WorldWideScience

Sample records for converging redundant sensor

  1. CONVERGING REDUNDANT SENSOR NETWORK INFORMATION FOR IMPROVED BUILDING CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2004-11-01

    Knowing how many people occupy a building, and where they are located, is a key component of building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, however, current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of both energy management and security systems. This topical report describes results from the first phase of a project to design, implement, validate, and prototype new technologies to monitor occupancy, control indoor environment services, and promote security in buildings. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In this project phase a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Analysis tools based on Bayesian probability theory were applied to the occupancy data generated by the sensor network. The inference of primary importance is a probability distribution over the number of occupants and their locations in a building, given past and present sensor measurements. Inferences were computed for occupancy and its temporal persistence in individual offices as well as the persistence of sensor status. The raw sensor data were also used to calibrate the sensor belief network, including the occupancy transition matrix used in the Markov model, sensor sensitivity, and sensor failure models. This study shows that the belief network framework can be applied to the analysis of data streams from sensor networks, offering significant benefits to building operation compared to current practice.

  2. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2005-12-01

    This project is investigating the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point would improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In Phase I, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. In phase II of the project, described in this report, we demonstrate that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. We also establish that analysis algorithms can be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications, and show that it may be possible to use sensor network pulse rate to distinguish the number of occupants in a space. Finally, in this phase of the project we also developed a prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy. This basic capability will be extended in the future by applying an algorithm-based inference to the sensor network data stream, so that the web page displays the likelihood that each monitored office or area is occupied, as a supplement to the actual status of each sensor.

  3. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo

    2007-09-30

    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  4. Suppressing Redundancy in Wireless Sensor Network Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Rey; Honiden, Shinichi

    Redundancy suppression is a network traffic compression technique that, by caching recurring transmission contents at receiving nodes, avoids repeatedly sending duplicate data. Existing implementations require abundant memory both to analyze recent traffic for redundancy and to maintain the cache. Wireless sensor nodes at the same time cannot provide such resources due to hardware constraints. The diversity of protocols and traffic patterns in sensor networks furthermore makes the frequencies and proportions of redundancy in traffic unpredictable. The common practice of narrowing down search parameters based on characteristics of representative packet traces when dissecting data for redundancy thus becomes inappropriate. Such difficulties made us devise a novel protocol that conducts a probabilistic traffic analysis to identify and cache only the subset of redundant transfers that yields most traffic savings. We verified this approach to perform close enough to a solution built on exhaustive analysis and unconstrained caching to be practicable.

  5. Probability Model for Data Redundancy Detection in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are made of autonomous devices that are able to collect, store, process and share data with other devices. Large sensor networks are often redundant in the sense that the measurements of some nodes can be substituted by other nodes with a certain degree of confidence. This spatial correlation results in wastage of link bandwidth and energy. In this paper, a model for two associated Poisson processes, through which sensors are distributed in a plane, is derived. A probability condition is established for data redundancy among closely located sensor nodes. The model generates a spatial bivariate Poisson process whose parameters depend on the parameters of the two individual Poisson processes and on the distance between the associated points. The proposed model helps in building efficient algorithms for data dissemination in the sensor network. A numerical example is provided investigating the advantage of this model.

  6. Detailed Test Plan Redundant Sensor Strapdown IMU Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, T.; Miyatake, Y.; Wedekind, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    The test plan for a redundant sensor strapdown inertial measuring unit evaluation program is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) test philosophy and limitations, (2) test sequence, (3) equipment specifications, (4) general operating procedures, (5) calibration procedures, (6) alignment test phase, and (7) navigation test phase. The data and analysis requirements are analyzed.

  7. Fault Tolerant Air Bubble Sensor using Triple Modular Redundancy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuspriyanto Kuspriyanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of air bubbles in the blood is important for various medical treatments that use Extracorporeal Blood Circuits (ECBC, such as hemodialysis, hemofiltration and cardio-pulmonary bypass. Therefore a reliable air bubble detector is needed. In this study designed a fault tolerant air bubble detector. Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR method is used on the sensor section. A voter circuit of the TMR will choose one of three sensor output to be processed further. Application of TMR will prevent errors in the detection of air bubbles, especially if the sensor fails to work

  8. General test plan redundant sensor strapdown IMU evaluation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, T.; Irwin, H. A.; Miyatake, Y.; Wedekind, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    The general test plan for a redundant sensor strapdown inertial measuring unit evaluation program is presented. The inertial unit contains six gyros and three orthogonal accelerometers. The software incorporates failure detection and correction logic and a land vehicle navigation program. The principal objective of the test is a demonstration of the practicability, reliability, and performance of the inertial measuring unit with failure detection and correction in operational environments.

  9. A Redundancy Based Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks Distributed Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechar Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in the fault-tolerant and lifetime optimisation approaches in wireless sensor networks (WSN. We propose a WSN monitoring approach using distributed reconfiguration which is based on the concept of redundancy. This allows the sensor nodes to be organized in groups where each one will have a quite precise role. It also makes it possible to manage redundancy which will consist in leaving active only some nodes. The other redundant member nodes go into sleep mode and will be awaked using an operation of reconfiguration in case of fault. A node can be also a data source measurement, called simple node or a gateway node that may be used in several groups at the same time, and whose main role is to provide the communication function, each group is managed by a coordinator. The evaluation results of this approach showed that this distributed structure is suitable to ensure simultaneously the fault-tolerance property and to improve the performance and the network lifetime.

  10. Reliable dual-redundant sensor failure detection and identification for the NASA F-8 DFBW aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.; Desai, M. N.; Deyst, J. J., Jr.; Willsky, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    A technique was developed which provides reliable failure detection and identification (FDI) for a dual redundant subset of the flight control sensors onboard the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire (DFBW) aircraft. The technique was successfully applied to simulated sensor failures on the real time F-8 digital simulator and to sensor failures injected on telemetry data from a test flight of the F-8 DFBW aircraft. For failure identification the technique utilized the analytic redundancy which exists as functional and kinematic relationships among the various quantities being measured by the different control sensor types. The technique can be used not only in a dual redundant sensor system, but also in a more highly redundant system after FDI by conventional voting techniques reduced to two the number of unfailed sensors of a particular type. In addition the technique can be easily extended to the case in which only one sensor of a particular type is available.

  11. Optimal configuration of redundant inertial sensors for navigation and FDI performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Duk-Sun; Yang, Cheol-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal sensor configuration for inertial navigation systems which have redundant inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We suggest a method to determine the optimal sensor configuration which considers both the navigation and FDI performance. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to show the performance of the suggested optimal sensor configuration method.

  12. An adaptive technique for a redundant-sensor navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, T.-T.

    1972-01-01

    An on-line adaptive technique is developed to provide a self-contained redundant-sensor navigation system with a capability to utilize its full potentiality in reliability and performance. This adaptive system is structured as a multistage stochastic process of detection, identification, and compensation. It is shown that the detection system can be effectively constructed on the basis of a design value, specified by mission requirements, of the unknown parameter in the actual system, and of a degradation mode in the form of a constant bias jump. A suboptimal detection system on the basis of Wald's sequential analysis is developed using the concept of information value and information feedback. The developed system is easily implemented, and demonstrates a performance remarkably close to that of the optimal nonlinear detection system. An invariant transformation is derived to eliminate the effect of nuisance parameters such that the ambiguous identification system can be reduced to a set of disjoint simple hypotheses tests. By application of a technique of decoupled bias estimation in the compensation system the adaptive system can be operated without any complicated reorganization.

  13. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhou; Yuan Liu; Tianhong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM), is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurement...

  14. Broadcasting with Controlled Redundancy and Improved Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarun Dubey; Om Prakash Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes that broadcast a message within a network. Efficient broadcasting is a key requirement in sensor networks and has been a focal point of research over the last few years. There are many challenging tasks in the network, including redundancy control and sensor node localization that mainly depend on broadcasting. In this paper, we propose a broadcasting algorithm to control redundancy and improve localization (BACRIL) in WSNs. The proposed algorithm incorporates the benefits of the gossip protocol for optimizing message broadcasting within the network. Simulation results show a controlled level of redundancy, which is up to 57.6% if the number of sensor nodes deployed in a 500 m×500 m area are increased from 50 to 500.

  15. Application of Analytic Redundancy-based Fault Diagnosis of Sensors to Onboard Maintenance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Chengzhi; ZHANG Weiguo; LIU Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Analytic redundancy-based fault diagnosis technique (ARFDT) is applied to onboard maintenance system (OMS).The principle of the proposed ARFDT scheme is to design a redundancy configuration using ARFDT to enhance the functions of redundancy management and built in test equipment (BITE) monitor.Redundancy configuration for dual-redundancy and analytic redundancy is proposed,in which,the fault diagnosis includes detection and isolation.In order to keep the balance between rapid diagnosis and binary hypothesis,a filter together with an elapsed time limit is designed for sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) in the process of isolation.Diagnosis results would be submitted to central maintenance computer (CMC) together with BITE information.Moreover,by adopting reconstruction,the designed method not only provides analytic redundancy to help redundancy management,but also compensates the output when both of the sensors of the same type are faulty.Our scheme is applied to an aircraft's sensors in a simulation experiment,and the results show that the proposed filter SPRT (FSPRT) saves at least 50% of isolation time than Wald SPRT (WSPRT).Also,effectiveness,practicability and rapidity of the proposed scheme can be successfully achieved in OMS.

  16. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM, is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurements. It selectively updates the output weights of neural networks according to the prediction accuracy and the norm of output weight vector, tackles the problems of singularity and ill-posedness by regularization, and adopts a dual activation function in the hidden nodes combing neural and wavelet theory to enhance prediction capability. The experimental results verify the good generalization performance of SROS-ELM and show that the developed analytical redundancy technique for aeroengine sensor fault diagnosis based on SROS-ELM is effective and feasible.

  17. Switching Algorithm for Maglev Train Double-Modular Redundant Positioning Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution positioning for maglev trains is implemented by detecting the tooth-slot structure of the long stator installed along the rail, but there are large joint gaps between long stator sections. When a positioning sensor is below a large joint gap, its positioning signal is invalidated, thus double-modular redundant positioning sensors are introduced into the system. This paper studies switching algorithms for these redundant positioning sensors. At first, adaptive prediction is applied to the sensor signals. The prediction errors are used to trigger sensor switching. In order to enhance the reliability of the switching algorithm, wavelet analysis is introduced to suppress measuring disturbances without weakening the signal characteristics reflecting the stator joint gap based on the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of adjacent scales. The time delay characteristics of the method are analyzed to guide the algorithm simplification. Finally, the effectiveness of the simplified switching algorithm is verified through experiments.

  18. Switching algorithm for maglev train double-modular redundant positioning sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution positioning for maglev trains is implemented by detecting the tooth-slot structure of the long stator installed along the rail, but there are large joint gaps between long stator sections. When a positioning sensor is below a large joint gap, its positioning signal is invalidated, thus double-modular redundant positioning sensors are introduced into the system. This paper studies switching algorithms for these redundant positioning sensors. At first, adaptive prediction is applied to the sensor signals. The prediction errors are used to trigger sensor switching. In order to enhance the reliability of the switching algorithm, wavelet analysis is introduced to suppress measuring disturbances without weakening the signal characteristics reflecting the stator joint gap based on the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of adjacent scales. The time delay characteristics of the method are analyzed to guide the algorithm simplification. Finally, the effectiveness of the simplified switching algorithm is verified through experiments.

  19. Flight test results for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft control sensor analytic redundancy management technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the formulation and flight test results of an algorithm to detect and isolate the first failure of any one of twelve duplex control sensor signals being monitored. The technique uses like-signal differences for fault detection while relying upon analytic redundancy relationships among unlike quantities to isolate the faulty sensor. The fault isolation logic utilizes the modified sequential probability ratio test, which explicitly accommodates the inevitable irreducible low frequency errors present in the analytic redundancy residuals. In addition, the algorithm uses sensor output selftest, which takes advantage of the duplex sensor structure by immediately removing a highly erratic sensor from control calculations and analytic redundancy relationships while awaiting a definitive fault isolation decision via analytic redundancy. This study represents a proof of concept demonstration of a methodology that can be applied to duplex or higher flight control sensor configurations and, in addition, can monitor the health of one simplex signal per analytic redundancy relationship.

  20. Task-Space Iterative Learning for Redundant Robotic Systems: Existence of a Task-Space Control and Convergence of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Suguru; Sekimoto, Masahiro; Kawamura, Sadao

    This paper presents a feasibility study of iterative learning control for a class of redundant multi-joint robotic systems when a desired motion trajectory is specified in task-space with less dimension than that of joint space. First, it is shown that if the desired trajectory described in task-space for a time interval t ∈ [0,T] is twice continuously differentiable then a unique control signal describable in task-space exists despite of the system joint-redundancy. Second, a learning control update law is constructed through transpose of the Jacobian matrix of task-space coordinates with respect to joint coordinates by using measured data of motion trajectories in task-space. Third, the convergence of trajectory trackings through iterative learning is proved theoretically on the basis of original nonlinear robot dynamics in joint space.

  1. Dual redundant sensor FDI techniques applied to the NASA F8C DFBW aircraft. [Failure Detection and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M. N.; Deckert, J. C.; Deyst, J. J.; Willsky, A. S.; Chow, E. Y.

    1976-01-01

    An onboard failure detection and identification (FDI) technique for dual redundant sensors on the NASA F8C digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) aircraft is presented. The failure of one of a pair of sensors of the same type is detected by a direct redundancy trigger which observes the difference between the outputs of these two sensors. Identification of the failed sensor is accomplished utilizing the analytic redundancy that exists as kinematic and functional relationships among the variables being measured by dissimilar instruments. In addition, identification of generic failures, common to both instruments of a given type, is accomplished by using a time trigger to periodically initiate analytic redundancy failure identification tests for individual sensors. The basic form of these tests is the comparison of the measurement of a variable using the suspect instrument with another measurement of the same variable obtained using other instrument types.

  2. Internode Distance-Based Redundancy Reliable Transport in Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sezaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater communication is a very challenging topic. Protocols used in terrestrial sensor networks cannot be directly applied in the underwater world. High-bit error rate and large propagation delay make the design of transport protocols especially awkward. ARQ-based reliable transport schemes are not appropriate in underwater environments due to large propagation delay, low communication bandwidth, and high error probability. Thus, we focus on redundancy-based transport schemes in this paper. We first investigate three schemes that employ redundancy mechanisms at the bit and/or packet level to increase the reliability in a direct link scenario. Then, we show that the broadcast property of the underwater channel allows us to extend those schemes to a case with node cooperative communication. Based on our analysis, an adaptive redundancy transport protocol (ARRTP for underwater sensor networks is proposed. We suggest an architecture for implementation. For two kinds of topologies, namely, regular and random, we show that ARRTP presents a better transmission success probability and energy efficiency tradeoff for single- and multihop transmissions. We also offer an integrated case study to show that ARRTP is not only supplying reliability but also has some positive effect in guiding the deployment of underwater sensor nodes.

  3. An Adaptive Technique for a Redundant-Sensor Navigation System. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, T. T.

    1972-01-01

    An on-line adaptive technique is developed to provide a self-contained redundant-sensor navigation system with a capability to utilize its full potentiality in reliability and performance. The gyro navigation system is modeled as a Gauss-Markov process, with degradation modes defined as changes in characteristics specified by parameters associated with the model. The adaptive system is formulated as a multistage stochastic process: (1) a detection system, (2) an identification system and (3) a compensation system. It is shown that the sufficient statistics for the partially observable process in the detection and identification system is the posterior measure of the state of degradation, conditioned on the measurement history.

  4. iSSEE: IMS Sensors Search Engine Enabler for Sensors Mashups Convergent Application

    CERN Document Server

    Outtagarts, Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    Integrating the sensing capabilities in Internet Protocol network will open the opportunities to build a wide range of novel multimedia applications. The problem when using sensors (e.g. temperature sensor, camera, audio, humidity, etc.) connected to the network is to know dynamically at any time if they are always connected or not, what type of data they can transmit and where they are geographically located. This paper describes an application enabler: IMS Sensor Search Engine Enabler (iSSEE), which allows IMS applications using sensors and IMS based devices, to get information about the sensor availability, its location and the type of the sensor. Using data collected by sensors and from the web, mash-ups convergent applications use cases are proposed by combining the contents from heterogeneous data.

  5. iSSEE: IMS Sensors Search Engine Enabler for Sensors Mash-ups Convergent Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Outtagarts

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrating the sensing capabilities in Internet Protocol network will open the opportunities to build a wide range of novel multimedia applications. The problem when using sensors (e.g. temperature sensor, camera, audio, humidity, etc... connected to the network is to know dynamically at any time if they are always connected or not, what type of data they can transmit and where they are geographically located. This paper describes an application enabler: IMS Sensor Search Engine Enabler (iSSEE, which allows IMS applications using sensors and IMS based devices, to get information about the sensor availability, its location and the type of the sensor. Using data collected by sensors and from the web, mash-ups convergent applications use cases are proposed by combining the contents from heterogeneous data.

  6. Sensor fault detection and isolation over wireless sensor network based on hardware redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jingjing; Kinnaert, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In order to diagnose sensor faults with small magnitude in wireless sensor networks, distinguishability measures are defined to indicate the performance for fault detection and isolation (FDI) at each node. A systematic method is then proposed to determine the information to be exchanged between nodes to achieve FDI specifications while limiting the computation complexity and communication cost.

  7. Online Sensor Information and Redundancy Resolution Based Obstacle Avoidance for High DOF Mobile Manipulator Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huatao Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High degrees of freedom (DOF mobile manipulators provide more flexibility than conventional manipulators. They also provide manipulation operations with a mobility capacity and have potential in many applications. However, due to high redundancy, planning and control become more complicated and difficult, especially when obstacles occur. Most existing obstacle avoidance methods are based on off-line algorithms and most of them mainly focus on planning a new collision-free path, which is not appropriate for some applications, such as teleoperation and uses many system resources as well. Therefore, this paper presents an online planning and control method for obstacle avoidance in mobile manipulators using online sensor information and redundancy resolution. An obstacle contour reconstruction approach employing a mobile manipulator equipped with an active laser scanner system is also introduced in this paper. This method is implemented using a mobile manipulator with a seven-DOF manipulator and a four-wheel drive mobile base. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  8. Fusion of Redundant Aided-inertial Sensors with Decentralised Kalman Filter for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Awale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most submarines carry more than one set of inertial navigation system (INS for redundancy and reliability. Apart from INS systems, the submarine carries other sensors that provide different navigation information. A major challenge is to combine these sensors and INS estimates in an optimal and robust manner for navigation. This issue has been addressed by Farrell1. The same approach is used in this paper to combine different sensor measurements along with INS system. However, since more than one INS system is available onboard, it would be better to use multiple INS systems at the same time to obtain a better estimate of states and to provide autonomy in the event of failure of one INS system. This would require us to combine the estimates obtained from local filters (one set of INS system integrated with external sensors, in some optimal way to provide a global estimate. Individual sensor and IMU measurements cannot be accessed in this scenario. Also, autonomous operation requires no sharing of information among local filters. Hence a decentralised Kalman filter approach is considered for combining the estimates of local filters to give a global estimate. This estimate would not be optimal, however. A better optimal estimate can be obtained by accessing individual measurements and augmenting the state vector in Kalman filter, but in that case, corruption of one INS system will lead to failure of the whole filter. Hence to ensure satisfactory performance of the filter even in the event of failure of some INS system, a decentralised Kalman filtering approach is considered.

  9. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Convergence trends between the WAN Internet area, characterized by best effort service provision, and the real time LAN domain, with requirements for guaranteed services, are identified and discussed. A bilateral evolution is identified, where typical bulk service applications from WAN...

  10. Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  11. Evaluation of the F-8 DFBW analytic redundancy sensor FDI algorithm using telemetry data. [Failure Detection and Identification for Digital Fly-By-Wire control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.; Desai, M. N.; Deyst, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we present a reliable technique for failure detection and identification (FDI) for dual redundant flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) aircraft, and we discuss the successful application of the technique to identifying failures injected on test flight telemetry data. The technique exploits the analytic redundancy which exists as relationships among variables being measured by dissimilar instruments. With straightforward modification the technique may be extended to provide failure monitoring of a single remaining sensor after the identified failure of its companion sensor.

  12. Evaluation of the F-8 DFBW analytic redundancy sensor FDI algorithm using telemetry data. [Failure Detection and Identification for Digital Fly-By-Wire control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.; Desai, M. N.; Deyst, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we present a reliable technique for failure detection and identification (FDI) for dual redundant flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) aircraft, and we discuss the successful application of the technique to identifying failures injected on test flight telemetry data. The technique exploits the analytic redundancy which exists as relationships among variables being measured by dissimilar instruments. With straightforward modification the technique may be extended to provide failure monitoring of a single remaining sensor after the identified failure of its companion sensor.

  13. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....

  14. Virtual Redundancy for Safety Assurance in the Presence of Sensor Failures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both autopilot systems and human pilots, particularly human pilots operating in instrument meteorological conditions, rely heavily on sensor feedback to safely...

  15. A reliable dual-redundant sensor FDI system for the NASA F8C-DFBW aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.; Desai, M. N.; Deyst, J. J., Jr.; Willsky, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we outline the structure of a sensor failure detection and identification (FDI) system designed for the NASA F8C DFBW aircraft. The system is for use in a dual-redundant environment, and it takes maximal advantage of all functional and kinematic relationships among the sensed variables. The technique is reliable in that we have designed the system to account for a variety of unmodeled effects and have introduced a new concept - the quality sequential probability ratio (QSPR) - that provides a useful measure of our confidence in each test. The methodology used for determining detector parameters and the 'outer loop logic' for combining the various sources of information are described.

  16. Fault Residuals for Compact Disc Players based on Redundant and Non-linear Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    In the process of achieving good performance of Compact Disc players it is important to handle surface defects as good as possible. The first thing in handling these defects is to detect their beginnings and ends.Two servo loops are formed to keep the optical pick-up focused on and radially tracked...... at the information track on the Compact Disc. The pick-up feeds the controllers with two sensor signals for each of the loops. The difference between these two signal pairs is an approximations of focus and radial tracking distances. The sum of these signal pairs is used for fault detection. But due to optical cross...

  17. Sensory redundancy management: The development of a design methodology for determining threshold values through a statistical analysis of sensor output data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, F.

    1983-01-01

    Sensor redundancy management (SRM) requires a system which will detect failures and reconstruct avionics accordingly. A probability density function to determine false alarm rates, using an algorithmic approach was generated. Microcomputer software was developed which will print out tables of values for the cummulative probability of being in the domain of failure; system reliability; and false alarm probability, given a signal is in the domain of failure. The microcomputer software was applied to the sensor output data for various AFT1 F-16 flights and sensor parameters. Practical recommendations for further research were made.

  18. Mathematical model of process of redundant measurements with uninterrupted influence of measurand on sensing element of sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redko V. V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses improvement of accuracy of measurands measurements with the use of measuring channel with nonlinear calibration curve. There is proposed a mathematical model, which describes process of redundant measurements for measuring channel when it’s measurement function is a polynomial of third power.

  19. Sustainable Load-Balancing Scheme for Inter-Sensor Convergence Processing of Routing Cooperation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Information Technology (IT have sparked the creation of numerous and diverse types of devices and services. Manual data collection measurement methods have been automated through the use of various wireless or wired sensors. Single sensor devices are included in smart devices such as smartphones. Data transmission is critical for big data collected from sensor nodes, such as Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs, where sensors move dynamically according to sensor mobility, or Fixed Sensor Nodes (FSNs, where sensor locations are decided by the users. False data transfer processing of big data results in topology lifespan reduction and data transfer delays. Hence, a variety of simulators and diverse load-balancing algorithms have been developed as protocol verification tools for topology lifespan maximization and effective data transfer processing. However, those previously developed simulators have limited functions, such as an event function for a specific sensor or a battery consumption rate test for sensor deployment. Moreover, since the previous load-balancing algorithms consider only the general traffic distribution and the number of connected nodes without considering the current topology condition, the sustainable load-balancing technique that takes into account the battery consumption rate of the dispersed sensor nodes is required. Therefore, this paper proposes the Sustainable Load-balancing Scheme (SLS, which maximizes the overall topology lifespan through effective and sustainable load-balancing of data transfer among the sensors. SLS is capable of maintaining an effective topology as it considers both the battery consumption rate of the sensors and the data transfer delay.

  20. Navigation of an autonomous road vehicle with redundant sensor systems; Fuehrung eines autonomen Strassenfahrzeugs mit redundanten Sensorsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A.

    2003-07-01

    Methods of navigating an autonomous road vehicle in a known environment are presented. The applicability of Bezier splines as a basis of tracking is discussed. The algorithm for trajectory planning is presented which enables manoeuvering both on free terrain and along narrow road-type corridors. For the second component of navigation, i.e. localization of the vehicle, possibilities are discussed of identifying the movement and position of the vehicle from measured data and sensor data of the vehicle environment. Methods of Kalman filter based data fusion, filtering and smoothing of the preprocessed raw navigation data are used. The results were implemented in the research project ''Autonomous Driving''. [German] In dieser Arbeit werden Verfahren zur Navigation eines autonomen Strassenfahrzeugs in bekannter Umgebung beschrieben. Fuer die Bahnfuehrung als Bestandteil der Fahrzeugnavigation wird die Eignung von Beziersplines diskutiert. Hierbei wird ein Algorithmus zur Trajektorienplanung vorgestellt, der sowohl Fahrmanoever auf ausgedehnten Freiflaechen als auch Fahrten entlang schmaler, strassenfoermiger Fahrkorridore ermoeglicht. Im Zusammenhang mit der zweiten Komponente der Navigation, der Fahrzeugortung, werden verschiedene Moeglichkeiten eroertert, aus Fahrzeugmessdaten und Sensordaten des Fahrzeugumfeldes Rueckschluesse auf die Bewegung bzw. Position des Fahrzeugs zu ziehen. Es werden hierbei Verfahren zur Kalman-Filter-basierten Datenfusion, Filterung und Glaettung dieser vorverarbeiteten Navigationsrohdaten angewendet. Die praktische Umsetzung der vorgestellten Verfahren sowie die Fahrversuche erfolgten im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes ''Autonomes Fahren''. (orig.)

  1. Towards adaptive security for convergent wireless sensor networks in beyond 3G environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitseva, Anelia; Aivaloglou, Efthimia; Marchitti, Maria-Antonietta

    2010-01-01

    The integration of wireless sensor networks with different network systems gives rise to many research challenges to ensure security, privacy and trust in the overall architecture. The main contribution of this paper is a generic security, privacy and trust framework providing context-aware adapt...

  2. Data Center Site Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherton, H M; Dietz, J. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Commonly, disaster contingency calls for separation of location for redundant locations to maintain the needed redundancy. This document addresses issues for the data center redundancy, including limits to the distribution, distance and location that may impact on the efficiency or energy.

  3. Redundant Asynchronous Microprocessor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Johnston, J. O.; Dunn, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Fault-tolerant computer structure called RAMPS (for redundant asynchronous microprocessor system) has simplicity of static redundancy but offers intermittent-fault handling ability of complex, dynamically redundant systems. New structure useful wherever several microprocessors are employed for control - in aircraft, industrial processes, robotics, and automatic machining, for example.

  4. 超小型高可靠三冗余角位移传感器研制%Development of Three Redundant Angular Displacement Sensor with Subminiature and High-reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹佳; 陈娣; 郭薇妮; 杨明

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the high reliability requirements of the new model to launch vehicle, the angular displacement sensor is designed by using series, in parallel with three redundancy in a closed-loop used as measurement and feedback. For servo output shaft angle measurement, the mechanical an-gular signal is converted to electrical signal output to the controller, so as to realize electric servo closed-loop control. Three ultra-small, high-reliability redundant angular displacement sensor is in the form of three redundant rotary potentiometer, but with two-ring design, one of the rings as the single way,another ring for double-redundant design, the resistance ring will be overlapped , the structure is the combination of the series and parallel, can be used alone or in parallel electrically. This sensor using new brush struc-ture, improving the environmental adaptability of the product, has significant social, economic benefits and promotional value.%为了满足新型运载型号工程高可靠性要求,在闭和回路中起测量及反馈作用的角位移传感器采用串、并联相结合的三冗余设计,用于伺服机构输出轴转角测量,将机械摆角信号转换为电信号输出至控制器,实现电动伺服闭环控制。超小型高可靠三冗余角位移传感器形式为三冗余旋转式电位计,但采用了两环设计,其中一环为单路,另一环为双冗余设计,将电阻环进行重叠,从结构上组成了串并联相结合的方式,在电气上可单独使用也可以并联使用。传感器采用新型电刷结构,提高了产品的环境适应性,具有较大的社会、经济效益和推广价值。

  5. On the Pseudocodeword Redundancy

    CERN Document Server

    Zumbragel, Jens; Skachek, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    We define the AWGNC, BSC, and max-fractional pseudocodeword redundancy of a code as the smallest number of rows in a parity-check matrix such that the corresponding minimum pseudoweight is equal to the minimum Hamming distance. We show that most codes do not have a finite pseudocodeword redundancy. We also provide bounds on the pseudocodeword redundancy for some families of codes, including codes based on designs.

  6. 无线传感器网络流量的冗余抑制机制研究%Mechanism of Suppressing Redundancy Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚轶昕; 宗平

    2011-01-01

    Redundancy suppression is a network traffic compression technique by caching recurring transmission contents at receiving nodes, avoids repeatedly sending duplicate data. Existing implementations require abundant memory both to analyze recent traffic for redundancy and to maintain the cache. Wireless sensor nodes at the same time cannot provide such resources due to hardware constraints.The diversity of protocols and traffic patterns in sensor networks furthermore makes the frequencies and proportions of redundancy in traffic unpredictable. Such difficulties made us devise a novel protocol that conducts a probabilistic traffic analysis to identify and cache only the subset of redundant transfers that yields most traffic savings. Verified this approach to perform close enough to a solution built on exhaustive analysis and unconstrained caching to be practicable.%冗余抑制是一种通过在接收节点缓存频繁传输的内容以避免多次发送重复数据的网络流量抑制技术.现有的解决方式需要有大量的内存,用于分析当前冗余流量并维持缓存.由于硬件的限制,无线传感器节点在同一时刻不能够提供相应的资源;协议和通信模式的多样性还使得通信中冗余发生的频率及其所占比例难以预测.因此,给出了一种改进的冗余抑制协议,通过概率流量分析以确定和缓存那些造成最多流量储存的冗余传输子集,实现性能表现接近于建立在全面分析和无约束缓存基础上的冗余抑制解决方案.

  7. Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

  8. Fast converging with high accuracy estimates of satellite attitude and orbit based on magnetometer augmented with gyro, star sensor and GPS via extended Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work is to extend the work done in, Tamer (2009, to provide high accuracy satellite attitude and orbit estimates needed for imaging purposes and also before execution of spacecraft orbital maneuvers for the next Egyptian scientific satellite. The problem of coarse satellite attitude and orbit estimation based on magnetometer measurements has been treated in the literature. The current research expands the field of application from coarse and slow converging estimates to accurate and fast converging attitude and orbit estimates within 0.1°, and 10 m for attitude angles and spacecraft location respectively (1-σ. The magnetometer is used for both spacecraft attitude and orbit estimation, aided with gyro to provide angular velocity measurements, star sensor to provide attitude quaternion, and GPS receiver to provide spacecraft location. The spacecraft under consideration is subject to solar radiation pressure forces and moments, aerodynamics forces and moments, earth’s oblateness till the fourth order (i.e. J4, gravity gradient moments, and residual magnetic dipole moments. The estimation algorithm developed is powerful enough to converge quickly (actually within 10 s despite very large initial estimation errors with sufficiently high accuracy estimates.

  9. Study of sensory diversity and redundancy to encode for chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gálvez, Agustín; Fernandez, Luis; Marco, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Inspired by sensory diversity and redundancy at the olfactory epithelium, we have built a large chemical sensor array based on commercial MOX sensors. Different sensor families along with temperature modulation accounts for sensory diversity, whereas sensors of the same family combined with different load resistors provide redundancy to the system. To study the encoding of odor mixtures, a data collection consisting on the response of the array to 3 binary mixtures of ethanol, acetone, and butanone with 18 different concentration ratios is obtained.

  10. Optimally robust redundancy relations for failure detection in uncertain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X.-C.; Willsky, A. S.; Verghese, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    All failure detection methods are based, either explicitly or implicitly, on the use of redundancy, i.e. on (possibly dynamic) relations among the measured variables. The robustness of the failure detection process consequently depends to a great degree on the reliability of the redundancy relations, which in turn is affected by the inevitable presence of model uncertainties. In this paper the problem of determining redundancy relations that are optimally robust is addressed in a sense that includes several major issues of importance in practical failure detection and that provides a significant amount of intuition concerning the geometry of robust failure detection. A procedure is given involving the construction of a single matrix and its singular value decomposition for the determination of a complete sequence of redundancy relations, ordered in terms of their level of robustness. This procedure also provides the basis for comparing levels of robustness in redundancy provided by different sets of sensors.

  11. Convergence Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from convergence insufficiency? Symptoms of convergence insufficiency include diplopia (double vision) and headaches when reading. Many patients ... another time or simply watched for symptoms of diplopia or headaches with near work. A patient who ...

  12. F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft analytic redundancy management flight test experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The formulation and flight test results of an algorithm to detect and isolate the first failure of any one of twelve duplex control sensors being monitored are described. The technique uses like sensor output differences for fault detection while relying upon analytic redundancy relationships among unlike quantities to isolate the faulty sensor. The fault isolation logic utilizes the modified sequential probability ratio test, which explicitly accommodates the inevitable irreducible low frequency errors present in the analytic redundancy residuals. In addition, the algorithm uses sensor output selftest, which takes advantage of the duplex sensor structure by immediately removing a highly erratic sensor from control calculations and analytic redundancy relationships while awaiting a definitive fault isolation decision via analytic redundancy.

  13. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  14. Redundant Design in Interdependent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system. In this paper, we propose two redundant methods, node back-up and dependency redundancy, and the experiment results indicate that two measures are effective and costless. Two detailed models about redundant design are introduced based on the non-linear load-capacity model. Based on the attributes and historical failure distribution of nodes, we introduce three static selecting strategies-Random-based, Degree-based, Initial load-based and a dynamic strategy-HFD (historical failure distribution) to identify which nodes could have a back-up with priority. In addition, we consider the cost and efficiency of different redundant proportions to determine the best proportion with maximal enhancement and minimal cost. Experiments on interdependent networks demonstrate that the combination of HFD and dependency redundancy is an effective and preferred measure to implement redundant design on interdependent networks. The results suggest that the redundant design proposed in this paper can permit construction of highly robust interactive networked systems. PMID:27764174

  15. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  16. On the Relation Redundancy in Fuzzy Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-hui; CHEN Guo-qing

    2006-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the problem of data redundancy under the extended-possibility-based model. Based on the information gain in data classification, a measure -relation redundancy - is proposed to evaluate the degree of a given relation being redundant in whole. The properties of relation redundancy are also investigated. This new measure is useful in dealing with data redundancy.

  17. RB: Programmer Specification of Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jonathan M.; Gerald Q. Maguire Jr.

    1987-01-01

    RB is a programming language for specifying redundancy in various dimensions. Avizienis's notation T I HIS, for Time I Hardware I Software, describes the different types of redundancy possible in a computation: repetition (nT I HIS), redundant hardware (T I nH I S), and program (software) (T I H InS). These can each be controlled by the programmer with RB. RB derives its name from its use of the recovery block notion to specify fault-tolerant segments of software. RB also supplies the program...

  18. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  19. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  20. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  1. Rounding in redundant digit floating point system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Flynn, Michael J.

    2003-12-01

    Redundant representations are used to increase the performance of arithmetic units. If redundancy is eliminated, the bits needed to represent a number may increase or decrease depending on the type of redundancy used. In such a redundant representation, finding the exact location and correct decision for rounding without eliminating the redundancy or loosing its performance gains is difficult. This paper discusses the different issues related to rounding in redundant systems. It also presents a solution that was used to maintain the gains of redundancy in a floating point unit while correctly implementing the IEEE rounding modes.

  2. Handling Software Faults with Redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Antonio; Gorla, Alessandra; Pezzè, Mauro

    Software engineering methods can increase the dependability of software systems, and yet some faults escape even the most rigorous and methodical development process. Therefore, to guarantee high levels of reliability in the presence of faults, software systems must be designed to reduce the impact of the failures caused by such faults, for example by deploying techniques to detect and compensate for erroneous runtime conditions. In this chapter, we focus on software techniques to handle software faults, and we survey several such techniques developed in the area of fault tolerance and more recently in the area of autonomic computing. Since practically all techniques exploit some form of redundancy, we consider the impact of redundancy on the software architecture, and we propose a taxonomy centered on the nature and use of redundancy in software systems. The primary utility of this taxonomy is to classify and compare techniques to handle software faults.

  3. Nonlinear approximation with redundant dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, M.; Gribonval, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear approximation and data representation with redundant function dictionaries. In particular, approximation with redundant wavelet bi-frame systems is studied in detail. Several results for orthonormal wavelets are generalized to the redundant case. In general......, for a wavelet bi-frame system the approximation properties are limited by the number of vanishing moments of the system. In some cases this can be overcome by oversampling, but at a price of replacing the canonical expansion by another linear expansion. Moreover, for special non-oversampled wavelet bi-frames we...... can obtain good approximation properties not restricted by the number of vanishing moments, but again without using the canonical expansion....

  4. Redundant computing for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R.; Riesen, Rolf E.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2010-12-01

    Exascale systems will have hundred thousands of compute nodes and millions of components which increases the likelihood of faults. Today, applications use checkpoint/restart to recover from these faults. Even under ideal conditions, applications running on more than 50,000 nodes will spend more than half of their total running time saving checkpoints, restarting, and redoing work that was lost. Redundant computing is a method that allows an application to continue working even when failures occur. Instead of each failure causing an application interrupt, multiple failures can be absorbed by the application until redundancy is exhausted. In this paper we present a method to analyze the benefits of redundant computing, present simulation results of the cost, and compare it to other proposed methods for fault resilience.

  5. Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco

    2015-06-01

    We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA).

  6. Convergent chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradas, Marc; Pumir, Alain; Huber, Greg; Wilkinson, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Chaos is widely understood as being a consequence of sensitive dependence upon initial conditions. This is the result of an instability in phase space, which separates trajectories exponentially. Here, we demonstrate that this criterion should be refined. Despite their overall intrinsic instability, trajectories may be very strongly convergent in phase space over extremely long periods, as revealed by our investigation of a simple chaotic system (a realistic model for small bodies in a turbulent flow). We establish that this strong convergence is a multi-facetted phenomenon, in which the clustering is intense, widespread and balanced by lacunarity of other regions. Power laws, indicative of scale-free features, characterize the distribution of particles in the system. We use large-deviation and extreme-value statistics to explain the effect. Our results show that the interpretation of the ‘butterfly effect’ needs to be carefully qualified. We argue that the combination of mixing and clustering processes makes our specific model relevant to understanding the evolution of simple organisms. Lastly, this notion of convergent chaos, which implies the existence of conditions for which uncertainties are unexpectedly small, may also be relevant to the valuation of insurance and futures contracts.

  7. Repeatability in Redundant Manipulator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-22

    IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation...34Nonholonomic Motion Planning of Space Robots via a Bi-Directional Approach", IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 500-514. [12...Nakamura, Y., and Mukherjee, R., 1993, "Exploiting Nonholonomic Redundancy in Free-Flying Space Robots", IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation,

  8. Energy Aware Self-Organizing Density Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Merrer, Erwan Le; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Viana, Aline; Bertier, Marin

    2008-01-01

    Energy consumption is the most important factor that determines sensor node lifetime. The optimization of wireless sensor network lifetime targets not only the reduction of energy consumption of a single sensor node but also the extension of the entire network lifetime. We propose a simple and adaptive energy-conserving topology management scheme, called SAND (Self-Organizing Active Node Density). SAND is fully decentralized and relies on a distributed probing approach and on the redundancy resolution of sensors for energy optimizations, while preserving the data forwarding and sensing capabilities of the network. We present the SAND's algorithm, its analysis of convergence, and simulation results. Simulation results show that, though slightly increasing path lengths from sensor to sink nodes, the proposed scheme improves significantly the network lifetime for different neighborhood densities degrees, while preserving both sensing and routing fidelity.

  9. A Review of Chinese Redundant Negation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璕

    2016-01-01

    Chinese redundant negation, characteristic of unecnomical language structure and illogical meaning expression, represents an intriguing language phenomenon well worth exploring. By far, plenty of researches have been made on Chinese redundant negation, encompassing researches on specific types of it microscopically and the issue of redundant negation in general macroscopically. This thesis attempts to conduct a review of Chinese redundant negation in the hope of deepening the understanding of this peculiar phenomenon meanwhile yeilding some pedagogical implication for second language teaching.

  10. Pseudo-redundant vacuum energy

    CERN Document Server

    Batra, Puneet; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We discuss models that can account for today's dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a non-minimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R + 1/R type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting see-saw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low and high curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

  11. Redundant measurements for controlling errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M. H.; Crawford, J. M.; Madeen, M. L.

    1979-07-01

    Current federal regulations for nuclear materials control require consideration of operating data as part of the quality control program and limits of error propagation. Recent work at the BNFP has revealed that operating data are subject to a number of measurement problems which are very difficult to detect and even more difficult to correct in a timely manner. Thus error estimates based on operational data reflect those problems. During the FY 1978 and FY 1979 R and D demonstration runs at the BNFP, redundant measurement techniques were shown to be effective in detecting these problems to allow corrective action. The net effect is a reduction in measurement errors and a significant increase in measurement sensitivity. Results show that normal operation process control measurements, in conjunction with routine accountability measurements, are sensitive problem indicators when incorporated in a redundant measurement program.

  12. Management of redundancy in flight control systems using optimal decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of using redundancy that exists between dissimilar systems in aircraft flight control is addressed. That is, using the redundancy that exists between a rate gyro and an accelerometer--devices that have dissimilar outputs which are related only through the dynamics of the aircraft motion. Management of this type of redundancy requires advanced logic so that the system can monitor failure status and can reconfigure itself in the event of one or more failures. An optimal decision theory was tutorially developed for the management of sensor redundancy and the theory is applied to two aircraft examples. The first example is the space shuttle and the second is a highly maneuvering high performance aircraft--the F8-C. The examples illustrate the redundancy management design process and the performance of the algorithms presented in failure detection and control law reconfiguration.

  13. Are interim management statements redundant?

    OpenAIRE

    Schleicher, T.; Walker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 2004 the Transparency Directive increased the reporting frequency by mandating the Interim Management Statement (IMS). However, only nine years later, the EU announced that it was making quarterly reporting voluntary again arguing that IMSs are redundant as they are unlikely to contain any additional information not already required by the Market Abuse Directive (MAD). The current paper tests this argument empirically. For that it collects data on trading statements from a post-MAD pre-IMS...

  14. Software redundancy: what, where, how

    OpenAIRE

    Mattavelli, Andrea; Pezzè, Mauro; Carzaniga, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Software systems have become pervasive in everyday life and are the core component of many crucial activities. An inadequate level of reliability may determine the commercial failure of a software product. Still, despite the commitment and the rigorous verification processes employed by developers, software is deployed with faults. To increase the reliability of software systems, researchers have investigated the use of various form of redundancy. Informally, a software system is redunda...

  15. RECAT - Redundant Channel Alignment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT A problem in the analog-to- digital , (A/D), conversion of broadband tape recorded...Alignment Technique, is used to align data taken on one pass with data from any other pass. The accuracy of this alignment is a function of the digital ...Redundant Channel Alignment Technique; analog-to- digital ; A/D; Broadband Bearing Time Processing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  16. A novel redundant INS based on triple rotary inertial measurement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Kui; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Accuracy and reliability are two key performances of inertial navigation system (INS). Rotation modulation (RM) can attenuate the bias of inertial sensors and make it possible for INS to achieve higher navigation accuracy with lower-class sensors. Therefore, the conflict between the accuracy and cost of INS can be eased. Traditional system redundancy and recently researched sensor redundancy are two primary means to improve the reliability of INS. However, how to make the best use of the redundant information from redundant sensors hasn’t been studied adequately, especially in rotational INS. This paper proposed a novel triple rotary unit strapdown inertial navigation system (TRUSINS), which combines RM and sensor redundancy design to enhance the accuracy and reliability of rotational INS. Each rotary unit independently rotates to modulate the errors of two gyros and two accelerometers. Three units can provide double sets of measurements along all three axes of body frame to constitute a couple of INSs which make TRUSINS redundant. Experiments and simulations based on a prototype which is made up of six fiber-optic gyros with drift stability of 0.05° h-1 show that TRUSINS can achieve positioning accuracy of about 0.256 n mile h-1, which is ten times better than that of a normal non-rotational INS with the same level inertial sensors. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that due to the advantage of the innovative structure, the designed fault detection and isolation (FDI) strategy can tolerate six sensor faults at most, and is proved to be effective and practical. Therefore, TRUSINS is particularly suitable and highly beneficial for the applications where high accuracy and high reliability is required.

  17. Computer Aided Design of a Hyper-redundant Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGHITU, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired solution can support significant improvements across various fields of robotics, offering solutions to basic problems such as locomotion and manipulation in unstructured environments. This paper deals with the problem of using a bioinspired solution in building a hyper-redundant robotic arm. In the recent period, were developed an important number of application using like an octopus or like snake or like a trunk of elephant solutions for robotic arms. Such kind of projects must solve difficult problems on the way from design to implementation. The problems are mainly linked with the actuation solution, with the control of the structure, with sensors to close the control loop, technology for the implementation. In this paper we focus on the process of modelling, simulating, and designing of hyper-redundant robotic arm.

  18. Adaptive Control of Flexible Redundant Manipulators Using Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yimin; LI Jianxin; WANG Shiyu; LIU Jianping

    2006-01-01

    An investigation on the neural networks based active vibration control of flexible redundant manipulators was conducted.The smart links of the manipulator were synthesized with the flexible links to which were attached piezoceramic actuators and strain gauge sensors.A nonlinear adaptive control strategy named neural networks based indirect adaptive control (NNIAC) was employed to improve the dynamic performance of the manipulator.The mathematical model of the 4-layered dynamic recurrent neural networks (DRNN) was introduced.The neuro-identifier and the neurocontroller featuring the DRNN topology were designed off line so as to enhance the initial robustness of the NNIAC.By adjusting the neuro-identifier and the neuro-controller alternatively,the manipulator was controlled on line for achieving the desired dynamic performance.Finally,a planar 3R redundant manipulator with one smart link was utilized as an illustrative example.The simulation results proved the validity of the control strategy.

  19. Development and testing of advanced redundancy management methods for the F-8 DFBW aircraft. [failure detection for Digital Fly By Wire systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyst, J.; Deckert, J.; Desai, M.; Willsky, A.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable aircraft sensor failure detection and identification (FDI) technique is presented. The technique exploits the kinematic and dynamic relationships that exist between variables measured by dissimilar sensors to identify failures in the sensors. The method is applied to management of dual redundant sensors on the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) research aircraft.

  20. [Redundancy theory and its application in agro-ecosystem management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingchun; Wu, Jianjun; Wang, Fen

    2005-02-01

    Redundancy theory is an ecological theory developed in 1990s. This paper gave a brief introduction on the concept of redundancy, its hypothesis and redundancy degree, and briefly reviewed the research advances in redundancy theory and in the methodologies about species redundancy, layer redundancy, gene redundancy, and growth redundancy. A hypothesis of optimal growth redundancy degree (OGRD) was proposed, i. e., under certain cultivation and management conditions, there existed a growth redundancy degree corresponding to the highest crop yield, and a high yield would be obtained if OGRD could be achieved through the regulation of management practices. The hypothesis was tested by using the data from high-yielding rice cultivation cases.

  1. Convergent Validity of a Wearable Sensor System for Measuring Sub-Task Performance during the Timed Up-and-Go Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, James; McGibbon, Chris A; Sexton, Andrew; Noble, Jeremy; O'Connell, Colleen

    2017-04-23

    The timed-up-and-go test (TUG) is one of the most commonly used tests of physical function in clinical practice and for research outcomes. Inertial sensors have been used to parse the TUG test into its composite phases (rising, walking, turning, etc.), but have not validated this approach against an optoelectronic gold-standard, and to our knowledge no studies have published the minimal detectable change of these measurements. Eleven adults performed the TUG three times each under normal and slow walking conditions, and 3 m and 5 m walking distances, in a 12-camera motion analysis laboratory. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) with tri-axial accelerometers and gyroscopes was worn on the upper-torso. Motion analysis marker data and IMU signals were analyzed separately to identify the six main TUG phases: sit-to-stand, 1st walk, 1st turn, 2nd walk, 2nd turn, and stand-to-sit, and the absolute agreement between two systems analyzed using intra-class correlation (ICC, model 2) analysis. The minimal detectable change (MDC) within subjects was also calculated for each TUG phase. The overall difference between TUG sub-tasks determined using 3D motion capture data and the IMU sensor data was time and walk times (ICC > 0.90), but less for chair activity (ICC range 0.5-0.9) and typically poor for the turn time (ICC time ranged between 2-4 s or 12-22% of the TUG time measurement. MDC of the sub-task times were higher proportionally, being 20-60% of the sub-task duration. We conclude that a commercial IMU can be used for quantifying the TUG phases with accuracy sufficient for clinical applications; however, the MDC when using inertial sensors is not necessarily improved over less sophisticated measurement tools.

  2. Redundancy-Allocation in Pharmaceutical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Garg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In present paper three heuristics algorithms to optimize the problem of constrained redundancy allocation in complex system are described and used to allocate redundancy in a manufacturing system namely pharmaceutical plant. Computational procedures of proposed algorithms are outlined. These algorithms are applied to find the best redundancy strategy, combination of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under cost constraints .Results of these algorithms are compared to get best possible solution for the proposed problem.

  3. Methods for investigating parameter redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenez, O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative study of marked individuals relies mainly on the use of meaningful biological models. Classical inference is then conducted based on the model likelihood, parameterized by parameters such as survival, recovery, transition and recapture probabilities. In classical statistics, we seek parameter estimates by maximising the likelihood. However, models are often overparameterized and, as a consequence, some parameters cannot be estimated separately. Identifying how many and which (functions of parameters are estimable is thus crucial not only for proper model selection based upon likelihood ratio tests or information criteria but also for the interpretation of the estimates obtained. In this paper, we provide the reader with a description of the tools available to check for parameter redundancy. We aim to assist people in choosing the most appropriate method to solve their own specific problems.

  4. Sensor Activation and Radius Adaptation (SARA) in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Novella; la Porta, Thomas; Petrioli, Chiara; Silvestri, Simone

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor an area of interest. In this scenario, a helpful approach is to reduce coverage redundancy and therefore the energy expenditure due to coverage. We introduce the first algorithm which reduces coverage redundancy by means of Sensor Activation and sensing Radius Adaptation (SARA)in a general applicative scenario with two classes of devices: sensors that can adapt their sensing range (adjustable sensors) and sensors that cannot (fixed sensors). In particular, SARA activates only a subset of all the available sensors and reduces the sensing range of the adjustable sensors that have been activated. In doing so, SARA also takes possible heterogeneous coverage capabilities of sensors belonging to the same class into account. It specifically addresses device heterogeneity by modeling the coverage problem in the Laguerre geometry through Voronoi-Laguerre diagrams. SARA executes quickly and is guarante...

  5. Synchronous transfer circuits for redundant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S.

    1978-01-01

    Circuit arrangements for flip-flops, counters, and clock drivers in redundant systems ensure that control is synchronously transferred to surviving components when failure occurs. In addition to original application to spacecraft systems, redundant circuits have terrestrial uses in power generators, solar-energy converters, computers, vehicle controllers, and other systems demanding high reliability.

  6. Obsessive compulsive disorder presenting for redundant clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Uvais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported.

  7. Are transcendental theories of justice redundant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmartya Sen’s The Idea of Justice is a very rich book, with many aspects worth discussing. I will limit myself here to one major claim that Sen makes, namely that transcendental theories of justice are redundant. I will argue that this ‘Redundancy Claim’ is mistaken, since for

  8. Redundancy Management for P2P Backup

    CERN Document Server

    Toka, Laszlo; Dell'Amico, Matteo; Michiardi, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    We design and analyze the performance of a redundancy management mechanism for Peer-to-Peer backup applications. Armed with the realization that a backup system has peculiar requirements -- namely, data is read over the network only during restore processes caused by data loss -- redundancy management targets data durability rather than attempting to make each piece of information availabile at any time. In our approach each peer determines, in an on-line manner, an amount of redundancy sufficient to counter the effects of peer deaths, while preserving acceptable data restore times. Our experiments, based on trace-driven simulations, indicate that our mechanism can reduce the redundancy by a factor between two and three with respect to redundancy policies aiming for data availability. These results imply an according increase in storage capacity and decrease in time to complete backups, at the expense of longer times required to restore data. We believe this is a very reasonable price to pay, given the nature...

  9. PSD Camera Based Position and Posture Control of Redundant Robot Considering Contact Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Naoki; Kotani, Kentaro

    The paper describes a position and posture controller design based on the absolute position by external PSD vision sensor for redundant robot manipulator. The redundancy enables a potential capability to avoid obstacle while continuing given end-effector jobs under contact with middle link of manipulator. Under contact motion, the deformation due to joint torsion obtained by comparing internal and external position sensor, is actively suppressed by internal/external position hybrid controller. The selection matrix of hybrid loop is given by the function of the deformation. And the detected deformation is also utilized in the compliant motion controller for passive obstacle avoidance. The validity of the proposed method is verified by several experimental results of 3link planar redundant manipulator.

  10. Redundant Arrays of IDE Drives

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, D A; Eschenburg, V; Lawrence, C N; Riley, C P; Summers, D J; Petravick, D L

    2001-01-01

    We report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. Our tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100 TM disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. Our data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. We explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transf...

  11. Redundant correlation effect on personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Han, Teng-Yue; Zhong, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The high-order redundant correlation effect is investigated for a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), through both heat conduction biased (HCB) and mass diffusion biased (MDB) correlation redundancy elimination processes. The HCB and MDB algorithms do not introduce any additional tunable parameters, but keep the simple character of the original HHM. Based on two empirical datasets, the Netflix and MovieLens, the HCB and MDB are found to show better recommendation accuracy for both the overall objects and the cold objects than the HHM algorithm. Our work suggests that properly eliminating the high-order redundant correlations can provide a simple and effective approach to accurate recommendation.

  12. Exploration of AWGNC and BSC Pseudocodeword Redundancy

    CERN Document Server

    Zumbragel, Jens; Skachek, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    The AWGNC, BSC, and max-fractional pseudocodeword redundancy of a code is defined as the smallest number of rows in a parity-check matrix such that the corresponding minimum pseudoweight is equal to the minimum Hamming distance of the code. This paper provides new results on the AWGNC, BSC, and max-fractional pseudocodeword redundancies of codes. The pseudocodeword redundancies for all codes of small length (at most 9) are computed. Also, comprehensive results are provided on the cases of cyclic codes of length at most 250 for which the eigenvalue bound of Vontobel and Koetter is sharp.

  13. Redundant publications in the orthopedic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Jason C; Nachtigall, Dean; Hodges, Scott D; Humphreys, S Craig

    2007-01-01

    Rates of redundant publications in the general surgery literature are approximately 14%. This article identifies the rate of redundant publications in the orthopedic literature. All original articles published during the year 2000 in The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume), Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, Journal of Spinal Disorders, and Spine were searched using PubMed. Redundancy rate was 4 (3.15%) of 127 for The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American volume), zero (0%) of 70 for Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 2 (2.90%) of 69 for Journal of Spinal Disorders, and 11 (3.12%) of 353 for Spine.

  14. Strong path convergence from Loewner driving convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We show that, under mild assumptions on the limiting curve, a sequence of simple chordal planar curves converges uniformly whenever certain Loewner driving functions converge. We extend this result to random curves. The random version applies in particular to random lattice paths that have chordal SLE as a scaling limit, with kappa less than 8 (non-space-filling). Existing SLE convergence proofs often begin by showing that the Loewner driving functions of these paths (viewed from infinity) converge to Brownian motion. Unfortunately, this is not sufficient, and additional arguments are required to complete the proofs. We show that driving function convergence is sufficient if it can be established for both parametrization directions and a generic target.

  15. Mobile Internet of Things Based on Convergence of Mobile Communications and Sensor Networks%基于移动通信和传感网融合的移动物联网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈嘉; 张国全

    2011-01-01

    能够提供更高数据率的4G网络已经在全球开始部署。但由于用户数量增长饱和,ARPU值不降反升,难以提高运营商的盈利能力。通过移动通信和传感网的结合,可以开拓一个巨大的移动物联网市场,增加大量的"机器终端",同时实现移动通信技术向社会生活的各个领域渗透,从而保持通信产业的持续快速发展。%The 4G networks which provides a higher data rate has started being deployed throughout the world.However,since the number of subscribers has reached the saturation and the ARPU value keep decreasing,even 4G cannot enhance the profit-making ability of operators.The convergence of mobile communications and sensor networks can exploit a massive market of mobile Internet of Thing(IoT) with a huge number of "machine terminals".Via the mobile IoT the mobile communications technology can penetrate into various domains of the society.This will promote the rapid development the communications industry.

  16. Reward-based learning of a redundant task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagnone, Irene; Casadio, Maura; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2013-06-01

    Motor skill learning has different components. When we acquire a new motor skill we have both to learn a reliable action-value map to select a highly rewarded action (task model) and to develop an internal representation of the novel dynamics of the task environment, in order to execute properly the action previously selected (internal model). Here we focus on a 'pure' motor skill learning task, in which adaptation to a novel dynamical environment is negligible and the problem is reduced to the acquisition of an action-value map, only based on knowledge of results. Subjects performed point-to-point movement, in which start and target positions were fixed and visible, but the score provided at the end of the movement depended on the distance of the trajectory from a hidden viapoint. Subjects did not have clues on the correct movement other than the score value. The task is highly redundant, as infinite trajectories are compatible with the maximum score. Our aim was to capture the strategies subjects use in the exploration of the task space and in the exploitation of the task redundancy during learning. The main findings were that (i) subjects did not converge to a unique solution; rather, their final trajectories are determined by subject-specific history of exploration. (ii) with learning, subjects reduced the trajectory's overall variability, but the point of minimum variability gradually shifted toward the portion of the trajectory closer to the hidden via-point.

  17. Redundancy Calibration of Phased Array Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Noorishad, Parisa; van Ardenne, Arnold; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the benefits and limitations of using the redundant visibility information in regular phased array systems for improving the calibration. Regular arrays offer the possibility to use redundant visibility information to constrain the calibration of the array independent of a sky model and a beam models of the station elements. It requires a regular arrangement in the configuration of array elements and identical beam patterns. We revised a calibration method for phased array stations using the redundant visibility information in the system and applied it successfully to a LOFAR station. The performance and limitations of the method were demonstrated by comparing its use on real and simulated data. The main limitation is the mutual coupling between the station elements, which leads to non-identical beams and stronger baseline dependent noise. Comparing the variance of the estimated complex gains with the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) indicates that redundancy is a stable and optimum method for cali...

  18. Redundant Information Presentation in Hypertext Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdan, Eniko; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Bezdan, E., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 29 August). Redundant Information Presentation in Hypertext Learning Environments. Presentation at the pre-conference of the Junior Researchers of EARLI, Exeter, United Kingdom.

  19. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  20. There is poverty convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Klasen, Stephan; Wacker, Konstantin M.

    2016-01-01

    Martin Ravallion ("Why Don't We See Poverty Convergence?" American Economic Review, 102(1): 504-23; 2012) presents evidence against the existence of convergence in global poverty rates despite convergence in household mean income levels and the close linkage between income growth and poverty reduction. We show that this finding is driven by a specification that demands more than simple convergence in poverty headcount rates and assumes a growth elasticity of poverty reduction, which is well-k...

  1. Convergence S-compactifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Losert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Properties of continuous actions on convergence spaces are investigated. The primary focus is the characterization as to when a continuous action on a convergence space can be continuously extended to an action on a compactification of the convergence space. The largest and smallest such compactifications are studied.

  2. Redundant unbalance compensation of an active magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Markus; Kalteis, Gerald; Schrödl, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    To achieve a good running behavior of a magnetic levitated rotor, a well-developed position controller and different compensation methods are required. Two very important structures in this context are the reduction of the gyroscopic effect and the unbalance vibration. Both structures have in common that they need the angular velocity information for calculation. For industrial applications this information is normally provided by an angle sensor which is fixed on the rotor. The angle information is also necessary for the field oriented control of the electrical drive. The main drawback of external position sensors are the case of a breakdown or an error of the motor controller. Therefore, the magnetic bearing can get unstable, because no angular velocity information is provided. To overcome this problem the presented paper describes the development of a selfsensing unbalance rejection in combination with a selfsensing speed control of the motor controller. Selfsensing means in this context that no angle sensor is required for the unbalance or torque control. With such structures two redundant speed and angle information sources are available and can be used for the magnetic bearing and the motor controller without the usage of an angle sensor.

  3. Research on the optimal structure configuration of dither RLG used in skewed redundant INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunfeng; Wang, Qi; Wei, Guo; Long, Xingwu

    2016-05-01

    The actual combat effectiveness of weapon equipment is restricted by the performance of Inertial Navigation System (INS), especially in high reliability required situations such as fighter, satellite and submarine. Through the use of skewed sensor geometries, redundant technique has been applied to reduce the cost and improve the reliability of the INS. In this paper, the structure configuration and the inertial sensor characteristics of Skewed Redundant Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SRSINS) using dithered Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG) are analyzed. For the dither coupling effects of the dither gyro, the system measurement errors can be amplified either the individual gyro dither frequency is near one another or the structure of the SRSINS is unreasonable. Based on the characteristics of RLG, the research on coupled vibration of dithered RLG in SRSINS is carried out. On the principle of optimal navigation performance, optimal reliability and optimal cost-effectiveness, the comprehensive evaluation scheme of the inertial sensor configuration of SRINS is given.

  4. Estimating Predictability Redundancy and Surrogate Data Method

    CERN Document Server

    Pecen, L

    1995-01-01

    A method for estimating theoretical predictability of time series is presented, based on information-theoretic functionals---redundancies and surrogate data technique. The redundancy, designed for a chosen model and a prediction horizon, evaluates amount of information between a model input (e.g., lagged versions of the series) and a model output (i.e., a series lagged by the prediction horizon from the model input) in number of bits. This value, however, is influenced by a method and precision of redundancy estimation and therefore it is a) normalized by maximum possible redundancy (given by the precision used), and b) compared to the redundancies obtained from two types of the surrogate data in order to obtain reliable classification of a series as either unpredictable or predictable. The type of predictability (linear or nonlinear) and its level can be further evaluated. The method is demonstrated using a numerically generated time series as well as high-frequency foreign exchange data and the theoretical ...

  5. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova; Elvira Galievna Zarifullina

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when...

  6. Micromorphic continua: non-redundant formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giovanni; Barretta, Raffaele; Diaco, Marina

    2016-11-01

    The kinematics of generalized continua is investigated and key points concerning the definition of overall tangent strain measure are put into evidence. It is shown that classical measures adopted in the literature for micromorphic continua do not obey a constraint qualification requirement, to be fulfilled for well-posedness in optimization theory, and are therefore termed redundant. Redundancy of continua with latent microstructure and of constrained Cosserat continua is also assessed. A simplest, non-redundant, kinematic model of micromorphic continua, is proposed by dropping the microcurvature field. The equilibrium conditions and the related variational linear elastostatic problem are formulated and briefly discussed. The simplest model involves a reduced number of state variables and of elastic constitutive coefficients, when compared with other models of micromorphic continua, being still capable of enriching the Cauchy continuum model in a significant way.

  7. Minimum Redundancy Coding for Uncertain Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B; Charalambous, Charalambos D

    2011-01-01

    Consider the set of source distributions within a fixed maximum relative entropy with respect to a given nominal distribution. Lossless source coding over this relative entropy ball can be approached in more than one way. A problem previously considered is finding a minimax average length source code. The minimizing players are the codeword lengths --- real numbers for arithmetic codes, integers for prefix codes --- while the maximizing players are the uncertain source distributions. Another traditional minimizing objective is the first one considered here, maximum (average) redundancy. This problem reduces to an extension of an exponential Huffman objective treated in the literature but heretofore without direct practical application. In addition to these, this paper examines the related problem of maximal minimax pointwise redundancy and the problem considered by Gawrychowski and Gagie, which, for a sufficiently small relative entropy ball, is equivalent to minimax redundancy. One can consider both Shannon-...

  8. Redundancy Elimination in DTN via ACK Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional routing protocols for delay tolerant networks (DTN usually take the strategy of spreading multiple copies of one message to the networks. When one copy reaches destination, the transmission of other copies not only waste the bandwidth but also deprive other messages of the opportunities for transmission. This paper brings up a mechanism to eliminate the redundant copies. By adding an acknowledge field to the packet header to delete redundant copies, it can degrade the network overhead while improve the delivery ratio. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can improve the performance of epidemic and Spray and Wait routing protocol.

  9. Converged Registries Solution (CRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Converged Registries platform is a hardware and software architecture designed to host individual patient registries and eliminate duplicative development effort...

  10. On Control of Reaching Movements for Musculo-Skeletal Redundant Arm Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Tahara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a dynamic sensory-motor control mechanism of reaching movements for a musculo-skeletal redundant arm model. The formulation of a musculo-skeletal redundant arm system, which takes into account non-linear muscle properties obtained by some physiological understandings, is introduced and numerical simulations are perfomed. The non-linear properties of muscle dynamics make it possible to modulate the viscosity of the joints, and the end point of the arm converges to the desired point with a simple task-space feedback when adequate internal forces are chosen, regardless of the redundancy of the joint. Numerical simulations were performed and the effectiveness of our control scheme is discussed through these results. The results suggest that the reaching movements can be achieved using only a simple task-space feedback scheme together with the internal force effect that comes from non-linear properties of skeletal muscles without any complex mathematical computation such as an inverse dynamics or optimal trajectory derivation. In addition, the dynamic damping ellipsoid for evaluating how the internal forces can be determined is introduced. The task-space feedback is extended to the ‘virtual spring-damper hypothesis’ based on the research by Arimoto et al. (2006 to reduce the muscle output forces and heterogeneity of convergence depending on the initial state and desired position. The research suggests a new direction for studies of brain-motor control mechanism of human movements.

  11. Beyond redundancy how geographic redundancy can improve service availability and reliability of computer-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric; Eustace, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "While geographic redundancy can obviously be a huge benefit for disaster recovery, it is far less obvious what benefit is feasible and likely for more typical non-catastrophic hardware, software, and human failures. Georedundancy and Service Availability provides both a theoretical and practical treatment of the feasible and likely benefits of geographic redundancy for both service availability and service reliability. The text provides network/system planners, IS/IT operations folks, system architects, system engineers, developers, testers, and other industry practitioners with a general discussion about the capital expense/operating expense tradeoff that frames system redundancy and georedundancy"--

  12. 78 FR 76057 - Removal of Redundant Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... functions, protection of human subjects, and care and use of animals in the conduct of NASA activities..., and care and use of animals in the conduct of NASA activities. Therefore, Section 1204.508 and Parts... Subjects, and Part 1232, Care and Use of Animals in the Conduct of NASA Activities, are redundant...

  13. A VOCABULARY PROGRAM USING "LANGUAGE REDUNDANCY."

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHAEFER, HALMUTH H.

    THE THESIS OF THIS REPORT IS THAT REDUNDANT PARTS OF A SENTENCE MAY EITHER BE OMITTED OR REPLACED BY NONSENSE WORDS WITHOUT LOSS OF COMPREHENSION. AND IF THE NONSENSE WORDS ARE IN A LANGUAGE FOREIGN TO THE READER, THEIR CONSISTENT USE SHOULD EVENTUALLY EQUATE THEM TO EQUIVALENTS IN THE READER'S LANGUAGE. GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE WILL ALSO BE ACQUIRED…

  14. Does functional redundancy stabilize fish communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, Jake; Daan, Niels; Gislason, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    time‐series of data on 83 species sampled in the International Bottom Trawl Survey. Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that functional redundancy leads to more stable (and by inference more resilient) communities. Over the time‐series trophic groups (assigned by diet, size (Lmax) group...

  15. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping matr...

  16. ON THE REDUNDANCY OF COMPLEX MODAL PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奎孚; 焦群英

    2004-01-01

    Generating the simulation transfer function (TF) is indispensable to modal analysis, such as examining modal parameters identification algorithm, and assessing modal analysis software. Comparing 3 feasible algorithms to simulate TF shows that, one of them is preperable, which is expressing the TF as the function of the complex modal parameters ( CMPs ) , because the deliberate behaviors of CMPs can be implemented easily,such as, dense modals , large damping, and complex modal shape, etc. Nonetheless, even this preferable algorithms is elected, the complex modal shapes cannot be specified arbitrarily, because the number of CMPs far more exceeds that in physical coordinate. So for physical realizable system, there are redundant constraints in CMPs. By analyzing the eigenvalue problem of a complex modal system, and the inversion equations from CMPs to physical parameters, the explicit redundancy constraints were presented. For the special cases, such as the real modal, the damping free modal, and non-complete identification, the specific forms of the redundancy constraints were discussed, along with the number of independent parameters. It is worthy of noting that, redundancy constraints are automatically satisfied for the real modal case. Their equivalent forms on the transfer matrix and a column of transfer matrix were also provided. These results are applicable to generate TF, to implement identification by optimization and appreciate the identification results, to evaluate residual modal, and to verify the complementary of identified modal orders.

  17. Compressing redundant information in Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Given a strongly stationary Markov chain and a finite set of stopping rules, we prove the existence of a polynomial algorithm which projects the Markov chain onto a minimal Markov chain without redundant information. Markov complexity is hence defined and tested on some classical problems.

  18. Britain's Redundancy Payments for Displaced Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Lawrence S.

    1987-01-01

    The Redundancy Payments Act of 1965 established the idea that an employee has property rights to a job based on years of company service. It instituted an entitlement program for displaced workers sponsored by firms and the government. The British layoff situtation differs from that of the United States. (Author/CH)

  19. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  20. Cost Vs. Redundancy in FTTH Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Gustav Helgi; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of offering redundancy within the access network by planning an access network using the ear topology. This proposed network is compared to a traditional tree structured access network. The basic idea of the ear topology is to offer two individual fibers from se...

  1. Convergence of DFP algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚湘

    1995-01-01

    The DFP method is one of the most famous numerical algorithms for unconstrained optimization. For uniformly convex objective functions convergence properties of the DFP method are studied. Several conditions that can ensure the global convergence of the DFP method are given.

  2. Energy-efficient ZigBee-based wireless sensor network for track bicycle performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik K; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2014-08-22

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), saving power is a vital requirement. In this paper, a simple point-to-point bike WSN was considered. The data of bike parameters, speed and cadence, were monitored and transmitted via a wireless communication based on the ZigBee protocol. Since the bike parameters are monitored and transmitted on every bike wheel rotation, this means the sensor node does not sleep for a long time, causing power consumption to rise. Therefore, a newly proposed algorithm, known as the Redundancy and Converged Data (RCD) algorithm, was implemented for this application to put the sensor node into sleep mode while maintaining the performance measurements. This is achieved by minimizing the data packets transmitted as much as possible and fusing the data of speed and cadence by utilizing the correlation measurements between them to minimize the number of sensor nodes in the network to one node, which results in reduced power consumption, cost, and size, in addition to simpler hardware implementation. Execution of the proposed RCD algorithm shows that this approach can reduce the current consumption to 1.69 mA, and save 95% of the sensor node energy. Also, the comparison results with different wireless standard technologies demonstrate minimal current consumption in the sensor node.

  3. Energy-Efficient ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Track Bicycle Performance Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik K. Gharghan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network (WSN, saving power is a vital requirement. In this paper, a simple point-to-point bike WSN was considered. The data of bike parameters, speed and cadence, were monitored and transmitted via a wireless communication based on the ZigBee protocol. Since the bike parameters are monitored and transmitted on every bike wheel rotation, this means the sensor node does not sleep for a long time, causing power consumption to rise. Therefore, a newly proposed algorithm, known as the Redundancy and Converged Data (RCD algorithm, was implemented for this application to put the sensor node into sleep mode while maintaining the performance measurements. This is achieved by minimizing the data packets transmitted as much as possible and fusing the data of speed and cadence by utilizing the correlation measurements between them to minimize the number of sensor nodes in the network to one node, which results in reduced power consumption, cost, and size, in addition to simpler hardware implementation. Execution of the proposed RCD algorithm shows that this approach can reduce the current consumption to 1.69 mA, and save 95% of the sensor node energy. Also, the comparison results with different wireless standard technologies demonstrate minimal current consumption in the sensor node.

  4. Convergence of Fuzzy Set Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-hu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than one mode of convergence with respect to the fuzzy set sequences. In this paper,common six modes of convergence and their relationships are discussed. These six modes are convergence in uniform metric D, convergence in separable metric Dp or D*p, 1 ≤ p <∞, convergence in level set, strong convergence in level set and weak convergence. Suitable counterexamples are given. The necessary and sufficient conditions of convergence in uniform metric D are described. Some comme nts on the convergence of LRfuzzy number sequences are represented.

  5. Robust Nonlinear Analytic Redundancy for Fault Detection and Isolation in Mobile Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bibhrajit Halder; Nilanjan Sarkar

    2007-01-01

    A robust nonlinear analytical redundancy (RNLAR) technique is presented to detect and isolate actuator and sensor faults in a mobile robot. Both model-plant-mismatch (MPM) and process disturbance are considered during fault detection. The RNLAR is used to design primary residual vectors (PRV), which are highly sensitive to the faults and less sensitive to MPM and process disturbance, for sensor and actuator fault detection. The PRVs are then transformed into a set of structured residual vectors (SRV) for fault isolation. Experimental results on a Pioneer 3-DX mobile robot are presented to justify the effectiveness of the RNLAR scheme.

  6. Systematic Luby Transform codes as incremental redundancy scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, TL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Systematic Luby Transform (fountain) codes are investigated as a possible incremental redundancy scheme for EDGE. The convolutional incremental redundancy scheme currently used by EDGE is replaced by the fountain approach. The results...

  7. Redundant visual signals boost saccade execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turatto, Massimo; Betta, Elena

    2006-10-01

    The redundant signal effect (RSE) refers to the fact that human beings react more quickly to a pair of stimuli than to only one stimulus. In previous studies of the RSE in the oculomotor system, bimodal signals have been used as the goal of the saccade. In consistency with studies using manual response times (RTs), saccadic RTs have been shown to be shorter for redundant multimodal stimuli than for single unimodal stimuli. In the present experiments, we extended these findings by demonstrating an RSE in the saccadic system elicited only by unimodal visual stimuli. In addition, we found that shorter saccadic RTs were accompanied by an increased saccadic peak velocity. The present results are of relevance for neurophysiological models of saccade execution, since the boost of saccades was elicited by two visual transients (acting as a "go" signal) that were presented not at the goal of the saccade but at various other locations.

  8. Optimal redundancy against disjoint vulnerabilities in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy is commonly used to guarantee continued functionality in networked systems. However, often many nodes are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. A "backup" path is not sufficient if both paths depend on nodes which share a vulnerability.For example, if two nodes of the Internet cannot be connected without using routers belonging to a given untrusted entity, then all of their communication-regardless of the specific paths utilized-will be intercepted by the controlling entity.In this and many other cases, the vulnerabilities affecting the network are disjoint: each node has exactly one vulnerability but the same vulnerability can affect many nodes. To discover optimal redundancy in this scenario, we describe each vulnerability as a color and develop a "color-avoiding percolation" which uncovers a hidden color-avoiding connectivity. We present algorithms for color-avoiding percolation of general networks and an analytic theory for random graphs with uniformly distributed colors including critic...

  9. Synergy, redundancy and unnormalized Granger causality

    CERN Document Server

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortés, Jesus M; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We analyze by means of Granger causality the effect of synergy and redundancy in the inference (from time series data) of the information flow between subsystems of a complex network. Whilst fully conditioned Granger causality is not affected by synergy, the pairwise analysis fails to put in evidence synergetic effects. We show that maximization of the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables, puts in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target, provided that an {\\it unnormalized} definition of Granger causality is adopted. Along the same lines we also introduce a pairwise index of synergy (w.r.t. to information flow to a third variable) which is zero when two independent sources additively influence a common target, differently from previous definitions of synergy.

  10. Reduced-Precision Redundancy on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Pratt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced-precision redundancy (RPR has been shown to be a viable alternative to triple modular redundancy (TMR for digital circuits. This paper builds on previous research by offering a detailed analysis of the implementation of RPR on FPGAs to improve reliability in soft error environments. Example implementations and fault injection experiments demonstrate the cost and benefits of RPR, showing how RPR can be used to improve the failure rate by up to 200 times over an unmitigated system at costs less than half that of TMR. A novel method is also presented for improving the error-masking ability of RPR by up to 5 times at no additional hardware cost under certain conditions. This research shows RPR to be a very flexible soft error mitigation technique and offers insight into its application on FPGAs.

  11. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays--in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs--for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA's can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both ins...

  12. Nonaccommodative convergence excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Noorden, G K; Avilla, C W

    1986-01-15

    Nonaccommodative convergence excess is a condition in which a patient has orthotropia or a small-angle esophoria or esotropia at distance and a large-angle esotropia at near, not significantly reduced by the addition of spherical plus lenses. The AC/A ratio, determined with the gradient method, is normal or subnormal. Tonic convergence is suspected of causing the convergence excess in these patients. Nonaccommodative convergence excess must be distinguished from esotropia with a high AC/A ratio and from hypoaccommodative esotropia. In 24 patients treated with recession of both medial recti muscles with and without posterior fixation or by posterior fixation alone, the mean correction of esotropia was 7.4 prism diopters at distance and 17 prism diopters at near.

  13. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...

  14. Redundancy Determination of HVDC MMC Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An availability and a reliability prediction has been made for a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC module of VSC (Voltage Source Converter containing DC/DC converter, gate driver, capacitor and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT. This prediction was made using published failure rates for the electronic equipment. The purpose of this prediction is to determinate the additional module redundancy of VSC and the used method is “binomial failure method”.

  15. Intersensory Redundancy Enhances Memory in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…

  16. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  17. Subsequential Convergence Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dik Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a sequence of real numbers and let be any regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence or its generator sequence generated regularly by a sequence in a class of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for , then for any integer , the repeated arithmetic means of , , generated regularly by a sequence in the class , is also a subsequential convergence condition for .

  18. Distributed redundancy and robustness in complex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The uptake and increasing prevalence of Web 2.0 applications, promoting new large-scale and complex systems such as Cloud computing and the emerging Internet of Services/Things, requires tools and techniques to analyse and model methods to ensure the robustness of these new systems. This paper reports on assessing and improving complex system resilience using distributed redundancy, termed degeneracy in biological systems, to endow large-scale complicated computer systems with the same robustness that emerges in complex biological and natural systems. However, in order to promote an evolutionary approach, through emergent self-organisation, it is necessary to specify the systems in an \\'open-ended\\' manner where not all states of the system are prescribed at design-time. In particular an observer system is used to select robust topologies, within system components, based on a measurement of the first non-zero Eigen value in the Laplacian spectrum of the components\\' network graphs; also known as the algebraic connectivity. It is shown, through experimentation on a simulation, that increasing the average algebraic connectivity across the components, in a network, leads to an increase in the variety of individual components termed distributed redundancy; the capacity for structurally distinct components to perform an identical function in a particular context. The results are applied to a specific application where active clustering of like services is used to aid load balancing in a highly distributed network. Using the described procedure is shown to improve performance and distribute redundancy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  20. The Redundancy of Work Alienation and Job Satisfaction: Some Evidence of Convergent and Discriminant Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Joel; Brigando, Louis

    1980-01-01

    The multitrait-multimethod matrix technique was used to help clarify ambiguities regarding concepts of work alienation, job satisfaction, and the relationships between them. The discrimination between alienation and satisfaction measures was no greater than that among satisfaction and among alienation. (Author)

  1. IT-BT convergence technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  2. Task-space separation principle: a force-field approach to motion planning for redundant manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Paolo; Campolo, Domenico

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task-space), i.e. solving the posture/movement problem. The redundancy problem is framed as a constrained optimization problem, traditionally solved via the method of Lagrange multipliers. The posture/movement problem can be tackled via the separation principle which, derived from experimental evidence, posits that the brain processes static torques (i.e. posture-dependent, such as gravitational torques) separately from dynamic torques (i.e. velocity-dependent). The separation principle has traditionally been applied at a joint torque level. Our main contribution is to apply the separation principle to Lagrange multipliers, which act as task-space force fields, leading to a task-space separation principle. In this way, we can separate postural control (implementing Donders' law) from various types of tasks-space movement planners. As an example, the proposed framework is applied to the (redundant) task of pointing with the human wrist. Nonlinear inverse optimization (NIO) is used to fit the model parameters and to capture motor strategies displayed by six human subjects during pointing tasks. The novelty of our NIO approach is that (i) the fitted motor strategy, rather than raw data, is used to filter and down-sample human behaviours; (ii) our framework is used to efficiently simulate model behaviour iteratively, until it converges towards the experimental human strategies.

  3. Trial mountain climbing algorithm for solving the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周友行; 何清华; 邓伯禄

    2002-01-01

    Trial mountain climbing algorithm to solve the inverse kinematics problem of redundant manipulator is introduced, and a method of describing a numeral with a special numeration system is given to define the changed step of the trail mountain climbing algorithm. The results show that a likelihood solution can be found quickly in the infinite groups of likelihood solutions within the limited search times, and need not calculate the anti-trigonometric function and the inverse matrix. In addition, this algorithm has many good qualities such as concise algorithm, tiny computation, fast convergence velocity, good stability and extensive adaptability.

  4. How redundant are redundant color adjectives? An efficiency-based analysis of color overspecification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eRubio-Fernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Color adjectives tend to be used redundantly in referential communication. I propose that redundant color adjectives are often intended to exploit a color contrast in the visual context and hence facilitate object identification, despite not being necessary to establish unique reference. Two language-production experiments investigated two types of factors that may affect the use of redundant color adjectives: factors related to the efficiency of color in the visual context and factors related to the semantic category of the noun. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed that people produce redundant color adjectives when color may facilitate object recognition; e.g., they do so more often in polychrome displays than in monochrome displays, and more often in English (pre-nominal position than in Spanish (post-nominal position. Redundant color adjectives are also used when color is a central property of the object category; e.g., people referred to the color of clothes more often than to the color of geometrical figures (Experiment 1, and they overspecified atypical colors more often than variable and stereotypical colors (Experiment 2. These results are relevant for pragmatic models of referential communication based on Gricean pragmatics and informativeness. An alternative analysis is proposed, which focuses on the efficiency and pertinence of color in a given referential situation.

  5. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when condense of information into syntagmatic level occurs. Language redundancy is potential and speech redundancy is actual. In general, it should be noted that the language redundancy is necessary for language: complicating the relationships between language units, language redundancy creates in language situation of choice, leading to a disorder of language system, increasing of entropy and, as a result, the appearing of the information that can be accepted or cannot be by language system. Language redundancy is one of the reasons for growth of information in language. In addition, the information redundancy in language is one of the factors of language system development.

  6. A Model-Based Case for Redundant Computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ferreira, Kurt Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riesen, Rolf [IBM Research, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-08-01

    Despite its seemingly nonsensical cost, we show through modeling and simulation that redundant computation merits full consideration as a resilience strategy for next-generation systems. Without revolutionary breakthroughs in failure rates, part counts, or stable-storage bandwidths, it has been shown that the utility of Exascale systems will be crushed by the overheads of traditional checkpoint/restart mechanisms. Alternate resilience strategies must be considered, and redundancy is a proven unrivaled approach in many domains. We develop a distribution-independent model for job interrupts on systems of arbitrary redundancy, adapt Daly’s model for total application runtime, and find that his estimate for optimal checkpoint interval remains valid for redundant systems. We then identify conditions where redundancy is more cost effective than non-redundancy. These are done in the context of the number one supercomputers of the last decade, showing that thorough consideration of redundant computation is timely - if not overdue.

  7. Visualization of redundancy resolution for kinematically redundant robots through the Jacobian null space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Che; Walker, Ian D.; Cheatham, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We present a unified formulation for the inverse kinematics of redundant arms, based on a special formulation of the null space of the Jacobian. By extending (appropriately re-scaling) previously used null space parameterizations, we obtain, in a unified fashion, the manipulability measure, the null space projector, and particular solutions for the joint velocities. We obtain the minimum norm pseudo-inverse solution as a projection from any particular solution, and the method provides an intuitive visualization of the self-motion. The result is a computationally efficient, consistent approach to computing redundant robot inverse kinematics.

  8. Very Large Chemical Sensor Array for Mimicking Biological Olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccherelli, R.; Zampetti, E.; Pantalei, S.; Bernabei, M.; Persaud, K. C.

    2009-05-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) in the mammalian olfactory system, transduce molecular properties of the odorants into electrical signals and project these into the olfactory bulb (OB). In the biological system several millions of receptor neurons of a few hundred types create redundancy and the massive convergence of the ORNs to the OB, is thought to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of the system. To explore this concept, the NEUROCHEM project will build a polymeric chemical sensor array consisting of 216 (65536) sensors with tens of different types. To interface such a large sensor array, a topological array configuration with n rows and m columns, has been adopted, to reduce the total wiring connections to n+m. A method of addressing a single element in the array in isolation of the rest of the network has been developed. Over the array ten different conductive polymers with different sensing characteristics will be deposited by means of electrodeposition and inkjet printing. A smaller prototype of 64 elements has been investigated and the results are here reported and discussed.

  9. Converging towards the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, R. W.

    1997-05-01

    The likelihood of convergence in the electric power industry in Canada and the United Sates was examined, and the impact of such a development with respect to electricity and natural gas was explored. Based on developments to date, convergence between gas and electric utilities was considered an inevitable step towards the ultimate consolidation of the energy industry as a whole. Characteristics shared by gas and electric utilities were described, and likely developments leading to convergence of the two industries were reviewed. According to this author the competition between the opposing utilities will lead to price wars, loss leaders and other marketing strategies. Prices will be set by supply and demand principles. While users will be able to select customized, money-saving energy solutions, for suppliers, the new utility market will be a Darwinian battle royale, where only the most viable will survive. The end result will be a larger market dominated by a few super players.

  10. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules......We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... additive in costs....

  11. On the Fuzzy Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.

  12. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along...... with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...

  13. The convergence of chaotic integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, O; Bauer, Oliver; Mainieri, Ronnie

    1995-01-01

    We review the convergence of chaotic integrals computed by Monte Carlo simulation, the trace method, dynamical zeta function, and Fredholm determinant on a simple one-dimensional example: the parabola repeller. There is a dramatic difference in convergence between these approaches. The convergence of the Monte Carlo method follows an inverse power law, whereas the trace method and dynamical zeta function converge exponentially, and the Fredholm determinant converges faster than any exponential.

  14. Learners misperceive benefits of redundant text in multimedia learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eFenesi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on metacognition has consistently demonstrated that learners fail to endorse instructional designs that produce benefits to memory, and often prefer designs that actually impair comprehension. Unlike previous studies in which learners were only exposed to a single multimedia design, the current study used a within–subjects approach to examine whether exposure to both redundant text and non-redundant text multimedia presentations improved learners’ metacognitive judgments about presentation styles that promote better understanding. A redundant text multimedia presentation containing narration paired with verbatim on–screen text (Redundant was contrasted with two non-redundant text multimedia presentations: (1 narration paired with images and minimal text (Complementary or (2 narration paired with minimal text (Sparse. Learners watched presentation pairs of either Redundant + Complementary, or Redundant + Sparse. Results demonstrate that Complementary and Sparse presentations produced highest overall performance on the final comprehension assessment, but the Redundant presentation produced highest perceived understanding and engagement ratings. These findings suggest that learners misperceive the benefits of redundant text, even after direct exposure to a non-redundant, effective presentation.

  15. Development of a Parallel Redundant STATCOM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masatoshi; Yasuda, Satoshi; Tamai, Shinzo; Morishima, Naoki

    This paper presents a new concept of parallel redundant STATCOM system. This system consists of a number of medium capacity STATCOM units connected in parallel, which can achieve a high operational reliability and functional flexibility. The proposed STATCOM system has such redundant operation characteristics that the remaining STATCOM units can maintain their operation even though some of the STATCOM units are out of service. And also, it has flexible convertibility so that it can be converted to a BTB or a UPFC system easily, according to the diversified change of needs in power systems. In order to realize this concept, the authors developed several important key technologies for the STATCOM, such as the novel PWM scheme that enables effective cancellation of lower order harmonics, GCT inverter technologies with small loss consumption, and the coordination control scheme with capacitor banks to ensure effective dynamic performance with minimum loss consumption. The proposed STATCOM system was put into practical applications, exhibiting excellent performance characteristics at each site.

  16. The Convergence Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  17. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  18. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    with the integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block...

  19. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  20. Language Convergence Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind

  1. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  2. The Convergence Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  3. Infrared-Proximity-Sensor Modules For Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, William; Wegerif, Daniel; Rosinski, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Collision-avoidance system for articulated robot manipulators uses infrared proximity sensors grouped together in array of sensor modules. Sensor modules, called "sensorCells," distributed processing board-level products for acquiring data from proximity-sensors strategically mounted on robot manipulators. Each sensorCell self-contained and consists of multiple sensing elements, discrete electronics, microcontroller and communications components. Modules connected to central control computer by redundant serial digital communication subsystem including both serial and a multi-drop bus. Detects objects made of various materials at distance of up to 50 cm. For some materials, such as thermal protection system tiles, detection range reduced to approximately 20 cm.

  4. Cooperative Jamming for Physical Layer Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    Interference is generally considered as the redundant and unwanted occurrence in wireless communication. This work proposes a novel cooperative jamming mechanism for scalable networks like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) which makes use of friendly interference to confuse the eavesdropper...

  5. Predicting genome-wide redundancy using machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Dennis E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication can lead to genetic redundancy, which masks the function of mutated genes in genetic analyses. Methods to increase sensitivity in identifying genetic redundancy can improve the efficiency of reverse genetics and lend insights into the evolutionary outcomes of gene duplication. Machine learning techniques are well suited to classifying gene family members into redundant and non-redundant gene pairs in model species where sufficient genetic and genomic data is available, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, the test case used here. Results Machine learning techniques that combine multiple attributes led to a dramatic improvement in predicting genetic redundancy over single trait classifiers alone, such as BLAST E-values or expression correlation. In withholding analysis, one of the methods used here, Support Vector Machines, was two-fold more precise than single attribute classifiers, reaching a level where the majority of redundant calls were correctly labeled. Using this higher confidence in identifying redundancy, machine learning predicts that about half of all genes in Arabidopsis showed the signature of predicted redundancy with at least one but typically less than three other family members. Interestingly, a large proportion of predicted redundant gene pairs were relatively old duplications (e.g., Ks > 1, suggesting that redundancy is stable over long evolutionary periods. Conclusions Machine learning predicts that most genes will have a functionally redundant paralog but will exhibit redundancy with relatively few genes within a family. The predictions and gene pair attributes for Arabidopsis provide a new resource for research in genetics and genome evolution. These techniques can now be applied to other organisms.

  6. Entropy-Based Bounds On Redundancies Of Huffman Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Padhraic J.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents extension of theory of redundancy of binary prefix code of Huffman type which includes derivation of variety of bounds expressed in terms of entropy of source and size of alphabet. Recent developments yielded bounds on redundancy of Huffman code in terms of probabilities of various components in source alphabet. In practice, redundancies of optimal prefix codes often closer to 0 than to 1.

  7. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  8. A Note on the Stopping Redundancy of Linear Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Tao Xia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the stopping sets, stopping distance and stopping redundancy for binary linear codes.Stopping redundancy is a new concept proposed by Schwartz and Vardy recently for evaluating the performance of a linear code under iterative decoding over a binary erasure channel (BEC). Since the exact value of stopping redundancy is difficult to obtain in general, good lower and upper bounds are important. We obtain a new general upper bound on the stopping redundancy of binary linear codes which improves the corresponding results of Schwartz and Vardy.

  9. Control strategy of hand movement depends on target redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2017-03-31

    Reaching toward a point target has been intensively studied in human motor control. However, little is known about reaching toward a redundant target, such as grasping a bar, in which the grasping point is irrelevant to the achievement of a task. We examined whether humans could solve the target-redundancy and control problems in a serial fashion or control their body without solving the target-redundancy problem. We equalized the target ranges between two reaching tasks: a point-to-point reaching task without target-redundancy and a point-to-bar reaching task with target-redundancy. In the both tasks, we measured hand viscoelasticity at movement end as parameters that reflect the adopted control strategy. As a result, the hand viscoelasticity in the point-to-bar reaching task was smaller than that in the point-to-point reaching task, even under the same kinematics. These results indicate that the hand viscoelasticity was modulated depending on the target-redundancy. Moreover, it is suggested that a human reaches toward a redundant target by effectively utilizing information of target redundancy rather than explicitly solving the target-redundancy problem.

  10. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan, I.; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.

    2014-03-01

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  11. Sparse Signal Separation in Redundant Dictionaries

    CERN Document Server

    Aubel, Céline; Pope, Graeme; Bölcskei, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a unified framework for the separation of signals that are sparse in "morphologically" different redundant dictionaries. This formulation incorporates the so-called "analysis" and "synthesis" approaches as special cases and contains novel hybrid setups. We find corresponding coherence-based recovery guarantees for an l1-norm based separation algorithm. Our results recover those reported in Studer and Baraniuk, ACHA, submitted, for the synthesis setting, provide new recovery guarantees for the analysis setting, and form a basis for comparing performance in the analysis and synthesis settings. As an aside our findings complement the D-RIP recovery results reported in Cand\\`es et al., ACHA, 2011, for the "analysis" signal recovery problem: minimize_x ||{\\Psi}x||_1 subject to ||y - Ax||_2 \\leq {\\epsilon}, by delivering corresponding coherence-based recovery results.

  12. Designing Broadband Access Networks with Triple Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2005-01-01

    An architecture is proposed for designing broadband access networks, which offer triple redundancy to the end users, resulting in networks providing connectivity even in case of any two independent node or line failures. Two physically independent connections are offered by fiber, and the last...... provided by some wireless solution. Based on experience with planning Fiber To The Home, the architecture is designed to meet a number of demands, making it practicable and useful in realworld network planning. The proposed wired topology is planar, and suitable for being fitted onto the road network...... without compromising line independency, and it can be implemented stepwise, the first step being based on a simple ring/tree topology. The double ring is used for the distribution network, ensuring 3-connectivity and making it feasible to use for connecting the base stations of the wireless network...

  13. Exploiting data redundancy in computational optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T

    2015-11-30

    We present an algorithm which exploits data redundancy to make computational, coherent, optical imaging more computationally efficient. This algorithm specifically addresses the computation of how light scattered by a sample is collected and coherently detected. It is of greatest benefit in the simulation of broadband optical systems employing coherent detection, such as optical coherence tomography. Although also amenable to time-harmonic data, the algorithm is designed to be embedded within time-domain electromagnetic scattering simulators such as the psuedo-spectral and finite-difference time domain methods. We derive the algorithm in detail as well as criteria which ensure accurate execution of the algorithm. We present simulations that verify the developed algorithm and demonstrate its utility. We expect this algorithm to be important to future developments in computational imaging.

  14. Amplification, Redundancy, and Quantum Chernoff Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2014-04-01

    Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.

  15. The Convergent Learning Space:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering

    2013-01-01

    is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...

  16. Subsequential Convergence Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Çanak

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Let (un be a sequence of real numbers and let L be any (C,1 regular limitable method. We prove that, under some assumptions, if a sequence (un or its generator sequence (Vn(0(Δu generated regularly by a sequence in a class 𝒜 of sequences is a subsequential convergence condition for L, then for any integer m≥1, the mth repeated arithmetic means of (Vn(0(Δu, (Vn(m(Δu, generated regularly by a sequence in the class 𝒜(m, is also a subsequential convergence condition for L.

  17. Convergence Reflects Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Competition has been playing a dominant role among telecommunication equipment manufacturers. In 2006, however, merger overwhelmed competition. In the tide of converging, a large number of equipment manufacturers were involved in mergers. At the same time, telecommunication equipment manufacturers, the most innovative community in the world, drive 3G technology fast in line with its technical roadmap. In addition, Chinese equipment manufacturers cut a figure in world-class telecommunication markets, whic...

  18. IT Convergence and Security 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kyung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.

  19. Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…

  20. Partial Verbal Redundancy in Multimedia Presentations for Writing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Rod D.; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Harry, Danielle; Russell, Devin G.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia instructional materials require learners to select, organize, and integrate information across multiple modalities. To facilitate these comprehension processes, a variety of multimedia design principles have been proposed. This study further explores the redundancy principle by manipulating the degree of partial redundancy between…

  1. Intersensory redundancy promotes visual rhythm discrimination in visually impaired infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Viola; Nava, Elena; Turati, Chiara; Montirosso, Rosario; Cavallini, Anna; Borgatti, Renato

    2015-05-01

    Infants' attention is captured by the redundancy of amodal stimulation in multimodal objects and events. Evidence from this study demonstrates that intersensory redundancy can facilitate discrimination of rhythm changes presented in the visual modality alone in visually impaired infants, suggesting that multisensory rehabilitation strategies could prove helpful in this population.

  2. Integral optimization of spare parts inventories in systems with redundancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleptchenko, Andrei; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze spare parts supply for a system with a "k-out-of-N" redundancy structure for key components, different standby policies (cold, warm and hot standby redundancy) and local spare parts inventories for sub-components. We assume multiple part types (sub-components) that fail

  3. Multisensory processing in the redundant-target effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Niederhaus, Birgit; Rösler, Frank;

    2005-01-01

    Participants respond more quickly to two simultaneously presented target stimuli of two different modalities (redundant targets) than would be predicted from their reaction times to the unimodal targets. To examine the neural correlates of this redundant-target effect, event-related potentials (E...

  4. APPLICATION OF CODES WITH NATURAL REDUNDANCY FOR INFORMATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonovsky Y. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article we provide a survey of cryptographic systems on the basis of unjammable coding; we offer the aspect of codes with natural redundancy for the solution of a problem of simultaneous protection of the information and detection and correction of errors; the demonstration is resulted that codes with natural redundancy are group codes

  5. On Planning of FTTH Access Networks with and without Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Haraldsson, Gustav; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a planning analysis of FTTH access network with and without redundancy. Traditionally, access networks are planned only without redundancy, which is mainly due to lowering the cost of deployment. As fiber optics provide a huge amount of capacity, more and more services are being...

  6. An Exploration of Concise Redundancy in Online Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of multimedia in education, the importance of investigating the effect of redundancy, repeating instructional messages to enhance conceptualization in instructional material design, is becoming more important. Various studies have been conducted recently regarding the effects of different forms of redundancy. A multimedia…

  7. Partial Verbal Redundancy in Multimedia Presentations for Writing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Rod D.; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Harry, Danielle; Russell, Devin G.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia instructional materials require learners to select, organize, and integrate information across multiple modalities. To facilitate these comprehension processes, a variety of multimedia design principles have been proposed. This study further explores the redundancy principle by manipulating the degree of partial redundancy between…

  8. Reducing Redundancies in Reconfigurable Antenna Structures Using Graph Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantine, Joseph; al-Saffar, Sinan; Christodoulou, Christos G.; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2010-04-23

    Many reconfigurable antennas have redundant components in their structures. In this paper we present an approach for reducing redundancies in reconfigurable antenna structures using graph models. We study reconfigurable antennas, which are grouped, categorized and modeled according to a set of proposed graph rules. Several examples are presented and discussed to demonstrate the validity of this new technique.

  9. On Planning of FTTH Access Networks with and without Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Haraldsson, Gustav; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a planning analysis of FTTH access network with and without redundancy. Traditionally, access networks are planned only without redundancy, which is mainly due to lowering the cost of deployment. As fiber optics provide a huge amount of capacity, more and more services are being...

  10. Redundancy-Free, Accurate Analytical Center Machine for Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGFanzi; QIUZhengding; LengYonggang; YueJianhai

    2005-01-01

    Analytical center machine (ACM) has remarkable generalization performance based on analytical center of version space and outperforms SVM. From the analysis of geometry of machine learning and principle of ACM, it is showed that some training patterns are redundant to the definition of version space. Redundant patterns push ACM classifier away from analytical center of the prime version space so that the generalization performance degrades, at the same time redundant patterns slow down the classifier and reduce the efficiency of storage. Thus, an incremental algorithm is proposed to remove redundant patterns and embed into the frame of ACM that yields a Redundancy free accurate-Analytical center machine (RFA-ACM) for classification. Experiments with Heart, Thyroid, Banana datasets demonstrate the validity of RFA-ACM.

  11. Workspace and Kinematics Analysis of Redundant Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian-xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of tasks in the complex space environment, we designed a kind of 7 degrees of freedom redundant space manipulator in this paper. Its 3D modelling is based on SolidWorks 2015. The joint coordinate system of redundant space manipulator is described with the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method. And the kinematic model is established. The direct kinematic equations of redundant space manipulator are derived by the homogeneous coordinate transforming matrices. The workspace is simulated and analysed using the Monte Carlo method. The experimental results showed that the workspace of 7 degrees of freedom redundant space manipulator, which was designed in this paper, changed smoothly. What’s more, it had not the abrupt phenomenon, and the independent part is bigger. Thus it verifies the rationality of our designing about the redundant space manipulator. It provides a good reference for the path planning and obstacle avoidance planning.

  12. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...

  13. Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    for changes in society, developments in taste etc.  However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms...... of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity is a pre-requisite for both researchers and students. In this talk we will demonstrate our approach through concrete examples of student productions and projects. We will also display the pedagogical method (problem based learning), that enables students to bridge gaps...... between art and science....

  14. Increasing Task Difficulty Enhances Effects of Intersensory Redundancy: Testing a New Prediction of the Intersensory Redundancy Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Lickliter, Robert; Castellanos, Irina; Vaillant-Molina, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated intersensory facilitation for perception of amodal properties of events such as tempo and rhythm in early development, supporting predictions of the Intersensory Redundancy Hypothesis (IRH). Specifically, infants discriminate amodal properties in bimodal, redundant stimulation but not in unimodal, nonredundant…

  15. “Groundwater hydrology” is redundant

    Science.gov (United States)

    While in the Netherlands a few months ago, I mentioned “groundwater hydrology” to a very well-educated, very literary, and non-hydrologic old friend. She shuddered and told me in no uncertain words that this was a horrible term, completely redundant like a round circle, or as the linguists call it, a pleonasm. This is, of course, because hydrology already means water science (from the Greek words udor, or hydor for water, and logos for science), so that groundwater hydrology really stands for groundwater water science, and surface water hydrology for surface water science.These are pleonasms of the first kind and insults to any language purist, which all of us should strive to be! So I propose that henceforth groundwater hydrology be called subterranean hydrology. Other possibilities would be subsurface hydrology, but this sounds too shallow, or underground hydrology, which, however, could give the impression of some clandestine activity. Besides, subterranean hydrology would be in keeping with the words for groundwater in Latin-based languages (eau souterrain in French, acqua sotierranea in Italian, and aguas subterraneas in Spanish). Also, subterranean hydrology includes the vadose zone, which, of course, groundwater hydrology as such does not. Surface water hydrology would simply be called surface hydrology, and anything above that atmospheric hydrology.

  16. Redundancy among manganese peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2013-04-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn(2+) amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn(2+)-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn(2+)-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn(2+)-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn(2+)-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members.

  17. Pedestrian detection based on redundant wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ji, Liping; Hu, Ping; Yang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent video surveillance is to analysis video or image sequences captured by a fixed or mobile surveillance camera, including moving object detection, segmentation and recognition. By using it, we can be notified immediately in an abnormal situation. Pedestrian detection plays an important role in an intelligent video surveillance system, and it is also a key technology in the field of intelligent vehicle. So pedestrian detection has very vital significance in traffic management optimization, security early warn and abnormal behavior detection. Generally, pedestrian detection can be summarized as: first to estimate moving areas; then to extract features of region of interest; finally to classify using a classifier. Redundant wavelet transform (RWT) overcomes the deficiency of shift variant of discrete wavelet transform, and it has better performance in motion estimation when compared to discrete wavelet transform. Addressing the problem of the detection of multi-pedestrian with different speed, we present an algorithm of pedestrian detection based on motion estimation using RWT, combining histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, three intensities of movement (IoM) are estimated using RWT and the corresponding areas are segmented. According to the different IoM, a region proposal (RP) is generated. Then, the features of a RP is extracted using HOG. Finally, the features are fed into a SVM trained by pedestrian databases and the final detection results are gained. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can detect pedestrians accurately and efficiently.

  18. Adaptive collaborative control of highly redundant robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, David A.

    2008-04-01

    The agility and adaptability of biological systems are worthwhile goals for next-generation unmanned ground vehicles. Management of the requisite number of degrees of freedom, however, remains a challenge, as does the ability of an operator to transfer behavioral intent from human to robot. This paper reviews American Android research funded by NASA, DARPA, and the U.S. Army that attempts to address these issues. Limb coordination technology, an iterative form of inverse kinematics, provides a fundamental ability to control balance and posture independently in highly redundant systems. Goal positions and orientations of distal points of the robot skeleton, such as the hands and feet of a humanoid robot, become variable constraints, as does center-of-gravity position. Behaviors utilize these goals to synthesize full-body motion. Biped walking, crawling and grasping are illustrated, and behavior parameterization, layering and portability are discussed. Robotic skill acquisition enables a show-and-tell approach to behavior modification. Declarative rules built verbally by an operator in the field define nominal task plans, and neural networks trained with verbal, manual and visual signals provide additional behavior shaping. Anticipated benefits of the resultant adaptive collaborative controller for unmanned ground vehicles include increased robot autonomy, reduced operator workload and reduced operator training and skill requirements.

  19. Autonomous control system reconfiguration for spacecraft with non-redundant actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Walter

    1995-01-01

    The Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) 'CLARK' spacecraft is required to be single-failure tolerant, i.e., no failure of any single component or subsystem shall result in complete mission loss. Fault tolerance is usually achieved by implementing redundant subsystems. Fault tolerant systems are therefore heavier and cost more to build and launch than non-redundent, non fault-tolerant spacecraft. The SSTI CLARK satellite Attitude Determination and Control System (ADACS) achieves single-fault tolerance without redundancy. The attitude determination system system uses a Kalman Filter which is inherently robust to loss of any single attitude sensor. The attitude control system uses three orthogonal reaction wheels for attitude control and three magnetic dipoles for momentum control. The nominal six-actuator control system functions by projecting the attitude correction torque onto the reaction wheels while a slower momentum management outer loop removes the excess momentum in the direction normal to the local B field. The actuators are not redundant so the nominal control law cannot be implemented in the event of a loss of a single actuator (dipole or reaction wheel). The spacecraft dynamical state (attitude, angular rate, and momentum) is controllable from any five-element subset of the six actuators. With loss of an actuator the instantaneous control authority may not span R(3) but the controllability gramian integral(limits between t,0) Phi(t, tau)B(tau )B(prime)(tau) Phi(prime)(t, tau)d tau retains full rank. Upon detection of an actuator failure the control torque is decomposed onto the remaining active axes. The attitude control torque is effected and the over-orbit momentum is controlled. The resulting control system performance approaches that of the nominal system.

  20. Fault Tolerance Design and Redundancy Management Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    relations ontre los angles du tri4dre, a~rodynarnique et du triqbdre terrestre sin y = sin~coscxcosa - sinacosesin - cosB sincxcosecos (3 cosy sin Pi...the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft and the space shuttle orbiter . Management of a multicomputer/sensor/actuator/power system is markedly different...for a flight in which the F-8 DFBW aircraft was simulating final approaches to Edwards Dry Lake by the shuttle orbiter . These approaches were

  1. The issue of redundant places of worship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cavana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Full text, with notes, of the paper presented at the International Conference “ Holy places and religious institutions. Comparative legal and religious approaches – Italy/Balkans,  Israel/Palestine Israel”, organized by LUMSA University (Rome and the Catholic America – Columbus School of Law (Washington in Rome, LUMSA, December 10-11, 2008: Dec.  10th session on the subject of  “Holy places and religious property in Italy ”. It will be published in the conference proceedings.  Translated from Italian by Paola  Bernardini.INDEX: 1. The issue of redundant places of worship in Europe - 2. Canonical perspectives - 2.1. The regulations according to the Code of Canon Law - 2.2. General criteria for change in churches’ deployment. The Guidelines of the Episcopal Conference of Italy (CEI about the cultural goods of the Church in Italy (1992 - 2.3. The documents of other episcopates (Germany and Switzerland – 3. The phenomenon of churches’ desertion in some countries - 3.1. France - 3.2. Québec (Canada - 3.3. United States of America - 4. The situation in Italy - 4.1. Ownership of the churches - 4.2. Financial aspects - 4.3. Legal protection of the destination bond - 4.4. Churches as cultural heritage - 4.5. Fiscal considerations - 4.6. The recent CEI Directive (2005 - 5. Concluding remarks.Abstract: Nowadays one of the major issues concerning ecclesiastical, or religious, property in Europe, as elsewhere, consists of deciding what to do with redundant churches and places of worship of traditional Christian denominations, all of which have lost their original use, either due to a formal decision of the ecclesiastical authorities or to simple closure to the public. This might have been caused by a series of events, like a significant decrease in the church attendance, limited public resources, new urban planning projects and the fall in religious vocation. For these places there is either the prospect of a new use, or a slow

  2. Convergence as Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Yannick Nehemiah Antonio; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2016-01-01

    . The article is based on participant observation of the Blockupy event and interviews with a group of Danish activists who also participated. The article constructs sociospatial narrative that unfolds through three different scales of organization: the Blockupy coalition, the participating formal and informal...... organizations, and the activist subject. This narrative explicates the mode of organization as a ‘convergence space’ (cf. Routledge, 2003), with different ‘roots’ and ‘routes’ of organization (cf. Davies, 2012). Thus, through an analysis of the modes of organization constituting this mass protest event......, this article restates the relevance of the concept of organization, which have recently been ignored or understated in favour of master-narratives of networks or the dichotomy of horizontalism and verticality. It concludes by posing a set of questions for further discussion among both activists...

  3. Homology, convergence and parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2016-01-05

    Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  5. The Convergence in Spatial Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir P. Kulagin; Victor Y. Tsvetkov; Maiya V. Maksimova

    2013-01-01

    The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher ed...

  6. How Redundant Are Redundant Color Adjectives? An Efficiency-Based Analysis of Color Overspecification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Color adjectives tend to be used redundantly in referential communication. I propose that redundant color adjectives (RCAs) are often intended to exploit a color contrast in the visual context and hence facilitate object identification, despite not being necessary to establish unique reference. Two language-production experiments investigated two types of factors that may affect the use of RCAs: factors related to the efficiency of color in the visual context and factors related to the semantic category of the noun. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed that people produce RCAs when color may facilitate object recognition; e.g., they do so more often in polychrome displays than in monochrome displays, and more often in English (pre-nominal position) than in Spanish (post-nominal position). RCAs are also used when color is a central property of the object category; e.g., people referred to the color of clothes more often than to the color of geometrical figures (Experiment 1), and they overspecified atypical colors more often than variable and stereotypical colors (Experiment 2). These results are relevant for pragmatic models of referential communication based on Gricean pragmatics and informativeness. An alternative analysis is proposed, which focuses on the efficiency and pertinence of color in a given referential situation.

  7. Multi-Objective Genetic Programming with Redundancy-Regulations for Automatic Construction of Image Feature Extractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchareeruetai, Ukrit; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Kudo, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Noboru

    We propose a new multi-objective genetic programming (MOGP) for automatic construction of image feature extraction programs (FEPs). The proposed method was originated from a well known multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), i.e., NSGA-II. The key differences are that redundancy-regulation mechanisms are applied in three main processes of the MOGP, i.e., population truncation, sampling, and offspring generation, to improve population diversity as well as convergence rate. Experimental results indicate that the proposed MOGP-based FEP construction system outperforms the two conventional MOEAs (i.e., NSGA-II and SPEA2) for a test problem. Moreover, we compared the programs constructed by the proposed MOGP with four human-designed object recognition programs. The results show that the constructed programs are better than two human-designed methods and are comparable with the other two human-designed methods for the test problem.

  8. Redundant Roles of SMAD2 and SMAD3 in Ovarian Granulosa Cells In Vivo ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglei; Pangas, Stephanie A.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Graff, Jonathan M.; Weinstein, Michael; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical in maintaining cell growth and differentiation in the ovary. Although signaling of activins, TGF-βs, growth differentiation factor 9, and nodal converge preferentially to SMAD2 and SMAD3, the in vivo functions and redundancy of these SMADs in the ovary and female reproduction remain largely unidentified. To circumvent the deleterious phenotypic aspects of ubiquitous deletion of Smad2 and Smad3, a conditional knockout strategy was formulated to selectively inactivate Smad2, Smad3, or both Smad2 and Smad3 in ovarian granulosa cells. While granulosa cell ablation of individual Smad2 or Smad3 caused insignificant changes in female fertility, deletion of both Smad2 and Smad3 led to dramatically reduced female fertility and fecundity. These defects were associated with the disruption of multiple ovarian processes, including follicular development, ovulation, and cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the impaired expansion of cumulus cells may be partially associated with altered cumulus expansion-related transcripts that are regulated by SMAD2/3 signaling. Our results indicate that SMAD2 and SMAD3 function redundantly in vivo to maintain normal female fertility and further support the involvement of an intraovarian SMAD2/3 pathway in mediating oocyte-produced signals essential for coordinating key events of the ovulatory process. PMID:18809571

  9. Triple3 Redundant Spacecraft Subsystems (T3RSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Redefine Technologies, along with researchers at the University of Colorado, will use three redundancy methods to decrease the susceptibility of a spacecraft, on a...

  10. Selective Redundancy Removal: A Framework for Data Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fiore

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding techniques have so far concentrated on adding or modifying irrelevant information in order to hide a message. However, files in widespread use, such as HTML documents, usually exhibit high redundancy levels, caused by code-generation programs. Such redundancy may be removed by means of optimization software. Redundancy removal, if applied selectively, enables information hiding. This work introduces Selective Redundancy Removal (SRR as a framework for hiding data. An example application of the framework is given in terms of hiding information in HTML documents. Non-uniformity across documents may raise alarms. Nevertheless, selective application of optimization techniques might be due to the legitimate use of optimization software not supporting all the optimization methods, or configured to not use all of them.

  11. Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) Accelerator for Embedded Processor Datapaths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdul Rehman Buzdar; Liguo Sun; Rao Kashif; Muhammad Waqar Azhar; Muhammad Imran Khan

    2017-01-01

    We present the integration of a multimode Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) accelerator unit with an embedded processor datapath to enhance the processor performance in terms of execution time and energy efficiency...

  12. In-Network Redundancy Generation for Opportunistic Speedup of Backup

    CERN Document Server

    Pamies-Juarez, Lluis; Oggier, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Erasure coding is a storage-efficient alternative to replication for achieving reliable data backup in distributed storage systems. During the storage process, traditional erasure codes require a unique source node to create and upload all the redundant data to the different storage nodes. However, such a source node may have limited communication and computation capabilities, which constrain the storage process throughput. Moreover, the source node and the different storage nodes might not be able to send and receive data simultaneously -e.g., nodes might be busy in a datacenter setting, or simply be offline in a peer-to-peer setting- which can further threaten the efficacy of the overall storage process. In this paper we propose an "in-network" redundancy generation process that leverages on the self-repairing property of the novel SRC codes. This in-network redundancy generation allows storage nodes to generate new redundant data by exchanging partial information among themselves, improving the throughput ...

  13. Factors Associated with Redundant Sigmoid Colon at Mulago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    available foods has not been specified yet such information would provide a .... patient reported in literature was a 3 months old baby girl by Metheny17 (1943). ... association between redundant sigmoid colon and consumption of rice, millet.

  14. On the Pseudocodeword Redundancy of Binary Linear Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Zumbrägel, Jens; Flanagan, Mark F

    2011-01-01

    The AWGNC, BSC, and max-fractional pseudocodeword redundancies of a binary linear code are defined to be the smallest number of rows in a parity-check matrix such that the corresponding minimum pseudoweight is equal to the minimum Hamming distance of the code. It is shown that most codes do not have a finite pseudocodeword redundancy. Also, upper bounds on the pseudocodeword redundancy for some families of codes, including codes based on designs, are provided. The pseudocodeword redundancies for all codes of small length (at most 9) are computed. Furthermore, comprehensive results are provided on the cases of cyclic codes of length at most 250 for which the eigenvalue bound of Vontobel and Koetter is sharp.

  15. Employment of Reduced Precision Redundancy for Fault Tolerant FPGA Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    2009 17th IEEE Symposium on Field Programmable Custom Computing Machines This research explores the employment of Reduced Precision Redundancy (RPR) as a powersaving alternative to traditional Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR). This paper focuses on the details of RPR implementation and the effect of RPR fault tolerance on the performance of spacecraft systems. RPR-protected system performance is evaluated using a signal-to-noise ratio analogy developed with MATLAB an...

  16. Redundancy-aware topic modeling for patient record notes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Cohen

    Full Text Available The clinical notes in a given patient record contain much redundancy, in large part due to clinicians' documentation habit of copying from previous notes in the record and pasting into a new note. Previous work has shown that this redundancy has a negative impact on the quality of text mining and topic modeling in particular. In this paper we describe a novel variant of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA topic modeling, Red-LDA, which takes into account the inherent redundancy of patient records when modeling content of clinical notes. To assess the value of Red-LDA, we experiment with three baselines and our novel redundancy-aware topic modeling method: given a large collection of patient records, (i apply vanilla LDA to all documents in all input records; (ii identify and remove all redundancy by chosing a single representative document for each record as input to LDA; (iii identify and remove all redundant paragraphs in each record, leaving partial, non-redundant documents as input to LDA; and (iv apply Red-LDA to all documents in all input records. Both quantitative evaluation carried out through log-likelihood on held-out data and topic coherence of produced topics and qualitative assessment of topics carried out by physicians show that Red-LDA produces superior models to all three baseline strategies. This research contributes to the emerging field of understanding the characteristics of the electronic health record and how to account for them in the framework of data mining. The code for the two redundancy-elimination baselines and Red-LDA is made publicly available to the community.

  17. A Dynamic Solution for Document Redundancies in Multiple Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the development of IT,more andmore document resources are available over the Internet.Inorder to facilitate users’retrieval of the digital documents,Integrations of the multi source systems are necessary,Sincethe individual sources collect their information independently,the same papers may be stored in different source systems.The traditional solutions to the redundancy problems in thedistributed environments are usually based on the globalcatalogs which keep the redundancy information for thesyst...

  18. Diverse Redundant Systems for Reliable Space Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable life support systems are required for deep space missions. The probability of a fatal life support failure should be less than one in a thousand in a multi-year mission. It is far too expensive to develop a single system with such high reliability. Using three redundant units would require only that each have a failure probability of one in ten over the mission. Since the system development cost is inverse to the failure probability, this would cut cost by a factor of one hundred. Using replaceable subsystems instead of full systems would further cut cost. Using full sets of replaceable components improves reliability more than using complete systems as spares, since a set of components could repair many different failures instead of just one. Replaceable components would require more tools, space, and planning than full systems or replaceable subsystems. However, identical system redundancy cannot be relied on in practice. Common cause failures can disable all the identical redundant systems. Typical levels of common cause failures will defeat redundancy greater than two. Diverse redundant systems are required for reliable space life support. Three, four, or five diverse redundant systems could be needed for sufficient reliability. One system with lower level repair could be substituted for two diverse systems to save cost.

  19. Reliability optimization of a redundant system with failure dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiyang [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)]. E-mail: Haiyang.YU@utt.fr; Chu Chengbin [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Management School, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei (China); Chatelet, Eric [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Yalaoui, Farouk [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2007-12-15

    In a multi-component system, the failure of one component can reduce the system reliability in two aspects: loss of the reliability contribution of this failed component, and the reconfiguration of the system, e.g., the redistribution of the system loading. The system reconfiguration can be triggered by the component failures as well as by adding redundancies. Hence, dependency is essential for the design of a multi-component system. In this paper, we study the design of a redundant system with the consideration of a specific kind of failure dependency, i.e., the redundant dependency. The dependence function is introduced to quantify the redundant dependency. With the dependence function, the redundant dependencies are further classified as independence, weak, linear, and strong dependencies. In addition, this classification is useful in that it facilitates the optimization resolution of the system design. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the concept of redundant dependency and its application in system design. This paper thus conveys the significance of failure dependencies in the reliability optimization of systems.

  20. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givnish, Thomas J

    2010-01-14

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  1. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  2. Notes on Some Convergences in Riesz Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-jie; AI Fu-ju

    2007-01-01

    An equivalent description of u-uniform convergence is presented first. Then the relations among the order convergence,u-uniform convergence and norm convergence of sequences are discussed in Riesz spaces. An equivalence of the three convergences is brought forward; namely, {fn} is a u-uniform Cauchy sequence. Finally the relations among the three convergences of sequences am also extended to the relations among the convergences of nets in Riesz spaces.

  3. Xsense: a miniaturised multi-sensor platform for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Kostesha, Natalie; Bosco, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Realizing that no one sensing principle is perfect we set out to combine four fundamentally different sensing principles into one device. The reasoning is that each sensor will complement the others and provide redundancy under various environmental conditions. As each sensor can be fabricated us...

  4. Sensor Data Qualification System (SDQS) Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edmond; Melcher, Kevin; Fulton, Christopher; Maul, William

    2009-01-01

    The Sensor Data Qualification System (SDQS) is being developed to provide a sensor fault detection capability for NASA s next-generation launch vehicles. In addition to traditional data qualification techniques (such as limit checks, rate-of-change checks and hardware redundancy checks), SDQS can provide augmented capability through additional techniques that exploit analytical redundancy relationships to enable faster and more sensitive sensor fault detection. This paper documents the results of a study that was conducted to determine the best approach for implementing a SDQS network configuration that spans multiple subsystems, similar to those that may be implemented on future vehicles. The best approach is defined as one that most minimizes computational resource requirements without impacting the detection of sensor failures.

  5. Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R

    2001-12-11

    ;'burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.

  6. The Convergence of Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim

    Minsky (1985) argued an extraterrestrial intelligence may be similar to ours despite very different origins. ``Problem- solving'' offers evolutionary advantages and individuals who are part of a technical civilisation should have this capacity. On earth, the principles of problem-solving are the same for humans, some primates and machines based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Intelligent systems use ``goals'' and ``sub-goals'' for problem-solving, with memories and representations of ``objects'' and ``sub-objects'' as well as knowledge of relations such as ``cause'' or ``difference.'' Some of these objects are generic and cannot easily be divided into parts. We must, therefore, assume that these objects and relations are universal, and a general property of intelligence. Minsky's arguments from 1985 are extended here. The last decade has seen the development of a general learning theory (``computational learning theory'' (CLT) or ``statistical learning theory'') which equally applies to humans, animals and machines. It is argued that basic learning laws will also apply to an evolved alien intelligence, and this includes limitations of what can be learned efficiently. An example from CLT is that the general learning problem for neural networks is intractable, i.e. it cannot be solved efficiently for all instances (it is ``NP-complete''). It is the objective of this paper to show that evolved intelligences will be constrained by general learning laws and will use task-decomposition for problem-solving. Since learning and problem-solving are core features of intelligence, it can be said that intelligences converge despite very different origins.

  7. CONVERGENCE OF TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siriram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.

  8. Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina : MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyu Hyen; Lee, Jung Man; Jung, Hak Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong [Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Kwon; Suh, Kyung Jin [Kyungbuk National Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate MR findings of redundant nerve roots (RNR) of the cauda equina. 17 patients with RNR were studied; eight were men and nine were women, and their ages ranged from 46 to 82 (mean 63) years. Diagroses were established on the basis of T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MRI, which showed a tortuous or coiled configuration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina. MR findings were reviewed for location, magnitude, and signal intensity of redundant nerve roots, and the relationship between magnitude of redundancy and severity of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) was evaluated. In all 17 patients, MR showed moderate or severe LSCS caused by herniation or bulging of an intervertebral disc, osteophyte from the vertebral body or facet joint, thickening of the ligamentum flavum, degenerative spondylolisthesis, or a combination of these. T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MR images well clearly showed the location of RNR of the cauda equina;in 16 patients(94%), these were seen above the level of constriction of the spinal canal, and in one case, they were observed below the level of constriction. T2-weighted axial images showed the thecal sac filled with numerous nerve roots. The magnitude of RNR was mild in six cases (35%), moderate in five cases (30%), and severe in six cases (35%). Compared with normal nerve roots, the RNR signal on T2-weighted images was iso-intense. All patients with severe redundancy showed severe LSCS, but not all cases with severe LSCS showed severe redundancy. Redundant nerve roots of cauda equina were seen in relatively older patients with moderate or severe LSCS and T2-weighted MR images were accurate in identifying redundancy of nerve roots and evaluating their magnitude and location.

  9. The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J; Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Molecular studies of aging aim to unravel the cause(s) of aging bottom-up, but linking these mechanisms to organismal level processes remains a challenge. We propose that complementary top-down data-directed modelling of organismal level empirical findings may contribute to developing these links. To this end, we explore the heuristic value of redundancy models of aging to develop a deeper insight into the mechanisms causing variation in senescence and lifespan. We start by showing (i) how different redundancy model parameters affect projected aging and mortality, and (ii) how variation in redundancy model parameters relates to variation in parameters of the Gompertz equation. Lifestyle changes or medical interventions during life can modify mortality rate, and we investigate (iii) how interventions that change specific redundancy parameters within the model affect subsequent mortality and actuarial senescence. Lastly, as an example of data-directed modelling and the insights that can be gained from this, (iv) we fit a redundancy model to mortality patterns observed by Mair et al. (2003; Science 301: 1731-1733) in Drosophila that were subjected to dietary restriction and temperature manipulations. Mair et al. found that dietary restriction instantaneously reduced mortality rate without affecting aging, while temperature manipulations had more transient effects on mortality rate and did affect aging. We show that after adjusting model parameters the redundancy model describes both effects well, and a comparison of the parameter values yields a deeper insight in the mechanisms causing these contrasting effects. We see replacement of the redundancy model parameters by more detailed sub-models of these parameters as a next step in linking demographic patterns to underlying molecular mechanisms.

  10. The cellular robustness by genetic redundancy in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequent dispensability of duplicated genes in budding yeast is heralded as a hallmark of genetic robustness contributed by genetic redundancy. However, theoretical predictions suggest such backup by redundancy is evolutionarily unstable, and the extent of genetic robustness contributed from redundancy remains controversial. It is anticipated that, to achieve mutual buffering, the duplicated paralogs must at least share some functional overlap. However, counter-intuitively, several recent studies reported little functional redundancy between these buffering duplicates. The large yeast genetic interactions released recently allowed us to address these issues on a genome-wide scale. We herein characterized the synthetic genetic interactions for ∼500 pairs of yeast duplicated genes originated from either whole-genome duplication (WGD or small-scale duplication (SSD events. We established that functional redundancy between duplicates is a pre-requisite and thus is highly predictive of their backup capacity. This observation was particularly pronounced with the use of a newly introduced metric in scoring functional overlap between paralogs on the basis of gene ontology annotations. Even though mutual buffering was observed to be prevalent among duplicated genes, we showed that the observed backup capacity is largely an evolutionarily transient state. The loss of backup capacity generally follows a neutral mode, with the buffering strength decreasing in proportion to divergence time, and the vast majority of the paralogs have already lost their backup capacity. These observations validated previous theoretic predictions about instability of genetic redundancy. However, departing from the general neutral mode, intriguingly, our analysis revealed the presence of natural selection in stabilizing functional overlap between SSD pairs. These selected pairs, both WGD and SSD, tend to have decelerated functional evolution, have higher propensities of co

  11. The Convergence in Spatial Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Kulagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.

  12. Working Memory Capacity and Redundant Information Processing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Endres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory capacity (WMC is typically measured by the amount of task-relevant information an individual can keep in mind while resisting distraction or interference from task irrelevant information. The current research investigated the extent to which differences in WMC were associated with performance on a novel redundant memory probes (RMP task that systematically varied the amount of to-be-remembered (targets and to-be-ignored (distractor information. The RMP task was designed to both facilitate and inhibit working memory search processes, as evidenced by differences in accuracy, response time, and Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA model estimates of information processing efficiency. Participants (N = 170 completed standard intelligence tests and dual-span WMC tasks, along with the RMP task. As expected, accuracy, response-time, and LBA model results indicated memory search and retrieval processes were facilitated under redundant- target conditions, but also inhibited under mixed target/distractor and redundant-distractor conditions. Repeated measures analyses also indicated that, while individuals classified as high (n = 85 and low (n = 85 WMC did not differ in the magnitude of redundancy effects, groups did differ in the efficiency of memory search and retrieval processes overall. Results suggest that redundant information reliably facilitates and inhibits the efficiency or speed of working memory search, and these effects are independent of more general limits and individual differences in the capacity or space of working memory.

  13. Redundant finite rings for fault-tolerant signal processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Graham A.; Bizzan, S. S.; Wigley, Neil M.; Miller, W. C.

    1994-10-01

    Redundant Residue Number Systems (RRNS) have been proposed as suitable candidates for fault tolerance in compute intensive applications. The redundancy is based on multiple projections to moduli sub-sets and conducting a search for results that lie in a so-called illegitimate range. This paper presents RRNS fault tolerant procedures for a recently introduced finite polynomial ring mapping procedure (modulus replication RNS). The mapping technique dispenses with the need for many relatively prime ring moduli, which is a major draw-back with conventional RRNS systems. Although double, triple, and quadrupole modular redundancy can be implemented in the polynomial mapping structure, polynomial coefficient circuitry, or the independent direct product ring computational channels, for error detection and/or correction, this paper discusses the implementation of redundant rings which are generated by (1) redundant residues, (2) spare general computational channels, or (3) a combination of the two. The first architecture is suitable for RNS embedding in the MRRNS, and the second for single moduli mappings. The combination architecture allows a trade-off between the two extremes. The application area is in fault tolerant compute intensive DSP arrays.

  14. Mining Non-Redundant High Order Correlations in Binary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Pan, Feng; Wang, Wei; Nobel, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to find correlations in binary data. Usually, these methods focus on pair-wise correlations. In biology applications, it is important to find correlations that involve more than just two features. Moreover, a set of strongly correlated features should be non-redundant in the sense that the correlation is strong only when all the interacting features are considered together. Removing any feature will greatly reduce the correlation.In this paper, we explore the problem of finding non-redundant high order correlations in binary data. The high order correlations are formalized using multi-information, a generalization of pairwise mutual information. To reduce the redundancy, we require any subset of a strongly correlated feature subset to be weakly correlated. Such feature subsets are referred to as Non-redundant Interacting Feature Subsets (NIFS). Finding all NIFSs is computationally challenging, because in addition to enumerating feature combinations, we also need to check all their subsets for redundancy. We study several properties of NIFSs and show that these properties are useful in developing efficient algorithms. We further develop two sets of upper and lower bounds on the correlations, which can be incorporated in the algorithm to prune the search space. A simple and effective pruning strategy based on pair-wise mutual information is also developed to further prune the search space. The efficiency and effectiveness of our approach are demonstrated through extensive experiments on synthetic and real-life datasets.

  15. [The health of industrial employees four years after compulsory redundancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1987-09-01

    A controlled, longitudinal study of the health of workers made redundant when a meat products factory closed has been performed using morbidity data extracted from the records of a group general practice. Increases in consultation rates and the number of visits to hospital outpatient departments in the group made redundant are contrasted with opposite trends in a control group who remained securely employed. As in earlier findings, the increases in morbidity in the study group began when they learned that their jobs were in jeopardy.The subsequent employment history of those made redundant was obtained by questionnaire. In the four years after redundancy, 50 of the 76 men in-the study group found new full-time jobs. The other 26 men remained out of work for most of this time or were made redundant once again. This 'jobless' group consulted their general practitioners 57% more often about 13% more illnesses, were referred to hospital outpatient departments 63% more often and visited hospital 208% more frequently than when enjoying secure employment. During an intervening two-year period of job insecurity, there were increases of 45%, 9%, 25% and 28% respectively, for this jobless group.The implications of these findings for primary care, for the National Health Service and for future research are discussed in the present context of high levels of unemployment.

  16. Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B.; Hess, H. D.; Kalinski, J. R.; Leisenberg, W.; Marsch, D.

    1984-06-01

    Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the redundant information source (ac resistance) are too small (relative inductivity change 7 million). The information sources strain gage and propagation of ultrasonic waves are excluded because of physical properties in the sensor materials. Changes in the crystalline structure of thermocouples have the effect that there is no well defined relationship between thermoelectric voltage and the redundant information sources, resistance and coupled current impulses. A correlation of thermovoltage with these redundant values would yield a measurement uncertainty corresponding to more than + or - 50 K. Experiments with negative temperature coefficient sensors show that a failure is proceeded by a change in capacitance of the order of 0.1 pF.

  17. Distributed Beamforming with Feedback: Convergence Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, C; Meyn, S

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the analysis of transmit beamforming schemes with a low-rate feedback link in wireless sensor/relay networks, where nodes in the network need to implement beamforming in a distributed manner. Specifically, the problem of distributed phase alignment is considered, where neither the transmitters nor the receiver has perfect channel state information, but there is a low-rate feedback link from the receiver to the transmitters. In this setting, a framework for systematically analyzing the performance of a general set of distributed beamforming schemes is proposed. To illustrate the advantage of this framework, a simple adaptive distributed beamforming scheme that was recently proposed by Mudambai et al. is studied. Two important properties for the received signal magnitude function are derived. Using these properties and the systematic framework, it is shown that the adaptive distributed beamforming scheme converges both in probability and in mean. Furthermore, it is established that ...

  18. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  19. Dynamical Convergence Trajectory in Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ning; ZHANG Yun-Jun; OUYANG Qi; GENG Zhi

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is well known that topology and dynamics are two major aspects to determine the function of a network. We study one of the dynamic properties of a network: trajectory convergence, i.e. how a system converges to its steady state. Using numerical and analytical methods, we show that in a logical-like dynamical model, the occurrence of convergent trajectory in a network depends mainly on the type of the fixed point and the ratio between activation and inhibition links. We analytically proof that this property is induced by the competition between two types of state transition structures in phase space: tree-like transition structure and star-like transition structure. We show that the biological networks, such as the cell cycle network in budding yeast, prefers the tree-like transition structures and suggest that this type of convergence trajectories may be universal.

  20. Spaces of Ideal Convergent Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mursaleen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce some sequence spaces using ideal convergence and Musielak-Orlicz function ℳ=Mk. We also examine some topological properties of the resulting sequence spaces.

  1. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuQing; LI LiNa

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved.A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  2. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  3. Study on virtual redundancy among process parameters for accident management applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Pak, Sukyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungtaek; Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwangil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The research at this point can be divided into three streams, focused on the development of self powered sensors and instrumentation, developing intelligent systems that can diagnose and accident type and developing indirect ways that is, methods to assess the safety critical parameters from other statistically related parameters. This first approach is quite expensive, second approach suffers from the limitation that infinite number of accident scenarios cannot be simulated. However, the only way to access the parameters during severe accidents is through simulation codes. Even-though, the process parameters data contain uncertainty, this is the only thing to start with severe accident management. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (Inert) project has started research to address various aspects of safety management during severe accidents. As a part of Inert team, we are investigating correlations among process parameters in such a way that safety critical information could be secured by means of other non-safety or virtual parameters during a severe accident. This is known as virtual redundancy of information. This will improve the availability of information in case one channel for information is lost. In this paper, we will discuss methodology, preliminary results and directions for further study. We found that several process parameters exhibit distinct variation pattern for a particular accident and several other parameters can also have the similar trends which strengthens the possibility of having virtual redundancy of information.

  4. Management of analytical redundancy in digital flight control systems for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Price, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents a design method for optimal redundancy management for nonlinear systems with application to highly maneuvering aircraft. The approach taken is based on selecting the failure states to be covered by the system design and constructing a cost function that represents the cost of making an incorrect decision. The decision logic which minimizes the cost requires a bank of extended Kalman filters running in parallel. This produces a severe computational requirement. To reduce this requirement, a suboptimal logic is developed based on using a nonlinear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters with filter gains and decision logic selected using steady-state results obtained from a linearization of the vehicle and sensor dynamics. The design process is then applied to designing a redundancy management system for the F8-C aircraft. Results indicate that the system is superior in failure detection to a system using the same structure but using a linear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters.

  5. Redundancy computation analysis and implementation of phase diversity based on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Bao, Hua; Rao, Changhui; Peng, Zhenming

    2015-10-01

    Phase diversity method is not only used as an image restoration technique, but also as a wavefront sensor. However, its computations have been perceived as being too burdensome to achieve its real-time applications on a desktop computer platform. In this paper, the implementation of the phase diversity algorithm based on graphic processing unit (GPU) is presented. The redundancy computations for the pupil function, point spread function, and optical transfer function are analyzed. Two kinds of implementation methods based on GPU are compared: one is the general method which is accomplished by GPU library CUFFT without precision loss (method-1) and the other one performed by our own custom FFT with little damage of precision considering the redundant calculations (method-2). The results show the cost and gradient functions can be speeded up by method-2 in contrast with the method-1 and the overhead of global memory access by kernel fusion can be reduced. For the image of 256 × 256 with the sampling factor of 3, the results reveal that method-2 achieves speedup of 1.83× compared with method-1 when the central 128 × 128 pixels of the point spread function are used.

  6. Periodic Convergences: Dance and Computers

    OpenAIRE

    deLahunta, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Published in German and English, this chapter is one of deLahunta's major outputs to emerge from a group of related research outputs, concerning "dance and technology". In it he explores the history of the convergence between dance and computers from the 1960s to the 1990s, arguing that this convergence has been periodic, involving particular artists at particular times, rather than producing a genre of work (as others have speculated). As the mainstream of contemporary dance evolved alongsid...

  7. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  8. Distributed and Redundant Design of Ship Monitoring and Control Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jun-dong; SUI; Jiang-hua

    2002-01-01

    The world trend in ship automation is to integrate the monitoring, intelligent control and systematic management of the instruments and equipments both on bridge and in engine room. The paper presents a design scheme of the ship integrated monitoring and operating system based on two layers distributed and redundant computer network. The lower layer network is the field bus network connected mainly by CAN bus; the upper one is the PC local network in TCP/IP protocol, which consisted of a database server, monitoring and operating computers, industrial computers and a set of switches. Distributed schemes are fully applied to both software and hardware. This paper specifically describes the composition, software distribution and redundant technology of the upper local network and gives some important sample codes for the implement of the redundant and distributed design. The technologies here have been proved in the many applications and it may be applied to other industrial fields.

  9. A Tester-Assisted Methodology for Test Redundancy Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Koochakzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Test redundancy detection reduces test maintenance costs and also ensures the integrity of test suites. One of the most widely used approaches for this purpose is based on coverage information. In a recent work, we have shown that although this information can be useful in detecting redundant tests, it may suffer from large number of false-positive errors, that is, a test case being identified as redundant while it is really not. In this paper, we propose a semiautomated methodology to derive a reduced test suite from a given test suite, while keeping the fault detection effectiveness unchanged. To evaluate the methodology, we apply the mutation analysis technique to measure the fault detection effectiveness of the reduced test suite of a real Java project. The results confirm that the proposed manual interactive inspection process leads to a reduced test suite with the same fault detection ability as the original test suite.

  10. %ERA: A SAS Macro for Extended Redundancy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giorgio Lovaglio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to structural equation modeling based on so-called extended redundancy analysis has been recently proposed in the literature, enhanced with the added characteristic of generalizing redundancy analysis and reduced-rank regression models for more than two blocks. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable composites that were estimated as linear combinations of exogenous variables, permitting a great flexibility to specify and fit a variety of structural relationships. In this paper, we propose the SAS macro %ERA to specify and fit structural relationships in the extended redundancy analysis (ERA framework. Two examples (simulation and real data are provided in order to reproduce results appearing in the original article where ERA was proposed.

  11. A Probabilistic Method for Certification of Analytically Redundant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical fault detection algorithms have the potential to reduce the size, power and weight of safety-critical aerospace systems. Analytical redundancy has been successfully applied in many non-safety critical applications. However, acceptance for aerospace applications will require new methods to rigorously certify the impact of such algorithms on the overall system reliability. This paper presents a theoretical method to assess the probabilistic performance for an analytically redundant system. Specifically, a fault tolerant actuation system is considered. The system consists of dual-redundant actuators and an analytical fault detection algorithm to switch between the hardware components. The exact system failure rate per hour is computed using the law of total probability. This analysis requires knowledge of the failure rates for the hardware components. In addition, knowledge of specific probabilistic performance metrics for the fault detection logic is needed. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the proposed analysis method.

  12. Method of glitch reduction in DAC with weight redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Olexiy D.; Murashchenko, Olexander G.; Chernyak, Olexander I.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2015-12-01

    The appearance of glitches in digital-to-analog converters leads to significant limitations of conversion accuracy and speed, which is critical for DAC and limits their usage. This paper researches the possibility of using the redundant positional number system in order to reduce glitches in DAC. There had been described the usage pattern of number systems with fractional digit weights of bits as well as with the whole number weights of bits. Hereafter there had been suggested the algorithm for glitches reduction in the DAC generation mode of incessant analogue signal. There had also been estimated the efficiency of weight redundancy application with further presentation of the most efficient parameters of number systems. The paper describes a block diagram of a low-glitch DAC based on Fibonacci codes. The simulation results prove the feasibility of weight redundancy application and show a significant reduction of glitches in DAC in comparison with the classical binary system.

  13. Cluster-Based Maximum Consensus Time Synchronization for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaowei; Zeng, Peng; Zhou, Mingtuo; Li, Dong; Wang, Jintao

    2017-01-01

    Time synchronization is one of the key technologies in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), and clustering is widely used in WSNs for data fusion and information collection to reduce redundant data and communication overhead. Considering IWSNs’ demand for low energy consumption, fast convergence, and robustness, this paper presents a novel Cluster-based Maximum consensus Time Synchronization (CMTS) method. It consists of two parts: intra-cluster time synchronization and inter-cluster time synchronization. Based on the theory of distributed consensus, the proposed method utilizes the maximum consensus approach to realize the intra-cluster time synchronization, and adjacent clusters exchange the time messages via overlapping nodes to synchronize with each other. A Revised-CMTS is further proposed to counteract the impact of bounded communication delays between two connected nodes, because the traditional stochastic models of the communication delays would distort in a dynamic environment. The simulation results show that our method reduces the communication overhead and improves the convergence rate in comparison to existing works, as well as adapting to the uncertain bounded communication delays. PMID:28098750

  14. Cluster-Based Maximum Consensus Time Synchronization for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Time synchronization is one of the key technologies in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs, and clustering is widely used in WSNs for data fusion and information collection to reduce redundant data and communication overhead. Considering IWSNs’ demand for low energy consumption, fast convergence, and robustness, this paper presents a novel Cluster-based Maximum consensus Time Synchronization (CMTS method. It consists of two parts: intra-cluster time synchronization and inter-cluster time synchronization. Based on the theory of distributed consensus, the proposed method utilizes the maximum consensus approach to realize the intra-cluster time synchronization, and adjacent clusters exchange the time messages via overlapping nodes to synchronize with each other. A Revised-CMTS is further proposed to counteract the impact of bounded communication delays between two connected nodes, because the traditional stochastic models of the communication delays would distort in a dynamic environment. The simulation results show that our method reduces the communication overhead and improves the convergence rate in comparison to existing works, as well as adapting to the uncertain bounded communication delays.

  15. Cluster-Based Maximum Consensus Time Synchronization for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaowei; Zeng, Peng; Zhou, Mingtuo; Li, Dong; Wang, Jintao

    2017-01-13

    Time synchronization is one of the key technologies in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), and clustering is widely used in WSNs for data fusion and information collection to reduce redundant data and communication overhead. Considering IWSNs' demand for low energy consumption, fast convergence, and robustness, this paper presents a novel Cluster-based Maximum consensus Time Synchronization (CMTS) method. It consists of two parts: intra-cluster time synchronization and inter-cluster time synchronization. Based on the theory of distributed consensus, the proposed method utilizes the maximum consensus approach to realize the intra-cluster time synchronization, and adjacent clusters exchange the time messages via overlapping nodes to synchronize with each other. A Revised-CMTS is further proposed to counteract the impact of bounded communication delays between two connected nodes, because the traditional stochastic models of the communication delays would distort in a dynamic environment. The simulation results show that our method reduces the communication overhead and improves the convergence rate in comparison to existing works, as well as adapting to the uncertain bounded communication delays.

  16. Measure theory of statistical convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG LiXin; LIN GuoChen; LAN YongYi; LIU Hui

    2008-01-01

    The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.

  17. Measure theory of statistical convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra A of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set S of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on A forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.

  18. Tier-scalable reconnaissance: the challenge of sensor optimization, sensor deployment, sensor fusion, and sensor interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; George, Thomas; Tarbell, Mark A.

    2007-04-01

    Robotic reconnaissance operations are called for in extreme environments, not only those such as space, including planetary atmospheres, surfaces, and subsurfaces, but also in potentially hazardous or inaccessible operational areas on Earth, such as mine fields, battlefield environments, enemy occupied territories, terrorist infiltrated environments, or areas that have been exposed to biochemical agents or radiation. Real time reconnaissance enables the identification and characterization of transient events. A fundamentally new mission concept for tier-scalable reconnaissance of operational areas, originated by Fink et al., is aimed at replacing the engineering and safety constrained mission designs of the past. The tier-scalable paradigm integrates multi-tier (orbit atmosphere surface/subsurface) and multi-agent (satellite UAV/blimp surface/subsurface sensing platforms) hierarchical mission architectures, introducing not only mission redundancy and safety, but also enabling and optimizing intelligent, less constrained, and distributed reconnaissance in real time. Given the mass, size, and power constraints faced by such a multi-platform approach, this is an ideal application scenario for a diverse set of MEMS sensors. To support such mission architectures, a high degree of operational autonomy is required. Essential elements of such operational autonomy are: (1) automatic mapping of an operational area from different vantage points (including vehicle health monitoring); (2) automatic feature extraction and target/region-of-interest identification within the mapped operational area; and (3) automatic target prioritization for close-up examination. These requirements imply the optimal deployment of MEMS sensors and sensor platforms, sensor fusion, and sensor interoperability.

  19. Redundant Wavelets on Graphs and High Dimensional Data Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ram, Idan; Cohen, Israel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new redundant wavelet transform applicable to scalar functions defined on high dimensional coordinates, weighted graphs and networks. The proposed transform utilizes the distances between the given data points. We modify the filter-bank decomposition scheme of the redundant wavelet transform by adding in each decomposition level linear operators that reorder the approximation coefficients. These reordering operators are derived by organizing the tree-node features so as to shorten the path that passes through these points. We explore the use of the proposed transform to image denoising, and show that it achieves denoising results that are close to those obtained with the BM3D algorithm.

  20. The redundant target effect is affected by modality switch costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Lange, K.; Rösler, F.

    2004-01-01

    When participants have to respond to stimuli of two modalities, faster reaction times are observed for simultaneous, bimodal events than for unimodal events (the redundant target effect [RTE]). This finding has been interpreted as reflecting processing gains for bimodal relative to unimodal stimuli......, possibly due to multisensory interactions. In random stimulus sequences, reaction times are slower when the stimulus is preceded by a stimulus of a different modality (modality switch effect [MSE]). Simple reaction time redundant target experiments with auditory-visual, visual-tactile, and auditory...

  1. Information filtering based on corrected redundancy-eliminating mass diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Yang, Yujie; Chen, Guilin; Medo, Matus; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Methods used in information filtering and recommendation often rely on quantifying the similarity between objects or users. The used similarity metrics often suffer from similarity redundancies arising from correlations between objects' attributes. Based on an unweighted undirected object-user bipartite network, we propose a Corrected Redundancy-Eliminating similarity index (CRE) which is based on a spreading process on the network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets-Movilens, Netflix and Amazon-show that when used in recommendation, the CRE yields significant improvements in terms of recommendation accuracy and diversity. A detailed analysis is presented to unveil the origins of the observed differences between the CRE and mainstream similarity indices.

  2. Optimal redundancy allocation for reliability systems with imperfect switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Ran; Jinlin Li; Xujie Jia; Hongrui Chu

    2014-01-01

    The problem of stochastical y al ocating redundant com-ponents to increase the system lifetime is an important topic of reliability. An optimal redundancy al ocation is proposed, which maximizes the expected lifetime of a reliability system with sub-systems consisting of components in paral el. The constraints are minimizing the total resources and the sizes of subsystems. In this system, each switching is independent with each other and works with probability p. Two optimization problems are studied by an incremental algorithm and dynamic programming technique respectively. The incremental algorithm proposed could obtain an approximate optimal solution, and the dynamic programming method could generate the optimal solution.

  3. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess Riedel, C; Zurek, Wojciech H, E-mail: criedel@physics.ucsb.edu [Theory Division, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows-but does not stop-the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  4. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess Riedel, C.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2011-07-01

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows—but does not stop—the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  5. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1988-05-28

    The proposition that workers take less sick leave when threatened by redundancy was examined in a longitudinal, controlled study using information from case records in a general practice. The hypothesis was only partly supported--certificated sickness absence dropped only in employees under the age of 40. Workers fearing job loss reported more illness, and their periods of absence were significantly longer, especially for men and for workers who had previously consulted their general practitioner infrequently. This study provides further evidence that the fear of mass redundancy is stressful to workers so threatened and costly to a society experiencing rising unemployment.

  6. Double Fault Detection of Cone-Shaped Redundant IMUs Using Wavelet Transformation and EPSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhee Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A model-free hybrid fault diagnosis technique is proposed to improve the performance of single and double fault detection and isolation. This is a model-free hybrid method which combines the extended parity space approach (EPSA with a multi-resolution signal decomposition by using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT. Conventional EPSA can detect and isolate single and double faults. The performance of fault detection and isolation is influenced by the relative size of noise and fault. In this paper; the DWT helps to cancel the high frequency sensor noise. The proposed technique can improve low fault detection and isolation probability by utilizing the EPSA with DWT. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection method Monte Carlo numerical simulations are performed for a redundant inertial measurement unit (RIMU.

  7. Trophic convergence drives morphological convergence in marine tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Marine tetrapod clades (e.g. seals, whales) independently adapted to marine life through the Mesozoic and Caenozoic, and provide iconic examples of convergent evolution. Apparent morphological convergence is often explained as the result of adaptation to similar ecological niches. However, quantitative tests of this hypothesis are uncommon. We use dietary data to classify the feeding ecology of extant marine tetrapods and identify patterns in skull and tooth morphology that discriminate trophic groups across clades. Mapping these patterns onto phylogeny reveals coordinated evolutionary shifts in diet and morphology in different marine tetrapod lineages. Similarities in morphology between species with similar diets-even across large phylogenetic distances-are consistent with previous hypotheses that shared functional constraints drive convergent evolution in marine tetrapods.

  8. Controlling Split Attention and Redundancy in Physical Therapy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociask, Fredrick D.; Morrison, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effectiveness of instructional materials designed to control redundancy and split attention in the teaching of complex orthopedic physical therapy skills. Participants included 41 first-year physical therapy students. The modified instruction group received a modified unit of instruction designed to reduce cognitive…

  9. Parameter redundancy in discrete state‐space and integrated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Discrete state‐space models are used in ecology to describe the dynamics of wild animal populations, with parameters, such as the probability of survival, being of ecological interest. For a particular parametrization of a model it is not always clear which parameters can be estimated. This inability to estimate all parameters is known as parameter redundancy or a model is described as nonidentifiable. In this paper we develop methods that can be used to detect parameter redundancy in discrete state‐space models. An exhaustive summary is a combination of parameters that fully specify a model. To use general methods for detecting parameter redundancy a suitable exhaustive summary is required. This paper proposes two methods for the derivation of an exhaustive summary for discrete state‐space models using discrete analogues of methods for continuous state‐space models. We also demonstrate that combining multiple data sets, through the use of an integrated population model, may result in a model in which all parameters are estimable, even though models fitted to the separate data sets may be parameter redundant. PMID:27362826

  10. Parameter redundancy in discrete state-space and integrated models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Diana J; McCrea, Rachel S

    2016-09-01

    Discrete state-space models are used in ecology to describe the dynamics of wild animal populations, with parameters, such as the probability of survival, being of ecological interest. For a particular parametrization of a model it is not always clear which parameters can be estimated. This inability to estimate all parameters is known as parameter redundancy or a model is described as nonidentifiable. In this paper we develop methods that can be used to detect parameter redundancy in discrete state-space models. An exhaustive summary is a combination of parameters that fully specify a model. To use general methods for detecting parameter redundancy a suitable exhaustive summary is required. This paper proposes two methods for the derivation of an exhaustive summary for discrete state-space models using discrete analogues of methods for continuous state-space models. We also demonstrate that combining multiple data sets, through the use of an integrated population model, may result in a model in which all parameters are estimable, even though models fitted to the separate data sets may be parameter redundant. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bacterial functional redundancy along a soil reclamation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, B; Crowley, D; Sparovek, G; De Melo, W J; Borneman, J

    2000-10-01

    A strategy to measure bacterial functional redundancy was developed and tested with soils collected along a soil reclamation gradient by determining the richness and diversity of bacterial groups capable of in situ growth on selected carbon substrates. Soil cores were collected from four sites along a transect from the Jamari tin mine site in the Jamari National Forest, Rondonia, RO, Brazil: denuded mine spoil, soil from below the canopy of invading pioneer trees, revegetated soil under new growth on the forest edge, and the forest floor of an adjacent preserved forest. Bacterial population responses were analyzed by amending these soil samples with individual carbon substrates in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-labeled DNA was then subjected to a 16S-23S rRNA intergenic analysis to depict the actively growing bacteria from each site. The number and diversity of bacterial groups responding to four carbon substrates (L-serine, L-threonine, sodium citrate, and alpha-lactose hydrate) increased along the reclamation-vegetation gradient such that the preserved forest soil samples contained the highest functional redundancy for each substrate. These data suggest that bacterial functional redundancy increases in relation to the regrowth of plant communities and may therefore represent an important aspect of the restoration of soil biological functionality to reclaimed mine spoils. They also suggest that bacterial functional redundancy may be a useful indicator of soil quality and ecosystem functioning.

  12. Polycomb complexes act redundantly to repress genomic repeats and genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeb, Martin; Pasini, Diego; Novatchkova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Polycomb complexes establish chromatin modifications for maintaining gene repression and are essential for embryonic development in mice. Here we use pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells to demonstrate an unexpected redundancy between Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 during the form...

  13. Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

  14. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent anal

  15. Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

  16. Key herbivores reveal limited functional redundancy on inshore coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, C.L.; Leemput, van de I.A.; Depczynski, M.; Hoey, A.S.; Bellwood, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are facing increasing exposure to a range of stressors and declines in critical ecological functions. The likelihood of further loss of functions and resilience is dependent, in part, on the extent of functional redundancy (i.e. the capacity of one species to functionally compensat

  17. Virtual Modular Redundancy of Processor Module in the PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang-Il; Hwang, SungJae; Yoon, DongHwa [SOOSAN ENS Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dual Modular Redundancy (DMR) is mainly used to implement these safety control systems. DMR is conveyed when components of a system are duplicated, providing another component in case one should fault or fail. This feature has a high availability and large fault tolerant. It provides zero downtime that is required for nuclear power plants. So nuclear power plant has been commercialized by multiple redundant systems. The following paper, we propose a Virtual Modular Redundancy (VMR) rather than physical triple of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) processor module to ensure the reliability of the nuclear power plant control system. VMR implementation minimizes design changes to continue to use the commercially available redundant system. Also, the purpose of the VMR is to improve the efficiency and reliability in many ways, such as fault tolerant and fail-safe and cost. VMR guarantees a wide range of reliable fault recovery, fault tolerance, etc. It is prevented before it causes great damages due to the continuous failure of the two modules. The reliable communication speed is slow and also it has a small bandwidth. It is a great loss in the safety control system. However, VMR aims to avoid nuclear power plants that were suspended due to fail-safe. It is not for the purpose of commonly used. Application of VMR is actually expected to require a lot of research and trial and error until they adapt to the nuclear regulatory and standards.

  18. Exploiting network redundancy for low-cost neural network realizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, H; Jansen, WJ; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, H; Udding, JT

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented to optimize a trained neural network for physical realization styles. Target architectures are embedded microcontrollers or standard cell based ASIC designs. The approach exploits the redundancy in the network, required for successful training, to replace the synaptic weighting

  19. Transmission Redundancy Elimination in MANETs for Effective Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Nayyar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANETs one of the most basic fundamental operations is broadcasting. Broadcasting is operated with flooding which leads to the problem such as transmission redundancy and packet collision. This requires a lot of energy resource of the node. The flooding algorithm provokes a more number of unnecessary packet rebroadcasts, wasting allocated bandwidth, causing contention and packet collision. There are some efficient flooding algorithms existing to tackle the redundancy problem. The earlier proposed algorithms require either maintaining 2-hop neighbor information or have to select subset of nodes. In this project, the algorithm proposed is used at the receiver end. Each node, receiving a broadcast packet, will broadcast the cut message along with the packet identity and the path information to all other connected nodes. Unlike the most existing techniques, each node tracks the neighboring nodes information from which redundant messages are received. This proposed algorithm achieves local optimality by breaking the cycles between them. When each the node receives the packet, the cut messages are broadcasted to minimize the cycle redundancy. The receiver node is involved in the process of decision making and so the decision is taken by the receiver node. The proposed system would be capable of easily included with the existing system as the decision is to be taken by the receiver node. The proposed system is an improved version of the existing algorithm, which is more graceful in interpreting existing protocols.

  20. SOLVING INVERSE KINEMATICS OF REDUNDANT MANIPULATOR BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    For the redundant manipulators, neural network is used to tackle the velocity inverse kinematics of robot manipulators. The neural networks utilized are multi-layered perceptions with a back-propagation training algorithm. The weight table is used to save the weights solving the inverse kinematics based on the different optimization performance criteria. Simulations verify the effectiveness of using neural network.

  1. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent

  2. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GRUAN sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of atmospheric water vapor provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS [Global Climate Observing System] Reference Upper-Air Network Stations in 2010–2012. Results show that the random uncertainties for radiosonde, frost-point hygrometer, Global Positioning System, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy and therefore the highest potential to reduce random uncertainty of IWV time series estimated by radiosondes. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument should be reduced of ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty resulted from conditioning of Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapor measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  3. Sparse Data Representation: The Role of Redundancy in Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-13

    effectively utilized in feature extraction and denoising . These redundant families can be frames, dictionaries, or libraries of bases. On the other hand...contains two kind of bases, which are natural but may be antagonistic : the singular value decomposition basis ( SVD ), which allows explicit

  4. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Starks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.

  5. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtanoski, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  6. Are China and Europe converging?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bastianin; Andrea; Cattanceo; Cristina; Markandya; Anil

    2009-01-01

    This analysis aims at giving a flavour of what is happening between the European and Chinese markets with reference to selected energy indicators and economic variables. More precisely the analysis is concerned with the convergence between European countries (EU15 + Norway) and China in terms of both per capita GDP and "sustainability indicators". The variables we refer to as "sustainability indicators" are two: energy intensity (EI) and carbon intensity (CI). The paths of such variables will be investigated both looking at the economy as a whole and by analysing what is happening in three sectors of economic activity, namely industry, agriculture and services. It finds strong evidence of convergence in energy intensity and carbon intensity between the EU and China, with rates fast enough to achieve 90% convergence in a matter of two decades.

  7. Converging Information and Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øst, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    This Ph.D.-project investigates the process of convergence between television and computers. Identifying three “promises of convergence”: interoperability, quality and interactivity, the project examines the key properties of the computer and television sectors, which have had - or are expected...... in the future to have - significant importance to the process and consequences of the convergence. The project focuses on the appliances, i.e. the TV sets, the computers and their peripheral equipment. It also takes into account the infrastructure and signals, which contain and deliver the information...... and communication, as well as the nature of the content and the usage scenarios of consumers....

  8. Statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability

    OpenAIRE

    Pratulananda Das; Sanjoy Ghosal; Sumit Som

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ideas of different types of convergence of a sequence of random variables in probability, namely, statistical convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, strong $p$-Ces$\\grave{\\mbox{a}}$ro summability of order $\\alpha$ in probability, lacunary statistical convergence or $S_{\\theta}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability, ${N_{\\theta}}$-convergence of order $\\alpha$ in probability have been introduced and their certain basic properties have been studied.

  9. A Linearization Algorithm of the Redundant Mechanical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bojko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In design and manufacturing there are a lot of situations to make engineers to deal with products, which have redundant mechanical structures. This is a harmful effect that can produce non-solvable dimension chains at designing preproduction stage, and lead to rebasing in the course of assembly. Traditional means for mathematical description of mechanical structures, such as directed and undirected graphs, matrices, and etc., have no appropriate tools to identify redundancy and eliminate it. This can be achieved by using a relatively new mathematical model, i.e. a hyper-graph of mechanical linkages. It is shown that a necessary condition of redundancy is simple inequality X redundant structures, which possess a maximum fractionalizing property. So-organized products can be broken up into the largest number of independently assembled fragments - assembly units. This simplifies the preproduction engineering and disassembly procedures in case of full or selective repairs during operation. It is shown that the normal sequence of assemblies enables us to reduce a mechanical structure of such products to the chain of a maximum length. We propose an algorithm to eliminate redundancy. It generates the maximum fractionalizing mechanical structures. The algorithm is based on three heuristic rules that recommend eliminating edges, which disarrange a chain structure of the hyper-graph. The paper provides a rationale heuristics and considers a test case.To test the algorithm using a large array of examples, the experimental software has been developed. Computational experiments have been conducted using a sample of thirty redundant hyper-graphs randomly generated. The experiments have shown the

  10. SIMULATION MODEL FOR DESIGN SUPPORT OF INFOCOMM REDUNDANT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bogatyrev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the effectiveness of multipath transfer of request copies through the network and their redundant service without the use of laborious analytical modeling. The model and support tools for the design of highly reliable distributed systems based on simulation modeling have been created. Method. The effectiveness of many variants of service organization and delivery through the network to the query servers is formed and analyzed. Options for providing redundant service and delivery via the network to the servers of request copies are also considered. The choice of variants for the distribution and service of requests is carried out taking into account the criticality of queries to the time of their stay in the system. The request is considered successful if at least one of its copies is accurately delivered to the working server, ready to service the request received through a network, if it is fulfilled in the set time. Efficiency analysis of the redundant transmission and service of requests is based on the model built in AnyLogic 7 simulation environment. Main Results. Simulation experiments based on the proposed models have shown the effectiveness of redundant transmission of copies of queries (packets to the servers in the cluster through multiple paths with redundant service of request copies by a group of servers in the cluster. It is shown that this solution allows increasing the probability of exact execution of at least one copy of the request within the required time. We have carried out efficiency evaluation of destruction of outdated request copies in the queues of network nodes and the cluster. We have analyzed options for network implementation of multipath transfer of request copies to the servers in the cluster over disjoint paths, possibly different according to the number of their constituent nodes. Practical Relevance. The proposed simulation models can be used when selecting the optimal

  11. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starks, Michael John

    2014-01-01

    abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps a

  12. Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...

  13. System Convergence in Transport Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.

    2010-01-01

    -of-successive-averages (MSA) have been proposed. Convergence of the MSA under fairly weak regularity conditions was shown in Robbins and Monro (1951). The iteration between demand and assignment ? the external equilibrium ? are in many models either decoupled or follow a very simple iteration pattern. However, as demand...

  14. Convergence of a Catalan Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.

  15. Converge, Version 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi Tadj

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intended for college teachers/students, Converge presents a feature that may interest all scientists: it allows an easy export of graphic files to most known word processors, specifically to the ℙ, Version 2.1, a powerful WYSIWYG mathematical word processor.

  16. Exponential convergence rate in entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-Fa Chen

    2007-01-01

    The exponential convergence rate in entropy is studied for symmetric forms, with a specia! attention to the Markov chain with a state space having two points only. Some upper and lower bounds of the rate are obtained and five examples with precise or qualitatively exact estimates are presented.

  17. Convergence analysis of cautious control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanxia; GUO Lei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis on stability and convergence of the cautious control, which has advantages over the traditional certainty equivalence adaptive control, since it takes the parameter estimation error into account in the design,and is also one-step-ahead optimal in the mean square sense under Gaussian assumptions.

  18. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and h

  19. Financial Development and Convergence Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Basturk (Nalan); R. Paap (Richard); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the economic development process, measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), for a large panel of countries. We propose a methodology that identifies groups of countries (convergence clubs) that show similar GDP structures, while allowing for changes in club membersh

  20. Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starks, Michael John

    2014-01-01

    abstractBroadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps

  1. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise.

  2. Susceptibility of Redundant Versus Singular Clock Domains Implemented in SRAM-Based FPGA TMR Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their clock-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain (DTMR) provides an improved TMR methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs over redundant clocks.

  3. The Birth and Death of Redundancy in Decoherence and Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Charles; Zurek, Wojciech; Zwolak, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the quantum-classical transition and the identification of a preferred classical domain through quantum Darwinism is based on recognizing high-redundancy states as both ubiquitous and exceptional. They are produced ubiquitously during decoherence, as has been demonstrated by the recent identification of very general conditions under which high-redundancy states develop. They are exceptional in that high-redundancy states occupy a very narrow corner of the global Hilbert space; states selected at random are overwelming likely to exhibit zero redundancy. In this letter, we examine the conditions and time scales for the transition from high-redundancy states to zero-redundancy states in many-body dynamics. We identify sufficient condition for the development of redundancy from product states and show that the destruction of redundancy can be accomplished even with highly constrained interactions.

  4. Mitigating threat and risk in nuclear facilities through convergence of security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Daniel John [Florida Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The advancement of sensor and subsystems integration, facility network infrastructures, and situational awareness platforms now enable an integrated view of a comprehensive security solution on a single screen. A Radar Video Surveillance (RVS) system converges these aspects of security systems into a Geographic Information System (GIS) view, which conveys overall security status and reacts to potential threats. An overhead GIS view of the facility is populated with security sensors, including perimeter security sensors, CCTV cameras, access control equipment, radar sensors, and life safety equipment. The status and location of these sensors is displayed on the map, as well as the data from these sensors, such as intruder locations and live CCTV images. The software automatically directs PTZ cameras to the current location of a potential incident, displays that image, records it, and initiates an alarm and an automated response. This paper describes the concept of comprehensive security convergence, including sensor integration, situational awareness, automation of responses and notification, and the challenges and opportunities in providing true convergence as well as the benefits this approach delivers in a nuclear facility. (authors)

  5. Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.

  6. Recent Advances in Registration, Integration and Fusion of Remotely Sensed Data: Redundant Representations and Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Wojciech; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sophisticated mathematical techniques have been successfully applied to the field of remote sensing to produce significant advances in applications such as registration, integration and fusion of remotely sensed data. Registration, integration and fusion of multiple source imagery are the most important issues when dealing with Earth Science remote sensing data where information from multiple sensors, exhibiting various resolutions, must be integrated. Issues ranging from different sensor geometries, different spectral responses, differing illumination conditions, different seasons, and various amounts of noise need to be dealt with when designing an image registration, integration or fusion method. This tutorial will first define the problems and challenges associated with these applications and then will review some mathematical techniques that have been successfully utilized to solve them. In particular, we will cover topics on geometric multiscale representations, redundant representations and fusion frames, graph operators, diffusion wavelets, as well as spatial-spectral and operator-based data fusion. All the algorithms will be illustrated using remotely sensed data, with an emphasis on current and operational instruments.

  7. Imaging protoplanets: observing transition disks with non-redundant masking

    CERN Document Server

    Sallum, Steph; Close, Laird M; Hinz, Philip M; Follette, Katherine B; Kratter, Kaitlin; Skemer, Andrew J; Bailey, Vanessa P; Briguglio, Runa; Defrere, Denis; Macintosh, Bruce A; Males, Jared R; Morzinski, Katie M; Puglisi, Alfio T; Rodigas, Timothy J; Spalding, Eckhart; Tuthill, Peter G; Vaz, Amali; Weinberger, Alycia; Xomperio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Transition disks, protoplanetary disks with inner clearings, are promising objects in which to directly image forming planets. The high contrast imaging technique of non-redundant masking is well posed to detect planetary mass companions at several to tens of AU in nearby transition disks. We present non-redundant masking observations of the T Cha and LkCa 15 transition disks, both of which host posited sub-stellar mass companions. However, due to a loss of information intrinsic to the technique, observations of extended sources (e.g. scattered light from disks) can be misinterpreted as moving companions. We discuss tests to distinguish between these two scenarios, with applications to the T Cha and LkCa 15 observations. We argue that a static, forward-scattering disk can explain the T Cha data, while LkCa 15 is best explained by multiple orbiting companions.

  8. Identifying redundant and missing relations in the gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    Significant efforts have been undertaken for providing the Gene Ontology (GO) in a computable format as well as for enriching it with logical definitions. Automated approaches can thus be applied to GO for assisting its maintenance and for checking its internal coherence. However, inconsistencies may still remain within GO. In this frame, the objective of this work was to audit GO relationships. First, reasoning over relationships was exploited for detecting redundant relations existing between GO concepts. Missing necessary and sufficient conditions were then identified based on the compositional structure of the preferred names of GO concepts. More than one thousand redundant relations and 500 missing necessary and sufficient conditions were found. The proposed approach was thus successful for detecting inconsistencies within GO relations. The application of lexical approaches as well as the exploitation of synonyms and textual definitions could be useful for identifying additional necessary and sufficient conditions. Multiple necessary and sufficient conditions for a given GO concept may be indicative of inconsistencies.

  9. Novel Hyper-Redundant Manipulator: Design, Study and Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦明; 马培荪; 秦昌俊; 曹志奎; 王建滨; 朱海鸿

    2003-01-01

    A novel hyper-redundant manipulator named RT1 is designed and studied.The unique feature of RT1 is all degrees of freedom (DOF) are actuated with only one motor via special designed hinge bar universal joints.The mechanisms of RT1 are introduced in detail.Some experiments are carried out in order to test the movability and adaptability of the manipulator.RT1 is actuated by pulse string and acts discretely.The discrete working space of RT1 is described and the parameter optimization for kinematical redundancy resolution is studied also.The optimization criterion is altering the design parameter as little as possible during manipulator's motion from the initial position to the expected position.An[1] optimization example is given that is realized with Matlab optimize tool-box.

  10. Roles of Chemokines in Thymopoiesis: Redundancy and Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenxianFu; WeifengChen

    2004-01-01

    Thymus is the primary lymphoid organ involved in the development of thymocytes. Maturation related events of thymocytes within thymus, especially the widely discussed directional migration of thymocytes, is regulated by chemokines via chemokine receptors mediated signaling pathway. Multiple types of chemokines and chemokine receptors, as components of the network-interaction within thymic microenvironment, are involved in the thymopoiesis. It appears that these chemokines are functionally redundant and such phenomenon may be explained not only by the promiscuous, non-one-to-one matching between ligands-receptors within CXC or CC chemokine subfamily, but also by the various spatio-temporal expression patterns within different cell types and developmental stages. The redundancy and regulation of thymus expressed chemokines and chemokine receptors during thymocyte development are herein discussed. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  11. Roles of Chemokines in Thymopoiesis: Redundancy and Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxian Fu; Weifeng Chen

    2004-01-01

    Thymus is the primary lymphoid organ involved in the development of thymocytes. Maturation related events of thymocytes within thymus, especially the widely discussed directional migration of thymocytes, is regulated by chemokines via chemokine receptors mediated signaling pathway. Multiple types of chemokines and chemokine receptors, as components of the network-interaction within thymic microenvironment, are involved in the thymopoiesis. It appears that these chemokines are functionally redundant and such phenomenon may be explained not only by the promiscuous, non-one-to-one matching between ligands-receptors within CXC or CC chemokine subfamily, but also by the various spatio-temporal expression patterns within different cell types and developmental stages. The redundancy and regulation of thymus expressed chemokines and chemokine receptors during thymocyte development are herein discussed.

  12. A Cause-Consequence Chart of a Redundant Protection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dan Sandvik; Platz, O.; Runge, B.

    1975-01-01

    A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy of compone...... of components is taken into account. The possibility of using parameter variation as a basis for the choice of test policy is indicated.......A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy...

  13. Genetic Redundancies Enhance Information Transfer in Noisy Regulatory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Poyatos, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular decision making is based on regulatory circuits that associate signal thresholds to specific physiological actions. This transmission of information is subjected to molecular noise what can decrease its fidelity. Here, we show instead how such intrinsic noise enhances information transfer in the presence of multiple circuit copies. The result is due to the contribution of noise to the generation of autonomous responses by each copy, which are altogether associated with a common decision. Moreover, factors that correlate the responses of the redundant units (extrinsic noise or regulatory cross-talk) contribute to reduce fidelity, while those that further uncouple them (heterogeneity within the copies) can lead to stronger information gain. Overall, our study emphasizes how the interplay of signal thresholding, redundancy, and noise influences the accuracy of cellular decision making. Understanding this interplay provides a basis to explain collective cell signaling mechanisms, and to engineer robust decisions with noisy genetic circuits. PMID:27741249

  14. Reduced Precision Redundancy for Satellite Telecommand Receiver Module on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Sadruddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and highly efficient design of a software defined radiation tolerant baseband module for a LEO satellite telecommand receiver using FPGA is presented. FPGAs in space are subject to single event upsets (SEUs due to high radiation environment. Traditionally, triple modular redundancy (TMR is used for mitigating Single Event Upsets (SEUs. The drawback of using TMR is that it consumes a lot of hardware resources and requires more power. Reduced precision redundancy (RPR can be a viable alternative of TMR in digital systems for arithmetic operations. This paper uses the combination of RPR and TMR for mitigating SEUs. The designed module consumes less resources on FPGA and has bit error rate (BER identical to theoretical results, apart from degradation due to implementation losses. An improved Costas loop and timing recovery algorithm are implemented for achieving carrier recovery and bit synchronization. The hybrid approach mitigates SEUs while consuming 26% less resources than a customary TMR protected receiver.

  15. Blind channel estimation for redundant precoded OFDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yongming; Luo Hanwen; Wu Yadong; Huang Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Considering that channel estimation can play a crucial role in coherent detection of the information symbols in each data block, a blind channel estimation approach is proposed for redundant precoded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A redundant linear frequency-domain precoder is applied to each pair of blocks before they enter the OFDM system. Because of the introduced structure, the frequency-selective channel can be identified at the receiver based on autocorrelation operations, singular value decomposition (SVD),and by resolving the scalar ambiguity. The proposed channel estimation method has low computational complexity and requires no prior statistical information on channel or noise. And the proposed blind method has high spectral efficiency owing to exploiting no training sequence. Computer simulations confirm that this proposed blind channel estimation method can identify the frequency-selective channels perfectly and obtain a good performance.

  16. Information theory and artificial grammar learning: inferring grammaticality from redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Nevzorova, Uliana; Lee, Graham; Mewhort, D J K

    2016-03-01

    In artificial grammar learning experiments, participants study strings of letters constructed using a grammar and then sort novel grammatical test exemplars from novel ungrammatical ones. The ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings is often taken as evidence that the participants have induced the rules of the grammar. We show that judgements of grammaticality are predicted by the local redundancy of the test strings, not by grammaticality itself. The prediction holds in a transfer test in which test strings involve different letters than the training strings. Local redundancy is usually confounded with grammaticality in stimuli widely used in the literature. The confounding explains why the ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings has popularized the idea that participants have induced the rules of the grammar, when they have not. We discuss the judgement of grammaticality task in terms of attribute substitution and pattern goodness. When asked to judge grammaticality (an inaccessible attribute), participants answer an easier question about pattern goodness (an accessible attribute).

  17. A bat algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafuse, T. P.; Pohl, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    This article uses a recently developed bat algorithm (BA) meta-heuristic optimization method to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP is a well-known NP-hard problem which has been the subject of much prior work, generally of a restricted form where each component must consist of identical components in parallel to make computations tractable. Meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation and allow for larger instances to be solved for a more general case where different components can be placed in parallel. The BA has not yet been used in reliability design, as it was a method initially designed for continuous problems. A BA is devised and tested on a well-known suite of problems from the literature. It is shown that the BA is competitive with the best known heuristics for redundancy allocation.

  18. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF FAULT-TOLERANT PROPERTIES OF REDUNDANT ROBOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; FENG Dengdian

    2008-01-01

    When a redundant robot performs a fault-tolerant operation for locked joint failures, its fault tolerant properties should include dexterity and sudden change of joint velocity at the moment of locking failed joints and the dexterity during the post-failure. Firstly three fault-tolerant indexes, reduced condition number, sudden change of relative joint velocity and centrality are proposed, which can comprehensively evaluate the kinematical performance of a redundant robot during its entire fault-tolerant operations. Then, the influence of the initial postures of robot's end-effector on these fault-tolerant indexes is analyzed with a planar robot and a spatial robot. Simulation results show that for a given task the joint trajectory with the best comprehensive effect of fault tolerance can be determined by optimizing the initial posture of a robot.

  19. Signal overcomplete representation and sparse decomposition based on redundant dictionaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunmei; YIN Zhongke; CHEN Xiangdong; XIAO Mingxia

    2005-01-01

    Decomposing a signal based upon redundant dictionaries is a new method for data representation on signal processing. It approximates a signal with an overcomplete system instead of an orthonormal basis to provide a sufficient choice for adaptive sparse decompositions. Replacing the original data with a sparse approximation can result in not only a higher compression ratio, but also greater flexibility in capturing the inherent structure of the natural signals with the redundancy of dictionaries. This paper gives an overview of a series of recent results in this field, and deals with the relationship between sparsity of signal decomposition and incoherence of dictionaries with BP and MP algorithms. The current and future challenges of the dictionary construction are discussed.

  20. Leading Guard Digits in Finite-Precision Redundant Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Jean-Michel; Kornerup, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Redundant number representations are generally used to allow constant time additions, based on the fact that only bounded carry-ripples take place. But, carries may ripple out into positions which may not be needed to represent the final value of the result and, thus, a certain amount of leading guard digits are needed to correctly determine the result. Also, when cancellation during subtractions occurs, there may be nonzero digits in positions not needed to represent the result of the calcul...

  1. Bacterial functional redundancy along a soil reclamation gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, B.; D. Crowley; G. Sparovek; MELO, W. J. de.; Borneman, J

    2000-01-01

    A strategy to measure bacterial functional redundancy was developed and tested with soils collected along a soil reclamation gradient by determining the richness and diversity of bacterial groups capable of in situ growth on selected carbon substrates. Soil cores were collected from four sites along a transect from the Jamari tin mine site in the Jamari National Forest, Rondonia, RO, Brazil: denuded mine spoil, soil from below the canopy of invading pioneer trees, revegetated soil under new g...

  2. Hybrid system for computing reachable workspaces for redundant manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameldin, Tarek K.; Sobh, Tarek M.

    1991-03-01

    An efficient computation of 3D workspaces for redundant manipulators is based on a " hybrid" a!- gorithm between direct kinematics and screw theory. Direct kinematics enjoys low computational cost but needs edge detection algorithms when workspace boundaries are needed. Screw theory has exponential computational cost per workspace point but does not need edge detection. Screw theory allows computing workspace points in prespecified directions while direct kinematics does not. Applications of the algorithm are discussed.

  3. Redundancy: The Lesson from the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Melvin W.

    1992-01-01

    The big news from the Bay Area's 1989 earthquake was that the transportation disruptions were only inconvenient, not dreadful. Structural failures on the Bay Bridge and several elevated concrete freeways cut major metropolitan commuting routes. Nevertheless, the regional transportation system didn't crash at the time. It was resilient because it was redundant - the parallel links took up the burden. Commuters got to work without intolerable hardship. Trucks got their freight delivered, nearly...

  4. Low redundancy in seed dispersal within an island frugivore community

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Kim R.; Drake, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The low species diversity that often characterizes island ecosystems could result in low functional redundancy within communities. Flying foxes (large fruit bats) are important seed dispersers of large-seeded species, but their redundancy within island communities has never been explicitly tested. In a Pacific archipelago, we found that flying foxes were the sole effective disperser of 57 % of the plant species whose fruits they consume. They were essential for the dispersal of these species either because they handled >90 % of consumed fruit, or were the only animal depositing seeds away from the parent canopy, or both. Flying foxes were especially important for larger-seeded fruit (>13 mm wide), with 76 % of consumed species dependent on them for dispersal, compared with 31 % of small-seeded species. As flying foxes decrease in abundance, they cease to function as dispersers long before they become rare. We compared the seed dispersal effectiveness (measured as the proportion of diaspores dispersed beyond parent crowns) of all frugivores for four plant species in sites where flying foxes were, and were not, functionally extinct. At both low and high abundance, flying foxes consumed most available fruit of these species, but the proportion of handled diaspores dispersed away from parent crowns (quality) was significantly reduced at low abundance. Since alternative consumers (birds, rodents and land crabs) were unable to compensate as dispersers when flying foxes were functionally extinct, we conclude that there is almost no redundancy in the seed dispersal function of flying foxes in this island system, and potentially on other islands where they occur. Given that oceanic island communities are often simpler than continental communities, evaluating the extent of redundancy across different ecological functions on islands is extremely important. PMID:26194167

  5. Identifying redundancy and exposing provenance in crowdsourced data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Ginosar, Shiry; Steinitz, Avital; Hartmann, Björn; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2013-12-01

    We present a system that lets analysts use paid crowd workers to explore data sets and helps analysts interactively examine and build upon workers' insights. We take advantage of the fact that, for many types of data, independent crowd workers can readily perform basic analysis tasks like examining views and generating explanations for trends and patterns. However, workers operating in parallel can often generate redundant explanations. Moreover, because workers have different competencies and domain knowledge, some responses are likely to be more plausible than others. To efficiently utilize the crowd's work, analysts must be able to quickly identify and consolidate redundant responses and determine which explanations are the most plausible. In this paper, we demonstrate several crowd-assisted techniques to help analysts make better use of crowdsourced explanations: (1) We explore crowd-assisted strategies that utilize multiple workers to detect redundant explanations. We introduce color clustering with representative selection--a strategy in which multiple workers cluster explanations and we automatically select the most-representative result--and show that it generates clusterings that are as good as those produced by experts. (2) We capture explanation provenance by introducing highlighting tasks and capturing workers' browsing behavior via an embedded web browser, and refine that provenance information via source-review tasks. We expose this information in an explanation-management interface that allows analysts to interactively filter and sort responses, select the most plausible explanations, and decide which to explore further.

  6. Advantage of redundancy in the controllability of remote handling manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Ali, E-mail: ali.muhammad@vtt.fi [VTT, Technical Research Center of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Mattila, Jouni; Vilenius, Matti [Department of Intelligent Hydraulics and Automation, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Siuko, Mikko [VTT, Technical Research Center of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Semeraro, Luigi [F4E, Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To carry out a variety of remote handling operations inside the ITER divertor a Water Hydraulic MANipulator (WHMAN) and its control system have been designed and developed at Tampere University of Technology. The manipulator is installed on top of Cassette Multifunctional Mover (CMM) to assist during the cassette removal and installation operations. While CMM is designed to carry heavy components such as cassettes through the service ducts relying on positioning accuracy and repeatability, WHMAN is designed to execute a mix of remote handling operations using position trajectories and master-slave telemanipulation. WHMAN is composed of eight joints: six rotational and two translational. Since a manipulator requires only six joints to acquire the desired position and orientation in operational-space, the two additional joints of WHMAN provide the redundant degrees of mobility. This paper presents how this redundancy of WHMAN can be an advantage to optimize the execution of remote handling tasks. The paper also discusses an effective way to practically exploit the redundancy. The results show that the additional degrees of freedom can be utilized to improve the dynamic behavior of the manipulator.

  7. Verbal redundancy aids memory for filmed entertainment dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, Michael P; Harris, Richard J; Miranda, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of presentation modality and redundancy of verbal content on recognition memory for entertainment film dialogue. U.S. participants watched two brief movie clips and afterward answered multiple-choice questions about information from the dialogue. Experiment 1 compared recognition memory for spoken dialogue in the native language (English) with subtitles in English, French, or no subtitles. Experiment 2 compared memory for material in English subtitles with spoken dialogue in English, French, or no sound. Experiment 3 examined three control conditions with no spoken or captioned material in the native language. All participants watched the same video clips and answered the same questions. Performance was consistently good whenever English dialogue appeared in either the subtitles or sound, and best of all when it appeared in both, supporting the facilitation of verbal redundancy. Performance was also better when English was only in the subtitles than when it was only spoken. Unexpectedly, sound or subtitles in an unfamiliar language (French) modestly improved performance, as long as there was also a familiar channel. Results extend multimedia research on verbal redundancy for expository material to verbal information in entertainment media.

  8. Routing Protection Scheme For Redundancy In Fiber Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthman, Dean A.; Corke, Michael; Fitzgerald, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Redundancy in communication systems is vital for providing customer satisfaction and a cost effective network. If a line is cut in present systems, the traffic on that line must be routed to other channels while an emergency repair is made. If the operating company cannot provide the bandwidth to satisfy this rerouting, it must rent information capacity from its competitors. Presently, fiber is being installed in the metropolitan and subscriber loop networks, and consideration is being taken to provide redundancy in network reconfiguration to reduce fiber breakage problems. In a full duplex communication network, individual optical waveguides are utilized for transmission and reception of signals. Figure 1 illustrates a typical metropolitan network link from office to office. If a cable is severed by accident during construction work, discontinuity of service would result. When there are thousands of premium-paying customers at the other end of that cable, this situation can achieve crisis level immediately. In this paper details of a route protection or diversification scheme will be presented that will incorporate an intelligent fiber optic system that will automatically detect a cable fault and switch traffic to redundant fiber cables.

  9. Superlinearly scalable noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate through theory and numerical simulations that redundant coupled dynamical systems can be extremely robust against local noise in comparison to uncoupled dynamical systems evolving in the same noisy environment. Previous studies have shown that the noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems is linearly scalable and deviations due to noise can be minimized by increasing the number of coupled units. Here, we demonstrate that the noise robustness can actually be scaled superlinearly if some conditions are met and very high noise robustness can be realized with very few coupled units. We discuss these conditions and show that this superlinear scalability depends on the nonlinearity of the individual dynamical units. The phenomenon is demonstrated in discrete as well as continuous dynamical systems. This superlinear scalability not only provides us an opportunity to exploit the nonlinearity of physical systems without being bogged down by noise but may also help us in understanding the functional role of coupled redundancy found in many biological systems. Moreover, engineers can exploit superlinear noise suppression by starting a coupled system near (not necessarily at) the appropriate initial condition.

  10. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    with the emergence of remote service provision, such as supervision and control of decentralized heating facilities and wind based electrical power production. The reliability issue is addressed from a structural viewpoint, where the concept of Structural QoS (SQoS) is defined to support reliability modelling...... in communication infrastructures. A graph theoretical approach is presented as an approach to reliability management in complex communication infrastructures. Real life examples are provided and specific problems are presented and discussed. Wireless technologies are discussed as a complement, providing not only...

  11. convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Kolev

    2003-01-01

    placing n labeled balls into N labeled cells. We study the asymptotic behavior of the number of empty cells when (n,N belongs to the “right” and “left” domain of attraction. An application to the estimation of characteristics of agreement among a set of raters which independently classify subjects into one of two categories is also indicated. The case when a large number of raters acts following the zero-inflated binomial law with small probability for positive diagnosis is treated using the zero-inflated Poisson approximation.

  12. Quantifying convergence in the sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lumbreras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional epistemological models classify knowledge into separate disciplines with different objects of study and specific techniques, with some frameworks even proposing hierarchies (such as Comte’s. According to thinkers such as John Holland or Teilhard de Chardin, the advancement of science involves the convergence of disciplines. This proposed convergence can be studied in a number of ways, such as how works impact research outside a specific area (citation networks or how authors collaborate with other researchers in different fields (collaboration networks. While these studies are delivering significant new insights, they cannot easily show the convergence of different topics within a body of knowledge. This paper attempts to address this question in a quantitative manner, searching for evidence that supports the idea of convergence in the content of the sciences themselves (that is, whether the sciences are dealing with increasingly the same topics. We use Latent Dirichlet Analysis (LDA, a technique that is able to analyze texts and estimate the relative contributions of the topics that were used to generate them. We apply this tool to the corpus of the Santa Fe Institute (SFI working papers, which spans research on Complexity Science from 1989 to 2015. We then analyze the relatedness of the different research areas, the rise and demise of these sub-disciplines over time and, more broadly, the convergence of the research body as a whole. Combining the topic structure obtained from the collected publication history of the SFI community with techniques to infer hierarchy and clustering, we reconstruct a picture of a dynamic community which experiences trends, periodically recurring topics, and shifts in the closeness of scholarship over time. We find that there is support for convergence, and that the application of quantitative methods such as LDA to the study of knowledge can provide valuable insights that can help

  13. Composite faces are not processed holistically: evidence from the Garner and redundant target paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Composite faces fuse the top half of one face with the bottom half of another. These stimuli inflict a strong illusion of a novel face on their viewers, and are often considered to be processed holistically. The current study challenges this holistic view. Here I present provocative evidence from various classic attention paradigms such as the Garner (1974) and the redundant target (Miller, Cognitive Psychology, 14, 247-279, 1982; Townsend & Nozawa, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 39, 321-359, 1995) tasks showing that face parts are perceived and processed in an analytic rather than holistic fashion. In Experiment 1, composite faces failed to exhibit Garner interference, indicating perfect selective attention to the constituent parts. In Experiments 2 and 3, composite faces failed to exhibit super-capacity with same-identity composites, demonstrating limited or unlimited capacity. This pattern is consistent with analytic perception. Taken together, the results cast serious doubts on the validity of the holistic processing approach. In many respects, the study proposes disillusionment from the composite face illusion. In addition, the study highlights the importance of converging operations, model testability, and individual differences in the study of faces.

  14. Proliferating Connections and Communicating Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylish Wood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the work of Niklas Luhmann to explore what pressure the concept of convergence exerts over how we communicate about the changing expressive practices of digital games following the emergence of digital technologies. My claim will be that in its current form, convergence privileges either the human users of technological platforms, or the combination of aesthetic conventions from different media what connects is either the user or the aesthetic code. While neither of these two positions would be likely to deny a reliance on the interplay between humans and technologies, such an interplay is taken for granted rather than explored. By using Luhmann’s version of systems theory, I argue that we can more effectively grasp the interplay of human and technological participants by understanding their combined roles in changing expressive practices.

  15. Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric

    How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).

  16. Optimality Functions and Lopsided Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    Problems involving functions defined in terms of integrals or optimization problems (as the maxi - mization in Example 3), functions defined on infinite...optimization methods in finite time. The key technical challenge associate with the above scheme is to establish ( weak ) consistency. In the next...Theorem 4.3. In view of this result, it is clear that ( weak ) consistency will be ensured by epi-convergence of the approximating objective functions and

  17. ACCOUNTING CONVERGENCE ON ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLBAN ONCIOIU IONICA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available If normalization accounting is the process of harmonizing the presentation of financial statements, accounting methods and terminology, accounting convergence is the process by which accounting standards are developed in a way that is able to lead to the same fact or purpose, by highlighting the similarity of national - regional - international. This paper put in light the importance of the normalization and harmonization process, what its done in and what we have to do for that in Romania.

  18. DORNRÖSCHEN, DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE, and PUCHI redundantly control floral meristem identity and organ initiation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, J W; Werr, W

    2017-06-15

    The biphasic floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana involves many redundant intersecting regulatory networks. The related AP2 transcription factors DORNRÖSCHEN (DRN), DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL), and PUCHI individually execute well-characterized functions in diverse developmental contexts, including floral development. Here, we show that their combined loss of function leads to synergistic floral phenotypes, including reduced floral merosity in all whorls, which reflects redundant functions of all three genes in organ initiation rather than outgrowth. Additional loss of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 functions results in the complete conversion of floral meristems into secondary inflorescence shoots, demonstrating that all five genes define an essential regulatory network for establishing floral meristem identity, and we show that their functions converge to regulate LEAFY expression. Thus, despite their largely discrete spatiotemporal expression domains in the inflorescence meristem and early floral meristem, PUCHI, DRN, and DRNL interdependently contribute to cellular fate decisions. Auxin might represent one potential non-cell-autonomous mediator of their gene functions, because PUCHI, DRN, and DRNL all interact with auxin transport and biosynthesis pathways. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Multiparametric methane sensor for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Duk, M.; Kociubiński, A.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Today, methane sensors find applications mostly in safety alarm installations, gas parameters detection and air pollution classification. Such sensors and sensors elements exists for industry and home use. Under development area of methane sensors application is dedicated to ground gases monitoring. Proper monitoring of soil gases requires reliable and maintenance-free semi-constant and longtime examination at relatively low cost of equipment. The sensors for soil monitoring have to work on soil probe. Therefore, sensor is exposed to environment conditions, as a wide range of temperatures and a full scale of humidity changes, as well as rain, snow and wind, that are not specified for classical methane sensors. Development of such sensor is presented in this paper. The presented sensor construction consists of five commercial non dispersive infra-red (NDIR) methane sensing units, a set of temperature and humidity sensing units, a gas chamber equipped with a micro-fan, automated gas valves and also a microcontroller that controls the measuring procedure. The electronics part of sensor was installed into customized 3D printed housing equipped with self-developed gas valves. The main development of proposed sensor is on the side of experimental evaluation of construction reliability and results of data processing included safety procedures and function for hardware error correction. Redundant methane sensor units are used providing measurement error correction as well as improved measurement accuracy. The humidity and temperature sensors are used for internal compensation of methane measurements as well as for cutting-off the sensor from the environment when the conditions exceed allowable parameters. Results obtained during environment sensing prove that the gas concentration readings are not sensitive to gas chamber vertical or horizontal position. It is important as vertical sensor installation on soil probe is simpler that horizontal one. Data acquired during six

  20. Surface meshing with curvature convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Convergences and divergences in mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdel Omran's 1971 theory of "Epidemiologic Transition" was the first attempt to account for the extraordinary advances in health care made in industrialized countries since the 18th century. In the framework of the Demographic Transition, it implied a general convergence of life expectancies toward a limit imposed by the new epidemiological features of modern societies. However, important failures, occurred in the past decades (mainly the health crisis in Eastern Europe and AIDS in Africa, seem to have stopped that process of convergence. In fact such failures do not really contradict the theory. The latter is much more ruined by the unexpected dramatic improvement in the field of cardiovascular disease experienced since the seventies, which results in a new step of a more general process. On the basis of the broader concept of "Health Transition" initiated by Julio Frenk et al., the present paper tries to rethink the full process in term of divergence/convergence sequences inferred by successive major changes in health technologies and strategies.

  2. CONVERGENCE THEOREMS FOR THE AOR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 王广彬

    2002-01-01

    Practical sufficient conditions for the convergence of the AOR method and a practical sufficient condition for H-matrices are studied. The obtained convergence conditions suited to matrices which need not to be diagonally dominant.

  3. User Configurations and Convergence in Consumer Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies.......Convergence has been a technical fix motivated by the digital developments in media technologies....

  4. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  5. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2016-02-12

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  6. Improved Relay Node Placement Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Application in Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    An emergent application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology is in the area of Wind Farm Monitoring (WFM), in which relays are used to connect sensors. Key problems to solve in WFM include how to balance loads across relay nodes and how to place relay nodes for redundancy and fault-toleran...

  7. Improved Relay Node Placement Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Application in Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    An emergent application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology is in the area of Wind Farm Monitoring (WFM), in which relays are used to connect sensors. Key problems to solve in WFM include how to balance loads across relay nodes and how to place relay nodes for redundancy and fault...

  8. Exploration of joint redundancy but not task space variability facilitates supervised motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puneet; Jana, Sumitash; Ghosal, Ashitava; Murthy, Aditya

    2016-12-13

    The number of joints and muscles in a human arm is more than what is required for reaching to a desired point in 3D space. Although previous studies have emphasized how such redundancy and the associated flexibility may play an important role in path planning, control of noise, and optimization of motion, whether and how redundancy might promote motor learning has not been investigated. In this work, we quantify redundancy space and investigate its significance and effect on motor learning. We propose that a larger redundancy space leads to faster learning across subjects. We observed this pattern in subjects learning novel kinematics (visuomotor adaptation) and dynamics (force-field adaptation). Interestingly, we also observed differences in the redundancy space between the dominant hand and nondominant hand that explained differences in the learning of dynamics. Taken together, these results provide support for the hypothesis that redundancy aids in motor learning and that the redundant component of motor variability is not noise.

  9. Quantum Darwinism: Entanglement, branches, and the emergent classicality of redundantly stored quantum information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2006-06-01

    We lay a comprehensive foundation for the study of redundant information storage in decoherence processes. Redundancy has been proposed as a prerequisite for objectivity, the defining property of classical objects. We consider two ensembles of states for a model universe consisting of one system and many environments: the first consisting of arbitrary states, and the second consisting of “singly branching” states consistent with a simple decoherence model. Typical states from the random ensemble do not store information about the system redundantly, but information stored in branching states has a redundancy proportional to the environment’s size. We compute the specific redundancy for a wide range of model universes, and fit the results to a simple first-principles theory. Our results show that the presence of redundancy divides information about the system into three parts: classical (redundant); purely quantum; and the borderline, undifferentiated or “nonredundant,” information.

  10. Dependable k-coverage algorithms for sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gyula, Simon; Gonczy, Laszlo; Cousin, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Redundant sensing capabilities are often required in sensor network applications due to various reasons, e.g. robustness, fault tolerance, or increased accuracy. At the same time high sensor redundancy offers the possibility of increasing network lifetime by scheduling sleep intervals for some sensors and still providing continuous service with help of the remaining active sensors. In this paper centralized and distributed algorithms are proposed to solve the k-coverage sensing problem and maximize network lifetime. When physically possible, the proposed robust Controlled Greedy Sleep Algorithm provides guaranteed service independently of node and communication errors in the network. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated and compared to results of a random solution by simulation examples.

  11. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  12. TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR WEAK ALMOST CONVERGENT FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Kuang Kuo

    2011-01-01

    The almost convergent function which was introduced by Raimi [6] and dis- cussed by Ho [4], Das and Nanda [2, 3], is the continuous analogue of almost convergent sequences (see [5]). In this paper, we establish the Tauberian conditions and the Cauchy criteria for weak almost convergent functions on R2+.

  13. Fallback options for airgap sensor fault of an electromagnetic suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Konstantinos; Zolotas, Argyrios; Goodall, Roger

    2013-06-01

    The paper presents a method to recover the performance of an electromagnetic suspension under faulty airgap sensor. The proposed control scheme is a combination of classical control loops, a Kalman Estimator and analytical redundancy (for the airgap signal). In this way redundant airgap sensors are not essential for reliable operation of this system. When the airgap sensor fails the required signal is recovered using a combination of a Kalman estimator and analytical redundancy. The performance of the suspension is optimised using genetic algorithms and some preliminary robustness issues to load and operating airgap variations are discussed. Simulations on a realistic model of such type of suspension illustrate the efficacy of the proposed sensor tolerant control method.

  14. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R D Morris; J A Morris

    2004-09-01

    A model is described of a highly redundant complex organism that has overlapping banks of genes such that each vital function is specified by several different genetic systems. This generates a synergistic profile linking probability of survival to the number of deleterious mutations in the genome. Computer models show that there is a dynamic interaction between the mean number of new deleterious mutations per generation (), the mean number of deleterious mutations in the genome of the population () and percentage zygote survival (Zs). Increased leads to increased and a fall in Zs but it takes several generations before a new equilibrium is reached. If sexual attraction is influenced by the number of deleterious mutations in the genome of individuals then is reduced and Zs increased for any given value of . This fall in and rise in Zs is more marked in polygamous than monogamous mating systems. The model is specified such that deleterious mutations can occur without any observable or measurable effect on function. Thus sexual selection, in this organism, for low levels of deleterious mutations cannot be based on assessment of performance. Instead it is based on a simple symmetrical surface pattern that is flawlessly reproduced by organisms with no deleterious mutations, but is less than perfect, and therefore less attractive, if genetic systems have been deleted. A complex vital task requires a system with a high level of redundancy that acts so that the loss of one component has no observable effect and therefore cannot be used for sexual selection. The reproduction of a beautiful surface pattern also requires a low error, high redundancy genetic system; however, in this case there is advantage if a single deleterious mutation produces a recognisable change. This leads to the conclusion that sexual selection and sexual attraction should be based on beauty rather than utility, and explains the common observation in nature that it is the most beautiful that

  15. Decomposition Criterion-based Redundancy Removal in Mechanical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Bozhko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important design solutions of production engineering for the assembly operation are an assembly sequence and assembly chart. Both are closely linked with each other and therefore are recorded in the single process flow sheet that is an assembly chart.Capability for successive order assembling and splitting into assembly units depends on a set of the product design properties from which the main ones are position mechanical connections used to locate details within a product. An adequate mathematical model of the mechanical connections of technical system is a hyper graph. It allows us to give the correct description of the location relation of variable-locality.The analysis of the array of drawings shows that many designs contain redundant mechanical connections. The inequality is a criterion of redundancy, where |X| is the number of tops of the hyper graph (details, and |R| is the number of hyper edges (full assembly bases. Excess of mutual coordination is a harmful phenomenon which at designing stage exhibits as unsolvable dimension chains, while at the assembly stage it shows as relocation. Redundant connections should be removed from a design at the earliest design-for-manufacturing stages. Removal of connections generates mechanical structures with different assembly properties. The work offers some important criteria of generation of irredundant mechanical structures. The paper considers in detail a maximum decomposition criterion, which allows us to receive structures with the greatest capability to split into assembly units. It shows that such structures exhibit high flexibility in assembling and are adaptable to various specifications and production processes.

  16. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R D; Morris, J A

    2004-09-01

    A model is described of a highly redundant complex organism that has overlapping banks of genes such that each vital function is specified by several different genetic systems. This generates a synergistic profile linking probability of survival to the number of deleterious mutations in the genome. Computer models show that there is a dynamic interaction between the mean number of new deleterious mutations per generation (X), the mean number of deleterious mutations in the genome of the population (Y) and percentage zygote survival (Zs). Increased X leads to increased Y and a fall in Zs but it takes several generations before a new equilibrium is reached. If sexual attraction is influenced by the number of deleterious mutations in the genome of individuals then Y is reduced and Zs increased for any given value of X. This fall in Y and rise in Zs is more marked in polygamous than monogamous mating systems. The model is specified such that deleterious mutations can occur without any observable or measurable effect on function. Thus sexual selection, in this organism, for low levels of deleterious mutations cannot be based on assessment of performance. Instead it is based on a simple symmetrical surface pattern that is flawlessly reproduced by organisms with no deleterious mutations, but is less than perfect, and therefore less attractive, if genetic systems have been deleted. A complex vital task requires a system with a high level of redundancy that acts so that the loss of one component has no observable effect and therefore cannot be used for sexual selection. The reproduction of a beautiful surface pattern also requires a low error, high redundancy genetic system; however, in this case there is advantage if a single deleterious mutation produces a recognisable change. This leads to the conclusion that sexual selection and sexual attraction should be based on beauty rather than utility, and explains the common observation in nature that it is the most beautiful

  17. Connected Dominating Set Based Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are now widely used for monitoring and controlling of systems where human intervention is not desirable or possible. Connected Dominating Sets (CDSs) based topology control in WSNs is one kind of hierarchical method to ensure sufficient coverage while reducing redundant connections in a relatively crowded network.…

  18. Connected Dominating Set Based Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are now widely used for monitoring and controlling of systems where human intervention is not desirable or possible. Connected Dominating Sets (CDSs) based topology control in WSNs is one kind of hierarchical method to ensure sufficient coverage while reducing redundant connections in a relatively crowded network.…

  19. Exploiting the natural redundancy of chaotic signals in communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino; Rosa; Grebogi

    2000-09-18

    Chaotic signals can be used as carriers of information in communication systems. In this work we describe a simple encoding method that allows one to map any desired bit sequence into a chaotic waveform. The redundancy of the resulting information carrying signal enables us to devise a novel signal reconstruction technique that is able to recover relatively large parts of the chaotic signal starting from just a few samples of it. We show that this technique allows one to increase both the transmission reliability and the transmission rate of a communication system even in the presence of noise.

  20. System Reliability Analysis of Redundant Condition Monitoring Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Pengxing; HU Youming; YANG Shuzi; WU Bo; CUI Feng

    2006-01-01

    The development and application of new reliability models and methods are presented to analyze the system reliability of complex condition monitoring systems. The methods include a method analyzing failure modes of a type of redundant condition monitoring systems (RCMS) by invoking failure tree model, Markov modeling techniques for analyzing system reliability of RCMS, and methods for estimating Markov model parameters. Furthermore, a computing case is investigated and many conclusions upon this case are summarized. Results show that the method proposed here is practical and valuable for designing condition monitoring systems and their maintenance.

  1. Repairing VLSI/WSI Redundant Memories with Minimum Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维康; F.Lombardi

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to repair memory chips with redundancy is proposed.This approach s based on the minimization of the repair cost.Algorithms for cost driven repair are presented.The algorithms can be executed either on -line(concurrently with the testing of the memory),or off-lin(at completion of testing).Analytical expressions for the repair cost under both circumstances are given.The presented algorithms are also perfect in the sense that they can correctly diagnose a repairable/unrepairable memory and find the optimal repair-solution.

  2. The redundant target effect is affected by modality switch costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Lange, K.; Rösler, F.;

    2004-01-01

    , possibly due to multisensory interactions. In random stimulus sequences, reaction times are slower when the stimulus is preceded by a stimulus of a different modality (modality switch effect [MSE]). Simple reaction time redundant target experiments with auditory-visual, visual-tactile, and auditory......-tactile stimulus combinations were run to determine whether the RTE may be partly explained by MSEs because bimodal stimuli do not require a modality switch. In all three modality pairings, significant MSEs and RTEs were observed. However, the RTE was still significant after reaction times were corrected...... for the MSE, supporting the hypothesis that coactivation occurs independently of modality switch costs....

  3. Distributed adaptive diagnosis of sensor faults using structural response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragos, Kosmas; Smarsly, Kay

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and consistency of wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be compromised by sensor faults, leading to miscalibrations, corrupted data, or even data loss. Several research approaches towards fault diagnosis, referred to as ‘analytical redundancy’, have been proposed that analyze the correlations between different sensor outputs. In wireless SHM, most analytical redundancy approaches require centralized data storage on a server for data analysis, while other approaches exploit the on-board computing capabilities of wireless sensor nodes, analyzing the raw sensor data directly on board. However, using raw sensor data poses an operational constraint due to the limited power resources of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a new distributed autonomous approach towards sensor fault diagnosis based on processed structural response data is presented. The inherent correlations among Fourier amplitudes of acceleration response data, at peaks corresponding to the eigenfrequencies of the structure, are used for diagnosis of abnormal sensor outputs at a given structural condition. Representing an entirely data-driven analytical redundancy approach that does not require any a priori knowledge of the monitored structure or of the SHM system, artificial neural networks (ANN) are embedded into the sensor nodes enabling cooperative fault diagnosis in a fully decentralized manner. The distributed analytical redundancy approach is implemented into a wireless SHM system and validated in laboratory experiments, demonstrating the ability of wireless sensor nodes to self-diagnose sensor faults accurately and efficiently with minimal data traffic. Besides enabling distributed autonomous fault diagnosis, the embedded ANNs are able to adapt to the actual condition of the structure, thus ensuring accurate and efficient fault diagnosis even in case of structural changes.

  4. Technology Convergence and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    repairing materiel – Synthetic human physiology UNCLASSIFIED Knowledge Campaign: Panomics* 15 5 yrs 10 yrs 15 yrs Panomics • Sets of unique and pan...medicine – Physiological markers for development of synthetic human physiology -based sensor * Panomics: The use of genomics, metabolomics, proteomics

  5. Ecomorphological convergence in planktivorous surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Friedman, S. T.

    2016-01-26

    © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Morphological convergence plays a central role in the study of evolution. Often induced by shared ecological specialization, homoplasy hints at underlying selective pressures and adaptive constraints that deterministically shape the diversification of life. Although midwater zooplanktivory has arisen in adult surgeonfishes (family Acanthuridae) at least four independent times, it represents a clearly specialized state, requiring the capacity to swiftly swim in midwater locating and sucking small prey items. Whereas this diet has commonly been associated with specific functional adaptations in fishes, acanthurids present an interesting case study as all nonplanktivorous species feed by grazing on benthic algae and detritus, requiring a vastly different functional morphology that emphasizes biting behaviours. We examined the feeding morphology in 30 acanthurid species and, combined with a pre-existing phylogenetic tree, compared the fit of evolutionary models across two diet regimes: zooplanktivores and nonzooplanktivorous grazers. Accounting for phylogenetic relationships, the best-fitting model indicates that zooplanktivorous species are converging on a separate adaptive peak from their grazing relatives. Driving this bimodal landscape, zooplanktivorous acanthurids tend to develop a slender body, reduced facial features, smaller teeth and weakened jaw adductor muscles. However, despite these phenotypic changes, model fitting suggests that lineages have not yet reached the adaptive peak associated with plankton feeding even though some transitions appear to be over 10 million years old. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of pelagic feeding promote repeated - albeit very gradual - ecomorphological convergence within surgeonfishes, while allowing local divergences between closely related species, contributing to the overall diversity of the clade. Journal of Evolutionary Biology

  6. Weak* convergence of operator means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Alexandr V [Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    For a linear operator U with ||U'n||{<=}const on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T{sub {alpha}} corresponding to the adjoint operator U* of U in the W*O-topology of the space EndX*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in EndX*, which is the kernel of the operator, where {Gamma}{sub 0}={l_brace}U{sub n}*, n{>=}0{r_brace}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T{sub {alpha}} weakly* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C({Omega}) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation {phi} of a metrizable compactum {Omega} we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and {Gamma}={Gamma}-bar{sub 0}, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade ({phi},{Omega}). In particular, if cardL=1, then a) for any {omega} element of {Omega} the closure of the trajectory {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}{omega}, n{>=}0{r_brace} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction ({phi},m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the W*O-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T{sub n} element of EndX* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E({phi},{Omega}) contains elements obtained from the 'basis' family of transformations {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}, n{>=}0{r_brace} of the compact set {Omega} by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.

  7. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  8. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  9. SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.

  10. Fault Residuals for Compact Disc Players based on Redundant and Non-linear Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    2004-01-01

    In the process of achieving good performance of Compact Disc players it is important to handle surface defects as good as possible. The first thing in handling these defects is to detect their beginnings and ends.Two servo loops are formed to keep the optical pick-up focused on and radially track...

  11. Design and Sensor-Based COntrol for Hyper-Redundant Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howie Choset

    2006-05-12

    Toxic materials in DOE sites pose a significant threat to DOE personnel who must inspect these locations. Working in confined spaces further complicates the situation especially when the workers must wear heavy and cumbersome protective suits.

  12. Pointwise convergence of Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Arias de Reyna, Juan

    2002-01-01

    This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.

  13. Synergy, redundancy, and multivariate information measures: an experimentalist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Nicholas; Alford, Wesley; Flecker, Benjamin; Beggs, John M

    2014-04-01

    Information theory has long been used to quantify interactions between two variables. With the rise of complex systems research, multivariate information measures have been increasingly used to investigate interactions between groups of three or more variables, often with an emphasis on so called synergistic and redundant interactions. While bivariate information measures are commonly agreed upon, the multivariate information measures in use today have been developed by many different groups, and differ in subtle, yet significant ways. Here, we will review these multivariate information measures with special emphasis paid to their relationship to synergy and redundancy, as well as examine the differences between these measures by applying them to several simple model systems. In addition to these systems, we will illustrate the usefulness of the information measures by analyzing neural spiking data from a dissociated culture through early stages of its development. Our aim is that this work will aid other researchers as they seek the best multivariate information measure for their specific research goals and system. Finally, we have made software available online which allows the user to calculate all of the information measures discussed within this paper.

  14. Improving Network Performance using ACO Based Redundant Link Avoidance Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chandra Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wide spread internet, response time and pocket loss are inappropriate due to network traffic, as a result the network efficiency becomes worst and the system provides poor Quality of Service (QoS. An optimal routing protocol, especially multipath may avoid such traffic in the network. But existing routing protocols, both single path and multi path, concentrates only on finding the routes based on any one or some set of metrics, that not always suitable for dynamic, cloud natured network environment. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO based multipath routing protocol was suggested as an alternate to this problem by many researchers. The multipath ACO also provides same set of link(s for the source to destination, so that traffic merging again becomes a critical problem. This paper proposes an optimal solution to avoid the problem of traffic merging in the network by removing redundant link in the route. The Proposed algorithm, called 'Redundant Link Avoidance (RLA algorithm', is an ACO based multi path routing methodology, avoiding copious link in the suggested routes of ACO multipath protocol.

  15. Reliability and safety analysis of redundant vehicle management computer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jian; Meng Yixuan; Wang Shaoping; Bian Mengmeng; Yan Dungong

    2013-01-01

    Redundant techniques are widely adopted in vehicle management computer (VMC) to ensure that VMC has high reliability and safety. At the same time, it makes VMC have special char-acteristics, e.g., failure correlation, event simultaneity, and failure self-recovery. Accordingly, the reliability and safety analysis to redundant VMC system (RVMCS) becomes more difficult. Aimed at the difficulties in RVMCS reliability modeling, this paper adopts generalized stochastic Petri nets to establish the reliability and safety models of RVMCS. Then this paper analyzes RVMCS oper-ating states and potential threats to flight control system. It is verified by simulation that the reli-ability of VMC is not the product of hardware reliability and software reliability, and the interactions between hardware and software faults can reduce the real reliability of VMC obviously. Furthermore, the failure undetected states and false alarming states inevitably exist in RVMCS due to the influences of limited fault monitoring coverage and false alarming probability of fault mon-itoring devices (FMD). RVMCS operating in some failure undetected states will produce fatal threats to the safety of flight control system. RVMCS operating in some false alarming states will reduce utility of RVMCS obviously. The results abstracted in this paper can guide reliable VMC and efficient FMD designs. The methods adopted in this paper can also be used to analyze other intelligent systems’ reliability.

  16. Energy distribution for Coefficients of Redundant Signal Representations of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Line Ørtoft; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the energy is distributed in the coefficients vector of various redundant signal representations of music signals. The representations are found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections, Best Orthogonal Basis and Method of Frames, with five d......, and less on the minimization method, the dictionary and the length of the analysis window. The results indicate, that the sparseness of the representations do indeed tell something about the music signal, and this is an interesting subject for further investigation.......In this paper we investigate how the energy is distributed in the coefficients vector of various redundant signal representations of music signals. The representations are found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections, Best Orthogonal Basis and Method of Frames, with five...... different time-frequency dictionaries. We have applied these methods to music to examine their ability to express music signals in a sparse manner for a number of dictionaries and window lengths. The evaluation is based on the m-term approximation needed to represent 90 %, 95 %, 99 % and 99...

  17. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Vergnon, Remi; van Nes, Egbert H.; Cuppen, Jan G. M.; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Leijs, Remko; Nilsson, Anders N.

    2015-01-01

    While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world’s 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10–20%) are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect. PMID:26447476

  18. Redundancy complicates the definition of essential genes for vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Bianca M; Tscharke, David C

    2015-11-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) genes are characterized as either essential or non-essential for growth in culture. It seems intuitively obvious that if a gene can be deleted without imparting a growth defect in vitro it does not have a function related to basic replication or spread. However, this interpretation relies on the untested assumption that there is no redundancy across the genes that have roles in growth in cell culture. First, we provide a comprehensive summary of the literature that describes the essential genes of VACV. Next, we looked for interactions between large blocks of non-essential genes located at the ends of the genome by investigating sets of VACVs with large deletions at the genomic termini. Viruses with deletions at either end of the genome behaved as expected, exhibiting only mild or host-range defects. In contrast, combining deletions at both ends of the genome for the VACV Western Reserve (WR) strain caused a devastating growth defect on all cell lines tested. Unexpectedly, we found that the well-studied VACV growth factor homologue encoded by C11R has a role in growth in vitro that is exposed when 42 genes are absent from the left end of the VACV WR genome. These results demonstrate that some non-essential genes contribute to basic viral growth, but redundancy means these functions are not revealed by single-gene-deletion mutants.

  19. Simplifier: a web tool to eliminate redundant NGS contigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Azevedo, Vasco; Schneider, Maria Paula; Barh, Debmalya; Silva, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Modern genomic sequencing technologies produce a large amount of data with reduced cost per base; however, this data consists of short reads. This reduction in the size of the reads, compared to those obtained with previous methodologies, presents new challenges, including a need for efficient algorithms for the assembly of genomes from short reads and for resolving repetitions. Additionally after abinitio assembly, curation of the hundreds or thousands of contigs generated by assemblers demands considerable time and computational resources. We developed Simplifier, a stand-alone software that selectively eliminates redundant sequences from the collection of contigs generated by ab initio assembly of genomes. Application of Simplifier to data generated by assembly of the genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 258 reduced the number of contigs generated by ab initio methods from 8,004 to 5,272, a reduction of 34.14%; in addition, N50 increased from 1 kb to 1.5 kb. Processing the contigs of Escherichia coli DH10B with Simplifier reduced the mate-paired library 17.47% and the fragment library 23.91%. Simplifier removed redundant sequences from datasets produced by assemblers, thereby reducing the effort required for finalization of genome assembly in tests with data from Prokaryotic organisms. Simplifier is available at http://www.genoma.ufpa.br/rramos/softwares/simplifier.xhtmlIt requires Sun jdk 6 or higher.

  20. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Auto-converging stereo cameras for 3D robotic tele-operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Aycock, Todd; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed a Stereovision Upgrade Kit for TALON robot to provide enhanced depth perception to the operator. This kit previously required the TALON Operator Control Unit to be equipped with the optional touchscreen interface to allow for operator control of the camera convergence angle adjustment. This adjustment allowed for optimal camera convergence independent of the distance from the camera to the object being viewed. Polaris has recently improved the performance of the stereo camera by implementing an Automatic Convergence algorithm in a field programmable gate array in the camera assembly. This algorithm uses scene content to automatically adjust the camera convergence angle, freeing the operator to focus on the task rather than adjustment of the vision system. The autoconvergence capability has been demonstrated on both visible zoom cameras and longwave infrared microbolometer stereo pairs.

  2. Experimental Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance Using Accelerometers and Joint Torque Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. The proposed method uses joint torque sensors found in most existing advanced robot designs along with easily locatable, lightweight accelerometers to provide a joint position sensor fault recovery mode. This mode uses the torque sensors along with a virtual passive control law for stability and accelerometers for joint position information. Two methods for conversion from Cartesian acceleration to joint position based on robot kinematics, not integration, are presented. The fault tolerant control method was tested on several joints of a laboratory robot. The controllers performed well with noisy, biased data and a model with uncertain parameters.

  3. a Redundant Gnss-Ins Low-Cost Uav Navigation Solution for Professional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J.; Parés, M. E.; Colomina, I.; Bianchi, G.; Pluchino, S.; Baddour, R.; Consoli, A.; Ayadi, J.; Gameiro, A.; Sekkas, O.; Tsetsos, V.; Gatsos, T.; Navoni, R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m - which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  4. A REDUNDANT GNSS-INS LOW-COST UAV NAVIGATION SOLUTION FOR PROFESSIONAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Navarro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m – which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  5. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  6. Method and system for redundancy management of distributed and recoverable digital control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kent (Inventor); Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelley, Gerald B (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method and system for redundancy management is provided for a distributed and recoverable digital control system. The method uses unique redundancy management techniques to achieve recovery and restoration of redundant elements to full operation in an asynchronous environment. The system includes a first computing unit comprising a pair of redundant computational lanes for generating redundant control commands. One or more internal monitors detect data errors in the control commands, and provide a recovery trigger to the first computing unit. A second redundant computing unit provides the same features as the first computing unit. A first actuator control unit is configured to provide blending and monitoring of the control commands from the first and second computing units, and to provide a recovery trigger to each of the first and second computing units. A second actuator control unit provides the same features as the first actuator control unit.

  7. Computationally efficient measure of topological redundancy of biological and social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Réka; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Hegde, Rashmi; Sivanathan, Gowri Sangeetha; Gitter, Anthony; Gürsoy, Gamze; Paul, Pradyut; Sontag, Eduardo

    2011-09-01

    It is well known that biological and social interaction networks have a varying degree of redundancy, though a consensus of the precise cause of this is so far lacking. In this paper, we introduce a topological redundancy measure for labeled directed networks that is formal, computationally efficient, and applicable to a variety of directed networks such as cellular signaling, and metabolic and social interaction networks. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of our measure by computing its value and statistical significance on a number of biological and social networks with up to several thousands of nodes and edges. Our results suggest a number of interesting observations: (1) Social networks are more redundant that their biological counterparts, (2) transcriptional networks are less redundant than signaling networks, (3) the topological redundancy of the C. elegans metabolic network is largely due to its inclusion of currency metabolites, and (4) the redundancy of signaling networks is highly (negatively) correlated with the monotonicity of their dynamics.

  8. A New Computationally Efficient Measure of Topological Redundancy of Biological and Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Reka; Gitter, Anthony; Gursoy, Gamze; Hegde, Rashmi; Paul, Pradyut; Sivanathan, Gowri Sangeetha; Sontag, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that biological and social interaction networks have a varying degree of redundancy, though a consensus of the precise cause of this is so far lacking. In this paper, we introduce a topological redundancy measure for labeled directed networks that is formal, computationally efficient and applicable to a variety of directed networks such as cellular signaling, metabolic and social interaction networks. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of our measure by computing its value and statistical significance on a number of biological and social networks with up to several thousands of nodes and edges. Our results suggest a number of interesting observations: (1) social networks are more redundant that their biological counterparts, (2) transcriptional networks are less redundant than signaling networks, (3) the topological redundancy of the C. elegans metabolic network is largely due to its inclusion of currency metabolites, and (4) the redundancy of signaling networks is highly (negatively...

  9. Redundancy Management for Navigation Functions on X-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focus on the navigational functions of the X-33 aircraft. It addresses the type of fault testing, additional tests during the operational launch vehicle, and the detailed characterization of sensor errors.

  10. Species convergence into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Whether the functional structure of ecological communities is deterministic or historically contingent is still quite controversial. However, recent experimental tests did not find effects of species composition variation on trait convergence and therefore the environmental constraints should play the major role on community convergence into functional groups. Seasonal cerrados are characterized by a sharp seasonality, in which the water shortage defines the community functioning. Hyperseasonal cerrados experience additionally waterlogging in the rainy season. Here, we asked whether waterlogging modifies species convergences into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado. We studied a hyperseasonal cerrado, comparing it with a nearby seasonal cerrado, never waterlogged, in Emas National Park, central Brazil. In each area, we sampled all vascular plants by placing 40 plots of 1 m(2) plots in four surveys. We analyzed the species convergences into life-forms in both cerrados using the Raunkiaer's life-form spectrum and the index of divergence from species to life-form diversity (IDD). The overall life-form spectra and IDDs were not different, indicating that waterlogging did not affect the composition of functional groups in the hyperseasonal cerrado. However, there was a seasonal variation in IDD values only in the hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as we did not find a seasonal variation in life-form diversity, the seasonal variation of convergence into life-forms in the hyperseasonal cerrado was a consequence of the seasonal variation of species diversity. Because of high functional redundancy of cerrado plants, waterlogging promoted a floristic replacement without major changes in functional groups. Thus, waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado promoted seasonal changes in species convergence into life-forms by reducing species diversity.

  11. Discovering Non-Redundant Association Rules using MinMax Approximation Rules

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vijaya Prakash; Dr. A. Govardhan3; Prof. SSVN. Sarma

    2012-01-01

    Frequent pattern mining is an important area of data mining used to generate the Association Rules. The extracted Frequent Patterns quality is a big concern, as it generates huge sets of rules and many of them are redundant. Mining Non-Redundant Frequent patterns is a big concern in the area of Association rule mining. In this paper we proposed a method to eliminate the redundant Frequent patterns using MinMax rule approach, to generate the quality Association Rules.

  12. Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Super-Resolution Using Sub-Pixel Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    AFIT/GE/ENG/03-18 REDUNDANT DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED SUPER-RESOLUTION USING SUB-PIXEL IMAGE REGISTRATION THESIS Daniel L. Ward Second...position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GE/ENG/03-18 REDUNDANT DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED...O3-18 REDUNDANT DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED SUPER-RESOLUTION USING SUB-PIXEL IMAGE REGISTRATION THESIS Daniel Lee Ward, B.S.E.E. Second

  13. Routing Protocol with Optimal Location of Aggregation Point in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is typically composed of hundreds, even thousands of tiny sensors used to monitor physical phenomena. As data collected by the sensors are often redundant, data aggregation is important for conserving energy. In this paper, we present a new routing protocol with optimal data aggregation. This routing protocol has good performance due to its optimal selection of aggregation point locations. This paper details the optimal selection of aggregation point locations.

  14. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  15. A succession of theories: purging redundancy from disturbance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A

    2016-02-01

    The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional

  16. Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent

  17. Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lazzari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible

  18. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Zisholtz, E.; Hilton, H.

    2010-01-01

    The I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium is a major educational and teaching resource for South Carolina State University, K-12 schools, other universities and the community of Orangeburg and well beyond. The concept of creating a museum with a planetarium on the campus of SC State was ahead of its time. Today scholars are writing about the unity of creative disciplines. Through its integration of the arts, humanities and sciences, the Stanback, the only art museum with a planetarium at any of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities and one of the few in the nation, stands in the forefront of modern thinking. Cosmic Convergence: Art and Science, opening at the I.P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium in February 2010, will feature the works of Mildred Thompson (1936-2003), a prominent African American artist who worked in the media of painting, drawing, print making, sculpture, and photography. Thompson’s artwork shows the strong influences of her interest in physics, astronomy, and metaphysics as well as music and spiritualism. “My work in the visual arts is, and has always been, a continuous search for understanding. It is an expression of purpose and reflects a personal interpretation of the Universe.” Cosmic Convergence will explore the meeting of Art and Science through Mildred Thompson's work and the scientific basis of that work. The paintings and sculptures of the exhibit will be combined with astronomical images showing both the reality and interpretation of the surrounding Universe. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  19. Vadose zone flow convergence test suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-05

    Performance Assessment (PA) simulations for engineered disposal systems at the Savannah River Site involve highly contrasting materials and moisture conditions at and near saturation. These conditions cause severe convergence difficulties that typically result in unacceptable convergence or long simulation times or excessive analyst effort. Adequate convergence is usually achieved in a trial-anderror manner by applying under-relaxation to the Saturation or Pressure variable, in a series of everdecreasing RELAxation values. SRNL would like a more efficient scheme implemented inside PORFLOW to achieve flow convergence in a more reliable and efficient manner. To this end, a suite of test problems that illustrate these convergence problems is provided to facilitate diagnosis and development of an improved convergence strategy. The attached files are being transmitted to you describing the test problem and proposed resolution.

  20. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  1. Novel concepts on pregnancy clocks and alarms: redundancy and synergy in human parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Bonney, Elizabeth A.; Condon, Jennifer; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    The signals and mechanisms that synchronize the timing of human parturition remain a mystery and a better understanding of these processes is essential to avert adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although our insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species, indicative of phylogenetically different clocks and alarms; but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. For example, in all species, parturition involves the transition of the myometrium from a relaxed to a highly excitable state, where the muscle rhythmically and forcefully contracts, softening the cervical extracellular matrix to allow distensibility and dilatation and thus a shearing of the fetal membranes to facilitate their rupture. We review a number of theories promulgated to explain how a variety of different timing mechanisms, including fetal membrane cell senescence, circadian endocrine clocks, and inflammatory and mechanical factors, are coordinated as initiators and effectors of parturition. Many of these factors have been independently described with a focus on specific tissue compartments. In this review, we put forth the core hypothesis that fetal membrane (amnion and chorion) senescence is the initiator of a coordinated, redundant signal cascade leading to parturition. Whether modified by oxidative stress or other factors, this process constitutes a counting device, i.e. a clock, that measures maturation of the fetal organ systems and the production of hormones and other soluble mediators (including alarmins) and that promotes inflammation and orchestrates an immune cascade to propagate signals across different uterine compartments. This mechanism in turn sensitizes decidual responsiveness and eventually promotes functional progesterone withdrawal in the myometrium, leading to increased myometrial cell contraction and the

  2. Novel concepts on pregnancy clocks and alarms: redundancy and synergy in human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Condon, Jennifer; Mesiano, Sam; Taylor, Robert N

    2016-09-01

    The signals and mechanisms that synchronize the timing of human parturition remain a mystery and a better understanding of these processes is essential to avert adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although our insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species, indicative of phylogenetically different clocks and alarms; but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process. For example, in all species, parturition involves the transition of the myometrium from a relaxed to a highly excitable state, where the muscle rhythmically and forcefully contracts, softening the cervical extracellular matrix to allow distensibility and dilatation and thus a shearing of the fetal membranes to facilitate their rupture. We review a number of theories promulgated to explain how a variety of different timing mechanisms, including fetal membrane cell senescence, circadian endocrine clocks, and inflammatory and mechanical factors, are coordinated as initiators and effectors of parturition. Many of these factors have been independently described with a focus on specific tissue compartments.In this review, we put forth the core hypothesis that fetal membrane (amnion and chorion) senescence is the initiator of a coordinated, redundant signal cascade leading to parturition. Whether modified by oxidative stress or other factors, this process constitutes a counting device, i.e. a clock, that measures maturation of the fetal organ systems and the production of hormones and other soluble mediators (including alarmins) and that promotes inflammation and orchestrates an immune cascade to propagate signals across different uterine compartments. This mechanism in turn sensitizes decidual responsiveness and eventually promotes functional progesterone withdrawal in the myometrium, leading to increased myometrial cell contraction and the

  3. A FAST CONVERGENT METHOD OF ITERATED REGULARIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaowei; Wu Chuansheng; Wu Di

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fast convergent method of iterated regularization based on the idea of Landweber iterated regularization, and a method for a-posteriori choice by the Morozov discrepancy principle and the optimum asymptotic convergence order of the regularized solution is obtained. Numerical test shows that the method of iterated regu-larization can quicken the convergence speed and reduce the calculation burden efficiently.

  4. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF HENSTOCK INTEGRABLE SEQUENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuisaDiPiazza

    1994-01-01

    Some relationships between pointwise and weak convergence of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions are studied, In particular it is provided an example of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions whose pointwise limit is different from the weak one. By introducing an asymptotic version of the Henstock equiintegrability notion it is given a necessary and sufficient condition in order that a pointwisely convergent sequence of Henstock integrable functions is weakly convergent to its pointwise limit.

  5. Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A; Herbener, E S

    1993-01-01

    This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.

  6. System Identification of MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Juntao Fei; Yuzheng Yang

    2011-01-01

    Fabrication defects and perturbations affect the behavior of a vibratory MEMS gyroscope sensor, which makes it difficult to measure the rotation angular rate. This paper presents a novel adaptive approach that can identify, in an online fashion, angular rate and other system parameters. The proposed approach develops an online identifier scheme, by rewriting the dynamic model of MEMS gyroscope sensor, that can update the estimator of angular rate adaptively and converge to its true value asy...

  7. Design of a redundant meteorological station for a BWR reactor; Diseno de una estacion meteorologica redundante para un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, R.; Celis del Angel, L.; Bucio, F.; Rivero, T.; Palacios, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: ramses@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In this work the design of a meteorological station for a reactor type BWR is proposed. Two independent channels of data acquisition that allow him to have a bigger readiness is exposed. It is incorporate sensors without mobile parts to measure speed, wind direction and pluvial precipitation. It also counts, with sensors of global solar radiation, net radiation, barometric pressure, relative humidity and ambient temperature; with them they are possible to be calculated, moreover, other variables as temperature differential, dew point and atmospheric stability. The sensors are placed on a tower to different heights and send their information (each second) to a local registration system, the one which in turn, it remits the data to the monitoring office so that a computer is linked with the system, display and management the information in real time and automatic way. The redundant structure allows that in the event of maintenance the data acquisition is not interrupted, even if the information is transferred to another place. In all the station sections it is used protocols of standard communication to allow that a great quantity of devices can be connected without major problem. The above-mentioned would allow to the operators in the control room to have reliable information during the whole time of the reactor operation. (Author)

  8. Phyllosphere Metaproteomes of Trees from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Show High Levels of Functional Redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambais, M R; Barrera, S E; Santos, E C; Crowley, D E; Jumpponen, A

    2017-01-01

    The phyllosphere of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been estimated to contain several million bacterial species that are associated with approximately 20000 plant species. Despite the high bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere, the function of these microorganisms and the mechanisms driving their community assembly are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in the phyllospheres of four tree species of the Atlantic Forest (Mollinedia schottiana, Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, and Tabebuia serratifolia) and their metaproteomes to examine the basic protein functional groups expressed in the phyllosphere. Bacterial community analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed prior observations that plant species harbor distinct bacterial communities and that plants of the same taxon have more similar communities than more distantly related taxa. Using LC-ESI-Q-TOF, we identified 216 nonredundant proteins, based on 3503 peptide mass spectra. Most protein families were shared among the phyllosphere communities, suggesting functional redundancy despite differences in the species compositions of the bacterial communities. Proteins involved in glycolysis and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism, solute transport, protein metabolism, cell motility, stress and antioxidant responses, nitrogen metabolism, and iron homeostasis were among the most frequently detected. In contrast to prior studies on crop plants and Arabidopsis, a low abundance of OTUs related to Methylobacterium and no proteins associated with the metabolism of one-carbon molecules were detected in the phyllospheres of the tree species studied here. Our data suggest that even though the phyllosphere bacterial communities of different tree species are phylogenetically diverse, their metaproteomes are functionally convergent with respect to traits required for survival on leaf surfaces.

  9. Optimal cognitive transmission exploiting redundancy in the primary ARQ process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelusi, Nicholo; Simeone, Osvaldo; Levorato, Marco

    2011-01-01

    transmissions to the SU. We investigate secondary transmission policies that take advantage of this redundancy. The basic idea is that, if a Secondary Receiver (SR) learns the Primary Message (PM) in a given primary retransmission, then it can use this knowledge to cancel the primary interference...... in the subsequent slots in case of primary retransmissions, thus achieving a larger secondary throughput. This gives rise to interesting trade-offs in the design of the secondary policy. In fact, on the one hand, a secondary transmission potentially increases the secondary throughput but, on the other, causes...... on the given interference constraint at the PR. It is proved that the optimal secondary strategy prioritizes transmissions in the states where the PM is known to the SR, due to the ability of the latter to perform interference mitigation and obtain a larger secondary throughput. Moreover, when the primary...

  10. An algorithm for redundant binary bit-pipelined rational arithmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornerup, P. (Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Odense Universitet, Odense (DK)); Matula, D.W. (Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (US))

    1990-08-01

    The authors introduce a redundant binary representation of the rationals and an associated algorithm for computing the sum, difference, product, quotient, and other useful functions of two rational operands, employing our representation. The authors' algorithm extends Gosper's partial quotient arithmetic algorithm and allows the design of an on-line arithmetic unit with computations granularized at the signed bit level. Each input or output port can independently be set to receive/produce operands/result in either binary radix or our binary rational representation. The authors investigate by simulation the interconnection of several such units for the parallel computation of more complicated expressions in a tree-pipelined manner, with particular regards to measuring individual and compound on-line delays.

  11. Survivable algorithms and redundancy management in NASA's distributed computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Miroslaw

    1992-01-01

    The design of survivable algorithms requires a solid foundation for executing them. While hardware techniques for fault-tolerant computing are relatively well understood, fault-tolerant operating systems, as well as fault-tolerant applications (survivable algorithms), are, by contrast, little understood, and much more work in this field is required. We outline some of our work that contributes to the foundation of ultrareliable operating systems and fault-tolerant algorithm design. We introduce our consensus-based framework for fault-tolerant system design. This is followed by a description of a hierarchical partitioning method for efficient consensus. A scheduler for redundancy management is introduced, and application-specific fault tolerance is described. We give an overview of our hybrid algorithm technique, which is an alternative to the formal approach given.

  12. Fuzzy Logic for Elimination of Redundant Information of Microarray Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edmundo Bonilla Huerta; Béatrice Duval; Jin-Kao Hao

    2008-01-01

    Gene subset selection is essential for classification and analysis of microarray data. However, gene selection is known to be a very difficult task since gene expression data not only have high dimensionalities, but also contain redundant information and noises. To cope with these difficulties, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic based pre-processing approach composed of two main steps. First, we use fuzzy inference rules to transform the gene expression levels of a given dataset into fuzzy values. Then we apply a similarity relation to these fuzzy values to define fuzzy equivalence groups, each group containing strongly similar genes. Dimension reduction is achieved by considering for each group of similar genes a single representative based on mutual information. To assess the usefulness of this approach, extensive experimentations were carried out on three well-known public datasets with a combined classification model using three statistic filters and three classifiers.

  13. The restricted isometry property meets nonlinear approximation with redundant frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    with a redundant frame. The main ingredients of our approach are: a) Jackson and Bernstein inequalities, associated to the characterization of certain approximation spaces with interpolation spaces; b) a new proof that for overcomplete frames which satisfy a Bernstein inequality, these interpolation spaces...... are nothing but the collection of vectors admitting a representation in the dictionary with compressible coefficients; c) the proof that the RIP implies Bernstein inequalities. As a result, we obtain that in most overcomplete random Gaussian dictionaries with fixed aspect ratio, just as in any orthonormal...... basis, the error of best m-term approximation of a vector decays at a certain rate if, and only if, the vector admits a compressible expansion in the dictionary. Yet, for mildly overcomplete dictionaries with a one-dimensional kernel, we give examples where the Bernstein inequality holds, but the same...

  14. Dynamic active constraints for hyper-redundant flexible robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ka-Wai; Mylonas, George P; Sun, Loi Wah; Lerotic, Mirna; Clark, James; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    In robot-assisted procedures, the surgeon's ability can be enhanced by navigation guidance through the use of virtual fixtures or active constraints. This paper presents a real-time modeling scheme for dynamic active constraints with fast and simple mesh adaptation under cardiac deformation and changes in anatomic structure. A smooth tubular pathway is constructed which provides assistance for a flexible hyper-redundant robot to circumnavigate the heart with the aim of undertaking bilateral pulmonary vein isolation as part of a modified maze procedure for the treatment of debilitating arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. In contrast to existing approaches, the method incorporates detailed geometrical constraints with explicit manipulation margins of the forbidden region for an entire articulated surgical instrument, rather than just the end-effector itself. Detailed experimental validation is conducted to demonstrate the speed and accuracy of the instrument navigation with and without the use of the proposed dynamic constraints.

  15. Variable stiffness design of redundantly actuated planar rotational parallel mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kangkang; Jiang Hongzhou; Cui Zuo; Huang Qun

    2017-01-01

    Redundantly actuated planar rotational parallel mechanisms (RAPRPMs) adapt to the requirements of robots under different working conditions by changing the antagonistic internal force to tune their stiffness. The geometrical parameters of the mechanism impact the performances of modulating stiffness. Analytical expressions relating stiffness and geometrical parameters of the mechanism were formulated to obtain the necessary conditions of variable stiffness. A novel method of variable stiffness design was presented to optimize the geometrical parameters of the mechanism. The stiffness variation with the internal force was maximized. The dynamic change of stiffness with the dynamic location of the mechanism was minimized, and the robustness of stiff-ness during the motion of the mechanism was ensured. This new approach to variable stiffness design can enable off-line planning of the internal force to avoid the difficulties of on-line control of the internal force.

  16. Extra Solar Planet Science With a Non Redundant Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, Stefenie Nicolet; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Greenbaum, Alexandra; St. Laurent, Kathryn; Thatte, Deeparshi

    2017-01-01

    To detect faint planetary companions near a much brighter star, at the Resolution Limit of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) will use a non-redundant aperture mask (NRM) for high contrast imaging. I simulated NIRISS data of stars with and without planets, and run these through the code that measures interferometric image properties to determine how sensitive planetary detection is to our knowledge of instrumental parameters, starting with the pixel scale. I measured the position angle, distance, and contrast ratio of the planet (with respect to the star) to characterize the binary pair. To organize this data I am creating programs that will automatically and systematically explore multi-dimensional instrument parameter spaces and binary characteristics. In the future my code will also be applied to explore any other parameters we can simulate.

  17. Testing and operating a multiprocessor chip with processor redundancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E; Douskey, Steven M; Haring, Rudolf A; McManus, Moyra K; Ohmacht, Martin; Schmunkamp, Dietmar; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Weatherford, Bryan J

    2014-10-21

    A system and method for improving the yield rate of a multiprocessor semiconductor chip that includes primary processor cores and one or more redundant processor cores. A first tester conducts a first test on one or more processor cores, and encodes results of the first test in an on-chip non-volatile memory. A second tester conducts a second test on the processor cores, and encodes results of the second test in an external non-volatile storage device. An override bit of a multiplexer is set if a processor core fails the second test. In response to the override bit, the multiplexer selects a physical-to-logical mapping of processor IDs according to one of: the encoded results in the memory device or the encoded results in the external storage device. On-chip logic configures the processor cores according to the selected physical-to-logical mapping.

  18. Using redundant parallel architecture to improve speaker recognition performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengquan QIU; Junxun YIN; Caiyun FAN

    2008-01-01

    In this Paper, we propose two kinds of modifications in speaker recognition.First,the correlations between frequency channels are of prime importance for speaker recognition.Some of these correlations are lost when the frequency domain is divided into sub-bands.Consequently we propose a particularly redundant parallel architecture for which most of the correlations are kept.Second,generally a log transformation used to modify the power spectrum is done after the filter-bank in the classical spectrum calculation.We will see that performing this transformation before the filter bank is more interesting in our case.In the processing of recognition,the Gaussian mixture model(GMM)recognition arithmetic is adopted.Experiments on speech corrupted by noise show a better adaptability of this approach in noisy environments,compared with a conventional device,especially when pruning of some recognizers is performed.

  19. Image denoising via sparse and redundant representations over learned dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Michael; Aharon, Michal

    2006-12-01

    We address the image denoising problem, where zero-mean white and homogeneous Gaussian additive noise is to be removed from a given image. The approach taken is based on sparse and redundant representations over trained dictionaries. Using the K-SVD algorithm, we obtain a dictionary that describes the image content effectively. Two training options are considered: using the corrupted image itself, or training on a corpus of high-quality image database. Since the K-SVD is limited in handling small image patches, we extend its deployment to arbitrary image sizes by defining a global image prior that forces sparsity over patches in every location in the image. We show how such Bayesian treatment leads to a simple and effective denoising algorithm. This leads to a state-of-the-art denoising performance, equivalent and sometimes surpassing recently published leading alternative denoising methods.

  20. Redundancy of minimal weight expansions in Pisot bases

    CERN Document Server

    Grabner, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by multiplication algorithms based on redundant number representations, we study representations of an integer $n$ as a sum $n=\\sum_k \\epsilon_k U_k$, where the digits $\\epsilon_k$ are taken from a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ and $(U_k)_k$ is a linear recurrent sequence of Pisot type with $U_0=1$. The most prominent example of a base sequence $(U_k)_k$ is the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. We prove that the representations of minimal weight $\\sum_k|\\epsilon_k|$ are recognised by a finite automaton and obtain an asymptotic formula for the average number of representations of minimal weight. Furthermore, we relate the maximal order of magnitude of the number of representations of a given integer to the joint spectral radius of a certain set of matrices.

  1. Redundancy of minimal weight expansions in Pisot bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Peter J; Steiner, Wolfgang

    2011-10-21

    Motivated by multiplication algorithms based on redundant number representations, we study representations of an integer n as a sum n=∑kεkUk, where the digits εk are taken from a finite alphabet Σ and (Uk)k is a linear recurrent sequence of Pisot type with U0=1. The most prominent example of a base sequence (Uk)k is the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. We prove that the representations of minimal weight ∑k|εk| are recognised by a finite automaton and obtain an asymptotic formula for the average number of representations of minimal weight. Furthermore, we relate the maximal number of representations of a given integer to the joint spectral radius of a certain set of matrices.

  2. Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.

  3. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  4. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  5. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have found only limited empirical evidence of welfare state convergence. Moreover, although there are good theoretical reasons both for and against welfare state convergence, there are virtually no studies that have explicitly tested the assumed effects. We argue that the concept....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...... welfare state structures. © The Author(s) 2011....

  6. Enhanced redundancy gain in schizophrenics: a correlate of callosal dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Vincenzo; Marzi, Carlo A; Girelli, Andrea; Savazzi, Silvia

    2008-09-01

    An abnormal pattern of hemispheric asymmetry, possibly as a result of disturbed interhemispheric communication, is widely, albeit by no means unanimously, held as a major cause of schizophrenia. To behaviourally test interhemispheric communication in schizophrenia we used a task that has been shown to be a reliable indicator of callosal functioning, namely, the redundant signals effect (RSE). It consists of the speeding of simple reaction time when responding to double as opposed to single visual stimuli. When the stimuli in a pair are presented to different hemispheres patients who underwent total commissurotomy or suffer from callosal agenesis show a paradoxically enhanced RSE with respect to healthy controls. Therefore, if schizophrenia patients have a callosal abnormality they ought to show a similar effect. In three experiments we tested a total of 55 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 51 healthy controls. In Experiment 1 we presented unilateral single stimuli and bilateral simultaneous double stimuli. The RSE was reliably larger in schizophrenics than in controls. In Experiment 2 the temporal interval between the two stimuli in a pair was varied. We found that while in controls the RSE disappeared with interstimulus intervals longer than 17ms, in schizophrenia patients there was a RSE only for simultaneous double stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 3 we found that there was no enhanced redundancy gain in schizophrenics when the double stimuli were presented to one and the same hemisphere, and therefore, with no need for callosal transmission. All in all, the present results provide evidence of a callosal dysfunction in schizophrenia that impairs interhemispheric integration.

  7. Control algorithm implementation for a redundant degree of freedom manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Steve

    1991-01-01

    This project's purpose is to develop and implement control algorithms for a kinematically redundant robotic manipulator. The manipulator is being developed concurrently by Odetics Inc., under internal research and development funding. This SBIR contract supports algorithm conception, development, and simulation, as well as software implementation and integration with the manipulator hardware. The Odetics Dexterous Manipulator is a lightweight, high strength, modular manipulator being developed for space and commercial applications. It has seven fully active degrees of freedom, is electrically powered, and is fully operational in 1 G. The manipulator consists of five self-contained modules. These modules join via simple quick-disconnect couplings and self-mating connectors which allow rapid assembly/disassembly for reconfiguration, transport, or servicing. Each joint incorporates a unique drive train design which provides zero backlash operation, is insensitive to wear, and is single fault tolerant to motor or servo amplifier failure. The sensing system is also designed to be single fault tolerant. Although the initial prototype is not space qualified, the design is well-suited to meeting space qualification requirements. The control algorithm design approach is to develop a hierarchical system with well defined access and interfaces at each level. The high level endpoint/configuration control algorithm transforms manipulator endpoint position/orientation commands to joint angle commands, providing task space motion. At the same time, the kinematic redundancy is resolved by controlling the configuration (pose) of the manipulator, using several different optimizing criteria. The center level of the hierarchy servos the joints to their commanded trajectories using both linear feedback and model-based nonlinear control techniques. The lowest control level uses sensed joint torque to close torque servo loops, with the goal of improving the manipulator dynamic behavior

  8. Multi-finger prehension: control of a redundant mechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2009-01-01

    The human hand has been a fascinating object of study for researchers in both biomechanics and motor control. Studies of human prehension have contributed significantly to the progress in addressing the famous problem of motor redundancy. After a brief review of the hand mechanics, we present results of recent studies that support a general view that the apparently redundant design of the hand is not a source of computational problems but a rich apparatus that allows performing a variety of tasks in a reliable and flexible way (the principle of abundance). Multi-digit synergies have been analyzed at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in the control of prehensile actions. At the upper level, forces and moments produced by the thumb and virtual finger (an imagined finger with a mechanical action equal to the combined mechanical action of all four fingers of the hand) co-vary to stabilize the gripping action and the orientation of the hand-held object. These results support the principle of superposition suggested earlier in robotics with respect to the control of artificial grippers. At the lower level of the hierarchy, forces and moments produced by individual fingers co-vary to stabilize the magnitude and direction of the force vector and the moment of force produced by the virtual finger. Adjustments to changes in task constraints (such as, for example, friction under individual digits) may be local and synergic. The latter reflect multi-digit prehension synergies and may be analyzed with the so-called chain effects: Sequences of relatively straightforward cause-effect links directly related to mechanical constraints leading to non-trivial strong co-variation between pairs of elemental variables. Analysis of grip force adjustments during motion of hand-held objects suggests that the central nervous system adjusts to gravitational and inertial loads differently. The human hand is a gold mine for researchers interested in the control of natural human

  9. Using Redundancy To Reduce Errors in Magnetometer Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail

    2004-01-01

    A method of reducing errors in noisy magnetic-field measurements involves exploitation of redundancy in the readings of multiple magnetometers in a cluster. By "redundancy"is meant that the readings are not entirely independent of each other because the relationships among the magnetic-field components that one seeks to measure are governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism as expressed by Maxwell's equations. Assuming that the magnetometers are located outside a magnetic material, that the magnetic field is steady or quasi-steady, and that there are no electric currents flowing in or near the magnetometers, the applicable Maxwell 's equations are delta x B = 0 and delta(raised dot) B = 0, where B is the magnetic-flux-density vector. By suitable algebraic manipulation, these equations can be shown to impose three independent constraints on the values of the components of B at the various magnetometer positions. In general, the problem of reducing the errors in noisy measurements is one of finding a set of corrected values that minimize an error function. In the present method, the error function is formulated as (1) the sum of squares of the differences between the corrected and noisy measurement values plus (2) a sum of three terms, each comprising the product of a Lagrange multiplier and one of the three constraints. The partial derivatives of the error function with respect to the corrected magnetic-field component values and the Lagrange multipliers are set equal to zero, leading to a set of equations that can be put into matrix.vector form. The matrix can be inverted to solve for a vector that comprises the corrected magnetic-field component values and the Lagrange multipliers.

  10. Multiple redundant medulla projection neurons mediate color vision in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnattur, Krishna V; Pursley, Randall; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Smith, Paul D; Pohida, Thomas; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2014-01-01

    The receptor mechanism for color vision has been extensively studied. In contrast, the circuit(s) that transform(s) photoreceptor signals into color percepts to guide behavior remain(s) poorly characterized. Using intersectional genetics to inactivate identified subsets of neurons, we have uncovered the first-order interneurons that are functionally required for hue discrimination in Drosophila. We developed a novel aversive operant conditioning assay for intensity-independent color discrimination (true color vision) in Drosophila. Single flying flies are magnetically tethered in an arena surrounded by blue and green LEDs (light-emitting diodes). The flies' optomotor response is used to determine the blue-green isoluminant intensity. Flies are then conditioned to discriminate between equiluminant blue or green stimuli. Wild-type flies are successfully trained in this paradigm when conditioned to avoid either blue or green. Functional color entrainment requires the function of the narrow-spectrum photoreceptors R8 and/or R7, and is within a limited range, intensity independent, suggesting that it is mediated by a color vision system. The medulla projection neurons, Tm5a/b/c and Tm20, receive direct inputs from R7 or R8 photoreceptors and indirect input from the broad-spectrum photoreceptors R1-R6 via the lamina neuron L3. Genetically inactivating these four classes of medulla projection neurons abolished color learning. However, inactivation of subsets of these neurons is insufficient to block color learning, suggesting that true color vision is mediated by multiple redundant pathways. We hypothesize that flies represent color along multiple axes at the first synapse in the fly visual system. The apparent redundancy in learned color discrimination sharply contrasts with innate ultraviolet (UV) spectral preference, which is dominated by a single pathway from the amacrine neuron Dm8 to the Tm5c projection neurons.

  11. Metamaterial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jing Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their intriguing properties, as well as the large potential applications for designing functional devices. In this paper, we review the current status of metamaterial sensors, with an emphasis on the evanescent wave amplification and the accompanying local field enhancement characteristics. Examples of the sensors are given to illustrate the principle and the performance of the metamaterial sensor. The paper concludes with an optimistic outlook regarding the future of metamaterial sensor.

  12. Optimal flow sensor placement on wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villez, Kris; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Corominas, Lluís

    2016-09-15

    Obtaining high quality data collected on wastewater treatment plants is gaining increasing attention in the wastewater engineering literature. Typical studies focus on recognition of faulty data with a given set of installed sensors on a wastewater treatment plant. Little attention is however given to how one can install sensors in such a way that fault detection and identification can be improved. In this work, we develop a method to obtain Pareto optimal sensor layouts in terms of cost, observability, and redundancy. Most importantly, the resulting method allows reducing the large set of possibilities to a minimal set of sensor layouts efficiently for any wastewater treatment plant on the basis of structural criteria only, with limited sensor information, and without prior data collection. In addition, the developed optimization scheme is fast. Practically important is that the number of sensors needed for both observability of all flows and redundancy of all flow sensors is only one more compared to the number of sensors needed for observability of all flows in the studied wastewater treatment plant configurations.

  13. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  14. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built us

  15. A Hybrid Structure for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Sajedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been used for various applications such as environmental monitoring, military and medical applications. A wireless sensor network uses a large number of sensor nodes that continuously collect and send data from a specific region to a base station. Data from sensors are collected from the study area in the common scenario of sensor networks. Afterward, sensed data is sent to the base station. However, neighboring sensors often lead to redundancy of data. Transmission of redundant data to the base station consumes energy and produces traffic, because process is run in a large network. Data aggregation was proposed in order to reduce redundancy in data transformation and traffic. The most popular communication protocol in this field is cluster based data aggregation. Clustering causes energy balance, but sometimes energy consumption is not efficient due to the long distance between cluster heads and base station. In another communication protocol, which is based on a tree construction, because of the short distance between the sensors, energy consumption is low. In this data aggregation approach, since each sensor node is considered as one of the vertices of a tree, the depth of tree is usually high. In this paper, an efficient hierarchical hybrid approach for data aggregation is presented. It reduces energy consumption based on clustering and minimum spanning tree. The benefit of combining clustering and tree structure is reducing the disadvantages of previous structures. The proposed method firstly employs clustering algorithm and then a minimum spanning tree is constructed based on cluster heads. Our proposed method was compared to LEACH which is a well-known data aggregation method in terms of energy consumption and the amount of energy remaining in each sensor network lifetime. Simulation results indicate that our proposed method is more efficient than LEACH algorithm considering energy

  16. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  17. Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillip Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.

  18. Media and democracy: false convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco C. P. Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the false convergence between the role of the media in promoting democracy and political theories of democracy. With this purpose in mind, we propose critical reflections on arguments that: 1 naturalize the fact that "the news" is a commodity; b focus on the (supposedly public goals of the media, in spite of the reality that their agencies are largely private; c link these agencies to liberal- democratic values. Thus, the text attempts to show both the absence of and need for shields - personified in the theories of weights and counterbalances - against the powers that be, particularly those of the media. We point to the paradox involved in the media's role as intermediary between public and private spheres and question the degree to which the media permit fulfillment of the idea that those have control should be controlled, particularly in a world in which communication has extended its action to the planetary level. We conclude that democracy can only be made effective if democratic controls over the media are exercised; this means the creation of national and international level public information media that would be neither privately nor state owned and managed.

  19. The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tameling, Klaske; Broersma, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    KLASKE TAMELING & MARCEL BROERSMA The long road to convergence and back. Convergence and crossmedia journalism at Dutch Newsmedia Since the end of the twentieth century, convergence and cross-media journalism are concepts that are widely used to guide the future of journalism world wide. This study

  20. Convergence of a Linear Recursive Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, E. G.; Toh, T. L.; Dong, F. M.; Lee, T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is found for a linear recursive sequence to be convergent, no matter what initial values are given. Its limit is also obtained when the sequence is convergent. Methods from various areas of mathematics are used to obtain the results.

  1. ON A GENERALIZED GAUSS CONVERGENCE CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA BUCUR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we combine the well known Raabe-Duhamel, Kummer, Bertrand . . . criterions of convergence for series with positive terms and we obtain a new one which is more powerful than those cited before. Even the famous Gauss criterion,which was in fact our starting point, is a consequence of this new convergence test.

  2. ON LACUNARY STATISTICAL CONVERGENCE OF ORDER α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hacer SENGUL; Mikail ET

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concept of lacunary statistical convergence of orderαof real number sequences and give some inclusion relations between the sets of lacu-nary statistical convergence of order α and strong Nαθ (p)-summability. Furthermore, some relations between the spaces Nαθ (p) and Sαθ are examined.

  3. Numerical simulation of converging shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Seokjune; Abe, Kanji

    We can achieve the high pressure and high temperature state of gas if the shock wave converges stably. In order to check the stability of the converging shock wave, we introduce two kinds of perturbed initial conditions. The Euler equations of conservation form are integrated by using explicit Non-Muscl TVD finite difference scheme.

  4. CONVERGENCE RATE OFDISTRIBUTIONS OF TRIMMED SUMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIYONGCHENG; CHENGSHIHONG

    1996-01-01

    The authors first derive the normal expansion of the joint density function of two orderstatistics from the uniform distribution and then, using the approximation, establish a wayto estimate the normal convergence rate for trimmed sums. For applications, the convergence rates for the intermediately trimmed sums and heavily trimmed sums are found out.

  5. Convergence of Symmetric Diffusions on Wiener Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Posilicano; T.S.Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper,we study the distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes associated with given densities on an abstract Wiener space.We prove that the laws of distorted Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes converge in total variation norm if the densities converge in Sobolev space D 1/2.

  6. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  7. Three Design Principles of Language: The Search for Parsimony in Redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Barend; Bod, Rens; Zuidema, Willem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present three design principles of language--experience, heterogeneity and redundancy--and present recent developments in a family of models incorporating them, namely Data-Oriented Parsing/Unsupervised Data-Oriented Parsing. Although the idea of some form of redundant storage has become part and parcel of parsing technologies and…

  8. Infant Reactivity to Redundant Proprioceptive and Auditory Stimulation: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Daele, Leland D.

    The role of genetic factors in infant response to redundancy was evaluated through observation of the behavior of three sets of same-sex fraternal twins and six sets of same-sex identical twins to combinations of redundant proprioceptive and auditory stimulation. The twins ranged in age from 6 weeks to 24 weeks. One member of each twin set was…

  9. The Problem of Empirical Redundancy of Constructs in Organizational Research: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Schmidt, Frank L.; Harter, James K.; Lauver, Kristy J.

    2010-01-01

    Construct empirical redundancy may be a major problem in organizational research today. In this paper, we explain and empirically illustrate a method for investigating this potential problem. We applied the method to examine the empirical redundancy of job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC), two well-established organizational…

  10. The Problem of Empirical Redundancy of Constructs in Organizational Research: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Schmidt, Frank L.; Harter, James K.; Lauver, Kristy J.

    2010-01-01

    Construct empirical redundancy may be a major problem in organizational research today. In this paper, we explain and empirically illustrate a method for investigating this potential problem. We applied the method to examine the empirical redundancy of job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC), two well-established organizational…

  11. Maximization of learning speed in the motor cortex due to neuronal redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Takiyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many redundancies play functional roles in motor control and motor learning. For example, kinematic and muscle redundancies contribute to stabilizing posture and impedance control, respectively. Another redundancy is the number of neurons themselves; there are overwhelmingly more neurons than muscles, and many combinations of neural activation can generate identical muscle activity. The functional roles of this neuronal redundancy remains unknown. Analysis of a redundant neural network model makes it possible to investigate these functional roles while varying the number of model neurons and holding constant the number of output units. Our analysis reveals that learning speed reaches its maximum value if and only if the model includes sufficient neuronal redundancy. This analytical result does not depend on whether the distribution of the preferred direction is uniform or a skewed bimodal, both of which have been reported in neurophysiological studies. Neuronal redundancy maximizes learning speed, even if the neural network model includes recurrent connections, a nonlinear activation function, or nonlinear muscle units. Furthermore, our results do not rely on the shape of the generalization function. The results of this study suggest that one of the functional roles of neuronal redundancy is to maximize learning speed.

  12. Optimization of a multilayer neural network by using minimal redundancy maximal relevance-partial mutual information clustering with least square regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Yan, Xuefeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an optimized multilayer feed-forward network (MLFN) is developed to construct a soft sensor for controlling naphtha dry point. To overcome the two main flaws in the structure and weight of MLFNs, which are trained by a back-propagation learning algorithm, minimal redundancy maximal relevance-partial mutual information clustering (mPMIc) integrated with least square regression (LSR) is proposed to optimize the MLFN. The mPMIc can determine the location of hidden layer nodes using information in the hidden and output layers, as well as remove redundant hidden layer nodes. These selected nodes are highly related to output data, but are minimally correlated with other hidden layer nodes. The weights between the selected hidden layer nodes and output layer are then updated through LSR. When the redundant nodes from the hidden layer are removed, the ideal MLFN structure can be obtained according to the test error results. In actual applications, the naphtha dry point must be controlled accurately because it strongly affects the production yield and the stability of subsequent operational processes. The mPMIc-LSR MLFN with a simple network size performs better than other improved MLFN variants and existing efficient models.

  13. A cuckoo search algorithm by Lévy flights for solving reliability redundancy allocation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valian, Ehsan; Valian, Elham

    2013-11-01

    A new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, called cuckoo search (CS), was recently developed by Yang and Deb (2009, 2010). This article uses CS and Lévy flights to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem. The redundancy allocation problem involves setting reliability objectives for components or subsystems in order to meet the resource consumption constraint, e.g. the total cost. The difficulties facing the redundancy allocation problem are to maintain feasibility with respect to three nonlinear constraints, namely, cost, weight and volume-related constraints. The redundancy allocation problems have been studied in the literature for decades, usually using mathematical programming or metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The performance of the algorithm is tested on five well-known reliability redundancy allocation problems and is compared with several well-known methods. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal solutions obtained by CS are better than the best solutions obtained by other methods.

  14. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  15. Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient. PMID:23112645

  16. On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Wireless sensor networks distributed consensus estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief evaluates the cooperative effort of sensor nodes to accomplish high-level tasks with sensing, data processing and communication. The metrics of network-wide convergence, unbiasedness, consistency and optimality are discussed through network topology, distributed estimation algorithms and consensus strategy. Systematic analysis reveals that proper deployment of sensor nodes and a small number of low-cost relays (without sensing function) can speed up the information fusion and thus improve the estimation capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This brief also investiga

  18. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  19. Past and present biophysical redundancy of countries as a buffer to changes in food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; D'Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource-constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of ‘spare land’, available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as ‘Low Income Economies (LIEs)’ since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  20. Past and Present Biophysical Redundancy of Countries as a Buffer to Changes in Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell' Angelo, Jampel; D' Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; Puma, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  1. Design and Evaluation of Reliable Data Transmission Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailixier Aikebaier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor-actuator network (WSAN is composed of sensor modes and actuator modes which are interconnected in wireless networks. A sensor node collects information on the physical world and sends a sensed value in a wireless network. Another sensor node forwards the sensed value to deliver to an actuator node. A sensor node can deliver messages with sensed values to only nearby nodes due to weak radio. Messages are forwarded by sensor nodes to an actuator node by a type of flooding protocol. A sensor mode senses an event and sends a message with the sensed value. In addition, on receipt of a message with a sensed value from another sensor mode, a sensor node forwards the sensed value. Messages transmitted by sensor nodes might be lost due to noise and collisions. In this paper, we discuss a redundant data transmission (RT protocol to reliably and efficiently deliver sensed values sensed by sensor nodes to an actuator node. Here, a sensor node sends a message with not only its sensed value but also sensed values received from other sensor nodes. The more number of sensed values are included in a message, the more frequently the message is lost. Each message carries so many number of sensed values that the message loss ratio is not increased. Even if a message with a sensed value v is lost in the wireless network, an actuator node can receive the sensed value v from a message sent by another sensor node. Thus, each sensed value is redundantly carried in multiple messages. The redundancy of a sensed value is in nature increased since the sensed value is broadcast. In order to reduce the redundancy of sensed value, we take a strategy that the farther sensor nodes from an actuator node forward the fewer number of sensed values. We evaluate the RT protocol in terms of loss ratio, redundancy, and delay time of a sensed value. We show that about 80% of sensed values can be delivered to an actuator node even if 95% of messages are lost due to noise

  2. Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M.; Sahebjameyan, M.; Moshiri, B.; Najafabadi, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other.

  3. Social Evolution Selects for Redundancy in Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tov, Eran; Bendori, Shira Omer; Valastyan, Julie; Ke, Xiaobo; Pollak, Shaul; Bareia, Tasneem; Ben-Zion, Ishay; Bassler, Bonnie L; Eldar, Avigdor

    2016-02-01

    Quorum sensing is a process of chemical communication that bacteria use to monitor cell density and coordinate cooperative behaviors. Quorum sensing relies on extracellular signal molecules and cognate receptor pairs. While a single quorum-sensing system is sufficient to probe cell density, bacteria frequently use multiple quorum-sensing systems to regulate the same cooperative behaviors. The potential benefits of these redundant network structures are not clear. Here, we combine modeling and experimental analyses of the Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing networks to show that accumulation of multiple quorum-sensing systems may be driven by a facultative cheating mechanism. We demonstrate that a strain that has acquired an additional quorum-sensing system can exploit its ancestor that possesses one fewer system, but nonetheless, resume full cooperation with its kin when it is fixed in the population. We identify the molecular network design criteria required for this advantage. Our results suggest that increased complexity in bacterial social signaling circuits can evolve without providing an adaptive advantage in a clonal population.

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans glutamylating enzymes function redundantly in male mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Daniel G; Shah, Ruchi V; Barth, Zachary K; Lee, Jessica D; Badecker, Katherine E; Naik, Anar; Brewster, Megan M; Salmon, Timothy P; Peel, Nina

    2016-09-15

    Microtubule glutamylation is an important modulator of microtubule function and has been implicated in the regulation of centriole stability, neuronal outgrowth and cilia motility. Glutamylation of the microtubules is catalyzed by a family of tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) enzymes. Analysis of individual TTLL enzymes has led to an understanding of their specific functions, but how activities of the TTLL enzymes are coordinated to spatially and temporally regulate glutamylation remains relatively unexplored. We have undertaken an analysis of the glutamylating TTLL enzymes in C. elegans We find that although all five TTLL enzymes are expressed in the embryo and adult worm, loss of individual enzymes does not perturb microtubule function in embryonic cell divisions. Moreover, normal dye-filling, osmotic avoidance and male mating behavior indicate the presence of functional amphid cilia and male-specific neurons. A ttll-4(tm3310); ttll-11(tm4059); ttll-5(tm3360) triple mutant, however, shows reduced male mating efficiency due to a defect in the response step, suggesting that these three enzymes function redundantly, and that glutamylation is required for proper function of the male-specific neurons.

  5. Ion pairs in non-redundant protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B A Gowri Shankar; R Sarani; Daliah Michael; P Mridula; C Vasuki; G Sowmiya; B Vasundhar; P Sudha; J Jeyakanthan; D Velmurugan; K Sekar

    2007-06-01

    Ion pairs contribute to several functions including the activity of catalytic triads, fusion of viral membranes, stability in thermophilic proteins and solvent–protein interactions. Furthermore, they have the ability to affect the stability of protein structures and are also a part of the forces that act to hold monomers together. This paper deals with the possible ion pair combinations and networks in 25% and 90% non-redundant protein chains. Different types of ion pairs present in various secondary structural elements are analysed. The ion pairs existing between different subunits of multisubunit protein structures are also computed and the results of various analyses are presented in detail. The protein structures used in the analysis are solved using X-ray crystallography, whose resolution is better than or equal to 1.5 Å and R-factor better than or equal to 20%. This study can, therefore, be useful for analyses of many protein functions. It also provides insights into the better understanding of the architecture of protein structure.

  6. Redundant spoken labels facilitate perception of multiple items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary; Spivey, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    Because of the strong associations between verbal labels and the visual objects that they denote, hearing a word may quickly guide the deployment of visual attention to the named objects. We report six experiments in which we investigated the effect of hearing redundant (noninformative) object labels on the visual processing of multiple objects from the named category. Even though the word cues did not provide additional information to the participants, hearing a label resulted in faster detection of attention probes appearing near the objects denoted by the label. For example, hearing the word chair resulted in more effective visual processing of all of the chairs in a scene relative to trials in which the participants attended to the chairs without actually hearing the label. This facilitation was mediated by stimulus typicality. Transformations of the stimuli that disrupted their association with the label while preserving the low-level visual features eliminated the facilitative effect of the labels. In the final experiment, we show that hearing a label improves the accuracy of locating multiple items matching the label, even when eye movements are restricted. We posit that verbal labels dynamically modulate visual processing via top-down feedback--an instance of linguistic labels greasing the wheels of perception.

  7. Video rate morphological processor based on a redundant number representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczborski, Wojciech; Attikiouzel, Yianni; Crebbin, Gregory A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a video rate morphological processor for automated visual inspection of printed circuit boards, integrated circuit masks, and other complex objects. Inspection algorithms are based on gray-scale mathematical morphology. Hardware complexity of the known methods of real-time implementation of gray-scale morphology--the umbra transform and the threshold decomposition--has prompted us to propose a novel technique which applied an arithmetic system without carrying propagation. After considering several arithmetic systems, a redundant number representation has been selected for implementation. Two options are analyzed here. The first is a pure signed digit number representation (SDNR) with the base of 4. The second option is a combination of the base-2 SDNR (to represent gray levels of images) and the conventional twos complement code (to represent gray levels of structuring elements). Operation principle of the morphological processor is based on the concept of the digit level systolic array. Individual processing units and small memory elements create a pipeline. The memory elements store current image windows (kernels). All operation primitives of processing units apply a unified direction of digit processing: most significant digit first (MSDF). The implementation technology is based on the field programmable gate arrays by Xilinx. This paper justified the rationality of a new approach to logic design, which is the decomposition of Boolean functions instead of Boolean minimization.

  8. Accurate and diverse recommendations via eliminating redundant correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Su, Ri-Qi; Liu, Run-Ran; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, based on a weighted projection of a bipartite user-object network, we introduce a personalized recommendation algorithm, called network-based inference (NBI), which has higher accuracy than the classical algorithm, namely collaborative filtering. In NBI, the correlation resulting from a specific attribute may be repeatedly counted in the cumulative recommendations from different objects. By considering the higher order correlations, we design an improved algorithm that can, to some extent, eliminate the redundant correlations. We test our algorithm on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix. Compared with NBI, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the ranking score, can be further improved by 23 per cent for MovieLens and 22 per cent for Netflix. The present algorithm can even outperform the Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm, which requires much longer computational time. Furthermore, most previous studies considered the algorithmic accuracy only; in this paper, we argue that the diversity and popularity, as two significant criteria of algorithmic performance, should also be taken into account. With more or less the same accuracy, an algorithm giving higher diversity and lower popularity is more favorable. Numerical results show that the present algorithm can outperform the standard one simultaneously in all five adopted metrics: lower ranking score and higher precision for accuracy, larger Hamming distance and lower intra-similarity for diversity, as well as smaller average degree for popularity.

  9. Redundant Interdependencies Boost the Robustness of Multiplex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2017-01-01

    In the analysis of the robustness of multiplex networks, it is commonly assumed that a node is functioning only if its interdependent nodes are simultaneously functioning. According to this model, a multiplex network becomes more and more fragile as the number of layers increases. In this respect, the addition of a new layer of interdependent nodes to a preexisting multiplex network will never improve its robustness. Whereas such a model seems appropriate to understand the effect of interdependencies in the simplest scenario of a network composed of only two layers, it may seem unsuitable to characterize the robustness of real systems formed by multiple network layers. In fact, it seems unrealistic that a real system evolved, through the development of multiple layers of interactions, towards a fragile structure. In this paper, we introduce a model of percolation where the condition that makes a node functional is that the node is functioning in at least two of the layers of the network. The model reduces to the commonly adopted percolation model for multiplex networks when the number of layers equals two. a larger number of layers, however, the model describes a scenario where the addition of new layers boosts the robustness of the system by creating redundant interdependencies among layers. We prove this fact thanks to the development of a message-passing theory that is able to characterize the model in both synthetic and real-world multiplex graphs.

  10. Triple Modular Redundancy verification via heuristic netlist analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Beltrame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR is a common technique to protect memory elements for digital processing systems subject to radiation effects (such as in space, high-altitude, or near nuclear sources. This paper presents an approach to verify the correct implementation of TMR for the memory elements of a given netlist (i.e., a digital circuit specification using heuristic analysis. The purpose is detecting any issues that might incur during the use of automatic tools for TMR insertion, optimization, place and route, etc. Our analysis does not require a testbench and can perform full, exhaustive coverage within less than an hour even for large designs. This is achieved by applying a divide et impera approach, splitting the circuit into smaller submodules without loss of generality, instead of applying formal verification to the whole netlist at once. The methodology has been applied to a production netlist of the LEON2-FT processor that had reported errors during radiation testing, successfully showing a number of unprotected memory elements, namely 351 flip-flops.

  11. Min-max redundancy resolution for a mobile manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.

    1996-02-01

    We have considered the problem of determining the values of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize an objective function when the position and orientation of the end of the manipulator are given. The objective function is the weighted sum of three components: distance, torque, and reach. Each of the three components is a max or min. We have converted the min-max optimization problem into a nonlinear programming problem and used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the optimum solutions. The necessary conditions require that one or more of each of the three sets (distance, torque, and reach) of nonnegative Lagrange multipliers must be positive. If one of the Lagrange multipliers is positive, the corresponding slack variable must be zero. When two or more of the Lagrange multipliers from a single set are positive, the slack variables place constraints on the joint variables. Specification of the Cartesian position and orientation of the end of the arm also places constraints on the joint variables. If the mobile manipulator has N degrees of freedom and the total number of constraints is M, the constraints define a manifold of dimensions N - M. When N = M, the dimension of the manifold is zero (it consists of isolated points). When N > M, a search of the manifold may yield a submanifold that maximizes the Lagrangian function. We discuss examples where the number of slack variable constraints (M) is two or more.

  12. Pathway and enzyme redundancy in putrescine catabolism in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara L; Reitzer, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Putrescine as the sole carbon source requires a novel catabolic pathway with glutamylated intermediates. Nitrogen limitation does not induce genes of this glutamylated putrescine (GP) pathway but instead induces genes for a putrescine catabolic pathway that starts with a transaminase-dependent deamination. We determined pathway utilization with putrescine as the sole nitrogen source by examining mutants with defects in both pathways. Blocks in both the GP and transaminase pathways were required to prevent growth with putrescine as the sole nitrogen source. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed redundant enzymes for γ-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (PatD/YdcW and PuuC), γ-aminobutyrate transaminase (GabT and PuuE), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD and PuuC). PuuC is a nonspecific aldehyde dehydrogenase that oxidizes all the aldehydes in putrescine catabolism. A puuP mutant failed to use putrescine as the nitrogen source, which implies one major transporter for putrescine as the sole nitrogen source. Analysis of regulation of the GP pathway shows induction by putrescine and not by a product of putrescine catabolism and shows that putrescine accumulates in puuA, puuB, and puuC mutants but not in any other mutant. We conclude that two independent sets of enzymes can completely degrade putrescine to succinate and that their relative importance depends on the environment.

  13. Image sequence denoising via sparse and redundant representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protter, Matan; Elad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider denoising of image sequences that are corrupted by zero-mean additive white Gaussian noise. Relative to single image denoising techniques, denoising of sequences aims to also utilize the temporal dimension. This assists in getting both faster algorithms and better output quality. This paper focuses on utilizing sparse and redundant representations for image sequence denoising, extending the work reported in. In the single image setting, the K-SVD algorithm is used to train a sparsifying dictionary for the corrupted image. This paper generalizes the above algorithm by offering several extensions: i) the atoms used are 3-D; ii) the dictionary is propagated from one frame to the next, reducing the number of required iterations; and iii) averaging is done on patches in both spatial and temporal neighboring locations. These modifications lead to substantial benefits in complexity and denoising performance, compared to simply running the single image algorithm sequentially. The algorithm's performance is experimentally compared to several state-of-the-art algorithms, demonstrating comparable or favorable results.

  14. Accurate and diverse recommendations via eliminating redundant correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao; Su Riqi; Liu Runran; Jiang Luoluo; Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang Yicheng [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)], E-mail: bhwang@ustc.edu.cn

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, based on a weighted projection of a bipartite user-object network, we introduce a personalized recommendation algorithm, called network-based inference (NBI), which has higher accuracy than the classical algorithm, namely collaborative filtering. In NBI, the correlation resulting from a specific attribute may be repeatedly counted in the cumulative recommendations from different objects. By considering the higher order correlations, we design an improved algorithm that can, to some extent, eliminate the redundant correlations. We test our algorithm on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix. Compared with NBI, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the ranking score, can be further improved by 23 per cent for MovieLens and 22 per cent for Netflix. The present algorithm can even outperform the Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm, which requires much longer computational time. Furthermore, most previous studies considered the algorithmic accuracy only; in this paper, we argue that the diversity and popularity, as two significant criteria of algorithmic performance, should also be taken into account. With more or less the same accuracy, an algorithm giving higher diversity and lower popularity is more favorable. Numerical results show that the present algorithm can outperform the standard one simultaneously in all five adopted metrics: lower ranking score and higher precision for accuracy, larger Hamming distance and lower intra-similarity for diversity, as well as smaller average degree for popularity.

  15. Social Evolution Selects for Redundancy in Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Even-Tov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing is a process of chemical communication that bacteria use to monitor cell density and coordinate cooperative behaviors. Quorum sensing relies on extracellular signal molecules and cognate receptor pairs. While a single quorum-sensing system is sufficient to probe cell density, bacteria frequently use multiple quorum-sensing systems to regulate the same cooperative behaviors. The potential benefits of these redundant network structures are not clear. Here, we combine modeling and experimental analyses of the Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing networks to show that accumulation of multiple quorum-sensing systems may be driven by a facultative cheating mechanism. We demonstrate that a strain that has acquired an additional quorum-sensing system can exploit its ancestor that possesses one fewer system, but nonetheless, resume full cooperation with its kin when it is fixed in the population. We identify the molecular network design criteria required for this advantage. Our results suggest that increased complexity in bacterial social signaling circuits can evolve without providing an adaptive advantage in a clonal population.

  16. How a system backfires: dynamics of redundancy problems in security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid

    2008-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to reliability, safety, and security issues in social systems. Scott Sagan examined why more security forces (a redundancy solution) may lead to less security. He discussed how such a solution can backfire due to three major issues (i.e., "common-mode error,"social shirking," and "overcompensation"). In this article, using Sagan's hypotheses, we simulate and analyze a simple and generic security system as more guards are added to the system. Simulation results support two of Sagan's hypotheses. More specifically, the results show that "common-mode error" causes the system to backfire, and "social shirking" leads to an inefficient system while exacerbating the common-mode error's effect. Simulation results show that "overcompensation" has no effect of backfiring, but it leads the system to a critical state in which it can easily be affected by the common-mode error. Furthermore, the simulation results make us question the importance of the initial power of adversaries (e.g., terrorists) as the results show that, for any exogenous level of adversary power, the system endogenously overcompensates to a level that makes the system more susceptible to being attacked.

  17. Sensor Compendium

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, M; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Caberera, B; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cooper, W; Da Via, C; Demarteau, M; Fast, J; Frisch, H; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Golwala, S; Haber, C; Hall, J; Hoppe, E; Irwin, K D; Kagan, H; Kenney, C; Lee, A T; Lynn, D; Orrell, J; Pyle, M; Rusack, R; Sadrozinski, H; Sanchez, M C; Seiden, A; Trischuk, W; Vavra, J; Wetstein, M; Zhu, R-Y

    2013-01-01

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future ...

  18. The conservation of redundancy in genetic systems: effects of sexual and asexual reproduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J A Morris; R D Morris

    2003-12-01

    The relationship between probability of survival and the number of deleterious mutations in the genome is investigated using three different models of highly redundant systems that interact with a threatening environment. Model one is a system that counters a potentially lethal infection; it has multiple identical components that act in sequence and in parallel. Model two has many different overlapping components that provide threefold coverage of a large number of vital functions. The third model is based on statistical decision theory: an ideal detector, following an optimum decision strategy, makes crucial decisions in an uncertain world. The probability of a fatal error is reduced by a redundant sampling system, but the chance of error rises as the system is impaired by deleterious mutations. In all three cases the survival profile shows a synergistic pattern in that the probability of survival falls slowly and then more rapidly. This is different than the multiplicative or independent survival profile that is often used in mathematical models. It is suggested that a synergistic profile is a property of redundant systems. Model one is then used to study the conservation of redundancy during sexual and asexual reproduction. A unicellular haploid organism reproducing asexually retains redundancy when the mutation rate is very low (0.001 per cell division), but tends to lose high levels of redundancy if the mutation rate is increased (0.01 to 0.1 per cell division). If a similar unicellular haploid organism has a sexual phase then redundancy is retained for mutation rates between 0.001 and 0.1 per cell division. The sexual organism outgrows the asexual organism when the above mutation rates apply. If they compete for finite resources the asexual organism will be extinguished. Variants of the sexual organism with increased redundancy will outgrow those with lower levels of redundancy and the sexual process facilitates the evolution of more complex forms. There is a

  19. The conservation of redundancy in genetic systems: effects of sexual and asexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J A; Morris, R D

    2003-12-01

    The relationship between probability of survival and the number of deleterious mutations in the genome is investigated using three different models of highly redundant systems that interact with a threatening environment. Model one is a system that counters a potentially lethal infection; it has multiple identical components that act in sequence and in parallel. Model two has many different overlapping components that provide threefold coverage of a large number of vital functions. The third model is based on statistical decision theory: an ideal detector, following an optimum decision strategy, makes crucial decisions in an uncertain world. The probability of a fatal error is reduced by a redundant sampling system, but the chance of error rises as the system is impaired by deleterious mutations. In all three cases the survival profile shows a synergistic pattern in that the probability of survival falls slowly and then more rapidly. This is different than the multiplicative or independent survival profile that is often used in mathematical models. It is suggested that a synergistic profile is a property of redundant systems. Model one is then used to study the conservation of redundancy during sexual and asexual reproduction. A unicellular haploid organism reproducing asexually retains redundancy when the mutation rate is very low (0.001 per cell division), but tends to lose high levels of redundancy if the mutation rate is increased (0.01 to 0.1 per cell division). If a similar unicellular haploid organism has a sexual phase then redundancy is retained for mutation rates between 0.001 and 0.1 per cell division. The sexual organism outgrows the asexual organism when the above mutation rates apply. If they compete for finite resources the asexual organism will be extinguished. Variants of the sexual organism with increased redundancy will outgrow those with lower levels of redundancy and the sexual process facilitates the evolution of more complex forms. There is a

  20. Wind Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiaoyang; Ni, Jiqin

    2014-01-01

    Wind measurement is needed in many practical and scientific research situations. Some specific applications require to precisely measuring both wind direction and wind speed at the same time. Current commercial sensors for wind direction and wind speed measurement usually use ultrasonic technology and the sensors are very expensive (> $1500). In addition, the sensors are large in dimension and cannot measure airflow patterns in high spatial resolution. Therefore new and low cost wind speed an...

  1. Convergence of Corporate and Information Security

    CERN Document Server

    Syed,; Donahue, Shannon E

    2010-01-01

    As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper reports on how organizations have traditionally managed asset protection, why that is changing and how to establish convergence to optimize security value to the business within an enterprise.

  2. Strategic business transformation through technology convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....

  3. Strategic business transformation through technology convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -time intelligence. This paper presents the case of General Electric (GE) and studies the various transitional phases and transformation dimensions that GE is experiencing, to manage this technology convergence. The evaluation of GE's experience indicates that convergence-related business transformation is nonlinear......Technology adoption is crucial for an organisation to remain competitive in the marketplace. Traditionally, two technologies - operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) - have operated independently from one another; however, technological advancements that businesses......, and that some dimensions and stages of transformation previously thought to be relevant may not be pertinent for successful business transformations through technology convergence....

  4. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  5. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  6. Stability, Convergence of Harmonious Particle Swarm Optimizer and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Feng; CHEN Jie; CAI Tao; GAN Ming-gang; WANG Guang-hui

    2008-01-01

    Particle swarm optimizer (PSO), a new evolutionary computation algorithm, exhibits good performance for optimization problems, although PSO can not guarantee convergence of a global minimum, even a local minimum. However, there are some adjustable parameters and restrictive conditions which can affect performance of the algorithm. The sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability of an acceleration factor and inertia weight are deduced in this paper. The value of the inertia weight w is enhanced to (-1,1). Furthermore a new adaptive PSO algorithm-harmonious PSO (HPSO) is proposed and proved that HPSO is a global search algorithm. Finally it is focused on a design task of a servo system controller. Considering the existence of model uncertainty and noise from sensors, HPSO are applied to optimize the parameters of fuzzy PID controller. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of the methods.

  7. Analysis of functional redundancies within the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Bimbo, Andrea; van der Wal, Froukje; Hennig, Lars; de Folter, Stefan; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of the functions of TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors have been hampered by functional redundancy between its individual members. In general, putative functionally redundant genes are predicted based on sequence similarity and confirmed by genetic analysis. In the TCP family, however, identification is impeded by relatively low overall sequence similarity. In a search for functionally redundant TCP pairs that control Arabidopsis leaf development, this work performed an integrative bioinformatics analysis, combining protein sequence similarities, gene expression data, and results of pair-wise protein-protein interaction studies for the 24 members of the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family. For this, the work completed any lacking gene expression and protein-protein interaction data experimentally and then performed a comprehensive prediction of potential functional redundant TCP pairs. Subsequently, redundant functions could be confirmed for selected predicted TCP pairs by genetic and molecular analyses. It is demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized class I TCP19 gene plays a role in the control of leaf senescence in a redundant fashion with TCP20. Altogether, this work shows the power of combining classical genetic and molecular approaches with bioinformatics predictions to unravel functional redundancies in the TCP transcription factor family.

  8. Genetic redundancy is prevalent within the 6.7 Mb Sinorhizobium meliloti genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Finan, Turlough M

    2015-08-01

    Biological pathways are frequently identified via a genetic loss-of-function approach. While this approach has proven to be powerful, it is imperfect as illustrated by well-studied pathways continuing to have missing steps. One potential limiting factor is the masking of phenotypes through genetic redundancy. The prevalence of genetic redundancy in bacterial species has received little attention, although isolated examples of functionally redundant gene pairs exist. Here, we made use of a strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti whose genome was reduced by 45 % through the complete removal of a megaplasmid and a chromid (3 Mb of the 6.7 Mb genome was removed) to begin quantifying the level of genetic redundancy within a large bacterial genome. A mutagenesis of the strain with the reduced genome identified a set of transposon insertions precluding growth of this strain on minimal medium. Transfer of these mutations to the wild-type background revealed that 10-15 % of these chromosomal mutations were located within duplicated genes, as they did not prevent growth of cells with the full genome. The functionally redundant genes were involved in a variety of metabolic pathways, including central carbon metabolism, transport, and amino acid biosynthesis. These results indicate that genetic redundancy may be prevalent within large bacterial genomes. Failing to account for redundantly encoded functions in loss-of-function studies will impair our understanding of a broad range of biological processes and limit our ability to use synthetic biology in the construction of designer cell factories.

  9. A fault diagnosis based reconfigurable longitudinal control system for managing loss of air data sensors for a civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andreas; Ossmann, Daniel; Joos, Hans-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    An integrated fault diagnosis based fault tolerant longitudinal control system architecture is proposed for civil aircraft which can accommodate partial or total losses of angle of attack and/or calibrated airspeed sensors. A triplex sensor redundancy is assumed for the normal operation of the aircraft using a gain scheduled longitudinal normal control law. The fault isolation functionality is provided by a bank of 6 fault detection filters, which individually monitor each of the 6 sensors us...

  10. Convergence of Attitudes among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Alice E.; Appel, Victor H.

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether the intersex convergence phenomenon could be applicable to the measured attitudes of collegiate samples. Both sexes seemed to be moving toward a more liberal view on issues related to marriage and the family. (Author)

  11. Cultivate technology convergence for product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J Malcolm

    2006-04-01

    Technologies from diverse scientific disciplines are being combined to drive innovation in medical devices. How technology convergence and innovation could be further stimulated is explored here using developments in imaging and point-of-care devices as examples.

  12. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-09-02

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.

  13. Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergence of Distance Education and Conventional Learning: Innovations ... using various blended learning media including print, ICTs, electronic platforms, ... Admittedly, the blending of offline and online learning enhances significantly ...

  14. A Convergent Total Synthesis of Methoxatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickson, James B.; Vries, Johannes G. de

    1982-01-01

    We report a convergent total synthesis of the coenzyme methoxatin (1) by linking a pyrrole subunit with an uvitonic acid derivative and oxidative photocyclization to a deoxymethoxatin triester, followed by seven refunctionalization steps to 1.

  15. On Convergence Results for Lipschitz Pseudocontractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the strong convergence for the Ishikawa iteration scheme associated with Lipschitz pseudocontractive mappings in real Banach spaces. Moreover, our technique of proofs is of independent interest.

  16. On Paranorm Zweier -Convergent Sequence Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakeel A. Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the paranorm Zweier -convergent sequence spaces , , and , a sequence of positive real numbers. We study some topological properties, prove the decomposition theorem, and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.

  17. Regional disparities and convergences in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a

  18. Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard SHIFFMAN

    2008-01-01

    We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in-creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses.In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor-malized on a regular compact set K(∪)Cm,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N →∞.

  19. Convergence of random zeros on complex manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard; SHIFFMAN

    2008-01-01

    We show that the zeros of random sequences of Gaussian systems of polynomials of in- creasing degree almost surely converge to the expected limit distribution under very general hypotheses. In particular,the normalized distribution of zeros of systems of m polynomials of degree N,orthonor- malized on a regular compact set K(?)C~m,almost surely converge to the equilibrium measure on K as N→∞.

  20. Two-Loop Control of Redundant Manipulators: Analysis and Experiments on a 3-DOF Planar Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A redundant robot has more degrees of freedom (DOF than those required to accomplish a given motion task. This fact allows the possibility of achieving an additional task, such as avoidance of joint limits or singularities, besides the primary one. Different criteria have been proposed in the literature for the selection of such a secondary task. This paper first recalls some of those criteria and then proposes a two‐loop scheme for the motion control of redundant robots. In order to validate the proposed scheme, some experiments are carried out in a direct‐drive redundant planar arm which has been designed and built in our laboratory.