and analyses to ensure scientifically defensible policy, legislation, and management. Although monitoring is a critical component in assessing population status and trends, many governmental and non-governmental organizations struggle to develop and implement effective sampling protocols and statistical analyses because of the magnitude and diversity of species in conservation concern. In this article we describe a practical and sophisticated data collection and analysis framework for developing a comprehensive wildlife monitoring program that includes multi-species inventory techniques and community-level hierarchical modeling. Compared to monitoring many species individually, the multi-species approach allows for improved estimates of individual species occurrences, including rare species, and an increased understanding of the aggregated response of a community to landscape and habitat heterogeneity. We demonstrate the benefits and practicality of this approach to address challenges associated with monitoring in the context of US state agencies that are legislatively required to monitor and protect species in greatest conservation need. We believe this approach will be useful to regional, national, and international organizations interested in assessing the status of both common and rare species.

  16. Common-pool resources: Theoretical approaches for the analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Trujillo Cabrera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a bibliographic review of the main trends of thought that have proposed models for the management of common-pool resources – CPR. It describes three generations of researchers; first, the conservative ideas of Garret Hardin, Mancur Olson and Albert W. Tucker, referring to the application of state regulation and privatization of property rights as the only solutions for the management of common pool resources; second, the liberal proposal of Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues, which call for the strengthening of local capacities and self-management, to reach successful models of common pool resources use; and finally, as a research agenda of third generation, the article presents the questioning of Eduardo Araral to the generalization of the policy prescriptions proposed by both currents. The usefulness of these theoretical approaches is visible for regions like the Colombian Amazon, where collective (public and private property rights prevail, and there is a current debate about the way as common pool resources should be administrated to guarantee the welfare of present and future generations. The analysis of these theoretical approaches is important, because it allows to improve the understanding of the dilemmas faced by local citizens and policy makers. In this sense, the comprehension of these approaches contributes to the regional debate about the models of natural resource management that should be adopted, in order to achieve their sustainable, efficient and equitable use.

  17. Phenylketonuria mutation analysis in Northern Ireland: A rapid stepwise approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschocke, J.; Graham, C.A.; Nevin, N.C. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast (Australia)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    We present a multistep approach for the rapid analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations. In the first step, three common mutations and a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) system are rapidly analyzed with a fluorescent multiplex assay. In the second step, minihaplotypes combining STR and VNTR data are used to determine rare mutations likely to be present in an investigated patient, which are then confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. The remaining mutations are analyzed with denaturant gradient-gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The first two steps together identify both mutations in 90%-95% of PKU patients, and results can be obtained within 2 d. We have investigated 121 Northern Irish families with hyperphenylalaninemia, including virtually all patients born since 1972, and have found 34 different mutations on 241 of the 242 mutant alleles. Three mutations (R408W, 165T, and F39L) account for 57.5% of mutations, while 14 mutations occur with a frequency of 1%-6%. The present analysis system is efficient and inexpensive and is particularly well suited to routine mutation analysis in a diagnostic setting. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. ICWorld: An MMOG-Based Approach to Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Wong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence analysts routinely work with "wicked" problems—critical,time-sensitive problems where analytical errors can lead to catastrophic consequences for the nation's security. In the analyst's world, important decisions are often made quickly, and are made based on consuming, understanding, and piecing together enormous volumes of data. The data is not only voluminous, but often fragmented, subjective, inaccurate and fluid.Why does multi-player on-line gaming (MMOG technology matter to the IC? Fundamentally, there are two reasons. The first is technological: stripping away the gamelike content, MMOGs are dynamic systems that represent a physical world, where users are presented with (virtual life-and-death challenges that can only be overcome through planning, collaboration and communication. The second is cultural: the emerging generation of analysts is part of what is sometimes called the "Digital Natives" (Prensky 2001 and is fluent with interactive media. MMOGs enable faster visualization, data manipulation, collaboration and analysis than traditional text and imagery.ICWorld is an MMOG approach to intelligence analysis that fuses ideasfrom experts in the fields of gaming and data visualization, with knowledge of current and future intelligence analysis processes and tools. The concept has evolved over the last year as a result of evaluations by allsource analysts from around the IC. When fully developed, the Forterra team believes that ICWorld will fundamentally address major shortcomings of intelligence analysis, and dramatically improve the effectiveness of intelligence products.

  19. A Big Data Analysis Approach for Rail Failure Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ali; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrzad; Hajizadeh, Siamak; Núñez, Alfredo; Babuska, Robert; Dollevoet, Rolf; Li, Zili; De Schutter, Bart

    2017-08-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by analyzing a type of rail surface defect called squats that are detected automatically among the huge number of records from video cameras. We propose an image processing approach for automatic detection of squats, especially severe types that are prone to rail breaks. We measure the visual length of the squats and use them to model the failure risk. For the assessment of the rail failure risk, we estimate the probability of rail failure based on the growth of squats. Moreover, we perform severity and crack growth analyses to consider the impact of rail traffic loads on defects in three different growth scenarios. The failure risk estimations are provided for several samples of squats with different crack growth lengths on a busy rail track of the Dutch railway network. The results illustrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed approach. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Information Retrieval and Graph Analysis Approaches for Book Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahinez Benkoussas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple information retrieval approaches is proposed for the purpose of book recommendation. In this paper, book recommendation is based on complex user's query. We used different theoretical retrieval models: probabilistic as InL2 (Divergence from Randomness model and language model and tested their interpolated combination. Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank have been successful in Web environments. We consider the application of this algorithm in a new retrieval approach to related document network comprised of social links. We called Directed Graph of Documents (DGD a network constructed with documents and social information provided from each one of them. Specifically, this work tackles the problem of book recommendation in the context of INEX (Initiative for the Evaluation of XML retrieval Social Book Search track. A series of reranking experiments demonstrate that combining retrieval models yields significant improvements in terms of standard ranked retrieval metrics. These results extend the applicability of link analysis algorithms to different environments.

  1. Mutation Analysis Approach to Develop Reliable Object-Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, modern programs are large and complex and it is essential that they should be highly reliable in applications. In order to develop highly reliable software, Java programming language developer provides a rich set of exceptions and exception handling mechanisms. Exception handling mechanisms are intended to help developers build robust programs. Given a program with exception handling constructs, for an effective testing, we are to detect whether all possible exceptions are raised and caught or not. However, complex exception handling constructs make it tedious to trace which exceptions are handled and where and which exceptions are passed on. In this paper, we address this problem and propose a mutation analysis approach to develop reliable object-oriented programs. We have applied a number of mutation operators to create a large set of mutant programs with different type of faults. We then generate test cases and test data to uncover exception related faults. The test suite so obtained is applied to the mutant programs measuring the mutation score and hence verifying whether mutant programs are effective or not. We have tested our approach with a number of case studies to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed mutation analysis technique.

  2. Modeling approaches to long-run integrated technological impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groncki, P.J.

    1979-12-01

    Analysis of the energy-economic-environmental impacts of energy policies, such as a major synthetic fuels program, requires methodologies that reflect the potential benefits and costs of proposed policy alternatives. Energy policies typically have secondary economic and environmental effects as well as direct effects on energy itself, and these must collectively be assessed to provide a complete basis for policy selection. The focus of this report is on approaches to the analysis of long-term impacts that may result from current decisions regarding energy policy. The interrelationships among the energy, economic, and environmental systems, and alternative ways of analyzing long-term impacts within an integrated framework are discussed. An application of such a framework to the assessment of a major synthetic fuels program is presented as an example. The use of idealized problem formulations is a necessary part of technology assessment, particularly in considering highly integrated policy issues, such as a synfuels policy. Nonquantifiable factors, such as equity, are not always considered in mathematical models. Model results should be viewed only as aids for decision making among policy alternatives, as they may not take into account all of the policy's implications. A decision maker must recognize the limitations to using model outputs and must use both experience and judgement in selecting policy alternatives for implementation. Use of an appropriate model structure with sufficient feedback capabilities will often provide a better overall policy assessment than a highly detailed but uncoordinated approach to the same problems.

  3. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  4. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  5. Serious Illness Conversations in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-05-08

    Dialysis-dependent ESRD is a serious illness with high disease burden, morbidity, and mortality. Mortality in the first year on dialysis for individuals over age 75 years old approaches 40%, and even those with better prognoses face multiple hospitalizations and declining functional status. In the last month of life, patients on dialysis over age 65 years old experience higher rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, procedures, and death in hospital than patients with cancer or heart failure, while using hospice services less. This high intensity of care is often inconsistent with the wishes of patients on dialysis but persists due to failure to explore or discuss patient goals, values, and preferences in the context of their serious illness. Fewer than 10% of patients on dialysis report having had a conversation about goals, values, and preferences with their nephrologist, although nearly 90% report wanting this conversation. Many nephrologists shy away from these conversations, because they do not wish to upset their patients, feel that there is too much uncertainty in their ability to predict prognosis, are insecure in their skills at broaching the topic, or have difficulty incorporating the conversations into their clinical workflow. In multiple studies, timely discussions about serious illness care goals, however, have been associated with enhanced goal-consistent care, improved quality of life, and positive family outcomes without an increase in patient distress or anxiety. In this special feature article, we will ( 1 ) identify the barriers to serious illness conversations in the dialysis population, ( 2 ) review best practices in and specific approaches to conducting serious illness conversations, and ( 3 ) offer solutions to overcome barriers as well as practical advice, including specific language and tools, to implement serious illness conversations in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathryn Grow; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2017-11-01

    Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D 2 -matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian. Affinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns. The results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Using a patient decision aid for insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative analysis of doctor-patient conversations in primary care consultations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ayeshah; Mohd Don, Zuraidah; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Lee, Yew Kong; Khoo, Ee Ming; Lee, Ping Yein; Lim Abdullah, Khatijah; Zainal, Azlin

    2017-05-09

    To investigate whether the use of apatient decision aid (PDA) for insulin initiation fulfils its purpose of facilitating patient-centred decision-making through identifying how doctors and patients interact when using the PDA during primary care consultations. Conversation analysis of seven single cases of audio-recorded/video-recorded consultations between doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes, using a PDA on starting insulin. Primary care in three healthcare settings: (1) one private clinic; (2) two public community clinics and (3) one primary care clinic in a public university hospital, in Negeri Sembilan and the Klang Valley in Malaysia. Clinicians and seven patients with type 2 diabetes to whom insulin had been recommended. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample high in variance across healthcare settings, participant demographics and perspectives on insulin. Interaction between doctors and patients in a clinical consultation involving the use of a PDA about starting insulin. Doctors brought the PDA into the conversation mainly by asking information-focused 'yes/no' questions, and used the PDA for information exchange only if patients said they had not read it. While their contributions were limited by doctors' questions, some patients disclosed issues or concerns. Although doctors' PDA-related questions acted as a presequence to deliberation on starting insulin, their interactional practices raised questions on whether patients were informed and their preferences prioritised. Interactional practices can hinder effective PDA implementation, with habits from ordinary conversation potentially influencing doctors' practices and complicating their implementation of patient-centred decision-making. Effective interaction should therefore be emphasised in the design and delivery of PDAs and in training clinicians to use them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  8. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20-55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for 241Am.

  9. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratik Kar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs. Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron transfer step. This depends on the relative position of the sensitized organic dye in the metal oxide composite system. In the present work, we developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models to set up the quantitative relationship between the overall PCE and quantum chemical molecular descriptors. They were calculated from density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT methods as well as from DRAGON software. This allows for understanding the basic electron transfer mechanism along with the structural attributes of arylamine-organic dye sensitizers for the DSSCs explicit to cobalt electrolyte. The identified properties and structural fragments are particularly valuable for guiding time-saving synthetic efforts for development of efficient arylamine organic dyes with improved power conversion efficiency.

  10. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  11. Gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique for direct analysis of metal carbonyl gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Gunther, Detlef; Ohata, Masaki

    2014-10-21

    A novel gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique for the direct analysis of metal carbonyl gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was proposed and demonstrated in the present study. The technique is based on a transfer of gas into particle, which can be directly analyzed by ICPMS. Particles from metal carbonyl gases such as Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and W(CO)6 are formed by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonium (NH3) gases within a newly developed gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The reaction mechanism of the gas to particle conversion is based on either oxidation of metal carbonyl gas by O3 or agglomeration of metal oxide with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which is generated by the reaction of O3 and NH3. To separate the reaction gases (remaining O3 and NH3) from the formed particles, a previously reported gas exchange device (GED) was used and the in argon stabilized analyte particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS. This new technique provided limits of detection (LOD) of 0.15 pL L(-1) (0.32 ng m(-3)), 0.02 pL L(-1) (0.07 ng m(-3)), and 0.01 pL L(-1) (0.07 ng m(-3)) for Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and W(CO)6, respectively, which were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than those conventional applied for detecting these gases, e.g., gas chromatography with electron captured detector (GC-ECD) as well as Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The achieved LODs were also similar or slightly better than those for ICPMS coupled to GC. Since the gas to particle conversion technique can achieve the direct measurement of metal carbonyl gases as well as the removal of reaction and ambient gases from metal carbonyl gases, the technique is considered to be well suited to monitor gas quality in semiconductor industry, engine exhaust gases, and or waste incineration products.

  12. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Brumberg, R.J.; Chen, H.C.; Nelson, E.T.; Stringer, R.P.; Bailie, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The progress made in the development of a linear programming model which will enable the energy manager to determine the right mix of biomass resources and conversion processes to produce the desired fuel is summarized. In the development of the model, a market analysis of the need for biomass derived fuels will be made and the regional availability of biomass resources determined on a seasonal basis. Biomass conversion profiles (gasification, pyrolysis, and direct combustion) will be developed for 100 biomass materials. (JSR)

  13. Sensitivity analysis of high resolution gamma-ray detection for safeguards monitoring at natural uranium conversion facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewji, S. A.; Croft, S.; Hertel, N. E.

    2017-03-01

    Under the policies proposed by recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) circulars and policy papers, implementation of safeguards exists when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exists. Under IAEA Policy Paper 18, the starting point for nuclear material under safeguards was reinterpreted, suggesting that purified uranium compounds should be subject to safeguards procedures no later than the first point in the conversion process. In response to this technical need, a combination of simulation models and experimental measurements were employed in previous work to develop and validate gamma-ray nondestructive assay monitoring systems in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). In particular, uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)2) solution exiting solvent extraction was identified as a key measurement point (KMP). Passive nondestructive assay techniques using high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy were evaluated to determine their viability as a technical means for drawing safeguards conclusions at NUCPs, and if the IAEA detection requirements of 1 significant quantity (SQ) can be met in a timely manner. Building upon the aforementioned previous validation work on detector sensitivity to varying concentrations of uranyl nitrate via a series of dilution measurements, this work investigates detector response parameter sensitivities to gamma-ray signatures of uranyl nitrate. The full energy peak efficiency of a detection system is dependent upon the sample, geometry, absorption, and intrinsic efficiency parameters. Perturbation of these parameters translates into corresponding variations of the 185.7 keV peak area of the 235U in uranyl nitrate. Such perturbations in the assayed signature impact the quality or versatility of the safeguards conclusions drawn. Given the potentially high throughput of uranyl nitrate in NUCPs, the ability to assay 1 SQ of material requires uncertainty «1%. Accounting for

  14. Sensitivity analysis of high resolution gamma-ray detection for safeguards monitoring at natural uranium conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S.A., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Hertel, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Under the policies proposed by recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) circulars and policy papers, implementation of safeguards exists when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exists. Under IAEA Policy Paper 18, the starting point for nuclear material under safeguards was reinterpreted, suggesting that purified uranium compounds should be subject to safeguards procedures no later than the first point in the conversion process. In response to this technical need, a combination of simulation models and experimental measurements were employed in previous work to develop and validate gamma-ray nondestructive assay monitoring systems in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). In particular, uranyl nitrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) solution exiting solvent extraction was identified as a key measurement point (KMP). Passive nondestructive assay techniques using high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy were evaluated to determine their viability as a technical means for drawing safeguards conclusions at NUCPs, and if the IAEA detection requirements of 1 significant quantity (SQ) can be met in a timely manner. Building upon the aforementioned previous validation work on detector sensitivity to varying concentrations of uranyl nitrate via a series of dilution measurements, this work investigates detector response parameter sensitivities to gamma-ray signatures of uranyl nitrate. The full energy peak efficiency of a detection system is dependent upon the sample, geometry, absorption, and intrinsic efficiency parameters. Perturbation of these parameters translates into corresponding variations of the 185.7 keV peak area of the {sup 235}U in uranyl nitrate. Such perturbations in the assayed signature impact the quality or versatility of the safeguards conclusions drawn. Given the potentially high throughput of uranyl nitrate in NUCPs, the ability to assay 1 SQ of material requires

  15. Conversational Analysis as a Method for Research on Intercultural Learning: A Report on a Project with the Aim of "Learning by Undertaking Research"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berkenbusch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversational analysis—situated between pragmatic linguistics and qualitative empirical research—is a complex method, which needs a lot of time and dedication. It is necessary to develop a so-called “analytical mentality”. The aim of the project presented in this paper was to develop the theoretical insights and the practical skills of a group of students for this kind of research. They worked together throughout the duration of the project, especially in the collec¬tion of empiric material: i.e. the recording of conversations between foreign and German stu¬dents, the transcription of the material, a group discussion on the data and finally its analysis. This articles aims at showing what students can learn by doing this kind of work, based on examples of the collected empirical material: (1 they will be introduced to the different levels and stages of the research process and have the chance to develop a methodical and methodological competence; (2 their general communicative competences and their special competences of the foreign language will increase, as well as (3 their knowledge of intercultural learning by working with authentic data of intercultural communication. So, for instance, stereotypes and how they have been constructed during the interaction may be analysed and precisely described on a micro-analytical level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901335

  16. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  17. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  18. Functional approach to high-throughput plant growth analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Method Taking advantage of the current rapid development in imaging systems and computer vision algorithms, we present HPGA, a high-throughput phenotyping platform for plant growth modeling and functional analysis, which produces better understanding of energy distribution in regards of the balance between growth and defense. HPGA has two components, PAE (Plant Area Estimation) and GMA (Growth Modeling and Analysis). In PAE, by taking the complex leaf overlap problem into consideration, the area of every plant is measured from top-view images in four steps. Given the abundant measurements obtained with PAE, in the second module GMA, a nonlinear growth model is applied to generate growth curves, followed by functional data analysis. Results Experimental results on model plant Arabidopsis thaliana show that, compared to an existing approach, HPGA reduces the error rate of measuring plant area by half. The application of HPGA on the cfq mutant plants under fluctuating light reveals the correlation between low photosynthetic rates and small plant area (compared to wild type), which raises a hypothesis that knocking out cfq changes the sensitivity of the energy distribution under fluctuating light conditions to repress leaf growth. Availability HPGA is available at http://www.msu.edu/~jinchen/HPGA. PMID:24565437

  19. Network Analysis: A Novel Approach to Understand Suicidal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek de Beurs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although suicide is a major public health issue worldwide, we understand little of the onset and development of suicidal behaviour. Suicidal behaviour is argued to be the end result of the complex interaction between psychological, social and biological factors. Epidemiological studies resulted in a range of risk factors for suicidal behaviour, but we do not yet understand how their interaction increases the risk for suicidal behaviour. A new approach called network analysis can help us better understand this process as it allows us to visualize and quantify the complex association between many different symptoms or risk factors. A network analysis of data containing information on suicidal patients can help us understand how risk factors interact and how their interaction is related to suicidal thoughts and behaviour. A network perspective has been successfully applied to the field of depression and psychosis, but not yet to the field of suicidology. In this theoretical article, I will introduce the concept of network analysis to the field of suicide prevention, and offer directions for future applications and studies.

  20. Taking Interaction in Literacy Events Seriously: A Conversation Analysis Approach to Evolving Literacy Practices in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Marie

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relation between literacy events and literacy practices in classroom interaction and add to ongoing discussions in the field of NLS about the transcontextual nature of literacy and how local literacy events are linked to broader literacy practices. It specifically focuses on how the link between literacy events and…

  1. Review of betavoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1993-01-01

    Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.

  2. Identifying choke species challenges for an individual demersal trawler in the North Sea, lessons from conversations and data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Ulrich, Clara; Hansen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    with quantitative analysis on fisheries data. From the interviews, saithe and cod were identified as potential choke species and subsequent analysis focused on these two species. The analysis of catch and quota composition showed that cod would choke the fishery early if no catch-quota balancing options were...... than large displacements. Catch composition showed that saithe is distributed more patchily than cod, with most hauls containing small amounts of saithe and a few hauls containing large amounts. In conclusion this paper supplies an view on the choke species problem seen from the perspective...

  3. Conversations in African Philosophy | Chimakonam | Filosofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  4. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  5. Conversations About Responsible Nanoresearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølberg, Kamilla Lein; Strand, Roger

    2011-04-01

    There is currently a strong focus on responsible research in relation to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This study presents a series of conversations with nanoresearchers, with the 'European Commission recommendation on a code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research' (EC-CoC) as its point of departure. Six types of reactions to the document are developed, illustrating the diversity existing within the scientific community in responses towards this kind of new approaches to governance. Three broad notions of responsible nanoresearch are presented. The article concludes by arguing that while the suggestion put forward in the EC-CoC brings the concept of responsible nanoresearch a long way, one crucial element is to be wanted, namely responsible nanoresearch as increased awareness of moral choices.

  6. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  7. Stochastic approach to observability analysis in water networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an alternative technique to the existing methods for observability analysis (OA in water networks, which is a prior essential step for the implementation of state estimation (SE techniques within such systems. The methodology presented here starts from a known hydraulic state and assumes random gaussian distributions for the uncertainty of some hydraulic variables, which is then propagated to the rest of the system. This process is repeated again to analyze the change in the network uncertainty when metering devices considered as error-free are included, based on which the network observability can be evaluated. The method’s potential is presented in an illustrative example, which shows the additional information that this methodology provides with respect to traditional OA approaches. This proposal allows a better understanding of the network and constitutes a practical tool to prioritize the location of additional meters, thus enhancing the transformation of large urban areas into actual smart cities.

  8. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  9. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; SwanII, J. Edward [Mississippi State University (MSU); Fitzpatrick, Patrick J. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Jankun-Kelly, T.J. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  10. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  11. Analysis of patient diaries in Danish ICUs: a narrative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2009-01-01

    -traumatic stress. Patient diaries written in the intensive care unit are used to help ICU-survivors come to terms with their illness. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The study had a qualitative, descriptive and explorative design, using a narrative approach of analysis. Data were analysed on several levels: extra-case level......, case level, diary-entry level, and sub-entry level. The sample consisted of 25 patient diaries written by critical care nurses in 2007 for patients at a general ICU in Denmark. RESULTS: The base narrative describes three stages: crisis, turning point, and normalisation. Each case includes parallel...... of the narratives may pave the way for insights to improve critical care nursing and ICU rehabilitation....

  12. Vulnerability survival analysis: a novel approach to vulnerability management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Sullivan, John; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    Computer security vulnerabilities span across large, enterprise networks and have to be mitigated by security engineers on a routine basis. Presently, security engineers will assess their "risk posture" through quantifying the number of vulnerabilities with a high Common Vulnerability Severity Score (CVSS). Yet, little to no attention is given to the length of time by which vulnerabilities persist and survive on the network. In this paper, we review a novel approach to quantifying the length of time a vulnerability persists on the network, its time-to-death, and predictors of lower vulnerability survival rates. Our contribution is unique in that we apply the cox proportional hazards regression model to real data from an operational IT environment. This paper provides a mathematical overview of the theory behind survival analysis methods, a description of our vulnerability data, and an interpretation of the results.

  13. Multi-Channel Satellite Image Analysis Using a Variational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L.; Castaño, C. A.; García, M.; Krissian, K.; Mazorra, L.; Salgado, A.; Sánchez, J.

    2008-06-01

    Currently, meteorological satellites provide multichannel image sequences including visible, temperature and water vapor channels. Based on a variational approach, we propose mathematical models to address some of the usual challenges in satellite image analysis such as: (i) the estimation and smoothing of the cloud structures by decoupling them into different layers depending on their altitudes, (ii) the estimation of the cloud structure motion by combining information from all the channels, and (iii) the 3D visualization of both the cloud structure and the estimated displacements. We include information of all the channels in a single variational motion estimation model. The associated Euler-Lagrange equations yield to a nonlinear system of partial differential equations that we solve numerically using finite-difference schemes. We illustrate the performance of the proposed models with numerical experiments on two multichannel satellite sequences of the North Atlantic, one of them from the Hurricane Vince. Based on a realistic synthetic ground truth motion, we show that our multichannel approach overcomes the single channel estimation for both the average Euclidean and angular errors.

  14. Temporal eating patterns: a latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-07

    There is some evidence that large energy intakes towards the end of the day are associated with adverse health outcomes, however, studies of temporal eating patterns across the day are rare. This study examines the temporal eating patterns of Australian adults using latent class analysis (LCA), as a novel approach. Dietary data (n = 2402 men and n = 2840 women, ≥19 years) from two 24-h recalls collected during the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. LCA was performed to identify distinct temporal eating patterns based on whether or not an eating occasion (EO) occurred within each hour of the day. F and adjusted-chi(2) tests assessed differences in sociodemographic and eating patterns (e.g., meal, snack and EO frequency) between latent classes. Three patterns, labelled "Conventional" (men: 43%, women: 41%), "Later lunch" (men: 34%, women: 34%) and "Grazing" (men: 23%, women: 25%) were identified. Men and women with a "Grazing" pattern were significantly younger (P energy intake from snacks but a lower proportion of total energy intake from meals (P eating patterns in adults that varied by age, EO frequency, snack frequency and energy intake pattern. LCA is a useful approach to capture differences in EO timing across the day. Future research should examine associations between temporal eating patterns and health.

  15. A Novel Synchronization-Based Approach for Functional Connectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex network analysis has become a gold standard to investigate functional connectivity in the human brain. Popular approaches for quantifying functional coupling between fMRI time series are linear zero-lag correlation methods; however, they might reveal only partial aspects of the functional links between brain areas. In this work, we propose a novel approach for assessing functional coupling between fMRI time series and constructing functional brain networks. A phase space framework is used to map couples of signals exploiting their cross recurrence plots (CRPs to compare the trajectories of the interacting systems. A synchronization metric is extracted from the CRP to assess the coupling behavior of the time series. Since the functional communities of a healthy population are expected to be highly consistent for the same task, we defined functional networks of task-related fMRI data of a cohort of healthy subjects and applied a modularity algorithm in order to determine the community structures of the networks. The within-group similarity of communities is evaluated to verify whether such new metric is robust enough against noise. The synchronization metric is also compared with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detected communities seem to better reflect the functional brain organization during the specific task.

  16. Novel computational approaches for the analysis of cosmic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, Andrey [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Keldysh Institut, Moskau (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    In order to give a consistent picture of cosmic, i.e. galactic and extragalactic, magnetic fields, different approaches are possible and often even necessary. Here we present three of them: First, a semianalytic analysis of the time evolution of primordial magnetic fields from which their properties and, subsequently, the nature of present-day intergalactic magnetic fields may be deduced. Second, the use of high-performance computing infrastructure by developing powerful algorithms for (magneto-)hydrodynamic simulations and applying them to astrophysical problems. We are currently developing a code which applies kinetic schemes in massive parallel computing on high performance multiprocessor systems in a new way to calculate both hydro- and electrodynamic quantities. Finally, as a third approach, astroparticle physics might be used as magnetic fields leave imprints of their properties on charged particles transversing them. Here we focus on electromagnetic cascades by developing a software based on CRPropa which simulates the propagation of particles from such cascades through the intergalactic medium in three dimensions. This may in particular be used to obtain information about the helicity of extragalactic magnetic fields.

  17. Learning from Monet: A Fundamentally New Approach to Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2009-03-01

    The hands and minds of artists are intimately involved in the creative process, intrinsically making paintings complex images to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the painter David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists as early as Jan van Eyck (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of making those discoveries, Hockney and I developed new insights that are now being applied in a fundamentally new approach to image analysis. Very recent results from this new approach include identifying from Impressionist paintings by Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and others the precise locations the artists stood when making a number of their paintings. The specific deviations we find when accurately comparing these examples with photographs taken from the same locations provide us with key insights into what the artists' visual skills informed them were the ways to represent these two-dimensional images of three-dimensional scenes to viewers. As will be discussed, these results also have implications for improving the representation of certain scientific data. Acknowledgment: I am grateful to David Hockney for the many invaluable insights into imaging gained from him in our collaboration.

  18. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  19. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  20. Challenging Issues in Translating Conversational Implicature from English into Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Ahmad Al-Shawi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conversational implicature is known as an additional meaning indirectly implicated by saying another thing. In this sense, the aim of this paper is to discuss the problems of translating conversational implicature from English into Arabic. the data is selected from two English literary works; Lord of the Flies and Nineteen Eighty-Four along with their Arabic translation. Two theoretical frameworks are implemented for the descriptive analysis of the selected texts, Skopos approach and Grice’s Implicature. These two theories, along with their rules, provide appropriate standards to measure the accuracy of such translations from English language into Arabic. The analyses reveal that the translators encountered problems and obstacles during the translation into Arabic for several reasons, including linguistic, social and cultural. therefore, the translators followed different approaches and techniques to achieve consistent coherent Arabic text, equivalent to that of the original. In conclusion, the study illustrates that both theories are successful and applicable at varying levels, in translating conversational implicature from English into Arabic. Nevertheless, Grice’s approach is more successful in translating the conversational imlicatures within the framework of this study. Accordingly, this study answers all the designed questions.

  1. Conversion of natural aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Igor W; Boulvin, Michael; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Yvonne L

    2009-08-31

    Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae) and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  2. Conversion of Natural Aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into Oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor W. Ouédraogo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  3. An Object-Based Image Analysis Method for Monitoring Land Conversion by Artificial Sprawl Use of RapidEye and IRS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Balestrat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, in the peri-urban context, urban sprawl dynamics are particularly strong with huge population growth as well as a land crisis. The increase and spreading of built-up areas from the city centre towards the periphery takes place to the detriment of natural and agricultural spaces. The conversion of land with agricultural potential is all the more worrying as it is usually irreversible. The French Ministry of Agriculture therefore needs reliable and repeatable spatial-temporal methods to locate and quantify loss of land at both local and national scales. The main objective of this study was to design a repeatable method to monitor land conversion characterized by artificial sprawl: (i We used an object-based image analysis to extract artificial areas from satellite images; (ii We built an artificial patch that consists of aggregating all the peripheral areas that characterize artificial areas. The “artificialized” patch concept is an innovative extension of the urban patch concept, but differs in the nature of its components and in the continuity distance applied; (iii The diachronic analysis of artificial patch maps enables characterization of artificial sprawl. The method was applied at the scale of four departments (similar to provinces along the coast of Languedoc-Roussillon, in the South of France, based on two satellite datasets, one acquired in 1996–1997 (Indian Remote Sensing and the other in 2009 (RapidEye. In the four departments, we measured an increase in artificial areas of from 113,000 ha in 1997 to 133,000 ha in 2009, i.e., an 18% increase in 12 years. The package comes in the form of a 1/15,000 valid cartography, usable at the scale of a commune (the smallest territorial division used for administrative purposes in France that can be adapted to departmental and regional scales. The method is reproducible in homogenous spatial-temporal terms, so that it could be used periodically to assess changes in land conversion

  4. Service quality measurement. A new approach based on Conjoint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Gatta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the measurement of service quality. The main objective is to suggest an alternative criterion for service quality definition and measurement. After a brief description of the most traditional techniques and with the intent to overcome some critical factors pertaining them, I focus my attention on the choice-based conjoint analysis, a particular stated preferences method that estimates the structure of consumers’ preferences given their choices between alternative service options. Discrete choice models and the traditional compensatory utility maximization framework are extended by the inclusion of the attribute cutoffs into the decision problem formulation. The major theoretical aspects of the described approach are examined and discussed, showing that it is able to identify the relative importance of the relevant attributes, calculating elasticity and monetary evaluation, and to determine a service quality index. Then simulations enable the identification of potential service quality levels, so that marketing managers have valuable information to plan their best business strategies. We present findings from an empirical study in the public transport sector designed to gain insights into the use of the choice-based conjoint analysis.

  5. DNA Microarray Data Analysis: A Novel Biclustering Algorithm Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchagang, Alain B.; Tewfik, Ahmed H.

    2006-12-01

    Biclustering algorithms refer to a distinct class of clustering algorithms that perform simultaneous row-column clustering. Biclustering problems arise in DNA microarray data analysis, collaborative filtering, market research, information retrieval, text mining, electoral trends, exchange analysis, and so forth. When dealing with DNA microarray experimental data for example, the goal of biclustering algorithms is to find submatrices, that is, subgroups of genes and subgroups of conditions, where the genes exhibit highly correlated activities for every condition. In this study, we develop novel biclustering algorithms using basic linear algebra and arithmetic tools. The proposed biclustering algorithms can be used to search for all biclusters with constant values, biclusters with constant values on rows, biclusters with constant values on columns, and biclusters with coherent values from a set of data in a timely manner and without solving any optimization problem. We also show how one of the proposed biclustering algorithms can be adapted to identify biclusters with coherent evolution. The algorithms developed in this study discover all valid biclusters of each type, while almost all previous biclustering approaches will miss some.

  6. Manufacturing and alignment tolerance analysis through Montecarlo approach for PLATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Timothy; Brändli, Mathias; Benz, Willy; Bruno, Giordano; De Roche, Thierry; Piazza, Daniele; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Mogulsky, Valery; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike

    2016-07-01

    The project PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is one of the selected medium class (M class) missions in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main scientific goal of PLATO is the discovery and study of extrasolar planetary systems by means of planetary transits detection. According to the current baseline, the scientific payload consists of 34 all refractive telescopes having small aperture (120mm) and wide field of view (diameter greater than 37 degrees) observing over 0.5-1 micron wavelength band. The telescopes are mounted on a common optical bench and are divided in four families of eight telescopes with an overlapping line-of-sight in order to maximize the science return. Remaining two telescopes will be dedicated to support on-board star-tracking system and will be specialized on two different photometric bands for science purposes. The performance requirement, adopted as merit function during the analysis, is specified as 90% enclosed energy contained in a square having size 2 pixels over the whole field of view with a depth of focus of +/-20 micron. Given the complexity of the system, we have followed a Montecarlo analysis approach for manufacturing and alignment tolerances. We will describe here the tolerance method and the preliminary results, speculating on the assumed risks and expected performances.

  7. Variometric approach for displacement analysis using Galileo data: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesolin, Francesca; Vitti, Alfonso; Mazzoni, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    The Variometric Approach for Displacement Analysis Standalone Engine (VADASE) was successfully applied for seismological purposes using GPS observations. The Galileo system, recently entered in the Initial Services operation phase, supplies GPS inter-operable and specific observations that can be used by VADASE. In this work the Galileo derived VADASE solutions are inspected to evaluate the impact of the European observations. A preliminary comparison with the GPS derived solutions and the state of the undergoing development of the VADASE software for the combined processing of GPS and Galileo data are also presented. The entire repetition period of the Galileo constellation was investigated to identify the time-window with the most abundant number of satellites. Observation packages of about 15 minutes at the 1Hz observation rate were analyzed. VADASE solutions were computed using single and iono-free observations from a set of IGS-MGEX sites and from U-blox receivers. The comparison with the GPS derived solutions was carried out selecting GPS constellations with the same number of satellites and the closest PDOP values to that of the Galileo constellations inspected. The analysis was carried out using broadcast and precise orbits. Standard statistics of the Galileo derived solutions are provided and commented. In general, the solutions are of good quality and essentially comparable to or better than the GPS derived solutions.

  8. Development of a Bioinformatics Framework for the Detection of Gene Conversion and the Analysis of Combinatorial Diversity in Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains in Four Cattle Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Stefanie; Tietze, Manfred; Czerny, Claus-Peter; König, Sven; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new bioinformatics framework for the analysis of rearranged bovine heavy chain immunoglobulin (Ig) variable regions by combining and refining widely used alignment algorithms. This bioinformatics framework allowed us to investigate alignments of heavy chain framework regions (FRHs) and the separate alignments of FRHs and heavy chain complementarity determining regions (CDRHs) to determine their germline origin in the four cattle breeds Aubrac, German Black Pied, German Simmental, and Holstein Friesian. Now it is also possible to specifically analyze Ig heavy chains possessing exceptionally long CDR3Hs. In order to gain more insight into breed specific differences in Ig combinatorial diversity, somatic hypermutations and putative gene conversions of IgG, we compared the dominantly transcribed variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), and joining (IGHJ) segments and their recombination in the four cattle breeds. The analysis revealed the use of 15 different IGHV segments, 21 IGHD segments, and two IGHJ segments with significant different transcription levels within the breeds. Furthermore, there are preferred rearrangements within the three groups of CDR3H lengths. In the sequences of group 2 (CDR3H lengths (L) of 11-47 amino acid residues (aa)) a higher number of recombination was observed than in sequences of group 1 (L≤10 aa) and 3 (L≥48 aa). The combinatorial diversity of germline IGHV, IGHD, and IGHJ-segments revealed 162 rearrangements that were significantly different. The few preferably rearranged gene segments within group 3 CDR3H regions may indicate specialized antibodies because this length is unique in cattle. The most important finding of this study, which was enabled by using the bioinformatics framework, is the discovery of strong evidence for gene conversion as a rare event using pseudogenes fulfilling all definitions for this particular diversification mechanism.

  9. Social media: a tool to spread information: a case study analysis of twitter conversation at the Cardiac Society of Australia & New Zealand 61st annual scientific meeting 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Caleb; Inglis, Sally C; Newton, Phillip J; Cripps, Peter J S; MacDonald, Peter S; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way in which people communicate and consume information. More importantly, this innovation has increased the speed and spread of information. There has been recent increase in the percentage of cardiovascular professionals, including journals and associations using Twitter to engage with others and exchange ideas. Evaluating the reach and impact in scientific meetings is important in promoting the use of social media. This study evaluated Twitter use during the recent 61st Annual Scientific Meeting at the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. During the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand 2013 61st Annual Scientific Meeting Symplur was used to curate conversations that were publicly posted with the hashtag #CSANZ2013. The hashtag was monitored with analysis focused on the influencers, latest tweets, tweet statistics, activity comparisons, and tweet activity during the conference. Additionally, Radian6 social media listening software was used to collect data. A summary is provided. There were 669 total tweets sent from 107 unique Twitter accounts during 8th August 9 a.m. to 11th August 1 p.m. This averaged nine tweets per hour and six tweets per participant. This assisted in the sharing of ideas and disseminating the findings and conclusions from presenters at the conference with a total 1,432,573 potential impressions in Twitter users tweet streams. This analysis of Twitter conversations during a recent scientific meeting highlights the significance and place of social media within research dissemination and collaboration. Researchers and clinicians should consider using this technology to enhance timely communication of findings. The potential to engage with consumers and enhance shared decision-making should be explored further.

  10. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  11. A novel approach for system change pathway analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Ibrahim Gabr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is directed toward presenting a novel approach based on “consolidity charts” for the analysis of natural and man-made systems during their change pathway or course of life. The physical significance of the consolidity chart (region is that it marks the boundary of all system interactive behavior resulting from all exhaustive internal and external influences. For instance, at a specific event state, the corresponding consolidity region describes all the plausible points of normalized input–output (fuzzy or non-fuzzy interactions. These charts are developed as each event step for zone scaling of system parameters changes due to affected events or varying environments “on and above” their normal operation or set points and following the “time driven-event driven-parameters change” paradigm. Examples of the consolidity trajectory movement in the regions or patterns centers in the proposed charts of various consolidity classes are developed showing situations of change pathways from the unconsolidated form to the consolidated ones and vice versa. It is shown that the regions comparisons are based on type of consolidity region geometric shapes properties. Moreover, it is illustrated that the centerlines connecting consolidity regions during the change pathway could follow some certain type of trajectories designated as “consolidity pathway trajectory” that could assume various forms including zigzagging patterns depending on the consecutive affected influences. Implementation procedures are elaborated for the consolidity chart analysis of four real life case studies during their conventional and unconventional change pathways, describing: (i the drug concentration production problem, (ii the prey–predator population problem, (iii the spread of infectious disease problem and (iv the HIV/AIDS Epidemic problem. These solved case studies have lucidly demonstrated the applicability and effectiveness of the suggested

  12. Media effects, interpersonal communication and beyond: An experimental approach to study conversations about the media and their role in news reception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denise SOMMER

    2013-01-01

    .... An experimental approach to research on TV news effects is presented. It focuses on interpersonal communication about a newscast and simulates the social context of media use and media effects...

  13. Analysis and Risk Evaluation on the Case of Alteration, Revitalization and Conversion of a Historic Building in Gdańsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyl, Beata; Kristowski, Adam; Miszewska-Urbańska, Emilia

    2017-10-01

    Each investment plan, including the one concerning a building, is exposed to the consequences of various types of threats taking place. Therefore, in the case of some large-scale, atypical and complicated building ventures, some actions included in the procedure of risk management should be taken (identifications, analysis, measurements, control and supervision of the risk). This will allow for the risk to be eliminated or limited. While preparing a building venture, an investor does not possess full information about the course of events on each stage of investment completion. The identification of the above-mentioned unknowns, subjecting them to quantification and specifying the method of dealing with them, allows an investor to increase the effectiveness of the intended plan. The enterprise discussed in this article and analyzed in the context of risk, concerns alteration, revitalization and conversion for office purposes of two buildings located in Gdańsk at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street. These buildings are situated on the area of historical urban layout of Gdańsk, in the northern-eastern part of Stare Przedmieście District (Old Suburb), about 800 meters south from Dlugi Targ Street and 200 meters west from The Old Motława River. The investor is “Gdańskie Melioracje Ltd.”, a limited liability company, which belongs to the Council of Gdańsk. In order to increase the effectiveness of the intended investment venture, while organizing the investment process, the investor commissioned preparation of an analysis and risk evaluation connected with the above-mentioned intention. Based on an on-site visit, the opinions of experts, who have been involved in the process of the preparation of the investment, studies of the available monographies about the technical condition of the buildings at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street and their own experiences, the authors identified 54 types of relevant risks, which have been systematized into 10 subject groups (among others

  14. Biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose to platform chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gernot; Büchs, Jochen

    2012-09-01

    Naturally occurring lignocellulose can be used as a renewable resource for the sustainable production of platform chemicals that can in turn be converted to valuable fine chemicals, polymers, and fuels. The biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is a very promising approach due to its high selectivity, mild conditions, and low exergy loss. However, such biocatalytic processes are still seldom applied at the industrial scale since the single conversion steps (pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation) may exhibit low conversion rates, low efficiencies, or high costs. The biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose to platform chemicals is reviewed in this work. Structures and production rates of lignocellulose are described, and platform chemicals that may be produced from lignocellulose are summarized. Biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is distinguished from conventional non-selective approaches. All essential conversion steps used in biocatalytic approaches (pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation) are reviewed in detail. Finally, potential interactions between these conversion steps are highlighted and the advantages as well as disadvantages of integrated process configurations are elucidated. In conclusion, a comprehensive understanding of the biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is provided in this review. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  16. Fluorescent microscopy approaches of quantitative soil microbial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Konstantin; Polyanskaya, Lubov

    2015-04-01

    hybridization method (FISH). This approach was used for evaluation of contribution of each gram-negative bactera group. No significant difference between the main soil gram-negative bacterial groups (phylum Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) was found both under anaerobic and anaerobic conditions in chernozem in the topsoil. Thus soil gram-negative bacteria play an important ecological role in natural polymer degradation as common group of microorganisms. Another approach with using cascade filtration technique for bacterial population density estimation in chernozem was compared to classical method of fluorescent microscopy. Quantification of soil bacteria with cascade filtration provided by filters with different diameters and filtering of soil suspension in fixed amount. In comparison to the classical fluorescent microscopy method the modification with filtration of soil suspension provided to quantify more bacterial cells. Thus biomass calculation results of soil bacteria by using classical fluorescent microscopy could be underestimated and combination with cascade filtration technique allow to avoid potential experimental error. Thereby, combination and comparison of several fluorescent microscopy methods modifications established during the research provided miscellaneous approaches in soil bacteria quantification and analysis of ecological roles of soil microorganisms.

  17. Integrated management of ash from industrial and domestic combustion: a new sustainable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Dalipi, Rogerta; Consigli, Veronica; Pasquali, Michela; Borgese, Laura; Depero, Laura E; Clegg, Francis; Bingham, Paul A; Bontempi, Elza

    2017-06-01

    This work supports, for the first time, the integrated management of waste materials arising from industrial processes (fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration and coal fly ash), agriculture (rice husk ash), and domestic activities (ash from wood biomass burning in domestic stoves). The main novelty of the paper is the reuse of wood pellet ash, an underestimated environmental problem, by the application of a new technology (COSMOS-RICE) that already involves the reuse of fly ashes from industrial and agricultural origins. The reaction mechanism involves carbonation: this occurs at room temperature and promotes permanent carbon dioxide sequestration. The obtained samples were characterized using XRD and TGA (coupled with mass spectroscopy). This allowed quantification of the mass loss attributed to different calcium carbonate phases. In particular, samples stabilized using wood pellet ash show a weight loss, attributed to the decomposition of carbonates greater than 20%. In view of these results, it is possible to conclude that there are several environmental benefits from wood pellet ash reuse in this way. In particular, using this technology, it is shown that for wood pellet biomass the carbon dioxide conversion can be considered negative.

  18. Approaches for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Nagaraja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retrograde transfemoral and antegrade transapical approaches are mostly used for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This meta-analysis is designed to assess the performance of the transfemoral and transapical approach. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Original data was abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled odd ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI. Results: Only 14 studies comprising of 6965 patients met full criteria for analysis. The mean duration of hospitalisation and procedure duration were similar among the 2 cohorts. The 30 days mortality (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.531-0.921, the need for haemodialysis (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.157-0.525 and one year mortality (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.564-0.927 were lower in the transfemoral cohort. The frequency of stroke at 30 days and new pacemaker insertion were comparable. However, the prevalence of vascular complication (OR: 2.88, 95% CI: 1.821-4.563 was higher in the transfemoral group. The incidence of aortic regurgitation (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.844-1.855, valve embolization (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 0.622-6.448, major bleeding incidence rates (OR:0.77, 95% CI: 0.488-1.225, coronary obstruction (OR:0.74, 95% CI:0.234-2.311, myocardial infarction (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.28-2.00, conversion to open cardiac surgery (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.062-1.343 and successful implantation (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.394-1.149 were comparable in the two cohorts. Conclusions: In the absence of a randomized controlled study, the ability to discriminate true differences is challenging. Even though the complications rate was much lower in transfemoral group as compared to transapical group, the current literature does not support a clear superiority of one approach to TAVR over the other.

  19. Hospital staff corridor conversations: work in passing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Esther; Bangerter, Adrian; Lê Van, Kim; Navarro, Cécile

    2016-03-01

    First, to document the prevalence of corridor occupations and conversations among the staff of a hospital clinic, and their main features. Second, to examine the activities accomplished through corridor conversations and their interactional organization. Despite extensive research on mobility in hospital work, we still know fairly little about the prevalence and features of hospital staff corridor conversations and how they are organized. We conducted a study combining descriptive statistical analysis and multimodal conversation analysis of video recordings of staff corridor practices in a hospital outpatient clinic in Switzerland. In 2012, we collected 59 hours of video recordings in a corridor of a hospital clinic. We coded and statistically analysed the footage that showed the clinic staff exclusively. We also performed qualitative multimodal conversation analysis on a selection of the recorded staff conversations. Corridor occupations by the clinic staff are frequent and brief and rarely involve stops. Talk events (which include self-talk, face-to-face conversations and telephone conversations) during occupations are also brief and mobile, overwhelmingly focus on professional topics and are particularly frequent when two or more staff members occupy the corridor. The conversations present several interactional configurations and comprise an array of activities consequential to the provision of care and work organization. These practices are related to the fluid work organization of a spatially distributed team in a fast-paced, multitasking environment and should be taken into consideration in any undertaking aimed at improving hospital units' functioning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Formes de séquentialité dans les courriels et les forums de discussion. Une approche conversationnelle de l’interaction sur Internet. Forms of sequentiality in e-mails and newsgroup discussions : a conversational approach of Internet communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mondada

    1999-06-01

    to give another perspective on these new media and in order to question the conceptual tools indispensable for understanding them. In this framework, this article proposes a conversational approach of Internet communication in e-mails and discussion lists. It focuses on a particular phenomena : the practice of quoting the previous message in an answering message, where the quote is evaluated, completed, commented on, answered to. This practice introduces a particular kind of interactivity in the message. The analysis deals with various aspects of this practice, as the ways in which the second message can segment the first, the types of adjacent pairs which can be found in this chaining of messages, the modes of accomplishing and repairing the interpretation given by the second message.

  1. A Comparison of the Approaches to Customer Experience Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havíř David

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, customer experience is receiving much attention in scientific and managerial community. Scholars and practitioners state that customer experience is the next area of competition. For a long time, there has been a call for a uniform, accurate definition, definition of its components, and the development of the customer experience frameworks. As this topic is new, there has been a considerable fragmentation. The question is if the fragmentation is still present and how can we address it. The aim of this paper is to summarize research on customer experience analysis and to explore and compare the dimensions describing customer experience listed in seven conceptual models with findings from 17 research projects on customer experience conducted after the year 2010. The purpose of this is to summarize recent knowledge, get the most comprehensive view on customer experience and its possible decomposition, and to reveal possible relationships between the dimensions. Based on a review of the available literature, the paper juxtaposes several approaches to customer experience analysis and compares their results to find similarities and differences among them. In the first step, the dimensions and factors of the customer experience were extracted from the seven models to analyze customer experience and they were compared with each other. This resulted in a set of dimensions and factors. In the next step, customer experience factors and dimensions were extracted from 17 practical research papers on customer experience. Finally, based on their descriptions and found similarities, the dimensions and factors were put together into several groups, as this grouping and creation of the new universal set of dimensions might solve the fragmentation issue.

  2. Movember: Twitter Conversations of a Hairy Social Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Jacobson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Movember is an annual “month-long celebration of the moustache” where men grow a mustache and raise money in the largest philanthropic endeavor for men’s health. Movember is predominantly an online campaign, and consequently, participants have actively embraced social media; this is evidenced in the 1,879,994 tweets collected during Movember 2012 in this research project. This article presents an analysis of Movember that examines how individuals use the numerous syntactical features of Twitter to engage in conversation and share information in order to develop a nuanced understanding of how people are utilizing social media as part of the social movement. While Movember has been successful in gaining traction on social media, the Twitter data point to surprising conclusions that have implications for understanding non-profits and social movements online. The following study provides two main contributions to existing sociotechnical social movement literature using a mixed-methods approach. First, the findings suggest that there is limited true conversation taking place although the stated purpose of the campaign is to facilitate conversation. Second, the findings identify that participants are more engaged with Movember as a branded movement than engaged in health promotion. While the tweets are conversational in form, they are largely not conversational in function, which points to Twitter being used as a broadcast tool in this context. These findings have broad implications for understanding how social media is used to engage individuals in social campaigns and engage with each other and share information.

  3. Analysis of Pseudo-polymorphism Conversion of Theophylline During Wet Granulation and Drying Processes and Effect of Binder on Dehydration and Amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Katori, Noriko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a time-course analysis of the pseudo-polymorphism conversion (i.e., the hydration and dehydration) of the xanthine-related compound theophylline during wet granulation and drying processes, using terahertz spectroscopy. We also investigated the amorphization mechanism of theophylline hydrate during a drying process in a vacuum using terahertz, mid-infrared (mid-IR), and near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopy. After a high-shear granulation process using a mixture of theophylline, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), and water, the terahertz spectrum (which was similar to that of an anhydride) was changed to a spectrum that was quite similar to that of a monohydrate. This result suggests that (1) an anhydride was converted to a monohydrate during the wet granulation process and (2) the spectrum was changed to the original waveform after the drying process with heat. This phenomenon indicates that the theophylline monohydrate was reconverted to an anhydride during the drying process. When wet granules were dried in a vacuum, the terahertz absorption lessened and finally disappeared with the passage of time, suggesting that the theophylline monohydrate in the granules was converted to an amorphous state. During the drying process with heat, the dehydration progressed temperature dependently regardless of the presence/absence of HPC. In addition, the reconversion from a monohydrate to an anhydride was completed concurrently with the completion of dehydration. The conversion rate of theophylline from a monohydrate to an amorphous form in granules (with HPC) was faster than that without HPC. This observation suggests that HPC promotes the amorphization of theophylline.

  4. Analysis of resource efficiency: a production frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Viet-Ngu

    2014-05-01

    This article integrates the material/energy flow analysis into a production frontier framework to quantify resource efficiency (RE). The emergy content of natural resources instead of their mass content is used to construct aggregate inputs. Using the production frontier approach, aggregate inputs will be optimised relative to given output quantities to derive RE measures. This framework is superior to existing RE indicators currently used in the literature. Using the exergy/emergy content in constructing aggregate material or energy flows overcomes a criticism that mass content cannot be used to capture different quality of differing types of resources. Derived RE measures are both 'qualitative' and 'quantitative', whereas existing RE indicators are only qualitative. An empirical examination into the RE of 116 economies was undertaken to illustrate the practical applicability of the new framework. The results showed that economies, on average, could reduce the consumption of resources by more than 30% without any reduction in per capita gross domestic product (GDP). This calculation occurred after adjustments for differences in the purchasing power of national currencies. The existence of high variations in RE across economies was found to be positively correlated with participation of people in labour force, population density, urbanisation, and GDP growth over the past five years. The results also showed that economies of a higher income group achieved higher RE, and those economies that are more dependent on imports and primary industries would have lower RE performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The network analysis of urban streets: A dual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito

    2006-09-01

    The application of the network approach to the urban case poses several questions in terms of how to deal with metric distances, what kind of graph representation to use, what kind of measures to investigate, how to deepen the correlation between measures of the structure of the network and measures of the dynamics on the network, what are the possible contributions from the GIS community. In this paper, the author considers six cases of urban street networks characterized by different patterns and historical roots. The authors propose a representation of the street networks based firstly on a primal graph, where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. In a second step, a dual graph, where streets are nodes and intersections are edges, is constructed by means of a generalization model named Intersection Continuity Negotiation, which allows to acknowledge the continuity of streets over a plurality of edges. Finally, the authors address a comparative study of some structural properties of the dual graphs, seeking significant similarities among clusters of cases. A wide set of network analysis techniques are implemented over the dual graph: in particular the authors show that the absence of any clue of assortativity differentiates urban street networks from other non-geographic systems and that most of the considered networks have a broad degree distribution typical of scale-free networks and exhibit small-world properties as well.

  6. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Mixer-Ejector Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric, S.; Seidel, Jonathan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The design of an engine for a civil supersonic aircraft presents a difficult multidisciplinary problem to propulsion system engineers. There are numerous competing requirements for the engine, such as to be efficient during cruise while yet quiet enough at takeoff to meet airport noise regulations. The use of mixer-ejector nozzles presents one possible solution to this challenge. However, designing a mixer-ejector which will successfully address both of these concerns is a difficult proposition. Presented in this paper is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and design of these systems. A process that uses several low-fidelity tools to evaluate both the performance and acoustics of mixer-ejectors nozzles is described. This process is further expanded to include system-level modeling of engines and aircraft to determine the effects on mission performance and noise near airports. The overall process is developed in the OpenMDAO framework currently being developed by NASA. From the developed process, sample results are given for a notional mixer-ejector design, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of the method.

  7. Electrophoretic approaches to the analysis of complex polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca

    2006-04-13

    Complex polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), are a class of ubiquitous macromolecules exhibiting a wide range of biological functions. They are widely distributed as sidechains of proteoglycans (PGs) in the extracellular matrix and at cellular level. The recent emergence of enhanced analytical tools for their study has triggered a virtual explosion in the field of glycomics. Analytical electrophoretic separation techniques, including agarose-gel, capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE), of GAGs and GAG-derived oligosaccharides have been employed for the structural analysis and quantification of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), keratan sulfate (KS), heparan sulfate (HS), heparin (Hep) and acidic bacterial polysaccharides. Furthermore, recent developments in the electrophoretic separation and detection of unsaturated disaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from GAGs by enzymatic or chemical degradation have made it possible to examine alterations of GAGs with respect to their amounts and fine structural features in various pathological conditions, thus becoming applicable for diagnosis. In this paper, the electromigration procedures developed to analyze and characterize complex polysaccharides are reviewed. Moreover, a critical evaluation of the biological relevance of the results obtained by these electrophoresis approaches is presented.

  8. RICH SEMANTIC SENTIMENT ANALYSIS USING LEXICON BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayatullah Lodin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Web is a huge repository of information, and a massive amount of data is generated everyday on online platforms. Information, can be facts and opinions, facts are objective statements about an event, and opinions are subjective statements that reflect the sentiments of a person towards an event. Research on sentiment analysis has increased tremendously in recent years due to its wide variety of applications. To analyze sentiments, certain methods have been proposed, which can be broadly categorized as supervised machine learning and lexicon based approaches. Supervised machine learning methods are giving high accuracy but these methods need training data and are domain dependent, while lexicon-based methods are not domain dependent. Although, building of lexicon is costly, but once constructed, it can be applied for a wide variety of domains, but still lexicon based methods are restricted to their dictionaries and are full-dependent on the presence of terms that explicitly reflect the sentiment, while in many cases the sentiment of a term is implicitly reflected by the semantics of its context. Therefore, we’ve proposed context aware, semantically rich (conceptual & contextual semantics lexicon-based method which is different from traditional lexicon-based methods that assigns sentiment score and strength to terms in a dynamic way, and outperforms baselines.

  9. Stoichiometric estimates of the biochemical conversion efficiencies in tsetse metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custer Adrian V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to

  10. Analysis of opioid consumption in clinical trials: a simulation based analysis of power of four approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Nyberg, Joakim; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Inconsistent trial design and analysis is a key reason that few advances in postoperative pain management have been made from clinical trials analyzing opioid consumption data. This study aimed to compare four different approaches to analyze opioid consumption data. A repeated time-to-event (RTTE......) model in NONMEM was used to simulate clinical trials of morphine consumption with and without a hypothetical adjuvant analgesic in doses equivalent to 15-62% reduction in morphine consumption. Trials were simulated with duration of 24-96 h. Monte Carlo simulation and re-estimation were performed...... of potency was obtained with a RTTE model accounting for both morphine effects and time-varying covariates on opioid consumption. An RTTE analysis approach proved better suited for demonstrating efficacy of opioid sparing analgesics than traditional statistical tests as a lower sample size was required due...

  11. Model selection in spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis: Combining an information criteria approach with screening sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhachev, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    In the field of optical metrology, the selection of the best model to fit experimental data is absolutely nontrivial problem. In practice, this is a very subjective and formidable task which highly depends on metrology expert opinion. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach to model selection in ellipsometric data analysis. We apply two well-established statistical methods for model selection, namely, the Akaike (AIC) and Bayesian (BIC) Information Criteria, to compare different dispersion models with various complexities and objectively determine the "best" one from a set of candidate models. The information criteria suggest the most optimal way to quantify the balance between goodness of fit and model complexity. In combination with screening-type parametric sensitivity analysis based on so-called "elementary effects" (the Morris method) this approach allows to compare and rate various models, identify key model parameters and significantly enhance process of ellipsometric measurements evaluation.

  12. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  13. Visual Analytics approach for Lightning data analysis and cell nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stefan; Meng, Liqiu; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong wind and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages (Bonelli & Marcacci 2008). Thus to understand, identify, track and predict lightning cells is essential. An important aspect for decision makers is an appropriate visualization of weather analysis results including the representation of dynamic lightning cells. This work focuses on the visual analysis of lightning data and lightning cell nowcasting which aim to detect and understanding spatial-temporal patterns of moving thunderstorms. Lightnings are described by 3D coordinates and the exact occurrence time of lightnings. The three-dimensionally resolved total lightning data used in our experiment are provided by the European lightning detection network LINET (Betz et al. 2009). In all previous works, lightning point data, detected lightning cells and derived cell tracks are visualized in 2D. Lightning cells are either displayed as 2D convex hulls with or without the underlying lightning point data. Due to recent improvements of lightning data detection and accuracy, there is a growing demand on multidimensional and interactive visualization in particular for decision makers. In a first step lightning cells are identified and tracked. Then an interactive graphic user interface (GUI) is developed to investigate the dynamics of the lightning cells: e.g. changes of cell density, location, extension as well as merging and splitting behavior in 3D over time. In particular a space time cube approach is highlighted along with statistical analysis. Furthermore a lightning cell nowcasting is conducted and visualized. The idea thereby is to predict the following cell features for the next 10-60 minutes including location, centre, extension, density, area, volume, lifetime and cell feature probabilities. The main focus will be set to a suitable interactive visualization of the predicted featured within the GUI. The developed visual

  14. Landslide risk analysis: a multi-disciplinary methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlacchini, S.; Frigerio, S.; Giacomelli, P.; Brambilla, M.

    2007-11-01

    This study describes an analysis carried out within the European community project "ALARM" (Assessment of Landslide Risk and Mitigation in Mountain Areas, 2004) on landslide risk assessment in the municipality of Corvara in Badia, Italy. This mountainous area, located in the central Dolomites (Italian Alps), poses a significant landslide hazard to several man-made and natural objects. Three parameters for determining risk were analysed as an aid to preparedness and mitigation planning: event occurrence probability, elements at risk, and the vulnerability of these elements. Initially, a landslide hazard scenario was defined; this step was followed by the identification of the potential vulnerable elements, by the estimation of the expected physical effects, due to the occurrence of a damaging phenomenon, and by the analysis of social and economic features of the area. Finally, a potential risk scenario was defined, where the relationships between the event, its physical effects, and its economic consequences were investigated. People and public administrators with training and experience in local landsliding and slope processes were involved in each step of the analysis. A "cause-effect" correlation was applied, derived from the "dose-response" equation initially used in the biological sciences and then adapted by economists for the assessment of environmental risks. The relationship was analysed from a physical point of view and the cause (the natural event) was correlated to the physical effects, i.e. the aesthetic, functional, and structural damage. An economic evaluation of direct and indirect damage was carried out considering the assets in the affected area (i.e., tourist flows, goods, transport and the effect on other social and economic activities). This study shows the importance of indirect damage, which is as significant as direct damage. The total amount of direct damage was estimated in 8 913 000 €; on the contrary, indirect damage ranged considerably

  15. Landslide risk analysis: a multi-disciplinary methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sterlacchini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an analysis carried out within the European community project "ALARM" (Assessment of Landslide Risk and Mitigation in Mountain Areas, 2004 on landslide risk assessment in the municipality of Corvara in Badia, Italy. This mountainous area, located in the central Dolomites (Italian Alps, poses a significant landslide hazard to several man-made and natural objects. Three parameters for determining risk were analysed as an aid to preparedness and mitigation planning: event occurrence probability, elements at risk, and the vulnerability of these elements. Initially, a landslide hazard scenario was defined; this step was followed by the identification of the potential vulnerable elements, by the estimation of the expected physical effects, due to the occurrence of a damaging phenomenon, and by the analysis of social and economic features of the area. Finally, a potential risk scenario was defined, where the relationships between the event, its physical effects, and its economic consequences were investigated. People and public administrators with training and experience in local landsliding and slope processes were involved in each step of the analysis.

    A "cause-effect" correlation was applied, derived from the "dose-response" equation initially used in the biological sciences and then adapted by economists for the assessment of environmental risks. The relationship was analysed from a physical point of view and the cause (the natural event was correlated to the physical effects, i.e. the aesthetic, functional, and structural damage. An economic evaluation of direct and indirect damage was carried out considering the assets in the affected area (i.e., tourist flows, goods, transport and the effect on other social and economic activities. This study shows the importance of indirect damage, which is as significant as direct damage. The total amount of direct damage was estimated in 8 913 000 €; on the contrary, indirect

  16. Determination of metribuzin and major conversion products in soils by microwave-assisted water extraction followed by liquid chromatographic analysis of extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanuil N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2002-07-12

    A multiresidue method developed for the analysis of metribuzin and its major conversion products, deaminometribuzin (DA), diketometribuzin (DK) and deaminodiketometribuzin (DADK), in soils is presented. The method is based on microwave-assisted water extraction (MAWE) of soils using 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7 as extractant and analysis of aqueous extracts by HPLC-diode array detection. MAWE operational parameters were optimized with respect to extraction efficiency of the target compounds from soils with 1.5 and 3.5% organic matter content. Recoveries of all solutes above 80% were obtained from soils with 1.5% organic matter content; respective LOD and LOQ levels were determined at 5 and 10 micrograms/kg. In soils with organic matter content 3.5%, recoveries of all solutes were lower (< 70%) and the respective LOD and LOQ values were determined at 10 and 50 micrograms/kg. However, recoveries of fresh and aged residues, the latter weathered under cold storage conditions, were not statistically different for both types of soils.

  17. Teaching communication aid use in everyday conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses...

  18. Media effects, interpersonal communication and beyond: An experimental approach to study conversations about the media and their role in news reception

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at discussing the challenges and opportunities of laboratory experiments for communicationstudies. An experimental approach to research on TV news effects is presented. It focuses on interpersonal communication about a newscast and simulates the social context of media use and media effects. Based upon two research domains, (1) The role of interpersonal communication in media effects and (2) TV news reception, five hypotheses are derived which are tested in an innovative experi...

  19. Approach to 3d Analysis of Gravity Ptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Monkin, S.; Monkin, A.; Petrov, A.

    2017-05-01

    The assessment of ptosis degree for rejuvenation procedures, the choice of following operation technique and evaluation of surgery result are based on subjective visual examination and surgeon's experience. The photogrammetric scans of 25 female patients of age 20 to 55 in vertical and supine (horizontal) position of body with placing the regular marker points on the face were analyzed. For 5 patients, also the CT data was acquired and segmentation of soft tissue was performed. Four of these patients underwent SMAS-lifting, the photogrammetry scanning was repeat 6 months after the operation. Computer vision algorithms was used for markers detection on the 3D model texture, marker were projected from texture to triangular mesh. 3D mesh models were registered with user defined anatomy points and pair selection based on markers location was done. Pairs of points on vertical and horizontal 3D models were analyzed for surface tissue mobility examination. The migration vectors of each side of the face are uniformly directed upwards and laterally. The vectors are projected at the areas of so-called ligaments demonstrate no evidence in deviation from row sequences. The volume migration is strongly correlates with the age of examined patients, on the contrary the point migration moderately correlates with age in patients of 30 to 50 years old. The analysis of migration vectors before and after the SMAS-lifting revealed no significant changes in surface points' migration. The described method allows to assess the mechanical conditions of individual face and evaluate efficacy of surgery. This approach can be used for the classification of face ptosis grade.

  20. Solar thermal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the fundamentals of the conversion of solar energy into mechanical work (or electricity via generators) is given. Both past and present work on several conversion concepts are discussed. Solar collectors, storage systems, energy transport, and various types of engines are examined. Ongoing work on novel concepts of collectors, energy storage and thermal energy conversion are outlined and projections for the future are described. Energy costs for various options are predicted and margins and limitations are discussed.